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Dr.

Shaker Mahadeen

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Osama Azmi

INTRODUCTION :
I.T.E : Institute of Transportation Engineering . Transportation Engineering :

The application of technological and scientific principles to planning operations and management of facilities for any mode of transportation in order to provide for the safe , rapid , comfortable , convenient , economical and environmentally compatible movement of people and goods .
Functions of Transportation : 1- Links residents with employments . 2- Links producers of goods with their users . 3- Provides the options for work , shopping and recreation , and give access to health , education , and other facilities .

1- Airways :
Is used in small shipment of light and expensive goods . ( Speed of delivery is a controlling factor ) .
Factors Affecting the Design of a Location of Airports :

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Satisfactory accommodation for arriving and departing passengers . Efficient handling of cargos . Sufficient parking space . Good surface transportation service between the airport and the center of departure destination .

2- Highways :
Affecting Factors to Design a Highway :

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Curvature . Gradient . Drainage . Soil conditions . Safety . Sight distance . Surfaces . Traffic impact .

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Origin destination and delay studies (OD) . Traffic senses . The expected traffic load within the lifetime of the highway pavement . The relation of the highway itself and the future development of the system . 5- Enough right of the way .

3- Pipelines :
Provide direct low cost dependable movement of petroleum products and water .
Advantages :

1- There are no empty vehicles . 2- Delivery is continuous and the amounts to be delivered can be predicted accurately . 3- The system is in the ground and the maintenance is low . 4- Theft is almost impossible and the labor required for operation is comparatively small .

4- Railways : 5- Waterways :
Is used when a low cost cargo needed and the time is not a controlling factor . Transportation : From land use and traveling demands .

Transportation Cycle :

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Land Use : It is described in terms of characteristics intensity and the location of land use activity . Accessibility : Is a function of zonal attraction and ease of access , or a relative measurement depends on: a) Activity type . b) Transportation mode and sense . c) Location of a zone . d) Time of the day .

Demand of function depends on :

a) Ease of travel . b) Attraction of an area .

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c) Accessibility of an area . Travel Demands : Is the number of trips based on some basis ( year, day , etc ).
Ease of Travel depends on :

a) Travel time . b) Travel cost . c) Comfort , safety , , etc . Travel Impedance : 1- Travel time . 2- Travel cost . Attraction of an Area Depends on : a) Type of activity opportunities . b) Number of activities . c) Quality of the area . Accessibility of an Area : ( More accessible more attractive ) .

Development Alternations :
1- Density :

a) Low
2- Development Patterns :

b) High . b) Concentrated . b) Mixed .

a) Dispersed
3- Arrangement of Activity :

a) Segregated

Planning Operations : 1-The tremendous dependence on the automobile and the reaction of this dependency to from and the location of people and their jobs .

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2- The evolution of the public transportation system capable of serving the entire area effectively . 3- The capability of government and its policies to provide a transportation system that is equitable to both car owners and careless . 4- The combination of new technologies and efforts to design a more satisfying system in a long run . 5- Complexities of new problems due to the uncertainty of energy supplies. 6- Solving transportation problems through the public and private sectors and the cost implications of alternative federal policies .

Traffic Signals :
Types of Traffic Signals : 1- Pretimed traffic signals . 2- Semi-actuated traffic signals . 3- Fully traffic signals .

Geometric Design Concepts :


Is a design of visible dimensions of the highway with the objective of forming or shaping the facility to the characteristics and the behavior of driver , vehicle , and traffic . 1-Highway Engineer Planning Design Construction Maintenance Research 2-Traffic Engineer Planning and Design Operation Research

Geometric design deals with :

Features of the location alignments profile , cross-section , intersections , highway type , aspect of control of access and system . Reflects : Safety , driver desire , and driver comfort , and convenience . Geometric design controls : 1- Primary Controls : a) Highway system and classification . b) Topography and environment . c) Traffic . 2- Dependent Controls : a)Design speed .

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b)Design vehicle . c)Level of Service ( L.O.S ) . Classification of Highways : 1- By design ( freeway , arterial , ) . 2- By root numbering . 3- By administrative ( government responsibility ) . 4- By functional classification . Trip Steps : 1- Primary movement . 2- Transition . 3- Distribution . 4- Collection . 5- Access . 6- Termination . Highway Classification : A: 1234B: 1- Freeways . 2- Major Highways . 3- Local Roads . Principal Arterials . Minors Arterials . Major and Minor Collections . Local Roads .

Topography and Environment :


Factors Affect the Design of Highways :

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Topography . Physical features . Land use encountered . Geological conditions . Soil conditions . Ground water .

Traffic :
Characteristics of Traffic :

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1- Volume ( Design Hour Volume DHV ) . 2- Composition . 3- Speed . Composition : a) Size and weight . b) Operating characteristics . c) Slower and occupying more space . Passenger Car Equivalent ( PCE ) :
Factors :

12- Sight distance .


Example :

1000 v.p.h 90 % Passenger Cars ( PC ) . 5 % Trucks . PCE = 5 PC . 5 % Buses . PCE = 3 PC . Volume = ( 1000 x 0.9 x 1 ) + ( 1000 x 0.05 x 5 ) + ( 1000x 0.05 x 3 ) Volume = 1300 PC.p.h Speed :
Factors Affect Speed :

1- Capability of drivers and their vehicles . 2- The physical characteristics of the highway and its road side . 3- Weather . 4- Presence of other vehicles ( density ) . 5- Speed limitation : - By law . - Traffic devices . Speed : Rate of motion . Operating Speed : Is the highest overall speed at which a prevailing driver can on a given highway under four able weather conditions , and under traffic conditions without at any time exceeding the safe speed as determined by the design speed on a section by section bases .

Factors Affect Operating Speed :

1- Physical characteristics of the highway .

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2- Volume or density of the traffic . 3- Climate or weather conditions . V\C = 1 The speed will decreases .

Design Speed : Is the maximum safe speed that can be maintained over specific section of the highway when the conditions are so far that the designed features of the highway govern .
Factors determining design speed :

1- Safety . 2- Mobility . 3- Efficiency .


Factors affecting design speed :

1- Characteristics of terrain . 2- Extend of man made features . 3- Economical considerations .


Advantages :

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Increases safety and capacity . Lower fuel consumption and operating cost . More comfortable driving conditions . Better provision for future growth .

Design Vehicle : Selected motor vehicle with the weight , dimension , and operating characteristics of which are used to establish highway design controls to accommodate vehicles of detected type .

Categories :
1- Passenger Cars PC :

Small cars . Pickups . Vans . Single Unit Truck SU . WB 40 , Semi Truck Combination ( Medium ) . WB 50 , Semi Trailer Combination ( Large ) .

2- Trucks :

Level of Service ( L.O.V ) :

Dr. Shaker Mahadeen


Reflects :

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Speed and travel time . Traffic interruptions . Freedom to movement . Comfort , convenience , and safety . Economy . A F

Parameters of Level of Service : 1- Operating Speed . 2- Volume to Capacity Ration ( V / C ) .


Level of Service in Uninterrupted Flow :
Depends on :

1- Profile grade . 2- Sequence and arrangement of entrances and exits . 3- Number and arrangement of lanes . 4- The quality of alignments as reflected by design speed . Weaving Area .
Level of Service at Intersections : Depends on : 1- The design of the intersection . 2- Their sequence and the type of control utilized . R.T.O.R : Right Turn on Red .

Highway Types :
Elements of Design :
1- Sight Distance :

The length of the highway ahead visible to the driver : a) The distance required for stopping on all of the highway . b) The distance required for passing an overtaken vehicle , acceleration , only in two lanes highways . c) The distance needed at complex locations . d) The distance criteria for measuring these distances for use in designing .
2- Stopping Sight Distance ( SSD ) :

Is the sum of two distances :

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a) The distance through by the vehicle from the instant the driver sights an object necessary to stop to the instant the brakes are applied . b) The distance required to stop the vehicle from the brakes application begins.
SSD = 1.47 vt+ v2 /30 ( f + g )

Friction Factor : 1- Dry Conditions . 2- Wet Conditions . - g : Grade 4 % . - Reaction time = 1.57 sec if not given . - G if straight = 0 . a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Air pressure of tires . Composition of tires . Tire tread pattern . Depth of treads . Type of the conditions of the pavement surface . Pressure of moisture , wind , snow , etc . Braking system .

3- Decision Sight Distance ( DSD ) :

Is the distance required for the driver to detect an expected or otherwise difficulty to perceive information source or a danger on the roadway environment that may visually cluttered , recognized the hazard or its strip potential select an appropriate, initiate and complete the required safety lane , and safe efficiency .

- Premaneuver Time : Is the time required for the driver to process information relative to the hazard , and composed of : a) Detecting or recognizing the hazard . b) Deciding on proper maneuver an initiate required action ( 3.5 4.5 ) sec .
4- Passing Sight Distance ( PSD ) :

Assumptions : a) The overtaken vehicle travels on uniform speed . b) The passing vehicle has reduced speed and trails the overtaken vehicle as it enters the passing section . c) When the passing section is reached the driver requires a short period of time to perceive passing section and to react start .

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d) Passing is accomplished under what may be termed a dilate start and a harried retermed in the face of traffic .

Horizontal and Vertical Alignments :

Safety :
Stages of establishing a project :

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Concept formulation . Planning . Preliminary design . Engineering design . Testing or protyped development . Construction . Operation .

Safety Envelope or Safety Project :

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Goals : 1- Prevent death . 2- Prevent injuries . 3- Reducing accidents . 4-

Identification of Hazard : Is any condition , device design , feature , or situation which can either : a) contribute the occurrence of accident , b) contribute to the signally of an injuring to a human being involved in an accident or c) both .

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How to identify a hazard :

1- By inspection ( analysis ) investigation surveys . 2- By accident or incident analysis .


Factors Affect the Occurrence of Accidents :

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Psychological attitude . Experience . Training . Inadequate education . Inadequate vision . Inadequate reaction time . Complication of driving task .

Methods for Improving Traffic Safety : A- Reduction of Accidents Occurrence :

1- Provide designs that minimize the risk of driver error . 2- Proper signing and marking . 3- Highway design that avoid sudden change in geometry , good side in a distance , smooth size . 4- Proper implementation of control to remove conflux . 5- Improve lighting .
B- Reducing the Severity of Accidents ( Forgiving Highway ) :

Enough space and time to recover from error and minimize the severity . 1- Grade rail . 2- Impact reducers . 3- Break away sign post . 4- Light stand .
C- Improve Crash Survivability :

D- Programmatic Safety Efforts :

1- Vehicle inspection programs . 2- National speed limit . 3- National 21-year drinking age .

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4- National driving while intoxicated ( DWI ) programs . 5- National vehicle design standard .
E- Design Aspects of Safety :

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Horizontal and vertical alignments . Roadside design : Clear shoulders . Gentle side slope . Absence of solid objects . Sign posts or other objects must be protected by guardrail or breakaway type . 3- Median barriers . 4- Gore area .

Accident Data Collection and Record System :


1- Identification of the locations at which unusually high number of accidents occurs. 2- Detailed functional evaluation of high accident locations to determine the contributing causes of accidents at the locations . 3- Development of general statistical measurements of various accidentrelated factors to give insight into general trend , common causes , driven profile , and similar information . 4- Development of procedures that allow the identification of hazards before large number accidents occurs .

Traffic Control Devices ( TCD ) :


Are all signs , signals , markings , and devices placed on , over , or next to a street or highway by authority of public body or official having jurisdiction to regulate , warn , or guide traffic .
Traffic control devices help the driver by the following :

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Warning of potential hazards . Assigning the vehicle the right of the way at the intersections . Providing guidance in navigation the chosen root . Informing the driver of regulations such as speed limit , no parking , height limit , weight limit , etc .

Manual Uniform on Traffic Control Devices ( MUTCD ) .

Conditions of effective traffic control devices :

1- Fulfill a need . 2- Command attention of drivers .

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3- Respect of drivers . 4- Convey a clear simple message to drivers . 5- Give adequate time for proper response by drivers .
To satisfy these conditions :

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Design : Size , color , shape , reflectorization , and message . Placement : Proper position to the situation . Maintenance . Uniformity or Consistency .

Signals :
Types of Signals : 1- Regulatory : Stop yield , give notice to traffic laws , and regulation .

2- Warning : Call attention to the conditions that are potentially hazardous to traffic operations . 3- Guide : Show route designations , destinations , directions , distances , services and information .
Three Principles Related to Good Practice on Roads : 1- Driver Expectancy :

Experience . Type of the road .

2- Positive Guidance :

The driver can be give sufficient information when he needs it and in a form he can best use it to safely avoid a hazard . ( e. g : Tapering which is a yellow colored line at the edges of the road ) .
3- Consistency :

The sameness of the nature of the road from one section to another section .

Subtasks of Basic Driving Tasks : 1- Control :

Is the interaction between the driver and the vehicle ( steering wheel , accelerator , brakes , or the mechanism used in control ) . 2- Navigation : Is the ability of the driver to plan and execute a trip from one point to another using maps , ground marks , etc .
3- Guidance :

Is the ability of the driver to follow a safe path on the highway from the information obtained directly from the highway traffic control devices .

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Traffic Engineering :
Is that phase of transportation engineering deals with the planning , geometric design , and traffic operations of roads , streets , and highways , their network terminals and the relationship with other modes of transportation .
Areas of Traffic Engineering : 1- Traffic studies . 2- Traffic planning . 3- Installation and maintenance of traffic control devices . 4- Traffic administration . Importance of Traffic Engineering in Community Life : 1- Safety : - Improve visibility . - Proper use of traffic control devices . - Proper placement of traffic control devices . - Minimize complex maneuver at intersections .
2- Economic Factors :

Faster . Increased employment opportunities . Use less gas . Safer roads mean cheaper insurance cost . Noise . Water and air pollution . Aesthetic . Ecological ( effects on animals and plants ) . Energy consumption .

3- Environmental Aspects :

Traffic Measures :
1- Uninterrupted Flow : Exists on the facilities when there is no external causes fpr periodic interruption to movement ( i.e highways ) .

2- Interrupted Flow : Exists on all other types of facilities on which signals , stop sign , or other external devices causes periodic interruption to traffic flow . Classification :

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1- Macroscopic Parameters : Describes the traffic as a whole : a) Volume . b) Speed . c) Density .

1 - Volume :
The number of vehicles which pass a point on a highway or a given highway or the direction of the highway during specified time interval which is conveniently taken to be an hour ( vph , vphpl ) . v.p.h.p.l : Vehicle Per Hour Per Lane .
Volume = 0 , when :

There are no vehicles passing . There is a traffic load so that vehicles can not move .

Types of Volume : 1- Average Annual Daily Traffic ( AADT ) : AADT = Total traffic within a year 365

2- Average Daily Traffic ( ADT ) : ADT = Traffic within less than a year Number of the days

3- Average Annual Weekdays Traffic ( AAWT ) : AAWT = Total traffic within weekdays 260

4- Average Weekdays Traffic ( AWT ) : AWT = Total traffic within weekdays for less than a year Number of the weekdays

Directional Design Hour Volume ( DDHV ) :


DDHV = AADT x K x D

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K=

Traffic within peak Total traffic annually traffic to the peak direction Total traffic

D=

Rate of Flow : Same as volume but in less than an hour , also described as in an hour .
Example :

Time 8:00 8:15 8:15 8:30 8:30 8:45 8:45 9:00

Vehicles 100 200 300 400 Volume = 1000

400 x 4 = 1600 vph ( Peak rate of flow ) . Peak Hour Factor ( PHF ) = Peak Hour Volume = 1000 Peak Rate of Flow 1600 PHF interrupted = Peak Hour Volume 4 x Peak 15 minutes Peak Hour Volume 12x Peak 5 minutes

PHF uninterrupted =

2 - Speed ( Rate of Motion ) :


Expressed as a distance per unit time ( m.p.h , k.p.h , f.p.s , m.p.s ) . 1 m.p.h = 1.47 f.p.s 1 k.p.h = 0.278 m/sec

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Traffic as a Whole :
1- Time Mean Speed ( TMS ) : The average speed of all vehicles passing a point on a highway or a lane during specified time interval . TMS = d : distance . ti : time for each vehicle to complete the distance . n : number of vehicles . 2- Space Mean Speed ( SMS ) : The average speed of all vehicles occupying the given length of a highway or a lane during specified time interval . SMS =

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3 Density :
Is the number of vehicles occupying a given length of a roadway, foreway or a lane of a highway . v.p.m : Vehicle Per Mile . v.p.m.p.l : Vehicle Per Mile Per Lane .

Parameters Describe Density :


1- Spacing : Is the distance between two vehicles in traveling stream measured from the front of the lead vehicle to the front of the following vehicle ( in ft ) . ( ft \ veh ) .

2- Headway : is the time between the lead vehicle to pass a point and the front of the following vehicle to pass the same point ( in seconds). ( sec \ veh ) .

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Urban Transportation Planning ( UTP ) :


Is a process that leads to decisions on transportation policies and programs . Its objective is to develop information about the impacts of implementing alternative courses of action involving transportation services such as new highways , bus root changes , and parking restrictions .

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Urban Transportation Planning is a Process of : 1- Understanding the type of decision that is needed to be made . 2- Assessing opportunities and limitations of future . 3- Identifying the shunt and long term consequences of alternative devices disguard to take the advantages of these opportunities or spread to these limitations . 4- Relating alternative decisions to the goals and the objectives established for an urban area agency or firm . 5- Presenting these information to decision makers in readily , understandable and useful form .

Characteristics and Measures of Person Travel in Urban Area : Person Travel Characteristics : 1- Travel Demand : Measured by : - Number of trips . - The amount of usage made of the transportation network . Number of Trips : Trip : Is one way movement from the point where the trip begins to the point where the trip ends . Types of Trips :
1- Person Trips ( PT ) :

PT = R x n R : Trip rate , n : Number of persons in the group .


2- Vehicle Trip .

Example :

Vehicle trips = 500 v.p.d . Person trips = 500 x 2 = 1000 p.p.d . Two persons in each vehicle . VT and PT are related by the vehicle occupancy .

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Amount of travel = total trips made x their traveled distance . = 1000 x 100 = 100 000 VMT . VMT : Vehicle Mile Travel . If the number of persons in each vehicle = 2 PMT = 2000 x 100 = 200 000 PMT . PMT : Person Mile Travel .
Example :

Number of Vehicles 500 300 200

Vehicle Occupancy 1.5 2.0 3.0

Distance Traveled (mile) 500 700 800

VMT = [ 500 x 500 ] + [ 300 x 700 ] + [ 200 x 800 ] VMT = 620 000 PMT = [ 500 x 1.5 x 500 ] + [ 300 x 2 x 700 ] + [ 200 x 3 x 800 ] PMT = 1 275 000

Example :

Occupancy 1 2

Before ( % Vehicles ) 60 30

After ( % Vehicles ) 50 35

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10

15

Distance traveled = 20 000 km . Find percentage change in VkmT ( n = 1000 ) . PkmT before : 1 x 0.6 x 1000 x 20 000 = 12 000 000 2 x 0.3 x 1000 x 20 000 = 12 000 000 3 x 0.1 x 1000 x 20 000 = 6 000 000 PkmT before = 30 000 000 PkmT after : 1 x 0.5 x V x 20 000 = 10 000 V 2 x 0.35 x V x 20 000 = 14 000 V 3 x 0.15 x V x 20 000 = 9000 V PkmT after = 33 000 V PkmT before = PkmT after 33 000 V = 30 000 000 V = 909 vehicle .

Basic Parameters of Travel Demand :


1abcIts Purpose ( Why ? ) : Home Base Work ( HBW ) . Home Base Other ( HBO ) . Non Home Base ( NHB ) .

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d- Internal External Trip . e- External Internal Trip . f- Through Trip .


Rules to Identify Trips :

1- Trips that either begin or end at the travelers home are produced at the home end . 2- Trips that either begin or end at the travelers home are attracted to the non home end . 3- Trips that begin at a non home location and end at another home location are produced at the origin and attracted at the destination . Factors affect the trip type : a- Sex , or tender ( male or female ) . b- Age . c- Income and vehicle ownership .
2- Its Amount ( How much ? ) :

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Size and density of urban area . Low density and higher vehicle ownership , higher trip rate . High density and low vehicle ownership , lower trip rate . Place and type of residence . Income and car ownership .

Size of Household : 5000 Person 5 Persons per family 500 family 5000 4 Persons per family 1250 family
3- Its Temporal Distribution ( When ? ) :

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4- Its Modal Requirements ( How ? ) :

Transit , PC , walk , etc .


5- Its Geographical and Directional Distribution ( Where ? ) :

Travel Demand Forecasting ( TDF ) : Quantify the land activity .

Travel Demand Forecasting ( TDF ) :


1- Micro Analysis Tool . 2- Sketch Tool . 3- Rational Method .

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Four step Procedure : Predicts : a- When people will live . b- When businesses are located . c- Intensity . 1 2

1 10 20

2 30 15

3 20 35

Trip Condition : Forecasts the number of trips that will be made .

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3 - Trips that begin from zone 1 and end at zone 1 are 10 . - The summation of all trips that begin from zone 1 and end at all zones is 60 .

30

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Trip distribution depends on :

The relative attractive and accessibilities of the zone . Zone 1 is more attractive and more accessible than zone 2 . Mode Usage : Predicts two trips will be divided among the available modern travel . Trip assignment predicts the routine that the trip will take . Considerable Characteristics to Choose Transportation Means : 1- Characteristics of the trip maker . 2- Characteristics of the trip . 3- Characteristics of the transportation system . Information Needed for Travel Demand Forecasting : 1- Studied area ( developed and undeveloped area ) . 2- Urban activation . 3- Transportation system . 4- Travel . Contour Line : Future growth . Political restrictions . Causes area boundary . National boundary . Cross minimum .

Urban Activation : Provides intensity and characteristics of activities in each zone . Residential Area : Population : 1200 . Household : 400 . Average income : 1200 JD .

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Shopping Center : Employed : 120 . Parking : Transportation System : Describes the transportation system in terms of its geometry ( what is connected with what ) , and its travel service ( two well points are connected ) . Level of Service ( L.O.S ) : Quantifies the ease with which these conditions are made , time and cost . ( Time and cost are travel impedance ) . Travel Information : Information on how , when , where and why people are currently traveling .

Public Transportation :
1- Low Capacity Modes :
a- Taxies :

Longer waiting time . No parking problems . Higher out of pocket money . Lower cost service . More comfortable right . Slower than direct travel . Less personalized service . Service with a limited area only . High frequency service . Higher travel speed . Lower reliability , safety , and comfort .

b- Dial A ride or Dial a Bus , Vans ( Minibuses ) :

c- Jitneys :

2- Medium Capacity Modes :


a- Regular Buses ( Fixed Root and Fixed Schedule ) :

Higher reliability .

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Lower cost per passenger . Less personal ride service . Less frequent service . Higher speed . Higher firm . Move comfortably . Serve few points . Higher righting quality . Ability to operate on Excellent in varmint feature . Better vehicle performance . More comfortable . Higher line capacity .

b- Express Buses :

c- Trolley Buses :

d- Street Cars :

3- High Capacity Modes :


a- Semi Rapid Transit ( SRT ) buses . b- Light Rail Transit ( LRT ) . c- Rapid Transit .

b and c are trains with : - High construction cost . - Large number of passengers . - Low operation cost .

Aspects of Transit System Operations :


1- Headway ( h ) :

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Is the time interval ( in minutes ) between two vehicles on a line .

successive departure of transit

2- Frequency of Service ( f ) : The number of transit vehicles passing a point on the line during one hour .

3- Vehicle Capacity ( Cv ) : Is the total number of passengers space on the vehicle . number of seats + number of standers ) .

( Cv =

4- Passenger Volume ( P ) : Is the number of passengers traveling on a line passing a fixed point during one hour . 5- Design Hour Volume ( DHV ) : Highest passenger volume for all sections along the line . 6- Line Capacity Afford ( C ) : The total number of passengers space offer at a fixed point of transit line during one hour . C= f x Cv 7- Operating Time ( To ) : Is the scheduled time interval between departure of a vehicle from one terminal and its arrival at another terminal on a root in minutes . 8- Operating Speed ( Vo ) : The average speed of transit vehicle including stopping time at stations.

9- Terminal Time ( tt ) : Is the time of vehicles spent at a terminal or into line stop in excess on the interval required for boarding and alighting . 10- Cycle Time ( T ) : Is the total around trip time for a vehicle . T = 2 ( To + tt ) .

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11- Commercial Speed ( Vc ) : Is the average speed of transit vehicle to complete around trip .

12- Fleet Size ( Nf ) : The total number of vehicles where transit agency owns . Nf = N + Nr + Nm Nr : reserve . Nm : maintained . 13- Load Factor ( ) : Is the ratio of the number of passengers in the vehicle to the vehicle capacity . Bus Priority Measures :
Public transport service less effective :

1- Land use changes have increased a less centrally oriented patterns of travel . 2- The increasing availability of cars has decreased the demand for public transport . 3- Traffic conjunction caused by increased car usage has interfered for efficient operation of bus service . Conditions of Effective Bus Service : 1- Concentration of bus operation . 2- High degree of bus and car conjunction . 3- Community will be able to support transportation . Aims of Bus Priority Measures : 1- Provide good operating environment . 2- Save passengers travel time and cost . 3- Conserve energy . 4- Improving the environment .

Bus Priority Includes : 1- With flow bus lane . 2- Contra flow bus lane . 3- Bus only streets . 4- Priority at traffic signals .

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HOV : High Occupancy Vehicle . Types of Bus Stop Locations : 1- Near side bus stop . 2- For side bus stop . 3- Mid block bus stop . Rush Hour Cost : - Spreading the peak ( staged work ) . - Increasing schedule speed by : a- Making the duration of stops as short as possible by letting passengers off and on the bus quickly . b- Making few stops as possible for passengers . c- Making few stops as possible for traffic delay .