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WORKSHO GP UIDE

ANATOMY OFA BOARD

SAFETY TIPS
. Wear appropriate safetygear when operating a woodworking machine: safetyglasses, a face shieldfor extraprotection, and hearingprotectors or earplugs. lf thereis no dust collection system, wear a dust mask.For exoticwoods, such as ebony,use a respirator; the sawdustmay causean allergic reaction. . Makesurethat workshop lighting and ventilation are adequate and that work surfacesare large and sturdy. . Readyour owner'smanuat carefullybeforeoperating any machine. . Tie back long hair,roll up long sleevesand avoidlooseJitting c l o t h i n gR . e m o v er i n g sa n d otherjewelrythat can catch in movtngpans. . Keepchildren, onlookers and petsaway from the work area. . Unpluga machinebefore performing setupor installation operattons. . Concentrate on the job; do not rushor take shortcuts. Neverwork when you are tired,stressedor have b e e nd r i n k i n g a l c o h oo l r using medications that induce drowsiness. . Whenever possible, clampdown the workpiece, leaving both hands free to performan operation. . Finda comfortable stance;avoid over-reaching. . Turnthe machine off if it produces a n u n f a m i l i av r ibration or noise; havethe machine serviced before resuming operations. . Keepyourwork areacleanand tidy;clutter can leadto accidents. 5HO?.MADE?U?H 'TICK' Tushelicke for feeding eilockinlo eaw bladesor jointer knivee a r e c o m m e r c i a la ly v a i l a b l e , b u t y oc u a ne a s i l y m a k e y o uo r wn ueing3/+-inch and a band eaw or saber eaw. No ore Vlywood ohapeie ideal; deeiqn a VuehsLickthat ie comforlable Nouee a n d s u i L a b l fe or the machine a n dj o b a t h a n d . A 4b" angle beLween the handle and, the baeeie beetfor mo6t cuLeon a t a b l ee a w ,w h i l e a e m a l l ea r n g l ew , i | ht h e h a n d l e closer to Nhe Nable, ie beNler for feedinq slock acroeea radialarm saw Lable. Thelonqbaeeof a ohoe-ohaped puohetick (bottom,left) allowo you Noapplyheavy downward on a workpiece. For ?reooure a familiargrip,ueea favoriNe handeaw hand,le as a lemplatre(bottom, riqht). Whailever Nhedeoiqn, makelhe noNch in the baeelargeenough to holdlhe sLock, and yet ehallow enouqh NoouVporL it without, touchinqthe table of lhe machine. Keeppuehelicke close at hand,readyto feed Holefor slock at lhe st arL hanging or finiehof a cul.

(--------l

THE ART OF WOODWORKING

WOODWORKING WHINES

TIME-LIFE BOOKS ALEXANDRIA. VIRGINIA ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK

THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by INC. ST. REMY MUITIMEDIA PR-ESIDENT Editor Series Art Director Series SeniorEditors PierreLveil16

THECONSUNANTS
who lives Mark Duginske,a cabinetmaker Wisconsin,is a contributing in Wausau, editor to Fine Woodworking magazine and the author ofseveralbooks on woodworking power tools. Leonard Leeis the presidentofVeritas Tools and retailand LeeValleyTools,manufacturers ersof fine woodworkinghand tools. He is also editorof Woodcuts, the publisherand executive on the history and amagazine that focuses of woodworking. techniques cabiGiles Miller-Mead hastaught advanced netmakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor A nativeof New Zealand, more than ten years. he previouslyworked asa restorerof antique furniture. )osephTruini is SeniorEditor of Home A former Shopand Tools Mechanixmagazine. he hasworked as Editor of PopularMechanics, home improvementcontractor a cabinetmaker, and carpenter.

PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Laberge Art Directors Normand Boudreault,Solange Designer Luc Germain Editor Jim McRae Research PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Contr ibuting I llustrators RonaldDurepos,Christianefltalien, inc. Studio La Perlubte RobertPaquet, Administrator NatalieWatanabe Manager MichelleTurbide Production Roy System Coordinator Jean-Luc Photographer RobertChartier

@ TIME

ffi

Time-Life Books is a division of Time Life Inc.

TIME LIFE INC. Artandi andCEO: George PKESIDENT TIMB-LIFE BOOKS PRES/DENTj JohnD. Hall EDITOR: Neil Kaean PUBLISHER/MANAGING

Woodworkingmachines. p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9900-2. (lib. bdg). ISBN0-8094-9e01-0 1. Woodworkingtools. 2. Woodworking machinery. 3. Saws. I. Time- Life Books. II Series TT186.W6581992 684' .083-dc20 For information about any Time-Life book, please or write: call l-800-621-7026, Reader Information Time-Life CustomerService P.O. Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 23261-2068 @ 1992 Time-LifeBooksInc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical and means,including information storage without prior retrievaldevices or systems, written permissionfrom the publisher,except may be quoted for reviews. that briefpassages First printing. Printed in U.S.A. in Canada. Published simultaneously TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A.

DEDICATION Books Theeditors of Time-Life Multimedia Inc.dedicate andSt.Remy to the Woodworking Machines (page Miller-Mead 6-7). memory of Giles consultant Miller-Mead, theoverall Mr. Giles for THEARTOFWOODWORKING, practitioner teacher andpopular wasa superb to of thiscraft,aswellasa mentor manytalented cabinetmakers.

CONTENTS

6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 35 36 40 44 48 50 52 58 60 62 63 66 69 75 76 78 80 82 85 86 89 94 98 100 101 TABLESAW Anatomvof a tablesaw Settingrip Safetv Tablesawblades Ripping Crosscutting Anglecuts Dado cuts Moldings Thblesawjoinery RADIALARM SAW Anatomy of a radial arm saw Settingup Radialarm sawblades and accessories Safew Crosicutting Anglecuts Ripping Dado cuts Moldings Radialarm sawjoinery BAND SAW Anatomvof a band saw Settingdp Safetv Bandsawblades Cutting curves Straightcuts Angleand tapercuts Cutting duplicatepieces Bandsawjoinery

rO4 106 108 110 II2 I 18 I 19 122 r24 126 I28 130 I32 135 136 139

DRItt PRESS Anatomyof a drill press Settingup and safety Bitsand accessories Straightand angledholes plugsand tenons Dowels, Mortising techniques The drill press assander IOTNTER Anatomyof a jointer Settingup and safety Jointerknives |ointing warpedstock Salvaging Rabbets, chamfers and tapers Planer

I4O GLOSSARY I42 INDEX I44 ACKNO\,VLEDGMENTS

INTRODUCTION

GilesMiller-Meadtalksabout

TABLESAMS
dad, a Danish boat to myfriend's I ever encountered belonged hefirsttable saw age of parts of indeterminate out of anassortment He'dbuilt it himself builder. me It always amazed of hisworlshop. occupied a corner andoriginandit proudly precisely andthen,after cutpieces of identical, howSven could turn outanynumber All these operations moldings. make lengths ofbeautiful custom hisset-up, changing efficiency. effortless were donewith seemingly it and,whenhefinallydid,thefirst pestering him to let metry using I was always Rover for myvintage cat a 1938 project was a setof floorboards wemade together floorlook at Sven and the 25 years later, I still back Even now, nearly Sedan. Sports living from woodworking. my to make a project first of desire as the stirrings board ago, is a l2-inch morethan10years second-hand My present table saw, bought imagine my woodworking motor. I couldrlt with a 3-horsepower model commercial myprojects, whether saw atmany stages throughout withoutit. I relyonmytable shop joints, or drawers and doors, making different building to size, cuttingworkpieces myworlahop and patterns. lot chairs in I also make a of variety of molding creating a rails. tenons ontheseat particularly for cuttingtheangled saw usefirl I find mytable table once that was up, the the worlshop; my house, I started by building When I built plywood making to size and cutting sheets of for me once again, came through saw pieces. otherassorted house, aswellascutting allthetrim for theentire First all,it'ssuch avermain reasons. of much for two I thinkI likethetable saw so you the table, motor blade are beneath most of the and second, since satile machine; your view of the work nothing to obscure glance going on. There's what's cansee ata bodilyinjury-a leson for itsability to cause a great deal of respect surface. Still,I have I consider it a safe But into me on a couple of occasions. drummed that's been isnt precautions and the operator overtired proper are observed longas the machine, as machine andI or in too muchof a hurry.All in all, thetablesawis a magnificent couldntdowithoutit.

A nativeof NewZealnnd,GilesMiller-Mead is seen oneof hisprizedtools-a hereinhis workshop/with in theearly 1980s. vintage tablesawacquired

INTRODUCTION

FrankKlausz discusses

RADIALARM SAMS
ntil hewasabout14years old,my sonwascontentto spend his sum-

jobs. mers in my shopdoingsanding Thenhe decided to make something himself. I suggested hedesign ajewelry box, whichI helped him construct. The next hewanted summer, to buildsomethingwithoutmy help-which meant working on mybigmachines. Being safety-conscious, I gotabit nervous. Still,I tookhim to theradial arm saw andexplained ThenI thebasics. painted two redlines on thesaw table, each a fewinches away fromtheblade, "Safety andfilledin thespace in between. with thismachine issimple," I toldhim. "Keep yourhands away from thered zone." In no timeatall,hewas working at thesaw withoutsupervision. Hecut intotheedges /rinch rabbets of hisjewelryboxtop andadded a blackebony inlay. I would have used a router, buthe did finewith thesaw. youpulltheblade Because intoa stationaryworkpiece, theradial armsawis avery machin*provided youset safe up properly, useonlysharp blades, follow themanufacturer's safety instructions ifyouwish, and, addyourownredzone. I use theradial armsaw for a variety of tasks: crosscutting roughlumber, cutting miters anddadoes, andripping. If you rip, remember to feedevenly andfromthecorrect side of thetable to avoidkickback. Frank Kausz owns a worleshop in Pluckemin, New thatspecializes Jersey, in making andrestoring finefurniture.

INTRODUCTION

talksabout DaveSawyer

BA)\TDSAMS
for chairmaker been aWindsor J have in my shop I l0 years. Themachines is Thelathe anda bandsaw. area lathe is a wonderful thebandsaw essential; trims It cutsout seats, convenience. andspindles wood, turnings rough cuts wedge slots, andisjust to lengh,saws jobs plainhandy. bedone All these could does but thebandsaw with handsaws, andmoreaccurately. themquicker atanearly I was exposed to bandsaws andexhibit display age in my father's where in aboatyard later I worked shop. manywonderful thebandsawmade where I been Thatmusthave shapes. woodworking realized it is my favorite limitedto one machine. Forasmall shop power folks would tool,most stationary would sawbut abandsaw wanta table bemychoice. for aregreat bandsaws Obviously, downto tiny radiiwith curves, cutting or Angle cuts, straight blades. %e-inch With a little foreare easy. curved, "release youcanmake cuts" thought, places. Band saws andgetintoreallytight job of ripping with also doa reasonable blade anda fence. alz-inchor %-inch My l4-inch Deltamodelwill resaw wide-any thickness 6 inches boards riser Wth a 6-inch fromveneer on uD. ii could resaw 12inchblockin itsframe industrial Thatwouldtake amonster es. tablesawto makethe same 30-inch with a 16-inch saw. cut-or twopasses
DaveSawyer buildsWindsor in at hisworkshop chairs mont. South Wo odbury, Ver

INTRODUCTION

Iudith Ameson

DRILLPRESSES
f allthetoolsin myshop, thedrill press maynot see asmany hours of useassome others, but for certain tasks it is indispensable. Themachine I isa Sears use Craftsman, manufactured in themid-1950s.It intoourshop came about fouryears ago. WhatI likeabout thisdrill press isitsold-tool charm. the weight ofit. It'ssolid. It was builtto last. Priorto getting into furniture-making,I experimented withcarpentry and cabinetmaking. I studied woodworking in Colorado, taking classes with such highlyrespected furniture makers Art as Fumiture-making Carpenter. iswhatI've been years. doingfor thelastseven I find it verysatisfiing. I'm constantly learning new techniques andtryingnewdesigns. I produce alineof furniture aswellas pieces. custom design I make a rocking chairfor children with a design that includes bearpaws on the armsand dowels setinto a curved frame thatprovides back support. I depend onthedrill press precise to bore holes for thedowels. Onarocking chair I make for adults, thelegs aresquare atthemiddle where theymeetthe seat, andhave tenons at either endthatfit into therockers at thebottomandthearmsat thetop. Tomake thetransition between theleg's middle square andround tenons,l sculpt thelegs with a router anda spokeshave. Thedrill press reams theholes in the rockers andthearms for thetenons.

Iudith Amesis afurnituremakerin Seattle, Washington.

t0

INTRODUCTION

talksabout Mark Duginske

IOINTE,RS
he first jointer I usedwasalready old whenmy fatherboughtit. The

care, which constant required machine meto conit taught was good, because board to every andpayattention centrate old, I was15years with.When I worked locally andused webuilt a newhouse It grown oakfor thetrim andcabinets. was myjob to do allof thejointing. then-and onethat A ruleI learned of I stillfollowtoday-is thatthesuccess project hinges on anycabinetmaking and straight wood thathas workingwith toolsthatdo Thepower edges. square nowamostof thecuttingin my shop arm saw andtheradial days-thetable onlyif thestock saw-will cutaccurately andtrue.If one I feed intothemissquare I won't be isnotstraight, of aboard edge it squarely. able to crosscut the startiswhere offto agood Getting jointercomes that in. I useit to make forming a firststep, important critically andthe where theedge corner square jointer has The also meet. endof aboard it whenI use application amorecreative decofor furniture or even legs to make rative moldings. Thejointeris not difficultto useor skillto adjust but it requires maintain, But theknives. andchange themachine thejointertakes mastering likealltools, practice andconcentration.

is theauthorof Mark Duginske tools on woodworking boolcs several He woiles asa cabiand techniques. Wisconsin. netmaker in Wausau,

11

TABLE,SAM
Properly tuned andmainl0-inchblade. you areworkingwith hether stock repeatedit canmill 3-inch tained, froma lumbermilledboards ly withoutoverheating. of4-by-8 yard, or sheets oldbarnsiding or lIf most ofyourworkiswith3/Eisanexcellent allplywood, saw thetable for cabstock typically used inch-thick woodto width tool for cutting around theopen-base contractor's (crosscutting). inetmaking, (ripping) If the andlength Its1.5alternative. saw isaless expensive for nothing buttirese were used table saw motorturnsan 8- or 10horsepower tool. it would stillbeavaluable twocuts, bemounted inchblade, andtheunitcan awidevariety of also accepts Butthesaw providing flexextra base, on a mobile fromrollerstands blades andaccessories, require(page ibility. In anycase, thebasic panels 26) withunwieldy thatassist ment for a table saw-whether for heads capable of producing to molding workshop or general (page cabinetmaking 40). lnd trim decorative elaborate becapable of cutting use-is thatit must inexpensive with helpfromthesimple, and45". jigs a2-by-4at both 90 gauge, this wood to the miter Screwed featured in this chapter, shop-made or useon lightstock Foroccasional thecuttingofbox for extension the tablesawis alsounsurpassed facilitates is at a premium, the8/+where space Such and casework. valuable for making jointsfor drawers repeat cuts andalso jigsextend hauled joints inchbench topsaw caneasilybe theversatility shop-made woodworking such fundamental or the site by the workshop around iob the basic table saw. of mortise-andlap, box and open asthe person. When^ a saw, choosing joints one (page 44). tenon themotor horsepower ratings. Check of exaggerated permitawoodworker beware saw andpower of atable Theprecision roughly motor should draw plate:An honest l.5-horsepower risk of error. Sawing with small many different cuts to make draw 14or motor should 115 volts; a 3-horsepower 14 amps at skill requires considerable with hand tools andstraight square 230 volts. procedures 15 amos at for the follows the woodworker who andtime;buta accurate clean, in thischapter canproduce outlined table saw little effort. with relatively and cuts-consistently, inthis c.hapter, the Notq [n someillustrations diameter according to theblade aredesignated Table saws in withoutthe shown operation l2-indl table sawis in 10and 8-,9-, Models are commonlyavailable used. it shoul( in fact, most bladeguardin caseswhere clearlythe however, are The8-andl0-inchmodels, sizes. for thesake of firis is done only first be used. saw, When choosing a table popular worlshop saws. home your blade illustration. Use it. The clarity of the you will with be doing thetypeofwoodworking consider possible. guardwhenever on pages liketheonepictured saw, stationary fully enclosed a motor to drive to 3-horsepower uses a 1.5l4-15, tipically

clamped With a workpiece firmly to a tenoning jig a woodworker part of an open cutsthetenon joint. jig The isguidedby a mortise-and-tenon mitergaugeslot. in thesawtable's rail that slides

13

ANATOMYOFA TABLESAW
Blade guard Clear ahield that protectg operator from blade: bolted to splitter and anti-kiakback device Auxiliary table ineerte Keep wood piecee from falti'n4into'table; wider alota for dado or moldinq heado

Roller atand )upporto lon7 workpieceoduring cuttin1 operationa

5tandard table ineert Keepa wood Ptece6Trom fallinq into table

or small, thetable saw isbasicalT arge I-r lv a motor and arbor assemblv attached to abase cabinet or stand. Thi arbormaybemounted directly to the motorshaft, or connected to themotor by a beltandpulley. In general, better saws have morethanonebelt. Precise blade adiustments aremade bymeans of twocrank-type handwheels underneath the saw table.Onewheel
Miter gauge Guides workpiece acroea table for crooscutting; woodenerteneion can be acrewed to 0au0e to oupport widepiecea

Rlpfence
Guidea workpiece across table for rippinq

Bladeangle adtuatment annk

Vacuum
attachment For duat collection eystem Mobile baee Faailitatea movin4the aaw aaide in amall ahopa; wheelacan be lockedin poaition

TABLESAW

connols theblade's height abovethe saw table-from 0 to 3ysinches ona l0-inch saw. Theotherwheeladjusts theangle of theblade-from90oto 451 Therip fence, whichon mostmodels frontandrear guidebars slides alongthe to controlrip cuts,canbelocked anywhere alongits trackat thedesired distancefrom the blade.Somefences feature measuring tapes attached to the

front guidebar or even, in some cases, electronic readouts, although experienced woodworkers relyon a usually handheld measuring tapeanda sample cutto check thewidth of a cut. milled intothesawable Shallowslots, on eachsideof the blade,accept an adjustable mitergauge for guiding croscuts.Qualitysaws have tables that are cast andthenmachined for flatness.
Theportable8%-inchbenchtop sawcan performmostof thefunctions of alarger saw.Aually plnced on aworlcbench or on sswhorses, it ako canbebuilt into a bmch itstoplevelwiththebench top, providinga lnrgework surface.
Fs<teneion table Inareaaeawork eurtace to facilitate cuttin7 large boarda and panela

Optional rip fenc'e LonqerTence re?Eceq atandard fence whon ertenoion table uaed

Hold-down deviae Holda workpiecefirmly aqainat both table and rip fence for aafa rip cuta

Auxlliary fence Board clamped or acrewed to rip fence ertenda hei1ht of fence

Rlp fence gulde bar Holda optional rip fenca to extenaion table; features rula for meaaudna width of cut Fence loak Holda rip fence in fixed'poaition

15

UP SETTING
hether yourtablesawsitspoised to makeits firstcut,or is a seamachine with a homefull of ftrrsoned it cannotcut with nitureto its credit, its adjustable partsare precision unless A tablesawwith in properalignment. parts in anyoneof misaligned canresult problems, including several frustrating risk of excessive vibration,increased kickback, damage, burn marks on blade workoieces cuts. aswell asinaccurate Even inchcanconirrorsaslittleasr,/o+ promise the qualityand strength of a piece of furniture. The components of your tablesaw requiring the mostattention arethose that contact and guidethe workpiece duringcutting operations: thesarv table, theblade, the mitergauge andthe rip fence. Before puttinga tablesaw through its paces on the cutting techniques in thischapter, firstsetup the described machine properly by checking and,if necessary, adjusting thealignment of its parts.For bestresults, unplugthe saw insert adjust thetable setscrews to make the insertoerfectlv flushwith the saw table, andirank theblade to its highest setting. Then followthe steps shown thattheyappear. belowin thesequence There islittlepointin aligning themiter gauge with thesaw for example, if blade, itself hasnot been with theblade scuared thetable. To confirm that your tablesawis properly tuned,makea fewtestcuts.A goodwayto ensure thatyoursawiscutting in precise, straight linesis to cut a squared boardin two andflip oneof the pieces over. Buttthetwo cut ends together.Theyshould fit together withoutany gaps astheydid before asperfectly the boardwasflipped. Because from the normalvibration proper cutting canupset alignment, tune yourtablesawperiodically; manywoodworkers takethetimeto adjust theirsaws before starting each project.

ALIGNING THE TABLE AND SAWBLADE

alignment Checkin tg able J - P o s i t i ot n h e m i t e rg a u g e a t t h e f r o n to f t h e s a wb l a d e H . o l do r c l a m pa p e r f e c t ls yq u a r e d w o o db l o c k a n d b u t tt h e e n do f t h e a g a i n stth e m i t e rg a u g e ) .h e ns l i d et h e m i t e rg a u g e block a g a i n sa t s a wb l a d e t o o l h( a b o v e T a n dt h e byhand. block t o g e t h etro w a r d t h e b a c ko f t h e t a b l ew h i l er o t a t i n g the blade remain rotatef sr o m T h eb l o c ks h o u l d butted a g a i n stth e t o o t ha s t h e b l a d e f r o n tt o b a c k .l f a g a po p e n s b e t w e et n he block a n dt h e t o o t h , ortheblock binds agains tt h eb l a d e asit isrotated a,l i g n t h et a b l e followingth oe wner's m a n u ailn s t r u c t i o n s .

'l

Checking blade angle Remove insert, thetable thenbutt a combination square against thesaw blade between twoteeth asshown. The blade of thesquare should fit flush against thesaw blade. lf there is a gap between thetwo, rotate theblade angle adjustment crank until thesawblade rests flush against thesquare's blade.

t6

TABLESAW

SOUARING THEMITER GAUGE

gauge themiter with thesaw table 1 Aligning gauge I With themiter outof thetable slot, use a combinationsquare is square to confirm thatthehead of thegauge withtheedge lf it is not, of thegauge bar. use theadjustment handle Then onthegauge to square thetwo. buttthesquare (above), against thegauge Theblade of thesquare should fit flush against thegauge. lf there is a gapbetween thetwo, have thegauge machined square at a metalworking shop.

r) Aligning gauge themiter with thesaw blade gauge L gutta carpenter's square against themiter andthe saw blade between twoteeth. The square should fit flush against thegauge. lf there isa gapbetween thetwo,loosen theadjust(above)and ment handle onthegauge swivel themiter head to it flush bring against thesquare. Tighten theadjustment handlo nn f hp oarroo

ADJUSTING THERIPFENCE

lllllllr illllllll]tl l]ll illr llfl llllllllllllllllfitl lllllllt lllllll lll


?HO?Tt?
Fixinga looee miter 6au4e ToeliminaLe excessive side-to' eideVlay of the qauqein its sloL, miNer qauqefrom remove Nhe LheNable and Vlace the bar edqe-uV on a board, Uoea ball-peen h a m m ea r n da No punch Vrick eLrike Nheedgeof patLhebar in a oNagqered inchalongit.Thie Lernevery willraisebumpo on lhe edqeof the bar and resulf, in a tiqhterfi| in Nhe sloL,lf Lhefit io too Liqht,file lhe bumpe down a9 nece56ary.

Miter qau4eolot

Aligning theripfence Set theripfence alongside themiter gauge gapbetween slot.lf there isany thetwo, align thefence following the manual instructions. owner's Onthe model shown, turntheadjustment bolt at thefront of thetable witha hex wrench.

I7

SAFETY
isasmucha matter of attitude Q afety r.J andcommonsense ascorrect technique. The table saw is a powerful in the machine;all the safetydevices attiworld will not makeup for a cavalier On the tude or rloppywork practices. shouldnot otherhand,a woodworker a a tablesawwith trepidation; approach reluctant to timid operator, someone firmly whiiecuttingit, hold a workpiece worker. faces asmanyrisksasa careless stemCautionmixedwith confidence ming from an understanding of the machine andthetaskat handshouldbe guide. the woodworker's Readthe owner'smanualsupplied with your saw.Beforestartinga job, youknowhowto usethesafemake sure to protect ty accessories thataredesigned injuries whileoperatyou from specific like push ing the machine. Usedevices sticksand featherboards, as shown throughout thischapter, to protectyour fingers from the blade. A hold-down on device, suchasthe one illustrated page25,is alsoa worthwhile investment. And remember that not only your fingers workandhands areat risk A safe hearingprotectors, shopalsoincludes glasses safety anddustmasks.

Respecting the dangerzone Toavoidinjuryfrom thesawblade, "danger zone" constantly bealertto a thatexists within obout3 inches of the blade-bothabove and to either side your hands of it (left). Keep out of thiszone whenever thesawis being guardis in used-evenif theblade pastthe place.Tofeeda workpiece within thezone, use a push blade stick,a pushblockor a jig.

TIPS TABTE SAW SAFETY


. Use guard possible. whenever a safety Before making a bevel cut,confirm that theguard willbeclear of theblade. o Donotleave when rt thesaw running is unattended. . lf youareinterrupted, complete the under waybefore turning off operation up. thesaw andlooking o Donotstart a cut untiltheblade is r u n n i na gt f u l ls p e e d . . Before thesaw each time, using Make inspect its safety features. sure is nobinding or misalignment of there parts. moving Donotuse thesaw until problems such arecorrected. . Always intothesawblade feedwood of blade rotation. against thedirection . Use gauge theripfence orthemiter forall cutting operations; never attempt to cutfreehand. . Before ripping a board, ensure thatthe issmooth edge in contact withtheripfence andcompletely straight and thatthesurface against thetable isflat. r Stand to oneside of anyworkpiece in case of during anycutting operation kickback. . lf youhave past theblade, to reach your keep hands at least 3 inches away fromit. . Use rather a wooden stick, thanyour fingers, to clear wood scraps from the saw table.

. Follow instructions themanufacturer's . Make is locked unplug thesaw sure theripfence to change accessories; in position before ripping. first.Make sure thatsawblades andcutandundamaged. tersaresharp, clean . Donotuse gauge themiter in combi. Before a remove nation withtheriofence to make cutting a workpiece, cut-except when the blade does notcut knots fromit using a hammer. anyloose and completely through theworkpiece, such Inspect salvaged wood for nails or a groove. cutting. asfor a dado screws before

18

TABLESAW

WORKS HOW THE BLADE GUARD ASSEMBLY


preventing Protecting fingers and kickback guard Thestandard table sawblade assembly guard, includes a pivoting, clear-plastic blade wood which deflects f lying chips andreduces willslipaccidentally into thechance thatfingers guard theblade. The isconnected to a thinpiece knife. o f m e t ak l nowa n st h es p l i t t eo rr r i v i n g Attached directly in line with theblade, thesplitcut-or kerf-open. Without ter keeps thesaw a device, thekerf may close during a cut, such theworkpiece binding theblade andthrowing withgreat force. back toward theoperator jams Kickback result if a workpiece canalso Further between theblade and theripfence. protection is provided fromkickback bya metal (orfingers) pawl, f inger called ananti-kickback which normally rides onthesurface of theworkpiece. In theevent of kickback, thefinger digs in,preventing theworkpiece from flying back.

Optional guardslike the oneshownat leftprovideextra ann bolted to flexibility. HeId in place by a cantileuered the sideof the saw table,it featuresa plasficshieldraised and loweredby a crank.Restinglightly on the workpiece. as a hold-downand provideswide coverthe shieldserves ageof the cutting area, allowing the woodworker to perwhich suchas covecutting and rabbeting, form operations guardsin position. The cannotbe donewith conventional bladeguard shownabovehas two arnts.For nlostcuts, both arms ride on top of the workpiece, but when the blade is close to the rip fenceoneof the arms can be raisedout of the way. Theguard can alsobe trsed without the retrnctablesplitterwhen cutting dadoes and grooves-irnpossible with the standardguard because the splitteris an integral part of theframework that holdsit in place.

l9

TABLESAWBLADES
sawisortlyasgoodasthesaw I table ,f"L blade it tunrs.A dull or chipped bladecantransformeventhe bestof into a pooror even dangerous table saws from damage, tool. To protectblades stacking them directlyatopeach ar,oid Hangthemindividually on hooks other. or nlace cardboardbetweenthem. thatis dull or cracked or Renlace a blade moreaccidents are hal chipped teeth; by dull blades thansharpones. caused Woodresins Keeo voursaw blades clean. itsability a blade andhamper cungu- r'rp to make asmooth cut.Toclean stickywood inturpenresin andpitch offablade, soakit itwith steelwool. Spray-on tine, thenscrub to dissolve stubovencleaner canbeused borndeoosits. performance isasmuch Proolrblade for the a matterof using therightblade job askeeping it clean andin goodcondition. \\4rereas in the pasttherewere from, relatively felvsaw blades to choose woodworker faces a widearrayof today's As illustrated below, thereare options. for crosscutblades designed specifically to minimize kicktingor ripping, others and blades backor produce thin kerfs,

()F ANATOMY A BLADE T()()TH


AnL|kbkback

Brazedto n shoulderon thesnw blode, the corlridetip doesthe utttittg, while thegullet retnoves the sawdust. The sllt preventsthe blade expansiott frotrt warping when it heatstrp. The antithe risk that kickback feature reduces the bladewill jam, and senda workpiece flying bncktoward the user.

for cutting specifictypes of wood. Regardless of qpe,allblades areinstalled for cutting on the sawand adjusted height and angle in the samervay (pages 22-23). The most imoortantadvance in years recent hasbein theintroduction of carbide-tipped blades.These have high-speed eclipsed traditional steel as The advantase the bladeof choice. of blade, lies in theira6ility carbide-tipped to keep a sharp edge far longer thantheir Composed of grains steel counterparts. particles oneof hardtungsten-carbon hundredth the thickness of a human hair,the carbide chunksare bonded with cobalt andbrazed onto theblade with copper or silver. Carbide is extremely hardlthehighest rating-C4-has a hardness value of94 on a scale thatrates as100. diamond \Ahilecarbide-tipped blades canstay for a hundred hoursor moreof sharp ,se,iheyaremoredifficult-and thereforemoreexpensive-tosharpen than mostwoodhigh-speed steelblades. Sti1l, isworthpaying workers believe theprice for theadvantages theyoffer.

Rip Blade (Standard) Far cuta alonq the 7ratn Haa deepqulieta uia ,"iutively few, larqe teeth. The chieel-likec utt tn4 ed1eo of the Leeth makea fatrly rou4hcut and produce lar4epartlclee of sawdueL and woodchipo.

Croaaaut Blade (Standard) For cuta acrosa the qrain.Hae more teeth than rtp blade.Theteeth makea amooLh cut and producefine aawduaL.

Croaaaut Alade (Anti-Kiakback) A variationofthe atan' dard croaacut btade.The the projecLionbeLween Leeth limite the eizeof Lhechipemade with each bite: leeeaq4reeeive bitea prevent ktckback,

I I I | I

CombinationElade A 4eneral-purpoee blade f 'n "r ' r ' i'n rn r i"n' rrt n r . r n 6 4 a l L tinq; doeo not makeaa
a r:tt aa, a ,i0

I amnnt.h

I or croeecut blade,buL m,akee frequent blade I I cnanaequnneceooary.

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BLADE DESIGNS TO CARBIDE-TIPPED GUIDE designs. fourbasic tooth feature sawblades Carbide-tipped particular and applications. advantages its Each has own thewood andgulthrough have teeth thatshear All blades kerf. chips from the and wood away sawdust lets thatclear left any material cut out have rakers that blades also Some are blades, the teeth 0n some in thekerfbytheteeth. alternately is,they shear stock beveled-that alternately cut. side of the the other fromone side, andthen

H
il
Flat Top Grind GTG) FIat-top cutttng teeLh: for rippin7

f,

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fi
alternate with flat-top raker teelh; for rip' pinq or croaecuttin4 abrasive materiala

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Ahernate TopEevel with a Raker (NB/R) Fouralternately beveled cuttin7 teeLh alternate wtth a flat' top raker tooth: for

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I I \--,/

AlternateTop ' Bevel(ATB)


Hi4hlyaharpened alternately beveled cuttinq teeth: for croeecuttin0

Hollow Ground PlanerBlade (High?peed ?teel) cro66ror veryamooTn cu|o, rip cuLa or angle cut a, Thebodyof the than bladeta t:hinner whtch the huband teeLh, are not aet, enaudnq thaL the bodydoeenot bind in the saw kerf.

Melaminetslade Haa many emall teeth to cutthrouqh deoigned qluefound the abraatve and in parttcleboard other manufacLured in a reeulLing panelo, cut. chip-free

Croeaaut Blade (Thin Rim) A variation ofthe atandard croeEcutbladefor fine finieh cuLa.lte thinner nm produceoa narrowerkerf,putttnq leeo stratn on the gawmoror,

Plywood Elade (High-?peed ?teel) Hao many emall teel;h Lhat makea emooth, apltnter-free cut in plywoodand waodveneera, TheLeeth are leeaeffi' in hi7hly abraotve ctenL manufacLured panele euch ae particleboard.

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K'

TABLESAW

CHANGING A SAWBLADE

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theoldblade 1l Removins thenew blade t Installing I Working at thefront of thetable, wedge pointing a piece of scrap Z- StiOe theblade onthearbor withitsteeth in the (toward wood under a blade tooth to prevent from theblade turning. Use direction of blade rotation thefront of thetable). Insert thewrench supplied withthesaw to loosen thearbor nuI(abovd. thewasher andnutand start tightening byhand. Tofinish tight(Table grip saw arbors usually have reverse threads; thenutis loosening, thesaw blade witha raganduse thewrench supin a clockwise plied ened direction-not counterclockwise.) Finish withthesaw(above), Donotusea piece of wood asa loosening thenutbyhand, making sure thatit does notfallinto wedge asthiscould result in overtightening thenut. themachine. Carefully lifttheblade and washer offthearbor.

rlll illr rllillr lllt fill filt lllt llll filt llll lll1 lll1 llll lltfiIl t]ll lltl
5HO? TI?
Custom-made table inserts To prevenL ocrap wood fromjammin4 a7ainoL Nhe yourownNable eawblade, make ineerVe thaL minimize the aao bebween the blade and Nhe table inserl opening. UeeNhe inoertouVVlied wiLh the eawae a Lemplate from a piece lo cuNa blank of ocrapwoodof the samelhickneee. Drive a brass eetecrewinto its front edgeuntil 1/s inchof NheecrewproLrudes from iI. (Theocrew willserve ae an anchorpinfor NheinserL.) Crank the saw blade Noils lowestoetbin4 and set the newineerl in Tooilion place. NheripfenceLo etraddle the insert,making eurelhal iNisnot direclly abovelheblade.Turn onthe sawandcrankNhe blade up olowly to iNehigheol oettinq,cuLlinqa slot,in Nhe ineefL,

22

TABLESAW

ANGTE THE BLADE SETTING


angle cutting theproper Setting thetable cut,remove Tomake an angle to its highest the blade andcrank insert to setthe desired Usea protractor setting. bevel andbutt angle ona sliding cutting two between the blade against thebevel crank adjustment Rotate theangle teeth. rests flush onthesawuntiltheblade (/eff). the bevel against

HEIGHT BLADE THE SETTING


height to theproper theblade Cranking a safety A blade thatis toohighposes risk; onethatis toolowwill notcut properly. operations, Formost cutting adjustment height rotate theblade inchof the blade untilaboulrh crank the workpiece is visible above tight). ic height, at a specif Tosetthe blade measure ora commercially use a tape gauge, of a series which features made "steps" a similar increments; 7+-inch of gauge fromscraps canbeshop-built plywood. is at the The blade of 7+-inch gauge it rubs the height when correct you rotate the as height at thedesired hand bv blade Inseil.

23

RIPPING
p ipping has traditionallybeen "cutting I\ defined as with thegrain." But consideringthat some woods today-plywood andparticleboard, for example-have no overall grainpattern, thedefinition needs some amendine. A moreappropriate description focuseJon the tablesawaccessory usedto makea rip cut. Whereas crosscutting is done usingthe miter gauge, rippinginvolves (Except therip fence. for certain cutsthat do not passcompletely throughthe workpiece, suchasa dadocut, the rip fence andmiter gauge shouldnever be used at thesame time,or jammingand kickback canoccur.) Before ripping a workpiece, setthe heightof the sawblade(page23),then lock the rip fencein position for the width of cut.The mostcrucialsafety concern whenrippingis keeping your hands out ofthe bladetpath.Forprotection,useaccessories such aspushsticks, featherboards andhold-down devices, To usea hold-downdevice, it may firstbe necessary to screw a woodauxiliary fenceto the rip fence. Auxiliary fences areidealsurfaces for clamping; manywoodworkers makethem a permanentfixture on their saws.

RIPPING A BOARD

thecut 1 Starting I Measure thedistance to theedge of a tooth nearest the (inseil. fence Position thefence andsetoneendof theworkpiece your onthesaw table close to theblade. Use lefthand to press thewood down onthetable andflush withthefence;

your (above) use rrght hand to feed thewood intotheblade Continue feeding theboard into theblade at a steady rate untit l h et r a i l i n e g n do f t h eb o a r d a p p r o a c hte hs et a b l e . (Caution: guard Blade removed forclarity.)

24

TABLESAW

r) Approaching theblade lefthand L tlooi,the thumb of vour over yourpalm theedge of thetable ani rest on pressed keeping thewood down thetable, frrmly onthetable andupagainst thefence (/eff). feeding theboard withyour Continue right hand until thetrailing endof theboard theblade. approaches

Finishing thecut pushing Keep theboard until the it completely. When blade cuts through theworkpiece isclear of theblade, use piece yourlefthand to shiftthewaste With to theleftside of thetable(/efr). your liftthegood right hand, carefully piece it to theright of the andplace rip fence before turning off thesaw. pieces Donotallow of wood to pile uoonthesaw table,

Passing theblade withyour right hand Straddle thefence (left),making handis in sure that neither linewiththeblade. lf anyf inger comes within 3 inches of theblade, complete the cutusing a push stick, a jig,ora hold-down (abovel deuice mounted on the ripfence. Therubber wheels of thehold-down device keep theworkpiece firmly against thetable; kickback, theyalsolockwhen to prevent pushed against thedirection of thecut, keeping theboard from shooting backward. lf youareusing a hold-down device, begin feeding theworkpiece from thefront ofthe table, thenmove to theback to pullthe wood through. Otherwise, f inish thecut fromthefrontof thetable(step 4).

25

TABLESAW

RIPPING A LARGE PANEL

Cutting into thepanel forthewidth of cut.Ask someI Position theriofence thecut oneto stand at theback of thetable to receive Posrtion otherwise, setuptworoller stands. sections; dependin og nt h et h i c k n e s os f t h ep a n e l , them s ot h a t , Lay to support thecut pieces. the they areclose enough p a n eo l n t h es a w table a f e wi n c h efs rom t h eb l a d e , itsedge Tobegin thecut,slowly butting against thefence. into slightly raisrng thepanel's feed thepanel theblade, itsfrontendflat;apply enough side back endto keep pressure butted withyourlefthand to keep the panel (abovd. Continue feeding the squarely against thefence panel rate end intothe blade at a steady untilits back (Caution: guard Blade reaches theedge of thetable. removed forclarity.)

'l

r) Finishing thecut position Z- Standing to theleftof thesaw blade, your p a l mo s nt h eb a c k l ot h a t e n do f t h ep a n es neither hand is in line withtheblade. Press down (above,) on the panel withyourpalms andpush t h et r a i l i n e s n do f t h eo a n etlo w a r t d h eb l a d e untit l h ec u ti sc o m o l e t e d .

LO

TABLE SAW

RIPPING A NARROW STRIP


push Using a featherboard and stick Position theripfence forthewidth of cut.Then butt theworkpiece against the yourhands fence. Tokeep away from t h eb i a d e a si i c u t s t h ew o r k o i e cu es .e featherboard twoaccessories-a anda Clamo a featherboard to the oush stick. model is installed saw table-the shown in themiter slot-sothatitsf ingers hold t h ew o r k p i e c se n u g la yg a i n s th t ef e n c e .
r r ^ ^d ^ ^ . , ^ L^ + i ^ r^ . ^ ^rrwn to feed pu>il )LtLn dJ JilL u5c

t h ew o r k p i e icn et o t h eb l a d e C . ontinue s t e a d i lu yn t i lt h e b l a d e nears cutting t h ee n do f t h ec u t .S u p p o r th t ew a s t e piece w i t hy o u rl e f th a n dt;o p r e v e n t your pulled f r o mb e i n g hand b a c ki n t o t h eb l a d e incase o f k i c k b a cc ku , r ly o u r (/eff) fingers around theedge of thetable (Caution: guard Blade removed forclarity.)

A JIG F()R MAKING REPEAT NARROW CUTS Torip several narrow strips to thesame width, usethe jig shown shopmade at left.For thejig,cut a board with a lipat one a hold-down block end. Screw to thejig,then Mark line buttthejigflush against theripfence. a cutting ontheworkpiece, then seat it against thejig,flush withthe lip.Position theripfence sothatthecutting lineonthe workpiece is aligned withthesawblade. Tomake each cut,slrde thejig andtheworkpiece asa unitacross thetable, feeding theworkpiece into theblade (|efl.$he firstcutwilltrimthelip to thewidth of thecut.) yourlefthand Use to keep theworkpiece flushagainst the jig. Remove thecut strip, reposition in the theworkpiece jig,andrepeat (Caution: guard for identical Blade strips. removed forclarity.)

27

TABLESAW

RESAWING THICK ST()CK


Auxiliary woodfence up andstarting thecut Setting 1 position the rip I T or e s a w a board, f e n c ef o r t h e w i d t ho f c u t a n d a t t a c h fence. the a h i g ha u x i l i a rw yood Crank t h ew o r k blade below t h e t a b l ea n d p l a c e piece over t h e t a b l ei n s e r tT . os e c u r e the d workpiece c, l a m po n ef e a t h e r b o atro t h e b l a d ea , n da s e c o n d t h e f e n c ea b o v e f e a t h e r b o ah rd alfway b e t w e et n heblade a n dt h e f r o n to f t h e t a b l e .R e s t h e s e c ond featherboard on a woodscrapso that i t s u p p o r tts hemiddle o f t h ew o r k p i e c e : c l a m pa n o t h e b r oard at a 90" angle to p r e s s u r e ,s f o r a f e a t h e r b o a r d e x t r a the R e m o v t e h e w o r k p i e c a e n d s e t shown. thehlade h e i p htto a m a x i m u m of 17 f o r s o f t w o oo inches dr 1 i n c hf o r h a r d wood. Tostartthe cut, feedthe workpiece intothe blade(left). Continue cuttingat y o u r r a t e f i n g e rs a r ea b o u t a steady until 3 i n c h ef sr o mt h e b l a d e .

Featherboard

tsladecuttinq ewath

r) Completing thefirstpass stillrunning, move to theback of thetable. L Wttn thesaw f le ush agains th t er i p Use o n eh a n d t o p r e stsh ew o r k p i e c (above) hand to pullit past the blade. fence andtheother procedures thecutting Flip theworkpiece over andrepeat in steps I and 2.

Finishing thecut pass Raise height andmake another along each theblade (above). passes Make asmany asnecesedge of theworkpiece pass, height until theblade sary, raising theblade after each cuts through theworkpiece completely.

28

TABLESAW

TAPER CUTS
jig Using a commercial taper Tocut a workpiece sothatoneendis narrower than theother, make a taper cut. Hold thejig flush against theripfence andpivot thehinged armwiththework stopuntilthetaper scale indicates the cutting per angle-indegrees or inches foot.Mark a cutting lineontheworkpiece, thenseatit against thework stopand hinged arm.Position thefence sothatthe cutting lineontheworkpiece is aligned withthesaw blade. With thejig andworkpiece clear of theblade, turnonthesaw. yourlefthand Use to hold theworkpiece against thejig andyour right hand to slide thejig andworkpiece asa unitacross thetable, feeding theworkpiece into the (left); blade ensure thatneither handis in line withtheblade. Continue cutting at a steady rateuntilthe blade cutsthrough (Caution: guard theworkpiece. Saw blade removed forclarity.) jig Using a shop-made Build a jig exactly like theone shown on page 68 butwithout thehandle. Topositiontheworkpiece forthetaper cut,raise thesawblade to its highest setting. Butt one side of thejig base against theblade andposition theripfence flushagainst theother side of thebase. Mark a cutting l i n eo nt h ew o r k p i e c te h, e np l a c e it on thebase, aligning thelinewiththeedge jig'sbase of thetaper nearest the blade. position Holding theworkpiece securely, t h eg u i d e b a ra g a i n s i t , w i t ht h e l i p snugly against theendof theworkpiece. Screw t h eg u i d e b a rt o t h eb a s e and press thetoggle clamps down to secure theworkpiece to thejig base. Setthe blade height. With thejigandworkpiece clear of theblade, turnonthesaw. With yourIefthand pressing theworkpiece t o w a rt d h er i pf e n c es ,lide t h ej i g a n d workpiece steadily across thetable, makingsure thatneither hand is in line wrth guard the bladetight). (Caulion: Blade removed forclarity.)

29

CROSSCUTTING
s cutting with the grain is synonymouswith theuseof therip fence, is definedby the device so crosscutting make usedto the cut: the miter gauge. general The techniquefor making a with begins crosscut, asshownbelow, placement keep the to correct hand flush on the table and workoiece both firmly againstthe miter gauge.The workpiece is fedinto thebladeat a steady rate.As with ripping, makesurethat pieces do not pileup on thetable, scrap out of linewith the andkeep both hands wellback blade. Also,keepthe rip fence prevent any cut-off from the bladeto part of the workpiece from becoming andfence and trapped between theblade kickingback. To reduce theamountof sandingyou that the will needto do later,remember the cut, the feed,the smoother slower through theblade breaks especiallywhen at the end of the cut. the workpiece bladecanbe Althougha combination a crosscut blade usedfor crosscutting, will producea finer cut. workpiece isbeingcut, Whena longer an extension to it is a goodideato attach to provide a moresecure themitergauge commonlyhave base.Miter gauges holesfor just suchan additwo screw tion-normally, a pieceof hardwood wideandabout2 feetlong. 3 to 4 inches in conextension Usethe miter gauge junction with a stop block to make repeat cuts (page 32). For wide panels or long boards, a jig (page 33)is shop-made crosscutting very particularly helpful,andwill ensure Thejig canalso beused for accurate cuts. pieces andprovides a safe, consmaller venientwayto performmostcrosscuts. woodworkers considManyexperienced mostindispensable acceser it thesingle soryfor crosscutting.

W(lRKPIECE THE SOUARING

a crosscut 1 Making fora crosscut, cutoneendof it square. a workpiece I Before measuring or marking jamming withtheblade sothatit willtrim align theworkpiece Toavoid theblade, r/zinch gauge, hold the miter the hooked over or so.Withthethumbs of bothhands to feed theworkandpush themtogether frrmly against thegauge workpiece hbove) (Caution: piece guard forclarity.) Blade removed intothe blade.

forsquare Checking square to conUse a combination workoiece firmthatthecut endof the withtheedge. With forms a 90" angle held andsquare upto the theworkpiece l i g h tt,h e r e should b e n og a pv i s i b l e . you Mark an X onthecut endto help remember which endhas been squared.

30

TABLESAW

REPEAT THE RIP FENCE CUTS: USING ASA GUIDE


upthecut 1 Setting I Clamp a board to theripfence as jamming a stopblock. Toprevent theworkpiece between thestopandthe bladewhich could lead to kickback-position thestopfar enough toward thefrontof the table sothattheworkpiece willclear the stopbefore reaching theblade. Tolineup thecut,hold theworkpiece against the gauge miter andpush thegauge andworkpiece forward untiltheworkpiece touches thesawblade. Slide theworkpiece along gauge themiter until thecutting mark is (left). aligned withthe blade

theripfence O Positioning gauge, pull L noningthe workpiece firmly against themiter bothback fromthe blade andbuttthestopblock against the (abovd. workpiece Lock theripfence in position. Check to see thattheworkpiece does notcontact thestopblock when the workpiece reaches the blade.

thecut Q Making r-t Settheendof theworkpiece flushagainst thestopblock. gauge, Withthethumbs of bothhands hooked over themiter hold theworkpiece f irmly against thegauge andpush them (above). (Gaution: together to feedtheworkpiece intothe blade guard Blade removed forclariU.)

31

TABLESAW

THEMITER GAUGE USING REPEAT CUTS:


block Positioning thestop gauge as to themiter I Screw a board th e n do f a ne x t e n s i o en n, s u r i n g a to n e Push thesaw blade. it extends beyond gauge to cutofftheendof the themiter thenslide extension. Turn offthesaw, gauge of thetable. themiter to thefront of cuton Measure andmark thelength (left). block Align a wood theextension it in place asa withthemark and clamp stop block. 'l

ill lll llll lllt illlilllllllillll]ll illl llll llillll] lllr l]ll lllJ illr lllr
)HO? TI?
"Off" switch Hands-free your hando Tolurn off the eawwhen are bueyon Ihe lable,ueea ehoV-made CuI a boardequal kneeor looNlever. in widlh t.othe swttchbox.Theboard Noreachwith a ehould be lon4enouqh fooLor a kneewhenaLlachedlo t'he Nooneendof box(rrqht).7crewa hinqe Lhehinge on top trheboardand Vooition ihe ON of the box,Vark Lheepol where the board. Cul a hole r,ouchee butr.on AtNach Lheboard althis mark, Nhrouqh or t r oI h e b o xu s i n qq l u e , the hin4e remove lhe coverand drivein screws.

r; Making thecut cut,butttheendof the L fo, each With against thestop block. workpiece hands hooked over thethumbs of both h,o l d t h em i t e g r auge t h ew o r k p i e c e a n dp u s h firmly agains th t eg a u g e feeding together, theworkpiece them (above). (Caution: Blade intothe blade guard removed forclarity,)

JZ

TABLESAW

CROSSCUT JIG
Extengton

Clearplaetic quard

1"x3"x36"

Ouide )Lop block 2"x4"x4"

2"x3"x36" Jig Eaee

1/2"x25"x36"

Keinforcinq block 2"x3"xB"

Foreasy crosscutsandaccurate withlong, wide or heavy especially workpieces-use a shop-built crossforyour table cut jig,custom-made sawbbovd. Refer to the illustration forsuggested dimensions. Cuttwo25-inch-long hardwood runners the same widthasyour gauge miter slots. Bore clearance holes for screws intothe undersides 3 inches fromeach of therunners, in theslots, end.Place therunners the ihenslide themoutto overhang 8 back endof thetablebyabout

inches. Position squarethejig base ly ontherunners, itsedge flushwith theiroverhanging ends, thenscrew therunners to thebase, countersinkingthescrews. Slide the runners andthe base off thefrontendof the in theother two table anddrive Attach a support frame along screws. theback edge of thejig.Glue a reinforcing centered block to theframe, Then, withthe between therunners. gauge in the miter slots, runners make a cut through thesupport frame andthree-quarters of theway

across the base, Turn off thesaw andlower theblade, Screw a guide jig, edge of the ensuring to thefront that it is square withthe sawkerf . Glue a safety block to theoutside of theguide, centered on the kerf; gluea reinforcing also block onthe guide, identical to theoneon the support frame. Raise thesawblade andfinish thecut,sawing completelythrough theguide butonly slightly intothesafety block. Formaking repeat cutsto the length, screw an extension to same t h eg u i d e a n dc l a m p a s t o pb l o c k plastic that to it. Usea clear sheet guard, spans thesawkerfasa blade fastening it to thereinforcing blocks withwingnuts, jig,fit therunTouse thecrosscut gauge ners intothemiter slots. Slide thejig toward the back of thetable until theblade enters thekerf. Hold theworkpiece against theguide, slide position thestopbloclcto thedesired andclamp it in place, buiting the endof theworkpiece against thestop block. With theworkpiece held firmly against theguide, slide thejig steadily across thetable(/eft), feeding the workpiece into theblade.

33

TABLESAW

A WIDE PANEL CROSSCUTTING


gauge themiter 1 Reversing I to startthecut is wider thanthedistance lf a workoiece of thetableand between thefrontedge gauge cannot thesawblade, the miter in its usual be used to begin a crosscut position-in front of theblade. Instead, it in the remove thegauge andinsert for miter slotfromthe back of thetable; screw a wooden extension extra stability, Tobegin thecut, holdthe to thegauge. pressing withonehand while extension it withtheother theworkpiece against steadily into hand. Feed theworkpiece t h eb l a d e untit l h et r a i l i n e g n do f t h e workoiece reaches thefrontof thetable. (Caution: guard Blade removed forclari$.)

r) Finishing thecut is L Turn off the sawwhen the blade farenough theworkpiece to allow through gauge posito return to its usual the miter (page a hands-free swilch 32), tion,using remain if possible, sothatbothhands gauge Insert themiter ontheworkpiece. intoits slotfromthe frontof thetable theworkandcomplete thecut,holding (rghf). piece against theextension

34

ANGLECUTS
n. of thereasons thetable saw isso A is that both the miter \-/ versatile gauge andtheblade procanbeangled, ducingnot onlystraight cutsbut miter, bevel andcompound cutsaswell.Miters of between 30%nd90o arecutby angling themiter gauge. Saw blades canbetilted from 45oto 90' (page 2j),producing bevel cuts. Andbyanglingboth themiter gauge andthe sawblade, a woodworker canmakea compound cut. Whether crosscutting or ripping, the techniques usedfor anglecutsaresimilar to thoseused whenthebladeandgauge areat 90o. The difference is the result: With the bladeat 90o, the woodworker endsup with a straightcut; with the

Compound cut

bladeangled, a bevelcut. The same applies to crosscutting, although with both activities extracare mustbe taken to keephandsawayfrom the blade, whichnow cutsa widerswath above the table. Whentheblade is tilted,position themitergauge or rip flence soihat the

bladeangles awayfrom it. This waythe workpiece is pushed away from theblade ratherthan pulledtowardit, reducing thechance that hands will strayinto the blade. Gluingsandpaper to a mitergauge extension will alsoreduce the chance of a workpiece slipping duringa cut.

TW()JIGS FOR MAKING MULTIPLE ANGLED CUTS

A simple setup forfastrepeat cuts gauge, Screw a wooden extension to themiter thenusea slid(above). ingbevel to setthedesired cutting angle of thegauge lf youaremaking a compound cut,use thesliding bevel to set (page the bladeangle 23). Push the mitergauge to cut off the endof theextension. Place theworkpiece against theextension andlineupthecutting mark withtheblade. Clamp a stop to theextension at theopposite endof theworkpiece. Tomake each cut,hold theworkpiece firmly against theextension and, push keeping both hands outof line withthesaw blade, the workpiece steadily into theblade.

joints Cutting miter jig (page Build a crosscut 33) without an extension or a safety block. Then, cuttwo12-inch-long 1-by-4s andplace them at 90"to each in themiddle other of thejig,centered on itskerf. Turn thejig over andscrew the 1-by-4s to thejig.Tomake a series of cuts, butttheworkpiece against the leftarmof the jig,align thecutting line ontheworkpiece withthesawblade andclamp a stopblock to thearmat theendof theworkpiece. Cutthrough theworkpiece, holding it firmly against the (above). armandstopblock piece Cutthemating of thejoint thesame way ontheright armof thejig,Use thestop blocks asguides foradditional cuts to thesame length.

35

DADOCUTS
jointscallfor woodworking Eachof these cutscanbe madeon a Q everal blade by makrJ channels to becutintoworkpieces, tablesawwitha standard passes to fit ing repeated alongtheworkpiece allowingboardsand panels but incon- until the entirewidth of the channelis together tightlyandsolidly, a tablesawequipped Fourof themostcommon cut out. However, spicuously. areshown below with a dadoheadcancut a dado,groove typesof channels (top).They There fromeach or rabbetmuch moreefficiently. are distinguished typesofdadoheads. Thetwo to thewood areseveral otherbytheirrelationship wobble grain onaworkpiece. mostcommonaretheadjustable andtheirlocation
dado and the stackingdado shown below (bottom). The wobbledado is a singleblade mounted on a hub thatcanbeadjusted to provide varying widths of cut. Installedon the sawarbor much like a thewobble dadoliterally standard blade, wobblesas it spins.The greaterthe tilt-set by a dial on the blade-the wider the channel cut by the blade. Thestacking dadocomprises a pairof outsideblades that sandwich up to five inside chippers.The width of cut dependson how many chippersare mounted on the saw arbor along with the blades.Installing only the blades oroducesa W-inch cut. Inside chippersincrease cutting width inVta-,r/s o -r r A - i n c h i n c r e m e n t s up to'%oinch-and up to I inch for Paoer models that includemetalshims. washers canbe addedto orovideeven finerwidth adjustment. Foi widerchannels, adjust the dadoheadfor thewidest passes. possible cut andmakeseveral wobbleblades Althoughadjustable generally areless expensive andsimpler models,most to installthan stacking providebetterresults: stacking dadoes with moreprecise widths,flatchannels edges with a ter bottomsand cleaner minimum of tearout.

Rabbet end-to-endaut at edqe;either alon4 or aqainat

Groove:end-to'end cut alonqthe qrain

Dado:end-to-endcut acroag the 6rain

5topped groove: cut along the arain that atopa short of one or both enda

Fromcuninggrooves in a for shelves bookcase to makinga rabbettojoin panels dadoheads are tuvo together, an indispensable and versatile accessory for thetablesaw.

36

TABLESAW

HEAD A DADO INSTALLING


chippers Installing blades and 22) the blade fromthe saw(page Remove following themana dado head andinstall For thecarbideinstructions. ufacturer's fit a blade dado shown, tipped stacking pointing in withtheteeth onthearbor rotation. Toinstall of blade thedirection the fit it onthearbor against a chipper, pointing in the withitsteeth also blade, rotation, andcentered of blade direction teeth. Fit between twoblade in gullets thesame chipoers onthearbor additional of theirteethfromthose way, offsetting Then, fit the already in place. thechippers (iefil, ensuring onthearbor second blade theteeth of theothitsteeth do nottouch it resting against or any chipper er blade (inseil. andtighten the Install thewasher keeping theblades and nutonthearbor, making sure that in position, again chippers arenottouching theteeth of thechippers the lf youcannot tighten teeth. anyblade remove thewasher. nutall theway, arbor i n s e ro tn table Finally in , s t a la l dado table. thesaw

W
DADOES AND GROOVES MAKING
Cutting a dado of thedado lines forthewidth Mark cutting Buttthe of theworkpiece. edge onthe leading hmd, thefront ofthedado lines against cuttrng flush the against theripfence thenposition to thefrontof Slide theworkpiece workpiece. gaugethe miter andsetit against thetable preferably to it to screwed withan extension provide Tomake thecut,slide stability. extra gauge asa unit andtheworkpiece themiter keeping theworkintothe dadohead(right), (Since piece thedado thefence. firmly against theworkthrough head does notcutcompletely piece rule to thegeneral thisisone exception gauge should nevandripfence thatthemiter feedtime.) Continue at thesame er beused rateuntilthe at a steady ingtheworkpiece (Caution: guard Blade cut is completed. forclarity.) removed

37

TABLESAW

Cutting a groove M a r kc u t t i n g lines f o r t h e w i d t ho f t h eg r o o v e ontheleading edge of the workpiece B.u t tt h e c u t t i n g l i n e su p a g a i n stth e d a d oh e a d t , h e np o s i t i o n f l u s ha g a i n stth e w o r k t h e r i pf e n c e piece.Fornarrow stock,usea feathyour erboard anda pushstickto keep hands away f r o mt h e d a d oh e a d . P o s i t i oy no u rl e f t h a n da t t h e f r o n t edge o f t h et a b l e to keep t h et r a i l i n g e n do f t h e w o r k p i e cfe l u s ha g a i n s t Feed t h ef e n c e . t h e w o r k p i e cie nto the head(right)aI a steadyrate (C u n t i lt h e c u t i s c o m p l e t e d . aution: guard Blade removed for clarity.)

,-< \\ ,-..\

-"/

Keliefcut

gupporD arm

Cutting a rabbet Install head a dado slightly wider than therabbet desired, thencrank it below thetable. Screw a board to theripfence asanauxiliary fence andmark thedepth of therabbet on it. Position theauxiliary fence directly over thedado head, ensuringthatthemetal fence is clear of the blade. Turn onthesaw andslowly crank u pt h ed a d o head u n t i li t c u t s tothe producing marked line, a relief cutinthe a u x i l i af re y n c eT . urn o f ft h es a wt,h e n mark a cutting line fortheinside edge of therabbet ontheworkpiece. Buttthe cutting lineagainst thedado head, then positio tn h er i pf e n c e flush agains th te workpiece. Clamo twofeatherboards as s h o wt no h o l d t h ew o r k p i e c se c u r e l y against thefence andsaw blade; a wooden support armprovides extra stability. Turn onthesaw, thenfeed theworkpiece (left) intothedado head aI a steady rate untit l h ec u t i s c o m p l e t eu ds ;e a push (Caution: guard stick, if necessary. Blade removed forclarity.)

3B

TABLESAW

GRO()VE A STOPPED MAKING


upthecut Setting youdetermine of theposition I Tohelp b yt h e when i t i sh i d d e n head t h ed a d o thedado thiscut,crank workpiece during andusea of thegroove head to thedepth to mark marker anda straigntedge china andstops where thehead starts thepoints (lefil.f hen,mark of cuttwosets cutting one onitsleadontheworkpiece: tinglines oneon of thegroove; ingendforthewidth Butt forthelength of thegroove. itsface endof the lines ontheleading thecutting of thedado thefront workpiece against flush tn h er i pf e n c e h e a dt,h e np o s i t i o theworkpiece. against 'l

r) Cutting into theworkpiece theworkandhold L furnonthesaw justabove piece alignhead, thedado line ontheworkcutting ingthefront mark piece cutting head withthedado fromyou. farthest on thetableinsert agatnst t ie ghtly h ew o r k p i e c H o l d i ntg thehead lower it onto slowly thefence, (righil, of the clear keeping bothhands sitssquarely When theworkpiece head. presswhile feedit forward onthetable, thefence. ingit against

thecut Finishing your 3 inches of the to within lefthand comes When


of theworkpiece t h et o p e d g e heads , l i d ey o u rh a n da l o n g y o u rf i n g e r s around the t o t h e b a c ko f t h e t a b l e ,h o o k i n g r a t eu n t i lt h e at a steady eu t t i n g table's edgeC . o n t i n uc w i t ht h e d a d o el i g n s l i n eo n t h e w o r k p i e ca b a c kc u t t i n g the cut, h e a dc u t t i n gm a r kc l o s e st o y o u .T o c o m p l e t e w i t hy o u rr i g h th a n d ef f t h e d a d oh e a d l i f t t h e w o r k p i e co ( l e f i l ,s l i l ls t e a d y i n g i t a g a i n st h e f e n c ew i t h y o u rl e f t o f t h et a b l e . theedge h a n dh o o k e d around

39

MOLDINGS
saw ismorethanjusta machine i\ table A to cutwood. With theproper setup, a sawbladecanserve asa milling device to cut covemoldings(page a3).And by replacing the sawbladewith a molding headanddifferent sets ofcutters, a plain boardcanbecome anelaborate molding. Pieces ofwood canbe shaped separately and then glued togetherto form an impressive arrayof designs. The results range from crownmoldingsfor a cabinet to decorative door and frame moldings-made at a fractionof the costof their store-bought counterparts. Moldingcutters aresoldin sets of three,which areinstalledin a molding headand then fastened onto the arbor. By passing the wood overthe cutters repeatedly andraising themoldinghead slightly each time,a patternis cut into thewood.Themorepasses, the deeper theinscriotion. Like a dado head,a molding head requires its own tableinsertwith a wide opening to accommodate the width of the cutters. A woodworker canmakean insertfor each setofcuttersby placing a blankoiece of wood in the tableinsert slotandslowly cranking up themolding head-much like makingspecial inserts for sawblades(page 22). Moldingheads have a reputationfor beingdangerous and while thereare always hazards involved when usinga tablesawthereis little risk whenmolding heads areused with propercare. A fewpointsto keep in mind: Do not cut moldingson shortlengths of wood;a piece shouldbe at least12inches long. Also,do not cut moldingson narrow strips; cut themoldings on pieces at least 4 inches wideandthenrio to width.

Millingbaseboardwith molding cutters Three sets of cutters wereused in combination to transform a piece of walnutinto an elaborate base(left). board molding at littlecost profiles More than30 blade are available; by using dffirentcutters-also knownasknives-on thesame board, an innovative woodworker canmiII an almost limitless range of designs.

COMMOI{ CUTTER PR()FITES

^J
G -

ryl
T

Eead --

Cove

ffi

Oqee

t" n kww
Crown mold Olaas stop ?anel otrip

Flute

CUTVE

450 Eevel

fr ffi
Groove Tonaue

tsead andcove

40

TABLESAW

HEAD A MOLDING INSTALLING

head and cutters a molding Mounting nutcounterclockwise your thearbor hand andtighten partway intoitsslotin themold- protect cutters of thethree Fiteach (above). the moldis notnecessary; A washer a wrench using away edge faces beveled thatthecutter's ensuring inghead, After the reinforcement. without is rigidenough intotheirholes, inghead Install thesetscrews hole. fromthesetscrew t a b l e insert m o l d i n g h e d i n s t a l a l i s s e c u r e d , h e a d m o l d i n g the cutters screw until each to tighten hex wrench use a then hand to make head by molding (insef). Rotate the table. on the saw head molding Installthe in their slots firmly seated are notrub aretrueandthatthe unitdoes sure thatthecutters thedireccutter facing of each withtheflatside onthesaw eozinci ihp insprt raglo with a head molding Grip the rotation. of blade tion

A M()LDING CUTTING
making thefirstpasses upand 1 Setting as a board to theripfence screw a molding, cutting I Before the directly over fence theauxiliary fence. Position anauxiliary isclear of thecutfence thatthemetal head, ensuring molding gradually head upthemolding andcrank onthesaw ters. Turn of forclearance fence to allow in theauxiliary to cut a notch line onthe thenlineupthecutting Turn offthesaw, thecutters. andbutttheripfence withthecutters endof theworkpiece to its lowest head themolding Crank theworkpiece. against to onefeatherboard clamp Tosecure theworkpiece, setting. featherboard anda second thesawblade, above thefence to the at a 90" angle board a support table. Clamp to thesaw and theworkpiece Remove asshown. featherboard, second a fulldo notmake thetable; above to X inch thecutters crank your right hand anduse Turn onthesaw cut in onepass. depth your head; use themolding toward feed theworkpiece to slowly Finish the theripfence. against theworkpiece to keep lefthand passes asmany cut,make stick. For a deeper cutwitha push (left), head /einchat a time. themolding raising asnecessary

4l

TABLESAW

r) Making pass thefinal passes proL lttersuccessive nave duced thedepth of cutdesired, crank themolding head upvery slightly and pass theworkpiece through a f inal time passes at halfthespeed of previous (lefil.Byfeeding theworkpiece slowly, thef inal cut produces a smooth finish si n i m a t h a tr e q u i r e m s la n d i n g .

themolding from theboard Q Separating profile r.,l After theproper hasbeen cut, separate themolding from theworkpiece Remove themolding head from thearbor andinstall a riporcombination blade. Feed theboard through theblade, using a push stick to keep theworkpiece firmly yourlefthand onthetabletight);use or a featherboard to press it flushagainst theriofence.

42

TABLESAW

MOLDING A COVE CUTTING

Cove cutLin4 4uide

thewidth 1 Setting i n t h es h a p o efa p a r a l l e l o a cove c u t t i ng u i d e I guito 1-by-2s to two9-inchgram two18-inch-long byfastening of parallel forming twosets withwingnuts, long1-by-2s the between sothatthedistance Adjust theguide arms. asthedesired is thesame arms of thetwolong inside edges to the uptheblade Then crank molding. of thecove width across diagonally Lay theguide of thecove. depth maximum by t, urned i t u n t it l h eb l a d e i n s e ra t n dr o t a t e t h eb l a d e justtouches arms of theguide bothlong Gbove). hand,

\ 1

_-.,'

i'l
r) Marking theguidelines g u i d e l i n eo sn t h e l r c h i n am a r k e rt,r a c e L , l t t n g a p e n c io of the long the inside edges t n ds a wt a b l ea l o n g t a b l ei n s e r a ) .h e no u t l i n e profile thedesired a r m so f t h e g u i d e( a b o v e T R . emove e n do f t h e w o r k p i e c e o f t h e c o v eo n t h e l e a d i n g the , rank tetting a n dp l a c e t o i t s l o w e ss theblade t h eg u i d ec on outline aligning themarked w o r k p i e co en t h e s a wt a b l e , sn t h e s a wt a b l e . e i t ht h e g u i d e l i n eo t h e w o r k p i e cw

thecove Q Cutting o f t h ew o r k p i e c e : a g a i n se t a c he d g e r J B u t ta g u i d eb o a r d s i d e so f t h e l o n ge n o u g h t o c l a m po n o p p o s i t e u s eb o a r d s the t h et a b l e T . om a k e % i n c ha b o v e Crank theblade table. with the blade et e a d i l t yo w a r d f i r s tp a s sf,e e dt h e w o r k p i e cs y o u rl e f th a n d , eg a i n stth e t a b l e w h i l eh o l d i n g t h e w o r k p i e ca . ake a p u s hb l o c k M t h ec u t u s i n g handF . inish w i t hy o u rr i g h t (left),raising the blade% inchat as necessary as manypasses board to the top of the tack a backup a time. Fora deepcove, f i n i s ht h a t . o ra s m o o t h w o r k p i e cte o p r e v e nitt f r o ms p l i t t i n gF fora last v e r ys l i g h t l y theblade r e q u i r e ls i t t l es a n d i n gr,a i s e passand feedthe workpiece slowlyinto it.

43

TABLESAW OINERY

-and-Leno O ee njoint penmorLi

-|1 h. speed andprecision ofatable saw I make it anobvious for cutchoice tingjoints, particularly repeat cuts. Once isadjusted a saw to cutoneboxjoint or joint,forexamopen mortise-and-tenon ple,fiveor tenmorecanbecutin short order. Themost partis time-consuming thesetup; andmuchdepends uponthe care taken atthispoint.A fewextra minutes spent atthebeginning will result in joint.Asalways, a strong, Iong-lasting measure twicd andcutonce. joint has Every itsownspecific qualjointsare ities andapplications. Lap frequently used picture to make frames.

Made fromtwopieces ofwood thathave halftheirthickness cutaway, a lapjoint is simple to make. Whengluedand joint that clamped, it creates a strong does not require reinforcement. A boxjoint,also knownasa finger joint,isideal for carcase work-for makingdrawers orboxes. It consists of interlockingpinsandnotches, whichare

generally one-halfor one-quarter the stock's thickness. Onceusedfor massproduced products suchaspacking boxjoint by es,theboxjoint creates a strong virtue ofthe sizeofthe largegluearea created by the pins and notches. joint is often Themortise-and-tenon found in chairsand desks. Sometimes calleda bridlejoint, it consists of a projection---ortenon-from oneboardthat slides into a slot-or openmortise-in anotherboard. Like the box joint, it requires a jig, which canbe shop-built. The followingsection describes how to makeeachof these usefuljoints.

MAKING A tAPJ(IINT
Cutting laps witha dado head Mark cutting lines forthewidth of each lap ontheleading edge of theworkpiece. Butt one cutting lineagainst theoutside blade at thefront of thedado head, thenposition the ripfence flush against theworkpiece. Slide theworkpiece to thefrontof thetable and press it firmly against thefence andthe gauge. miter Tomake thecut,slide the gauge andtheworkpiece asa unitinto thedado head, keeping theworkpiece flush (This against thefence. isanother exception to thegeneral gauge rule thatthemiter and ripfence should notbe used at thesame time.) Continue feeding theworkpiece at a steady rate until thecutis made. Make suc(/eff), passes cessive cutting away thewaste (Caution: until thelapiscompleted. Blade guard removed forclarity.)

44

TABLESAW

MAKING A B()X JOINT

upthejig 1 Setting joint a dado fora box one at a ttmeusing I Cutthenotches gauge asan extento themiter head andjig.Clamp a board height of thenotches head to thedesired thedado sion. Crank a notch. intothedado head to create andfeedtheextension gauge sothatthegap Position theextension onthemiter head is equal to thenotch andthedado between thenotch to thegauge, Feed theextenscrew theextension width, then (above), nolch checkblade to cut a second sionintothedado width. thenotch thenotches equals ingthatthegapbetween sothatthe key keyintothe notch Fitandgluea hardwood projects from theextension. about an inch

r) Cutting in thefirstboard thenotches thekey, holding of theworkpiece against L guttoneedge gauge Tocutthenotch, extension. it flush against themiter your thegauge andslide theworkpiece hook thumbs around head Return theworkpiece to thefront intothedado bbove). over thekeyandrepeat the procefit thenotch of thetable, you notches after another until cutting one dure. Continue edge of theworkptece. reach theopposite

in themating board thenotches Q Gutting notch J Fitthelast voucut in thefirst board over the key, thenbuttoneedge thefirst board against of the mating flush agains th te go t h b o a r dh , o l d i nb gauge Tocut thef irst miter extension. thetwo notch in themating board, slide thenconacross thetable(right), boards board notches in themating tinue cutting procedure youused following thesame forthefirstboard.

45

TABLESAW

MAKING AN()PEN MORTISE-AND-TENON JOINT


thetenon cheeks 1 Cutting I Create a tenon bycutting thecheeks first, andthen theshoulders. Install a jigonthetable commercial tenoning following themanufacturer's instructions; the model shown slides in themiter Mark slot. lines cutting ontheworkpiece to outline thetenon, then clamp theworkpiece to the jig,Crank theblade to theheight of the tenon andposition thejigsothatone of thetenon cheek cutting lines is butted against theblade. Use thejig handle io jig gauge slide miter the along the slot; loosen handle theclamp to move it sidejig ways. Slide the to thefront of thetable yourright andturnonthesaw, thenuse jig push hand to the forward, feeding the (left). workpiece intotheblade Continue cutting at a steady rate until thecut is completed. Pull thejig back to thefront of thetable andturnoffthesaw. Turn the workpiece around sothattheremaining lineforthethickness cutting of thetenon is butted against theblade. Cutalong it thesame wayasyoumade thefirstcut.

I
\

r') Sawing thetenon shoulders gauge L Screw a board to themiter asanextension. Then crank theblade to a height equal to thedepth of thetenon against theextension, align oneof the tenon shoulder cutting lines against the blade, thenbutta stopblock against it in position. theworkpiece andclamp Slide theworkoiece to thefrontof the your table andturnon thesaw. Hook g a u gt eo thumbs a r o u n td h em i t e r feedtheworkoiece intotheblade and make thecut.Use a oush stick to clear piece thewaste off thetable. Flipover theworkpiece andbuttit against the stopblock, thencut thesecond shoul(Caution: guard der(righil. Blade removed for clarity.)

46

TABLESAW

Cutting themortise jigonthetable. Mark cutReinstall thetenoning themortise, then to outline tinglines ontheworkpiece theblade to the to thejig.Crank clamp theworkpiece thejig sothatoneof andposition depth of themortise SIide the lines is butted against theblade. thecutting jig to thefront and of thetable, thenturnonthesaw into theblade. Pull thejig back feed theworkpiece over sothat Turn theworkpiece andturnoffthesaw. lineis butted against theblade cutting theremaining passes as necesit (left). llakeasmany andcut along it waste between thetwocuts,Test-f sary to remove if necessary. orwiden themortise, thejointanddeepen

JIG A TENONING 3/q-inch jig using tenoning Builda fence-straddling plywood shown at dimensions cut to the suggested jig hole large cut a left. In onecorner of the body, to fit through, Screw a guide foryour fingers enough hole. The the board to thebody directly behind board in position forthecut. Make will hold theworkpiece vertical. Toholdthe is perfectly sure thatthe board jig body screw a brace to the flushagainst thefence, (inset). in between body witha spacer Touse thejig,place as it astride thefence shown. Butttheworkpiece against theguide it in place. a n dc l a m p Reoosition thefence to mark on align thecutting withthe theworkpiece thejig blade, thenslide the along thefence until cut is comoleted.

47

RADIALARMSAM

andott roughcrosscuts
\Jners reasons rbr rhrsperceprron. that more woodworkerr
Irlrg-tulrc 'lgll clart ull taulc Jaws

- - - -,il*
-

|
r

oi iiie raaia' rl ,.eyaovarriage


vrJrurL 4J lL Lulr-c uvvrr !v rqr!!/v.

thanonradiaIarmsaws.Tablesawsc-*|AnotherbenefitisthatmoStcutS having toshift without can bemade fewer movingpartsand EffiM_ alsohave ) -ute
are easrerIo ser uD- ,,nnss4r-lgn1]v Etn-t,R,"-* ,a *,rr..oicce. u-rsrau. u-rc ii-rachir-r

i m p r e s s i o n s a s a r e s u l t o f w o r k i n g o n t h e c o l u m n a n d t h e m o t o on itsyoke. androtating table, swiveling araised auxiliary Augmentedby machines. onlll-adjusted to bepulled This allows the blade horizonturned theradial armsaw-its blade thatthetable There isnodenying joinr. at almost any a workpiece through tally-cuts thenotches fortheoften isanexcellent choice saw for afinger makes work of angle. It also simple making. repetitive chores of furniture fi.rll advanwork. But to take machine for custom upthe toolfor every- setting stationary cutting it isnottheideal Nevertheless, youmusttake capacity for cuttingaccurately, of thesaw's require stock tage usually ajig to feed Forrepeat cuts, table saws one. jigs keep it finely tuned. machine and the time-con- thetimeto adjust results. Andsome are withuniform intotheblade radial arm saw's flexipoorly machine, the adjusted need a fair On a saws also to buy.Thble to buildor costly suming pivoting its and Achilles' heel. All of sliding space is bility canbeits operation. Such unhindered amount of roomto allow parts anditsmovable mustbehighly controlled, movements in many home worlchops. atapremium position. the locked in Otherwise, fixedwhen radial mustremain very wide boards, of crosscutting Withtheexception job This holds true just imprecise cuts. per- saw to a life of is condemned saw can any atable canduplicate about armsaws range from typically machine. Radial armsaws notseverely restric- for anysize limitations are thecrosscutting form.Even is rated workshop model home theaverage armsaws canrip up to a widthof 25inches, 1to 7 horsepower; tive.Mostradial 24 ranges from 8 to Blade size typically panel in halflengthwise. at 1.5horsepower. youto cuta 4-foot-wide allowing has lO-inch blade. home model a thestandard littleworlahop inches; requires relatively armsaw Moreover, theradial

Thisjigwill allowyou to makemiter cutson the crossradialarm sawwith thebladein thestandard cuttingposition-9}o to thetable.Thejig ensures joint. will form a perfectly square that matingboards

49

ANATOMYOFA RADIALARM SAW


he radial arm sawis essentiallv a circularsawsuspended above a work table.For mostoperations, the bladecutsthroughtheworkpiece and runsalong akerfin apiece ofhardboard or plywood ttratisglued to thesaw table. Themachine's manypivotingand pars enable sliding it to carrytheblade into a workpiece from a varietyof different angles anddirections. Sliding the yoke along thearmpulls theblade across thetablefor a crosscut. Swiveling the armonthecolumn allon's formitercuts; themaximum range ofthe model illusfrated below isnearly 90o to therightand 50o to theleft. Tilting the motor and
Mlter alamp handle Locka arm in fixed position on column:releasedto awivel arm and aet miter anqle. Lockaautomatioally at preaet anqlea,includingO" and 45"to the ri4ht and laft

blade makes a bevel cut possible, while rotating theyoke to bringtheblade parallelto thefence sets upthemachine for a rip cut. Depending onthewidthof thestock youneed to cut twotypes ofrip cuts are feasible: anin-rip,with theblade turned closest to thecolumn, andan out-rip,

Yokealamp handle Locko yoke in fixed position on arm: releaeed to rotate

Arm 9upporta yoke,motor and blade Column

yokefor-rippinq

Onloff awlt'ch Removabletoq1le preventz acciden-

tal atart-up

Yoke Holda motor and blade; attached to the arm b5t a carria1e unit with roller bearinqothat 6lide alonq a track underneath the arm

Supporta arm; four aetacrewa on front of column baae and four bolta on rear of baae tiqhtened to prevent rotation

Yoke handle Uaed to alide yoke alon6 arm for croaecuttina Eevelalamp handle Locke motor in fixed pooitlon on yoke; releaaed to aet, bevelanqle or to moveblade to horizontal pooition. Lockaautomatically at preoet an6lea,includin7O" and 45", and 9Oo to the ri6ht and Ieft

guard tslade Froteata operator from uppeipart of blade; noset'ilts to coverleadinq edqe of blade for rippin7. Lowerblade 1uaid uaed for croaacuttina

?tand 1upporba aaw; garewg on feet are adjuotable to level aaw table

Elade guard clamp earcw Holda auard in fixed plooition; looaenedto movequara 9plltter Keepa wood kerf from bindin7 durinq a cut; anti-kickback finqere on each aide of aplitter prevent workpiecefrom liftinq Elevatlng cmnk Kaiaeaand loweraarm on column to oet depth of cut

50

away farthest with thebladeswiveled fromthecolumn. to iskeptvertical theblade Although it canalso for mostoperations, thetable Such horizontally. betiltedto operate for useful is particularly a position finger suchascuttinggrooves, tasks jointsandmoldings.

enough to move Light and compact aroundtheshopor travelto construc8%-inchradial thisportable tion sites, of a arm sawcanusurpthemarryroles bit and Fittedwith a special tablesaw. motorshaft an accessory equippedwith rpm, thismodel that turnsat 18,500 router. asan overhead will double

Rip alamp handle Lockayoke in pooitionon arm for rippin4and for eomecuta with bladein hortzontalpoaition; releaaedfor croaacuttin4 Motor One end holda blade;oppo' gite end gerveaao acce?' aory ehaft for attachin4 a variety of acceaaories

Duat spout For duat collecLton ayatem; adjuatable nozzledirecta dust away from work area

Arm aover Keepeduot from enterinqrear part of arm

Miter alamp adjuetment acrew Turned to adjuat tenaion on miter clamp; noletn arm coverpro' vides acceaa

Fence Treventaworkpiecefrom movinq durinq croeacuttinq; quideework' pieceacroee table for ripping, Own er' inat a lled. Uauallyset between front and rear tablea aa shown;poeitioned behindrear table when cutting wide stock

Columnadjuetment bolte Fourbolta control amount of play column between and columnbaae

51--i),r"r,"
Tableclamp ?regaearear gaw table and apacer flueh aqainet fence and front aaw table

Auxiliary table hardboard Keplaceable or plywoodpanel qlued to front aaw table; blade rune in kerfa cut in aux' iliary table

Column baee aover Tableepacer to allow Kemovable installation of a wider fence

SETTING UP
tl- h. setupprocedures described on I thesepages may seemlong and involved,but do not neglectthem. Without careful maintenance, your machine will not cut with orecision. A problemwith manyradialarmsaws is that adjustments areleft too loose, playin movingparts allowing excessive and resultingin sloppycuts. Ideally, clampsshouldlock tight and sliding mechanisms shouldbeneithertoo loose nor too snug. Adjustthe table (right),the clamps (below)and the sliding mechanisms (page newproject. 54)before every Each time you usethe saq clearthe sawdust flom the gapbetween the tableand the fence, and clearthe trackunderneath the arm. Periodically, touchup the moving partswith a silicone-based lubricant. It is alsoimportant to square theblade(page 55)andcheck for heeling(page 56). Beforeusingyour sawfor the first time, you will needto install a fence and an auxiliarytable(page5Z). To test your adjustments, crosscut a l2-inchwide board and a 1-by-3standing on edge,then checkthe cut endswith a carpenter's square.

ADJUSTING THE TABTE

Leveling with thetable thearm points Tiltthemotor untilthe arbor down, itsendslightly above level. table Then swivel thearmto position thearbor overthe railnuts on both sides position of thetable; in each measure thegapbetween thearbor andthetable. lf themeasurements arenotequal, raise thelow endof thetable byturning the railnutin a clockwise direction, using thehead of anadjustable wrench to lever upthetable surface Then make thesame adjustment ontheother hbove). side of thetable. Repeat themeasurements to ensure thatthetable is level.

ADJUSTING THE CLAMPS


'l Adjusting themiter clamp I Swivel thearmto theright to a oosition between 0'and45o. Lock theclamp and tryto pushthe end of the armtoward the0' position (left). lf there is anyplay in thearm, adjust theclamp thatholds it in place. youwill need For themodel shown, to use a hex wrench to tighten the miter clamp a d j u s t m es nc t rew, located inside anaccess hole in the armcover.

52

RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Fine{uning clamp theyoke used theones between to a position Rotut" theyoke I L.o c k t h ec l a m pt,h e nu s e f o rc r o s s c u t t ia nn gdr i p p i n g poslto thecrosscutting themotor to tryto push hands both if it does, adjust notbudge; should Themotor tion(righil. shown, unFor themodel it in position. thatlocks theclamp handle andremove clamp theyoke from theknob screw part Use thewrench lower of thisdevice. thewrench-like thearmbyholdunder nutlocated theadjustment to tighten thewrench part andpulling of thehandle ingtheupper Lock theclamp it (insef) untilthetwoarealigned. toward thenutfurtighten lf necessary, for play. again andcheck This adlusttn place. back theknob screw otherwise, ther; your manual. owner's models; check may vary onsome ment

clamp thebevel Q Adjusting between to a position J Tlltthemotor then clamp, 45".Lock thebevel 0" and the t o t r yt o m o v e u s eb o t hh a n d s (left),lf thereis anylooseness, motor shown, For themodel theclamp, adlust themotor wrench to tighten usea socket and theclamp nut, thenrelease support ofthepreset to each trytiltingthe motor themotor, move if youcannot angles; Othernut slightly. loosen thesupport andcheck again wise, lock theclamp in themotor. forplay once more

53

RADIAL ARM SAW

t,'l;

)ii,)i ,,

cii

Checking theripclamp Lock theripclamp, thenuse bothhands to tryto slide theyoke along yoke thearm(left). The should notmove; if it does, adjust the rip clamp. For themodel shown, release theclamp, then use a wrench to tightenthenutattheend oftheripclamp bolt. Try sliding theyoke along the arm;if it binds, loosen thelock nut slightly. Otherwise, recheck theclamp and tighten thenutfurther if needed.

CARING F(|R THESLIDING MECHANISMS


thecaniage roller bearings 1 Adjusting I Use a silicone-based lubricant to clean t h et r a c k u n d etrh ea r ma n dt h er o l l e r bearings to thefrontandrear of thecarriage unitthatattaches theyoke to the arm. Tocheck press your the bearings, thumb agains eta c h o n ei n t u r nw h i l e sliding your thecarriage away from hand. Thebearings should turnasthecarriage slides along thearm. lf your thumb keeps youwillneed one of them from turning, to tighten thebearing; if thecarriage binds onthearm, a bearing willneed to beloosened. ln either case, loosen the bearing nutwhileholding theboltstationary with (right).Ttghten a second wrench or loosen thebolt, asnecessary, thenretighten thenut. Adjust theother boltbythesame amount, thencheck thebearings once again.

54

RADIAL ARM SAW

tension c0lumn-t0-base Adiusting on thefoursetscrews thenloosen clean, thecolumn Wioe To check hex wrench' a using base thefrontof thecolumn to tryto lift theend usebothhands tension, column-to-base (above, to be should littleor nogive /eff); there of thearm the directions; in both crank Turn theelevating thecolumn. is excessive lf there down. upand slidesmoothly armshould joint or or if thearmjumps at thecolumn-to-base movement

thefourboltslocated adjust andlowers, as it rises vibrates the Repeat of thebase. onthecover holes intheaccess Then adjustments. make additional and,if necessary, tests (above, righ); if thereis any the armsideways try pushing justenough thesetscrews tighten of the column, rotation a finaltime, thetests Run through movement. to prevent ngtheadjustments. f ine-tuni

THE BLADE SOUARING


thetable with theblade 1 Squaring posiin thecrosscutting I Settheyoke 59).Release a blade tion andinstall @age counterandtilt themotor clamp thebevel asfarasit willgointhe0" posiclockwise the Tocheck relock theclamp. Then tion. position, square butta carpenter's blade (lefl.The square should twoteeth between o f t h eb l a d el.f th agains t es i d e fit flush the them,release between anygapshows clamp thebevel Then, loosen bevel clamp. the to bring andtilt themotor setscrews Holding the thesquare. flush against blade lock a helper have in thisposition, motor thesetscrews. andtighten clamp the bevel position, then to the45' bevel lllt themotor the andcheck it to the0' position return again. blade once

55

RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Setting perpendicular thearm tothefence Z. Release themiter clamp andswivel the armto theright asfarasit willgo in the0" position, thenrelock theclamp. Release the ripclamp andbuttthetwosides of a carpenter's square against thefence andtheblade tooth nearest to thetable. Holding theblade steady, slidethe yoke along Ihe arm(left); pull slowly toavoid dulling thetooth. The blade should make a constant rubbing sound asit moves along theedge of thesquare. lf a gap opens up between theblade andthesquare, or if theblade binds against thesquare asit moves, loosen thesetscrews onthecolumn base. Toclose a gapbetween the blade andthe square, tighten thetopright screw; to eliminate binding, tighten thetopleftscrew. Once thearmis square to thefence, tighten thelowerscrews, alternating fromleftto right.

CORRECTING BLADE HEEL


Fine-tuning horizontal rotati0n 1 (page I lnstall a blade 59) andsetthe motor position; in itshorizontal tilt themotor counterclockwise asfarasit willgo,then lock thebevel clamp. Totestfor heeling-blade rotation thatis notparallel to thetable-build an L-shaped sounding jig andbore twoholes in it. Sharpen the ends of twodowels andf it theminto thejig asshown. position Then thejig to align a blade tooth near theback of the tabledirectly over the vertical dowel. Lower the bladeuntilthe toothrests lightly o n t h ed o w e lc ;l a m p t h ej i g i n place. glove, Wearing a work spinthe (right). blade backward andlisten Next, slide theyoke along thearmto align a tooth near thefront of thetable over the dowel andrepeat thetest. Thesound shoulb d e t h es a m e i n b o t ho o s i t i o n s . lf it is not,release thebevel clamp and loosen thetwoscrews on either sideof the motor support nut.Repeat thetests untilthesound stays thesame, thenlock thebevel clamp andtighten thescrews.

56

RADIAL ARM SAW

vertical heeling Eliminating


c o u n t e r c l o c k wa isf ea r a s i t w i l lg o i n t h e lllt themotor , e nl o c kt h e b e v ec l l a m pT . ot e s tf o r v e r t i c a l th v e r t i c ap losition i g s ot h a tt h et i p o f t h e h o r i z o n p h e s o u n d i njg heeling , o s i t i otn o f t h et a b l e . t h eb a c k w i t ha b l a d e t o o t hn e a r t a l d o w ea l ligns sd oy o uc a ns a m gackwar a n ds e n di t s p i n n i n b L o w etrh e b l a d e the plethe sound /efil.Slide the yokealong as in stepI (above, n o r c h a n g eis l i s t e n i nfg o, nce again a r ma n dr e p e atth e p r o c e s s

release theyoke clamp andloosen lf there isa discrepancy, tone. (above, yoke a hex wrench the using under thefourscrews retest until each test and RoIate themotor asnecessary right). yoke produces clamp and tighten the Then, lock the tone. a similar your a l2-inch-wide crosscut adlustments, Tocheck screws.
L ^^-r d ^l ! + L ^ ^ ^ lt- u h . , J Ltqa inp o s h w rn r e u ud 6L . e .c v'r Le u ckthe cut y-J 3 s r rn u id lrS uudlu lu Llltrll o

square. ends using a carpenter's

TABLE AND AUXILIARY A FENCE INSTALLING


table andauxiliary Cutting a kerfin thefence knot-free wood Install a fence of 7a-inch{hick, andthefronttable; thetablespacer between h i g h etrh a nt h et h t c k make t h ef e n c e slightly o ra n a u x i l i a r ty able, ness o f t h ew o r k p i e c F e. h a r d b o a ro dr p l y w o o d of %-inch cuta piece a n d u s ec o n a st h ef r o n t a b l e t h es a m e size a sltght t a c t c e m e n t o g l u ei t d o w n ,l e a v i n g gap between sawit and the fence to prevent between the two. Before dustfromjamming miter cuts, slice through crosscutting or making and%o to 7s inchdeepintothe auxthefence of the iliary t a b l ei n t h e 9 0 ' a n d4 5 " p a t h s to the in-rip rotate the motor bladeT . hen, (page position 6 6 ) a n d p u l lt h e y o k ea l o n g r i pt r o u g h in o u ta s h a l l o w t h e a r mt o f u r r o w table (left). the auxiliary

Auxilrary table 9Oo kerf Fence

57

RADIALARM SAWBLADES AND ACCE,SSORIES


thetable saq the :' ikeits shopcousilr l,-... radial isonlyasgoodasthe armsaw Togetthebest blade on itsarbor. performaucefrom your machine, keepits blades clean andin goodrepair. Inspect thearborwashers andblade collars, and replace anydamaged parts. Usea ragto rvipe sirwdust or loose dirt from a blade; remove resin pitch lvith or steelr'vooland turpentine. Spray-on orencleaner isalso for dissolving useful stubborn deposits. To protect blades from damage, hang thernindividually on hooksor, if you stack then, place cardboard between them. Replace blades rvhenever they beconecrtrcked or chipped; sharpen non-carbide regularly. tippedblades A is rnore dull or damaged blade likely to contribr"rte to accidents than a sharp in good blirde corrdition. In general, theradial armsaw uses the Fornterllty tlrc intersection of one sanre types ofblades asa table saw(pnge line drnwrtf'ottt the tip of a tootlt 20).Combination blades aresuitable for to the certer of the arltor holeand orrc 90percent of thejobs,vou will bedoing. dratvrrparallel to the tooth's lhce, jobs,suchascrossBlades for specific bltrtle l n o k n rr q l ct l c t c r t t t i r t c s cutting or ripping, arealso available. In lnw rrruch biteq bladewill ha,e. anycase, it is important to consider the hook angle of a blade(left). The larger the angle, the bigger the bite-and the greater therisk oia blade nrnnirrg across a workpiece whencrosscutting or lifting whenripping. stock In bothcases, feed theblade throughthervorkpiece slowly and firmly.Whilea hook angle of 30o wouldbe suitable for a tablesaw, the same blade on theradial armsaw could prove Theideal unsafe. hookangle for a radial is I 5oor less. arm saw Carbide-tipped blades arethechoice of mostwoodworkers today. Although theycost morethanthetraditional highspeed steel blades andaremoreexpensiveto have sharpened, theyhold their edge longer considerably andarecapable of moreprecise cuts. In addition to sarv blades, the radial armsaw also accepts vanorls accessories, whichareattached to either thearboror anaccessory shaft at theopposite endof the motor.On some models, the shaft canspinat morethan20,000 rprn,makirrg it ideal for porvering roLrter bits.

9anding drum Attached to the aaw'aacceoeory ahaft; can be uaedtn vertical,horizontal,or bevel pooitiona.ln verLicat applicaLrona, drum ie lowered into a cutout tn an auxtltary table.

Drillingchuck Attached ta acceeeory ehaft; can be uaedin horizonta[or verttcal poaittonewtth an auxil' tary f,ablethat elevateE the workpiece or with a ji4 that. holds the stock in poaition.

Molding head Ueedin horizonLal poeition with a moldinq headquardand an auxiliarytable that. elevaLes the workpiece. Widevariety of cutLera avatlable for different moldinqatylea.

Sanding diec Commonly ueedin verLical poettionwith an auxiliarytable Lo elevate the workpiece.

Rotary aurface planer Uaedin horizontal pooition;can be angled to form raioedpanela. Featureathree knivea remouable for aharpeninq.

58

RADIAL ARM SAW

A SAWBLADE CHANGING
blades andinstalling Removing sn d t h ec l a m pa U n p l utg h es a w l,o c k guard. Then, fit oneof remove theblade withthesaw supplied thewrenches andthe between the blade onthearbor steady withthis thearbor motor. Holding to loosen the wrench tool,usetheother usually armsaw arbors nut.(Radial arbor thenutis loosened reverse threads; have Remove thenut direction.) in a clockwise then slide the blade collar, and theouter Toinstall a blade, thearbor. blade from pointplace withitsteeth it onthearbor rotation. of blade ingin thedirection and start thenutbyhand. Install thecollar propped onthearbor Withonewrench the finish tightening thetable, against overtightening. but avoid nut(left), guard. I n s t at l lh eb l a d e

HEIGHT THE BLADE SETTING


a cut to make Preparing theblade cut, lower vertical Fora standard precut table in the auxiliary kerfs one ofthe into (page partway a workthrough 57). Fora cut piece, a lineonthe cut,mark such asa dado then setthe of cut, forthedepth workpiece the and lower table ontheauxiliary stock of one turn most saws, blade to the line.For blade lowers the or raises crank theelevating tbor rAo saw, onyour thecrank Togauge inch. of the auxil% inch to within lower theblade direcin theopposite thencrank iary table, Hold up. to move begins theblade tionuntil I inch is at least wood that of scrap a piece andcut intoit at one thefence against thick by theblade off thesawandraise end.Turn Slide crank. one turnof theelevating exactly and side to one about % inch theworkpiece (right). in difference The cuI another make the will show the twocuts depthbetween withone raises or lowers the blade amount turnof thecrank.

59

SAFETY
parts themany moving of I lthough A a radial armsaw make it one of the most flexible machines in theworlshop, theyalso make it oneof themostdangerous. Crosscutting-the most basic use of the saw-requires you to pull the yourbody. blade toward Anddepending on thesetting of the arm,yokeand motor, theblade itsapproach canmake fromseveral directions andangles. Wth every cut,youhave to anticipate exactly where theblade will endup. yourip boards When ona radial arm you feed saw, theworkpiece into the
blade,and this demands evengreater careand concentration. The chances of kickback arehigh enough thatthesafety devices illustrated belowandat rieht are absolutely essential. Armedwith a thoroughknowledge of the machine's you canapoperation, proachit with a healthy mixtureof caution andconfidence-asyou wouldwith anyotherpowertool in your workshop. Make certainthat all the clampsfor holding the arm, yoke, carriageand motor in positionarelockedwhenever you turn on the saw Also be sureto familiarizeyourselfwith the owner's manualfor your machine, and takethe time to setup themanysafety accessories and blade guardsthat are available. Remember, however, that no accessoryor guardcancompensate for a lackof careful attentionand commonsense. For anycut,keep your fingers at least 6 inches awayfrom the blade;usepush possible sticlaor featherboards where to feedor hold theworkpiece. Wearsafety glasses at all times,anda maskor respiratorandhearing protection for extended useof the saw.

RIPPING SAFELY
RADIAT ARM SAW SAFETY TIPS
. N e v eirn s t a lb l l a d eo sro t h e r devices on boththe arbor andthe accessory shaftat the same time. Keep a safety screw capor guard over the accessory shaftwhenit rs not in useto prevent it fromsnagg i n gh a i ro r c l o t h i n g . o Never ooerate thesaw without a guard. guards blade Use specialty forcrosscuts andfor molding ordado cutswiththemotor andblade in the position. horizontal When making a ripcut,adjust theheight of theantikickback device fortheworkpiece, o Before starting a cut make sure that themotor is at fulloperating speed. o D on o tr i p a w o r k p i e c th ea ti s shorter than12 inches. When making a crosscut on stock shorter than 7 inches, usea hold-down device, rather thana hand, to secure the workpiece to thetableor thefence. r When ripping, ensure thattheedge of theworkoiece in contact withthe fence is smooth andstraight; feed fromthesideof thetable opposite thesplitter andanti-kickback device. . Toavoid kickback, always hold the workpiece securely against thetable andfence when crosscutting. o After making a crosscut, lock therip clamo assoon astheblade is back behind thefence.

Sefting upforthecut Unplug thesaw, thensettheworkpiece onthetable sothatyouwillbe (Most feeding against guards thedrrection of theblade's rotation. blade have anarrow indicating which way theblade spins.) Follow theowner's manua il n s t r u c t i ofn os rs e t t i n t g h eh e i g ho t f t h ea n t i - k i c k b a ce kv i c e d guard andfor positroning the nose of theblade sothatit justclears the protection workpiece. Foradded against kickback, install a wheeled hold(pages (page down device 61 and60 or spring-type hold-down fingers (above), 61).Feed theworkpiece steadily making sure thatneither hand i si n l i n e with t h eb l a d e .

60

RADIAL ARM SAW

DEVICES AND SPEGIALTY GUARD ANTI-KICKBACK


Thehold-down at left device shown fenride tures rubber wheels that alongthe pressing topof theworkpiece, it down against thetable. Themechanism is installed at a slightangle sothat the pushtheworkpiece wheels also against the Thewheels and collarcan fence. to accommodate workbeadjusted piecaofvirntalf anythickness. Tohelp prevent kickback, thewheels are designed to rotate in onedirenion only. yoke Whmthe isrotated to theout-rip (page position 67)andtheworkpiece side of thetable, the isfedfrom theother around to turn in the wheek areswung opposite direction.

Another in rippingand safety accessory for use molding operations is thesetof metalholdto downfingersshownat right. Clamped on L-shaped rodsthat extend over the fence either side of theblade, the fingerspush the workpiece downon the table.Therodscan to accommodate various sizes beadjusted of stock.With themotortiltedto itshorizontal position, guardcovers theportion a special the of the table.To of theblade facing front you must a cutout usetheguard, make frrst in thefenceto allowthedevice's shieldto be Before lowered ontotheworkpiece. turning spintheblade by handto ensure on thesaw, not obstruct it. that theguarddoes

6l

CROSSCUTTING
-[t h. radialarmsaw isbest knownfor I itsconvenience in crosscutting. The Hold the techniqueis straightforward: workpiece firmly against the fenceand pull theyokeandthe bladethroughthe stock.Sincethe thrust of the bladeis downwardand towardthe backof the table,the cuttingactionhelpsto keepthe pressed workpiece against thetableand several factorscan the fence.However, cause the bladeto climb uo on theworkpieceand jump toward you. These includea dull bladeor onewith teethtoo largefor the job at hand,poor quality But even wood,or loose rollerbearings. with equipment in properrepair,it is still to remainin controlof theblade essential at all times. As a rule of thumb,hold the workpieceagainst the fencewith your left it at least6 inches from hand,keeping the blade;usea clampto secure short 64).Wth your right hand, stock(page pull theyoke,grippingit firmly to conthe feed, trol the rateof cut. The slower will be theresults. To cut the smoother workpieces lengthor several to thesame in more than to sawa thick workpiece onepass, clampa stopblockto thefence, asshownbelow.

MAKING A CROSSCUT

Grosscutting a board Butt theworkpiece against thefence withthe90" kerf in thefence lined up withthewaste side of thecutting mark. Support long stock withroller stands Holding theworkpiece snugly against thefence, ora table. turnonthesaw, release andpulltheyoke theripclamp steadily through thecut (above)wiIhpush outforcing theblade. Once theblade cuts through theworkpiece, the yoke back, returning it to itsplace behind thefence. Lock theripclamp.

MAKING REPEAT CUTS


Using a stop block Cuta small notch fromonecorner of thestopblock, as shown, to prevent sawdust fromaccumulating between it andtheworkpiece. Measure along thefence to the youneed leftof the kerfthe length of the piece to cut; Butttheworkpiece clamp theblock at thatpoint. against theblock andthefence, thenmake thecut (/eff). Tocut a thick workpiece in twopasses, clamp thestopblock to thefence andcut halfway through thestock, thenflip theworkoiece over andfinish thecut.

62

ANGLECUTS
iter,bevel and compound angle cutscanbe madewith the radial arm sawby tilting or anglingits blade. Themachine's armswivels to therisht or the left for miter cuts;the motoi tilts for bevel clockwise andcounterclockwise cuts. Comoound cuts involveboth thearm andtiltingthemotor. swiveling As discussed on page 65,you canalso makea miter cut with a jig that hoids the workpiece at an angle. preBoththearm andthemotorhave Toeliminate setstops at 45o angles. any playin these pushthearm indexsettings, or motor asfar asit will go in the stop positions andhold it there whileyoulock the clamo. To setthearm andmotor at otherangles, usea slidingbevelor the miter andbevel for precise saw's scales

results. Always makea testcut first in a piece of scrap woodandmeasure thecut end with a protractor;then makeany finaladjustments. Whenever possible, makemitercuts with thearm swiveled to theright,rather thanto theleft.Workingon theleft side of the table, you run the riskof pulling the bladebeyondthe table's edge. You

oftencanmake thesame cut on therisht side by turningtheworkprece over. Regardless of the typeof angle cut, you first needto cut a kerfin the fence andtheauxiliary table to provide a path for theblade. Makethekerfuo to % inch ior mitercuts, deep or deep inoughior theblade teeth to bebelow thetable surface for bevel or comoound cuts.

NGL EU T S MA KI NA G C

Making a right-hand mitercut S w i v etl h e a r m t o t h e a n g l ey o u n e e d , t h e nb u t tt h e w o r k p i e c ea g a i n stth e f e n c ew i t h t h e w a s t e s i d eo f t h e c u t t i n g m a r ka l i g n e d w i t ht h e m i t e ra n g l e k e r f .F o rr e p e ac t u t sa n dt o keep t h e w o r k p i e cfe r o ms l i d i n g t o t h e l e f t ,b u t ta s t o pb l o c k . hen, holding a g a i n stth e s t o c k a n dc l a m pi t t o t h e f e n c e T en u g l y t h ew o r k p i e cs a g a i n stth e f e n c e , t u r no n t h e s a w , r e l e a ste h e r i p c l a m pa n d p u l lt h e y o k es t e a d i lty hrough the cut (above).

Making mitercut a left-hand S w i v etlh e a r mt o t h ed e s i r e a dn g l e a n db u t tt h e w o r k p i e c e a g a i n stth e f e n c e a s f o r a r i g h t - h a nm d i t e rc u t . W i t h o ut u r n i n go n t h e s a w ,p u l lt h e y o k ea c r o s t sh e w o r k p i e c e l f. t h e blade slides beyond the table's left-hand edge, move the fence g l u ea n a u x i l i a r b e h r nt dh e r e a r table a s s h o w nT . hen ty able (page 57) to the rearsurface andtablespacer, and installa handscrew on the armto stopthe yokefromtraveling beyond the endof the cut. Holdthe workpiece snugly against the fence a n dp u l lt h e y o k e through thecut (above).

63

RADIAL ARM SAW

Making a bevel cut youneed, Tiltthe motor to theangle raising thearmhigh enough to keep the as it turns. blade f romstriking thetable against thefence Butttheworkpiece mark withthewaste side of thecutting k e r fi n a l i g n ew d i t ht h eb e v ea l ngle i s n os u c hk e r f on t h ef e n c ei;f t h e r e your y, o uw i l ln e e d to make machine snugly one. Then, holding theworkpiece pulltheyoke steadily against thefence, through thecut (efl.fo makea bevel of a workpiece, tilt cutalong thelength angle, then the motor to thedesired position r o t a tte h ey o k e t o t h ei n - r i p andmake thecut (page 66).

]lll l]l] r]ll lllj llll illl l]l] llll fi[i]ll lrlll|l rlllnl l]l] lllJ lllt llll
)HO? TI?
Cult,ing a eho rt, wo rkpiece eecure Tocut aworkpieceNhat,ieNoo ehorlbo holdoafelyby hand, iNNo|,hetablewiLh a IoqqleclamV. 1crewlhe clamplo an auxiliary fencebef,ween Lhefront Lable and Nhe table fence,Ihen ineLall Nhe o?acer, makin4 cerLain IhaNthe clampwillnol be in the wayof Ihe youNiqhNen wilh a the workpiece Nhe clamp, blade.When ?rotecL woodblock.To avoid lifNinqlhefence oul of its olot, do noL overLiqhten,

64

RADIAL ARM SAW

MITER JIG Tomake 45" miter cutswithout having to swivel thearmonthesaw, jig shown at right. use theshop-built jig at an The holds theworkpiece sothattheblade canremain angle, position. in the 90" crosscutting Refer for sugto the illustration gestedimensions. Before building thejig,make 45" of twooieces miter cutsin theends as of 7a-plywood thatwill serve guides. Then cut the base andthe fence andscrew the twoboards together, leaving enough of the fenceprotruding below the base to fit intotheslotbetween thefront able a n dt h es p a c e r , a u x i l i a rt y ence R e m o vte h e s t a n d a rfd and s e tt h e b a s e o nt h et a b l e s , andfence wiching thejig's between

Fence 3 / +x 3/+" "x 3" 40" 3" xx40"

Jiq baee 3/+"x 18"x 40"

thefront surface andtablesDacer. With in the90" crosscutthe blade through thejig tingposition, slice fence deep into and% inch thebase, pulling forward the yoke asfar as it will go,Turn off the saw. oneof the guides to the Screw base so that its mitered end is

f lushagainst thefence withits point the kerfin the touching base. Position the mitered endof guide the second f lushwiththe frontof thetableasshown. Usea carpenter's square to setthe seco n dg u i d e ata 90"angle tothe firstone. Then, screw thesecond piece to the base, leaving enough space between the two guides youwill be cutting for the stock to fit between them,Turnon the sawand pull the yokeacross thekerf to trimoff thecorner of the guide. second Touse thejig,hold theworkpiece guide, flush against theright-hand butting theendof thestock against thefence, andpullthe yoke hold through thecut (/eftl.Next, the piece flush edge o f t h em a t i n g guide, against withits theleft-hand e n db u t t e d a g a i n stth e o t h e r guide. Pulltheyoke through the cut.Theresulting 45oends should joint. forma perfectly square

65

RIPPING
you arecuttingwith the hether grainofa piece ofhardwood or of along thelength or sawing softwood, grain panel with no defined a plywood pattern, rippingon a radialarm saw to crosscutting. littleresemblance bears across a thanpullingtheblade Rather youwill be piece of stock, stationary thatholds in a position locking theyoke parallel to thefence the cuttingedge intothecut. theworkpiece andfeeding Depending onthewidthof thestock in two to becut,theyokecanberotated Fora narrowcut,typically directions. to theyokeis rotated up to 14inches, position close to thefence. theblade For Thisis called thein-rip position. in the theyokeis rotated widerstock, leaving theblade fardirection, opposite in theout-rippositherfromthefence width of cut, tion. Forthe maximum thereartable relocate thefence behind anduse theout-ripconfiguration. and Because oftheriskofkickback the the fact that you will be feeding ripping with your hands, workpiece great Tiy to stand to one demands care. sideof the stockasyou feedit to the yourhands at least 6 andkeep blade Usea inches from the cuttingedge. pushstickto feednarrowstockor to complete a cut on a wideworkpiece. possible, to Where usefeatherboards holdstock firmly against thefence. As illustrated below, a goodholdwill provide anadditional downdevice yourcutssafely measure Plan of safety. (page always feeding theworkpiece 60), rotation: thedirection ofblade against for side of thetable fromtheright-hand side an in-rip andfrom theleft-hand for an out-rip.Usethe bladeguard whenripping,andit is a goodideato installa newfence to keep theworkpiece in old kerfs. fromcatching

(IN.RIP) A BOARD RIPPING

device a hold-down 1 Installing the release theyoke clamp androtate I Unplug the saw, position yoke yoke position; lockthe clamp. To to the in-rip release the rip for thewidthof cut youneed, the blade yoke fromthe distance slide the to theappropriate clamp, fence, andrelock theclamp. replace thestandard Toinstall a wheeled hold-down device, 1 inchthickandslightly withanauxiliary fence about fence

thetemplate of theworkpiece. Use higher thanthethickness along thetop withthedevice to bore three sets of holes supplied in linewiththe be directly edge of thefence; onesetshould sideof thefirst.Fitthe pinson blade andtheothers to either device intoonesetof holes and the bottom ofthe hold-down block to distribute the tighten thethumbscrew using a wood pressure evenly along thefence.

66

RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Making thecut L Setthe workpiece up against the right-hand side of thetable. Standing to slipitsleading edge one side of thestock, of thehold-down device under thewheels presapplying andfeedit intotheblade, thefence andthecutting surebetween Make sure of your hands edge. thatneither your is in lrne withtheblade. When fingers within come 6 inches of theblade, continue feeding witha pushstick(right). lf youareusing a hold-down device, move side of thetable andpull the totheoutfeed workpiece otherwise, f inish through; thecutfrom theinfeed side of thetable. Retract thepush stick carefully to prevent getting it from in theblade. caught

USING THEOUT.RIP CONFIGURATION


a panel to width Gutting release theclamp and Unplug thesaw, position, rotate with theyoke to theout-rip fromthefence, the blade away asshown. Lock Position for theyoke clamp. theblade thewidth of cutasin step1, opposite. Move thefence behind therear table, if necessary. Install a hold-down device, following instructions to themanufacturer's r e v e r ste h ew h e e l - l o c k im ng echanism. Setuproller stands ora table to support theworkpiece asit comes off thetable. Tomake thecut,laythepanel onthe youto left-hand side of thetable to allow feedagainst thedirection of blade rotation. Butting theedge of thestock against the fence, slowly feedit intotheblade. Apply pressure lateral to keep the panel enough (/eff). flushagainst thefence

67

RADIAL ARM SAW

TAPER JIG Foraccurate taper cuts,buildthe jig shown at right(top)from3/rinch plywood. for Refer to theillustration suggested dimensions. Toprepare fora taper cut,install a hold-down device on the saw theyoke to 66),thenrotate @age andsetthewidth thein+ipposition of cutforthewidthof thejig base. Draw a cutting lineforthetaper on thensetit onthejig, theworkpiece, withtheedge of aligning themark theworkpiece in the base. Holding place, it, butttheguide baragainst theend withthe lip seated against of thestock, Screw theguide barto thenattach thetoggle the base, to theguide bar. Push the clamps jig past to make sure that theblade withthe theclamps do notinterfere Then usescrews to blade or guard. to the base at least afixa handle fromtheside thatwill 6 inches away pass bythe blade.

Ouidebar 2" x 18"

Tousethejig, lower the blade so of onetooth is thatthefull length below the top of the basehbove). Press the toggle clamps down to secure theworkpiece to thejig and turnonthesaw. Use thejig handle to slide thejig andworkpiece asa unitacross thetabletight, bottom). rate cutting at a steady until Continue the workoiece. theblade clears

68

DADOCUTS
t|a h. same range of dadocutsthatcan I be made on the table saw (page dado,the groove, 36)-the cross-grain groove andthe rabbet-are the stopped possible on a radialarm sawAsyou also in thepages that follow,the will discover abilityof the radialarm sawto function in eitherverticalor horizontalplanes means that thereis oftenmorethanone way to makethe samecut. Generally, find it easiest to keep mostwoodworkers position crosscutting thebladein the90o rabbets dadoes, whenmaking cross-grain in alongthe endsofstockand grooves Moving the bladeto the wideboards. positionwork bestfor a rabhorizontal ofa workpiece or for betalongthe edge in a narrowboard. a groove There is a way of cutting grooves without a dado head.With a standard sawbladeyou canmakecutson both andthensawout the edges ofthe groove as waste between themin asmanypasses But the iob canbe done is necessarv. morequicklyandpreiiselywith a dado headmountedon the arbor.The radial arm sawaccepts eitherthe adjustable dado wobbledadoheador the stacking j6). Although the stacking (page dado more expensive and headis generally cuts takes longerto install,it produces with flatterbottomsandsmoother edges. Thewiderswathcut bv thedadochippers compared to therelativeandblades, ly narrowwidth of a standard saw blade, to feedthestock means thatyouwill have Forsafety's sake, keep track moreslowly. of thedadoheadduringa cut,notingits locationon thetablewhentheworkpiece hidesit from view.Installa standard guardor a dadoheadbladeguardwhen areturnedhorizontally. theblades

HEAD INSTALLING A DADO

Adding blades and chippers (page Remove the blade fromthe arbor a dado head following 59 andinstall instructions. For the themanufacturer's f, it a blade on s t a c k i nd ga d o shown pointing in the thearbor withtheteeth rotation. Theninstall direction of blade in the a chipper withitsteeth centered gullets Fiton between twoblade teeth. chippers, off-setting their teeth additional in place. Putthe secfrom those already (left), making ondblade on the arbor those sure thatitsteeth do nottouch resting it (inset). of thechipper against Install theblade collar andnut,keeping arranged theblades andchippers carefully tighten the asyoudoso.lf youcannot remove thecollar. nutallthewaydown, guard or a dado Install a standard guard. head

69

RADIAL ARM SAW

DADOES WITH THE BLADES POSITIONED VERTICALTY CUTTING

Making thecut Withthedado head in the 90ocrossposition, cutting cut a kerfthrough the youareplanfence asdeep asthedado ning Mark of cutting to make. twosets lineson theworkpiece: one onitsface to show thewidth of thedado, andone on itsleading Butt edge to show thedepth. the marks on the edge of the stock against the dadohead andlower the blades andchippers to theappropriate depth. theyoke behind thefence. Slide Align lines o n t h ef a c e t h ec u t t i n g withthe kerfin the oftheworkpiece f e n c eT . hen, h o l d i ntg h ew o r k p i e c e pulltheyoke snugly against thefence, steadily through the cut hbove).

gHO? TI?
Cuttinq repeat dadoee To cut a serieoof equallyopaceddadoes,ueethe eimpleoetup ohownbelow. Makea kefr in the fenceand cut ihe tirst, dado, then elidethe workpiece alon6the fence,meaeurin7 to pooition lhe eecond dado Nhedeeireddistance from the fireL.'Defore makinqthe cutr,drive a ecrcw into lhe fence,witrh the head of Nhescrew butted aqaineLiheleft ed6eofthefirst, dado.Then cut,the eecond dadoand slide lhe workpiecealonq until the lefl edqeof ihe eecond dado buNts aqaino| lhe screwhead.Conlinue in this manner uni";il alllhe dadoes arecul.

70

RADIAL ARM SAW

a groove Cutting position, head i n t h ei n - r i p W i t ht h e d a d o 60 install a hold-down devtce @age and guard of the blade sothat it rotate the nose j u s tc l e a r s T. hen, mark two t h ew o r k p i e c e lines ontheworkpiece: one sets of cutting and t o s h o wt h e w i d t ho f t h e g r o o v e o n et o s h o wi t s d e p t h .B u t t t h e d e p t h rh e lineagains tt h e d a d oh e a da n d l o w e t blades a n d c h i p p e r tso t h e a p p r o p r i a t e fonvard or backward height. Slidetheyoke w i t ht h e c u t t i n g t o a l i g nt h e d a d oh e a d Then, lines on the faceof the workpiece. use to the right sideof thetable, standing thefence a o u s hs t i c kl i n e du o b e t w e e n to feedthe workpiece andthe dadohead (/efil. intothe blades andchippers steadily

rabbet anedge Cutting yi d e r I n s t aa lldado head t h a ti ss l i g h t lw youwish to cut.With thanthe rabbet position, head i n t h ei n - r i p t h ed a d o just guard untilitsnose rotate theblade of Mark thedepth clears theworkpiece. the thenposition therabbet onthefence, of its one-third dado head sothatabout Turn onthesaw width is over thefence. head untilit cuts to andlower thedado producing relief line, a cut marked the forclearance of the in thefence to allow saw, chippers. Turn off the blades and l i n ef o rt h ei n s i d e then mark a cutting rabbet on theworkpiece. edge of the yoke align the dadohead Move the to and mark. Clamo a featherboard withthe table as shown to board to the a suooort f l u s h a g a i n s t h t e keep t h ew o r k p i e c e the right side fence. Then, standing on stickto feed usea push of thetable, into steadily theblades theworkpiece
znd chinnor< (riohf)

7l

RADIAL ARM SAW

*^

AUXILIARY FENCE AND TABTE FOR ()RM(ILDING HORIZONTAL DADO CUTS (page Tocut dadoes 75) or moldings posiwiththemotor in its horizontal tion, use t h es h o p - b ua i lu txiliary fence shown at right. Since the prevents arbor the blades from being youmay lowered totablelevel, also have to build anauxiliary table, such jigs, astheoneshown belowForboth refer to theillustrations forsuggested dimensions. plywood forthefence, Cut%-inch using a piece thatis slightly wider thanthe height of theworkpiece; usef-inch-thick stock forthefence if youyouareplanning to install a (page hold-down device 66). Forlhe fence cutout, saw anopening thatis large enough to accommodate the head dado or molding andguard, leaving a lip of at leastVt inchal protruding the bottom of thecutout above thetable when thefence is in

Cu|ouL

Fence 4" x 40" LiP r/+" abovetable

position. Without thislip,theworkpiece properly will notbesupported asit rides along thefence during a cut-and it maybedrawn intothe blade. Install the fencebetween andthespacer thefront table asyou would a standard fence. For theauxiliary table andfence, plywood cut two pieces of 3/q-inch to thesame dimensions asthefront sawtable, thenscrew the pieces together, making sure thatthescrews w i l lb ew e l c l l e ao r f t h eb l a d e .

Offset thetop piece slightly to createa gapalong the fence thatwill prevent sawdust fromaccumulating between thebase of theauxiliary table andthefence when thetable is in position. Screw theauxiliary table to a fence I inch wider than theauxiliary fence shown above. Toinstall theauxiliary table, slipits fence between thefront table of the saw andthetable spacer, thentight(page enthetable clamps 51)lo jig secure the table in position.

72

RADIAL ARM SAW

CHIPPERS AND BLADES WITHHORIZONTAL A GROOVE CUTTING


upthecut Setting head in thehorizontal I With thedado of positios n l,i d e t o t h eb a c k t h ey o k e allthe a sf a ra si t w i l lg o ;l o c k t h et a b l e l l na u x i l i a r y c l a m po snt h es a wI.n s t a a 72),Ihenmarkcutor Iable(page fence to show the ontheworkpiece tinglines o f t h ec u t .H o l d i n g a n dd e p t h width slide the thefence, against theworkpiece yoke head withthedepth thedado to align To mark on the faceof the stock(left), locahead's of thedado helokeep track it is hidden bytheworkpiece, tionwhen to deltno n t h et a b l e m a rt kw ol i n e s l ld a d o s w a t hI.n s t aa e a t et h ec u t t i n g guard, onto the lowering itsshield head head byhand Spin thedado workpiece. freely. Slide thatit rotates to make sure b e h i nt d h ef e n c e . t h ey o k e 'l

r) Cutting thegroove guttthe thefence, against workpiece L to the a featherboard table thenclamp a clamp in alignment; thestock to hold feathto the board at a 90' angle support pressure. the Then, slide forextra erboard y o u l o w er c a n until be ack workpiec and chipitsblades head to align thedado pers ontheendof with thewidthmarks the anduse Turn onthesaw thestock. workto feed the hands of both thumbs (right); piece intothe blades steadily of your withthefingers thefence straddle o n t r oT l .o m a i n t a ic n tohelp r i g hh t and getttng yourhands tooclose from keep stick to a push head, use to thedado
nnmnloto tho e ri

73

RADIAL ARM SAW

MAKING A STOPPED GRO()VE


I S e tu p t h e c u t a s o n t h e p r e c e d i n g page, but addonemoresetof cuttinglines o n t h e f a c eo f t h e w o r k p i e cte o show the .tanding b e g i n n i na gn de n do f t h e g r o o v e S pivot o n t h e r i g h t - h a ns d i d eo f t h et a b l e , l e a d i n g the e n do f t h e w o r k p i e ca ew a y fromthe fence. Turnon the sawandalign
thp crrttinoline fnr ihp hpo'innino nf f hc

upand starting thecut 1l Setting -

groove with the blademarkon the table (right).Keeping surface bothhands well c l e ao r f t h ed a d o head, h o l dt h e t r a i l i n g e n d o f t h e w o r k p i e ca eg a i n stth e f e n c e gh e o t h e re n d i n t ot h e w h i l ep i v o t i n t blades a n dc h i p p e r u s n t i lt h e w h o l e e d g ei s f l u s hw i t h t h e f e n c e .

DladecuLLing marka
CuLttnq ltneo

Cutting the groove your g r i p p i ntg L Wttn r i g h th a n d h et r a i l i n g p,u s ht h e s t o c k e n do f t h e w o r k p i e c e steadrly f o r w a r dU . s ey o u rl e f th a n dt o k e e p t h ew o r k piece f l u s ha g a i n stth e f e n c e . Making sure t h a t b o t hh a n d s s t a yw e l lc l e a r of thedado h e a dc , o n t i n ufe eeding u n t i lt h e c u t t i n g line f o r t h e e n do f t h e g r o o v e isaligned w i t ht h e yto u . blade m a r kn e a r e s

r)

r . , l S l i d ey o u rl e f t h a n dc a r e f u l l ya l o n g t h e w o r k p i e cte oward g its leadine g d g e ,p r e s s i n t he workpiece a g a i n stth e f e n c e . Keeping bothhands clear of the dado h e a du , s ey o u rr i g h th a n d t o p i v o t h et r a i l i n g e n do f t h e stock awayfrom the fence(right)

Finishins thecut 1 <'

/+

MOLDINGS
of the is another uttingmoldings f falls that chores \-r wood-shaping arm radial of the within the repertoire cutters range of saw.The samewide 40)can for the tablesaw(page available sawto arm alsobe usedon the radial pieces of trim. transformboardsinto indivMultiple boardscanbe shaped to form iduallyandthen gluedtogether The arrayof designs. an impressive molding results canrangefrom cornice door and for a cabinetto decorative frametreatments. Startby fitting a setofthreeidentical cuttersinto a moldinghead,which is arbor in the to the saw's then attached Althoughtheilluswayasa blade. same themoldingheadin tration belowshows the horizontalposition,the radialarm sawcan turn this deviceat any angle extendsignificantly 0oand90o, between you canproing the rangeof designs of the moldinghead duce.Regardless to use,the workpiece angleyou decide across be fed repeatedly shouldalways with eachshallow the spinningknives, passcutting a little deeperuntil the profileis milled. desired Wittrthe moldingheadin the horizontalposition,installan auxiliarytable (page72) thestockto thelevelof to raise Installa moldingheadguard theknives. from the cutters, to protectyour fingers positioningits shieldjust abovethe Do not cut moldingsfrom workpiece. long.And than 12inches stockshorter ratherthanworkingwith narrowstock, and then makea riP usewider boards cut to trim them to their final width.

A MOLDING CUTTING
making thecut upand Setting in themoldinto their slots the cutters Fit w renct ho a h e x u s e h e a d t , h e n ing (inset). lnstall the setscrews the tighten flat with the saw on the head molding of facing thedirection of thecutters side width for the a line Mark roiation. blade endof theworkof cut on the leading position flush stock piece, the then workthe To secure fence. the against to the piece, featherboard one clamp head moldtng the left of fence to the to thetable. featherboard anda second witha featherboard the second Brace workpiece the Holding board. support to align theyoke slide thefence, against line, the cutting head with themolding cut. Remove 7e-inch-deep upfora setting Use andturnonthesaw. theworkpiece slowly your stock feed the hand to right (right); useyour head intothemolding press flush workpiece the to left hand your hands To keep thefence. against to thecutters, tooclose fromgetting push For pass stick. a with the f inish as many as cuts,make deeper Passes head 7e molding the moving necessary, at a time. intotheworkpiece inch farther reduced the have After successive Dasses a f inal, make depth, to thedesired stock pass, slowly more feeding very shallow produce finish. a smooth to help

75

RADIAL ARM SAW

RADIALARM SAWIOINERY
jig canrransform the I shop-built A radialarm sawinto an efficient joint-making tool.Usingthejig shown you can belowanda standard saw blade, produce fingerjointsthatarewell-suited for drawer or carcase construction. Thesetup shownin thissection lends itselfto production work.Once yoursaw hasbeensetup to cut onefingerjoint, jointsis no more producing several such complicated---or time<onsuming-than makinga series of crosscuts. Al"though thebladeis setin its horizontal position, theworkpiece is not fedinto it, asis the case with mostotherhorizontal-blade operations. Instead, the two mating boardsaresecured together on the jig and the bladeis pulledthroughthem. Since the boards areoffsetby the thicknessof the sawkerf, the fingers and notches arecut at thesame tirie, guarjoint. anteeing a perfect

A variationof theboxjoint, thefingerjoint derives itsstrength gluingarea from thelarge provided by its interwoven fingersand notches. It is an attractive and solidioint.

CUTTING A FINGER J()INT

joint jig a finger 1 Making r Build thetable jig fromvz-inch andfence forthefinger-joint plywood; usesolid wood forthe legs. Refer to the illustration forsuggested dimensions. Screw the legs to theunderside of thetable. Cuta 3-inch-by-25-inch corner section fromoneendof the fence; thecutout willprovide clearance forthemotor guard. andblade Toinstall thejig, slipthefence intotheslotbetween theauxiliary table andthetable spacer, thenposition the leftedge of thejig table against therightedge of thefence's cutout. Screw thetwo pieces of plywood together.

76

RADIAL ARM SAW

r) Making thefirstcut handle to the left L Rotut" thevoke to the then tilt themotor of thearm, side of A.l i g n t h ee n d s h o r i z o n tp ao l sition against the andplace them theworkpieces o f c u t ,e x t e n d f e n c eT . os e tt h e d e p t h theedge of theblade over theworkpieces piece Slip of stock. of one bythethickness astheblade thickness a shim thesame then clamp of theworkpieces, under one Next, to thefence. bothpieces of stock guard asmuch to cover adjust theblade le nd a sp o s s i ba o f t h ef r o n o t f t h eb l a d e to toward thecolumn theyoke back slide on Install a handscrew forobstructions. check yoke assoon asthe travel thearmto stop pass. With theyoke each blade completes tothesame raise theblade behind thefence, t u r no nt h es a w l e v ea l st h es h i mt,h e n thecut steadily through andpulltheyoke (right). to its place behind Return the yoke thefence and turnoffthemotor.

Handacrew

notches theremaining Q Cutting r-,1 and fingers raise cuts, For each of theremaining (page 59)by an amount the blade thethickness of the equal to twice your Pull handle with shrm, theyoke ourighh t and l e f th a n dl,e a v i nyg the cg rank toraise o nt h ee l e v a t i n to slide each cut;besure armafter before b e h i nt d h ef e n c e t h ey o k e in Continu et h i s r a i s i ntg h ea r m . and finmanner until allthenotches have been cut (/eft). sers

77

,,,..;i;1'ffi
'1{,i: qii

,'.j., I

ff1"
,"1".* -;
I : , "

BATDSAM
kickback cantowardthe operator, andwideor ease of operation Forthisreason, theband not occur. ranging utility thebandsawis for ripping sawis thetool of choice hard to beat.It is the only woodshort or narrowstock. workingmachine capable of making accordBandsaws areclassified and contourcuts.In both straight ingto theirthroatwidth-that is,the andripping, additionto crosscutting thebladeandthe distance between and it iswellsuitedfor cuttingcurves verticalcolumn,which supports to circles, enabling thewoodworker upperwheel.Band the machine's produceanythingfrom a dovetail joint to a cabriole for homeworkshoos fall in the saws leg. 10-to l4-inch range. Siwsarealso Both roughand detcatework fall to theirdepthcategorized according within its domain.Fittedwith a jig isan ideal whichcorresponds of-cutcapaciry Thisquarter-circle-cuning avail7z-inch blade-the widestsize the corners to the maximum gapbetween time-saver able for most consumer-grade for tabletops. for rounding tableandtheupperguideassembly Thejigpivots around afixedpoint,takingthe machines-a band sawcan resaw (overleaf). Althougha 4- to 6-inch guesswork arcs. out of cuttingperfect lumberinto two thin6-inch-thick depth of cut is typical for conpass. in a single And with ner pieces B0-Bloffers saws, thebandsawshown on pages througha board sumer-grade a %o-inch blade, a bandsawcanzigzagitsway that extends the verticalcolumn to a heightattachment evenmaking90o turnsduringa cut. at virtuallyanyangle, particularly provide a l2-inchdepthof cut-handy for resawing intimidateyou;theband But do not let thistool'sversatility you cantake But even with a standard machine, easy to use.Manycutscanbe madefree- thick stock. sawis surprisingly unsurpassed depth-of-cut capacity ofthe bandsaw's aroundthe blade. advantage handby simplypivotingthe workpiece jigspresented patterns pieces into several of wood in by cuttingidentical With thecuttingtechniques andshop-made Imaginethat you wantedto one on top of another. curves) stacked you will be ableto turn out intricate this chapter, plywood. of Vz-inch rip makethe samecurvedcut on 12pieces and produce uniformlysquare-edged cut perfect circles raise the With a bandsaw you wouldsimplystack thepieces, cutsandcrosscuts. and guideassembly so that 6 inches of the bladeis exposed ofthe band sawoverotherwoodOne other advantase pass. to theradial cut themin a single is itsielative safeness. Compared workingmachines In choosing look for onewith a sturdytablethat a bandsaw, sonoisearm sawor tablesaw, thebandsawis a quietmachine, In addiin onedirection 10"in theother. verylittle of the cantilt 45o andat least related fatigueis rarelya problem.Moreover, motor. a littlemorefor a 3/+-horsepower whileit is runtion, consider spending blade-usuallvonlv 7einch-is everexposed jobs,suchasresawing of stock, youwill Forcertain a thickpiece down nirrg.And sincethe cuttingactionof the bladebears pushing it against thetableinstead of back be sladto havethe extrapower. on theworkpiece,

its way along A %-inch band saw bladeweaves a curvedcuttingline,paring away a blockof mahogany to form a graceful cabrioleleg.

79

Wheelcover Frotects operator from wheeland blade; may be removableor hin4edto provide accega to whael

Tenaionhandle Kaisea and loweraupper wheel to adjuat blade tenaion Elade guard Frotecta operator from blade:moved up and down with quide aooembly

Wheel Rimmedby a rubber tire that cuahionsthe blade and keepa it from alippinq

Upper guide aaaembly Kaised and lowereddependin4on includeablade thickneaa of workpiece; 6uard, thruot bearinqand 7uide bloaks. )atacrewa releaae7uide blockofor Iateral a djuotm ent; th umbacrewa releasebearin7and blockaforfront-tomeano of adjuatback adjuatment b5r inq knoba.(A fixed quide aaeemblywith thruat bearingand 6uide blocks located under table inaert.) Miter gauge Guides workpiece acro66 table for cro69cut9 0r miter cut6

Throat aolumn 9upporta blade beiween wheels and protecta oper' ator from blade

Rip fence Ouides workpiece acro66 table for rip cuto, croaacuto

Table lock knob Allowa table to be tilted for bevelor compoundcuta: a oecond knob ia located on aite aide of

Table leveling pin Adjuatable to keepmifnr qauqeolot prvperlyaliqned

Table lneert Frevents wood from oieces fattin7 into tableand oupporte workpiece when cloaeto blade; uauAlly made of aluminum Duet epout Forduat collection ayatem

OnlOff ewltoh Can be padlockedin Off poaition for oafety

ANATOMYOFABANDSAW
a bandsaw suggests, I s thename A blade is a continuous steel band. fromroughly 72inches Varying in length of depending on thesize to 104inches rubtheblade runsaround themachine, through wheels andpasses ber-rimmed in thesaw table. Oneof the anopening thelowerone-is the wheels-typically whichisturned bya motor. drivewheel, is not fastened to thewheels Theblade andturns bytension butisheldin place pathat roughly its elliptical through perminute-theaverage cutfeet 3,000 for a l4-inchsaw. tingspeed of Theblade is kepttautby means andlowers handle. whichraises atension wheel. A tilt knobthatcants theupper wheel isused to keep theblade theupper iskept Theblade onthewheels. centered on its pathby thrustbearings steady and located behindthe bladeabove blocks, thetable, andby guide below which prevent lateral movement. freecutscanbemade Although some andmitergauge are hand,a rip fence with manymodels to guide available thetable. workpieces across

wide throat Thethree-wheel bandsaw's - typically20 inches, ratherthan capacity available on mosttwothe10to 14inches it moreconvenient wheelmodels-makes for workingwith particularly largeworkpieces.

81

SETTING UP
he band saw has a reputation amongsome woodworkers asa relativelyimprecise cutting tool. And yet bandsaws areroutinelyusedin industry to cut veryhardmaterials suchasmetal to very close tolerances.The fact remains, however, that thetool canonly be madeto cut straightedges and preif it is kept finely tuned. cisecurves The ideal is for the blade to cut producing squarely into the workpiece, a smooth,accurate result. But thepeculiaritiesof bandsawgeometry canmake this idealdifficult to achieve. After bending aroundthe machine's wheels at 35

perhour,a section miles of theblade must straighten outbythetimeit reachesthesaw table a splitsecond later. Forthisto happen, theadjustable parts of thesaw mustbekeptin proper alignmentso that the blade runs smoothlyand square to the table. Particular attention should bepaidto the wheels, theguide assembly andthesaw itself. table Totuneyourbandsaw, unplugit, install andtension theblade youplanto (page use followtheset-up 87)then steps pages. detailed onthefollowing lakethe timeto do it right.Adjusting theband

saw maybemore tlme-consummg than learning howto operate thetool.Butthe advantages of awell-tuned machine will benoticeable not onlyin thequality of theresults but in thelongevity of your blades and of the band saw itself. Misaligned wheels or poorlyadjusted guide bloclscan lead to premature blade wear or breakage. Installing nonmetallic guide bloclson a bandsaw canreduce wearandtear (page appreciably B3), but there is no substitute forgetting around theneed to check thrust guide bearings, blocks and wheels for proper alignment.

ALIGNING THE WHEELS


wheel alignment 1 Checking I Tomake certain thatthewheels areoarallel plane, to each other andin thesame vertical loosen thetablelock knobs andtilt thetable outof theway. Open both wheel covers andholda long straightedge against thewheel rimsasshown. Thestraightedge should restflushagainst the top andbottom of each wheel. lf thewheels areoutof alignment, try position to bring thetopwheel to a vertical by means of thetilt knob. lf thestraightedge stillwill youwill have notrest flush, to adjust the position of the upperwheel(step2).

r) Shifting wheel theupper 1 Movethe upper wheel in orouton its your axle followin tg h e i n s t r u c t i o in ns you owner's manual. Onthemodel shown, mustfirst remove the blade(page 87) andthewheel. Then shiftthewheel by either adding or removing oneor more (/efD. washers Reinstall thewheel and tighten theaxle nut.Install theblade andrecheck wheel alignment.

82

BAND SAW

ASSEMBTIES THE GUIDE ADJUSTING

bearings thethrust 1 Sefting guide by 85),thencheck assembly I Setthe upper @age lf blade. to the is square thrust bearing eye thatthe upper adjust theassembly setscrew, assembly ihe guide not,loosen and tighten the the blade, is square to sothatthe bearing the and turn thumbscrew loosen the bearing Then, setscrew. just the blade. touches the bearing knob until adjustment (above) thethumbandtighten off slightly Back the bearing (The located directly which is bearing, lower thrust screw. way.)To check the same is adjusted under thetableinsert, blade makes hand. lf the wheel by spinthe upper thesetting, recheck. slightly and bearing off the bearing spin,back either

r) Setting blocks theguide guide block loosen theguide blocks, L fo setthe upper your and thumb together using theblocks andpinch setscrews Alternatively, theblade. touch finger untiltheyalmost index and between theblocks setthespace usea slipof paperto Next, loosen thethumbscrew Iighten thesetscrews. theblade. of theguide edges knob until thefront and turntheadjustment (abovd. gullets Tighten the theblade blocks arejustbehind guide way. thesame blocks Setthe lower thumbscrew.

sistantguide blocles Heat-re supplied to replace themetalguideblocks Designed aremade nonmetallicblocks with mostsaws, from a dry resinthat contains a graphite-impregnated heatthan con' Because theybuild up less lubricant. varietylast guideblocks, thenonmetallic ventional protheycanalsobesetdoserto theblade, longer; In addicuts. and controlled motingmoreaccurate theblade and nonmetallic between tion,contact with asis common not dull theblade, blocks does theguideblock Toinstall,unscrew metalblocks. with and replace remove theold bloclcs setscrews, tightenthesetscrews. thenewblocks;

83

BAND SAW

SOUARING THE TABLE AND BLADE


'l Aligning thetable gauge I Toensure thatthemiter slot is properly aligned on both sides of the gauge table slot, setthe miter in itsslot andslide thegauge back andforth across thetable. Thegauge should slide freely pressure. withonlymoderate lf thegauge pliers binds, uselocking to remove the pin.Then, leveling insert thepinintoits hole anduse a ball-peen hammer to tap (left)unlilthe miter the pin deeper
oarrop clidcc froolv

r) Ghecking thetable angle position, L Wttn thetablein the horizontal remove the table insert, h e nb u t ta c o m b i n a t i s oq n u a ra eg a i n s th te s a wb l a d e a ss h o w n T . h es q u a rs eh o u l d fit flush against thesawblade. lf there is a gapbetween thetwo,loosen thetwotablelockknobs andmake sure thetableis seated properly onthetable stop under thetable. Tighten thelock knobs. lf thegapremains, adjust thetable stop(step 3).

Adjusting thetable stop Tiltthetable outof thewav, thenuse twowrenches as shown to adjust thetable stop. Use the lower wrench to hold thenutstationary andthe upper wrench to turnthetable stop: clockwise to lower it; counterclockwise to raise it. Recheck thetable angle.

84

SAFETY
to thetablesawor radial ompared f Iikea U arm sawthebandsawseems relativelysafemachine.There is no whine of a IVz-or 3-horseaggressive power motor turning a lO-inchsaw a thebandsawproduces blade;instead, liken woodworkers cuiethum that some And machine. tb the soundof a sewing with its bladeguardproperly set,no is exposed morethan% inchof theblade the table. above to betoo careful Still,it is impossible andthe machine with anywoodworking Bandsaw band sawis no exception. break,and when occasionally blades they do they tend to fly to the right of wherethe operatornormally stands' it is wiseto standslightlyto Therefore, the throat column side of the blade turn possible. If a bladesnaps, whenever offthe sawand do not openthewheel to installa new bladeuntil the covers completely. havestopped wheels Althoughthebladeguardadequately the bladeabovethe table,there covers guard at the level of the table no is it. As a result,you need or underneath out ofthe holecovyour hands to keep insert and refrain table the ered by the tableto clear under reaching from debrisfrom the bladebeforethe blade hascometo a stop. that occurwith Mostof theaccidents feed thebandsawarea resultofexcessive Feed a pressure andpoor handposition. into the blade,but steadily workpiece othwith a minimal amountof pressure' For mayjam andbreak. theblade erwise with one mostcuts,feedthe workpiece hand,usingthe otherhand to guideit. Keepyour fingersout of line with the of thefeedhand Hook thefingers blade. to preofthe workpiece aroundan edge vent them from slippinginto the blade the cuttingarea. asyour hand nears

SAW BAND THE WITH SAFELY CUTTING


TIPS SAFETY BAI{D SAW
o Except a blade, when changing covers closed. thewheel keep always r Make aresharp, blades thatsaw sure Disconnect andundamaged. clean a blade, changing thesawbefore o Stand to the leftof the slightly at thefrontof the when cutting blade or allow saw table.Donotstand, band to the rightof to stand, anyone else in Thisis thedirection theblade. willfly if it breaks. which theblade o Donotcut untiltheblade isturning at fullspeed. . Keep yourhands fromthe away a Push is on.Use when thesaw blade or nanow stickor a jig to cut small oieces. r Avoid thataretootight making turns youareusing. This can fortheblade theblade. break . Cutwiththe blade guard no more theworkPiece. than% inchabove r Before outof a cut,turn backing off the saw.

guard guide blade and assembly theupper Setting guide 7ainch assembly a cut,settheupper to begin onthesaw turning Before and in position assembly theguide to hold Use onehand theworkpiece. above Alternatively, lockknobbbove). assembly theguide hand to tighten theother the lock thentighten up slightly, assembly theguide to lever usetheworkpiece notonly aspossible to theworkpiece asclose assembly theguide knob. Setting blade supportsthe it also is running; when thesaw protectsyou from theblade deflection. blade excessive minimizing asit cuts,

85

BAND SAWBLADES
mill band saws regularly use T umber I-r blades aswideasl2 inches to cut logsinto boards. Blades for consumergrade saws aremuchsmaller-generally ranging fromrAe toVzinchwide. But even withinthisrelatively narrow spectrum,choosing thebest blade forthejob isnotalways straightforward. There isno single all-purpose combination blade in bandsawing, nor anyblade specifically designed for rippingor crosscutting. However, a woodworker should keep threebasic variables in mind: tooth design, blade widthandblade set. Asillustrated atright,band sawblades for cuttingwoodareavailable in three basic toothdesigns; each design does something better thantheothers. The chartbelow shows theimportance of selecting ablade of appropriate widthfor cutting curves. In general, narrowblades areused for cuts with intricate curves, whilewideblades ideal are for resawinq thickstock. Blade setrefers to how muchthe blade teeth are angled to theside, making a saw cut-or kerf-that is widerthan theblade. Thisreduces thechance of the bladebinding in acut. Abladewith minimalset, called alightset produces blade, a smooth cutanda narrow kerf,but is prone also more to binding, whichlimits itsabilityto cutatightcurve. A heavy set blade-onewith greater set-cutsfaster thanalightsetblade, andisless likelyto bind dueto its widerkerf.However, a heavy setblade leaves more visible corrugated marlain thecutedge of awork"washboarding." piece, aneffect called There areenough stresses on a band sawblade underthebestof circumstances without addingto them by improper operation of the machine. Some of themanyavoidable causes of blade breakage include forcing a blade around a curve thatis too tight for its width,improper adjustment of theblade guides, excessive feed speed or pressure, dullblade teeth, excessive blade tension, insufficient toothsetandrunningthe blade for extended periods without cut(page ting.Tension andtrack ablade 88) immediately after youinstall it. Incorrect tension canshorten thelifeofa blade. Thetypical band saw blade has aloop lengthof several feet.To reduce the amount of storage space, foldtheblade intothree loops asshown on page 87. Clean aband sawblade regularlyto keep it from gumming up with resins and pitch.Use a wireor stiff-bristled brush dipped in solvent such asturpentine, ovencleaner or an ammonia-based cleaner. Before storing a blade or for removing rust,wipetheblade with an oilyrag.Forrust,use steel wool. BTADE WPES

?tandard Elade For atrai6ht cuts acroas the qrain or dia1onalto the qrain. ldeal for intricate curveo or cute whenthe oriantation of the bladeto the qrain chan4eo durina the cut,

5kip-tooth tslade 9o called becauseeveryother tooth ia miaeing.For lon7, qentle curvea with the qrain. Cuts fasten but more roulhly, than a standard blade.A1/+inch ekip-toobh blade with 4 to 6 teeth per inch ie a gooa all-purpoae blade.

Hook-tooth Elade For atraight cuta and curvea with the grain; the best blade for rippinq or reaawing.

1/a"blade (1/a"radiuo)

Whenchoosing a bandsawblade for a contour cut,consider thetightest curve that theblade will turn. (Jse thechart at left asa roughguide.In general,the narrowertheblade,the tighterthecurve, giventhesame blade set.But because wider blades resist unwanted deflection, a narrow bladeis not alwaysthe best choice cut.A goodruleof for a curved thumbis to usethewidestblade for the tightest curverequired. Thelimitations on a blade's turningcapacity cannotbe ignored. Forcing a blade arounda corner that is tootight will cause it to bind in thekerf,twistand,ultimately, snap.

86

BAND SAW

BLADE A SAW CHANGING


theoldblade 1 Removing guide to its assembly theupper I Raise (page andlockitin place setting highest andguide bearings thethrust 85).Back 83). fromthe blade(page away blocks anduselocktng insert thetable Remove pin. pliers thetableleveling to remove counterclockwise handle Turn thetension thenopen tension, theblade to release goggles, safety Wearing covers. thewheel outof theguide slide theblade carefully (lefil,lhen slipit offthewheels assemblies slot. thetable it through andguide

blade thenew Installing it careuncoil is coiled, lf theblade a considerstore blades Band saw fully. safety Wearing of spring. ableamount at holdthe blade goggles andgloves, andturnyour in onehand length arm's the Guide uncoils. astheblade face away thetableslotasshown, through blade youand factng it withtheteeth holding between pointing Sliptheblade down. column andin thethroat blocks theguide Install it onthewheels. center then slot, Tension pinand insert. table theIeveling (page 88). the blade andtrack

FOR STORAGE A BTAOE FOTDING grasp the goggles andgloves, safety Wearing you; from away facing teeth with the blade point yourleftthumbup andyourright (l). Then, pressin go u r down thumb Y b l a de, t h e a g a i n s t f r r m l y r i g h tt h u m b your pivoting hand right blade by the twist two to form willbegin Theblade upward. pausing the releasing or Without loops Q). direction in the same it rotating keep blade, pivoting your in theopposite lefthand while forming a coil again, will The blade direction. (3). string, using blade the Secure thirdloop pipe twistties. or plastic cleaners

87

BAND SAW

TENSIONING AND TRACKING A BLADE


a blade 1 Tensioning I Turn thetension handle clockwise withonehand to raise thetopwheel and increase tension ontheblade; deflect the blade from side to side with theother hand to gauge thetension. Spin theupper wheel byhand andgauge thetension at several points along theblade. Increase thetension(lefiluntiltheblade deflects about % inch to either side of thevertical position.Avoid overtensioning a blade; this canlead to premature blade wear and breakage. Undertensioning a blade will allow it to wander back andforth and side to side as it cuts.

"fit-lfllltf tlf llt-fli'


r) Tracking a btade guide I Lower the upper assembly, thenspin theupper wheel by hand to check whether theblade is tracking in thecenter of thewheel. lf it is not,loosen thetilt knob lock screw. Then, spinthewheel with o n eh a n d while turnint gh et i l t (above)to knob withtheother hand angle thewheel untiltheblade tracks in thecenter. Tocheck the tracking, close thewheel covers andturnon thesaw, thenturnit off;adjust thetracking, if necessary. Setthethrust bearrngs and (page guideblocks 83).

5HO?TI?
Roundingablade To helpprevent, a newband saw bladefrom bindina in Lhe kefi of a curvedcul, ueea siliconcarbideelone without oil No roundile backedqe. Gluethe slone ontn a ohop-madehandle.Ieneion and t rackthe blade, Ihen turn on the saw. Wearing eafety 6oqqlee, hold the etnneagainoLNhe aaainsLNhe backof 'lhe bladeand elowly pivotthe the otone. pivol otont Turnoff the eawafAera few minutee,ln additionlo rounain6the blade, the etone willgmoothany bumVe whereLhe bladeends are welded toaether,

88

CUTTINGCURVES
l\ f uch of the curved wood that is cut frrrniture lVl sru..r well-made virwhichcanproduce on theiand saw, tuallv anv contour.As shown in the pageithat follow,you cut curvesin a along freehand by sawing varietyof ways: a cuttingline, by makinguseof a pattern jigs. (page on shop-built 90)or by relying of the curve,the Whatever the shape is in contour-cutting challenge biggest wheretheworkpiece avoidingdeadends, theendof hits thethroatcolumnbefore youhave to veer a cut.Whenthisoccurs, offthe cuttingline andsawto the edge or turn offthe sawand of theworkpiece, backthe bladeout of the cut. In either you mustchoose a new starting case, point for the cut. The keyto avoiding the cut before suchpitfallsis to visualize the best vou makeit so you canselect itarting point. If a deadend seems markcuttinglineson both unavoidable, Occasionally, sidesof the workpiece. starting a cut on onesideof a workpiece and finishingit on the otheris the only wayto makea cut. On many contour cuts,making a "release" cutsthrough series of straight belowwill great asillustrated waste areas Ifbacktracking ly facilitate theprocedure. try to start out ofa cut is unavoidable, with shortercutsandbackout of these, with the longer ratherthan beginning drill a tight curves, cuts.Forparticularly and then cut holeat the tightestcurves to theholealongthe markedcuttingline. of the band One of the peculiarities sawis that its bladewill readilyfollow a Using abandsawanda -cutting - made circle shop jiglike theoneshown on page93,a woodworker cut thetop of this Shaker-style table.Thetable's produced legs werealso saw. on theband the markedline when cutting across grain,but will tendto veeroffwhen followingthegrain. For greatercontrol and accuracy, starta curvewith a cut that runs across the grain rather than with it. When enteringa curvefrom a straightcut, feedspeed slightly remember to reduce precision. to helpensure

FREEHAND A CURVE CUTTING

cut starting thecurved release cuts and 1 Making in thekerf of a curved frombinding I Tokeep the blade of theedge release cutsfrom of straight a series cut,make location of the line. Theexact to thecutting theworkpiece parts of themto thetightest buttryto make cutsis arbitrary, theblade thecurved cut,align Tostart asshown. thecurve, justto thewaste line.Feed theworkpiece side of thecutting guiding your it while right hand, using into theblade steadily (above). hand is Make sure thatneither withyourlefthand in line withtheblade.

r) Finishing thecut parts pivot theworkpiece of thecurve, tightest L fo cutthe yourhand position For the asnecessary. shifting onthetable, portion of thecutting saw to theendof thecurved cutshown, withyour Pivot theworkpiece withyour lefthand. line, feeding line veer offthecutting twisting theblade; right hand to avoid of your Keep twofingers to a release cut,if necessary. andsaw of the control thetable to maintain hand braced against right andcut along the around Turn theworkpiece cut(abovd. portion line. of thecutting straight

89

BAND SAW

MAKING MULTIPLE CURVED CUTS

upthefence andstarting thecut 1 Setting pieces I Toproduce multiple curved withthesame width froma single work(page piece, cutthefirstcurve freehand 89).Ihen, make a T-shaped single-point fence witha rounded nose at the base of theT.Cuta notch in thebase sothatthe (Note: guide assembly canbelowered to theworkpiece. Inthisillustration, theguide assembly is raised forclarity.) Install theripfence andscrew thesingle-point fence parallelto to it withthetip of thebase theblade. Position theripfence forthewidth of cut.Tostart each cut,butttheworkpiece against thetip of thesingle-point fence (above). andfeedit intotheblade using bothhands Keep theworkpiece square to thetip of thesingle-point fence andensure thatneither hand is in line withtheblade.

r) Finishing thecut L estnetrailing endof theworkpiece nears thetip of thesingle-point fence, s h i f ty o u rl e f th a n d t o t h eb a c k of t h et a b l e tosuppor th t ec u t p i e c e . your Brace leftarmonthefence and hook twofingers over theedge of the your table to keep arm clear of theblade Continue feeding withyour hbove). righh t and u n t it l h ec u t i s c o m p l e t e d .

PATTERN SAWING
upa double-point fence 1 Setting pattern I Tocutthesame curved from different workpieces, cutthefirstpiece (page freehand 89);then,useit asa template pieces. to cut theother Prepare a double-point fence witha shallow notch a t t h ee n df o rt h e b l a d e a n da d e e o e r notch below fortheworkpiece to slide under it. Screw thefence to an L-shaoed support board thathugs theside of the t a b l et,h e nc l a m p t h es u p p o r bto a r d to thetable, making sure theblade f its intotheendnotch of thefence. Use strips of double-sided tapeasshown to fasten workpiece each to thetemplate, ensuring thatthestraight edges of the boards are aligned. Trim theworkpiece if necessary to prevent it fromhitting thefence when youmake ihe cut.

90

BAND SAW

r) Lining thecut upandstarting so andworkpiece L Nign thetemplate to is parallel of thetemplate thattheedge To begin the cut, use the blade(righil. yourlefthand into to feedtheworkpiece cutting, begins Once theblade theblade. pressure righthand withyour apply slight the squarely against thetemplate to press Keep the fence. endof thedouble-point of withbothpoints in contact template thecut. throughout thefence

thecut Q Completing Iefthand withyour r-J Continue feeding your hand to keep the while using right bothpoints of f lushagainst template should Ihetemplate the fence(left); cuts thefence astheblade ride along youhave Once through theworkpiece. f i n i s h etd h ec u t ,p r yt h ew o r k p i e c e apart. andtemplate

9l

BAND SAW

ROU N D IC NO GRN E R S
jig upa quarter-circle-cutting 1 Setting plywood I Cuta sheet of %-inch slightly larger than thesaw table, then feed it into theblade to cuta kerf from themidd l eo f o n es i d e t o t h ec e n t e r C .lamo the nsa n a u x i l i a t s h e e itn p o s i t i oa ra yble. Align a carpenter's withtheback square gullets oftheblade andmark a line onthe lar a u x i l i atra yb l e t h a ti s p e r p e n d i c u to point . Then, thekerf mark a pivot onthe table thesame distance from theblade you astheradius of therounded corners planto cut (right). plywood Cutanother sheet asa jig base andmark a square at one corner, withsides thesame length as the radius of therounded corners. Bore a (the hole fora screw atthemarked corner "pivot point" spotmarked on the inset guides illustration). Screw to adjacent edges of thejig base, thenscrew thejig base to theauxiliary table, centering the screw hole over the pivotpoint.Leave the screw loose enough to pivot thejig onthetable. Round themarked corner of (insef). thejig bypivoting it intotheblade

r-) Rounding a corner L fo round thecorner of a workpiece, turnoffthesaw andseat theworkpiece against theguides of thejig.Turn on thesaw, thenuseyourrighthand to pivot thejig,feeding theworkpiece your into theblade; lefthand should hold theworkpiece snugly against the guides. Round each corner of a workpiece the same way(lefil.

92

BAND SAW

IIG CIRCLE.CUTTIT{G perfect circles, use a shopFor cutting jig custom-made for builtcircle-cutting your Refer to theillustration band saw. at rightfor suggested dimensions. R o u ta 7 a - i n c h - d e e dovetail in o f t h ej i g channe l t h em i d d l e sawto rip base, thenusea table witha bevel along two a thin board edges to produce a barthat slides (Setthe in the channel. smoothly bevel angle bymeasuring sawblade Cut edges.) theangle of thechannel saw, then outthe notch onthe band arms to the underscrew the support spacing them sideof thejig base, of farenough apart to hugthesides when thejig is sawtable the band placed holes on it. Bore twoscrew the bottom through of the dovetail in thejig base 1 inch and'3 channel fromthe unnotched end;also inches intothe barasshown. bore twoholes for circleToprepare a workpiece and cutting, mark thecircumference youplanto cut of the circle center (farright).Then, on its underside sawto cut off the four usethe band

Jiq baee 3/+"x20"x24"

NoLch 3/+" x 7"

Dovetailchannel 3/a" x3/+" x24"

it of theworkpiece to keep corners fromhitting theclamps thatsecure astheworkpiece thejig to thetable pivots. Make a release cut fromthe to the marked edge of theworkpiece off to the circumference, thenveer over and Turn theworkpiece edge, pointwhere the mark the contact the circumference. blade touched sideof the Screw the narrow of theworkpiece barto the center

Contact

Cornercuta

Do through oneof the bar'sholes. it loose nottighten leave thescrew; theworkpiece. Then, enough to pivot and slide the barintothechannel pivot theworkpiece untilthe marked pointis butted against contact the blade. Screw through oneof the to secure holesin the jig base barto thebase. thepivot Tousethe jig, pivot theworkpiece (left), feeding withyour intothe blade guiding withyourleft righthand and hand untilthecut is comoleted.

93

STRAIGHT CUTS

llfi llll-ffi lll llll'llll ll|l llllllll1ll llllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll w:'kf.T*?iil:#,ffi:*:


machines, thebandsawis theidealshop Whereas tool for resawing. a 10-inch wouldtaketwo Dasses tablesaw to resaw l4-inch a 6-inch-wide board, a standard band sawcan makethe samecut in a pass. single Because is relatively thebandsawblade thin, it produces anarrower kerf-and les waste-than is possible with a tableor radialarmsawResawing canbedonefreehand,but for moreprecision, usea pivot (page blockanda featherboard 96).The isalso for riobandsaw anexcellent choice (page pingnarrowor round stock 95). Because the thin, flexibleband saw bladehasa naturaltendency to pulse backand forth and swayfrom sideto asit cuts,you will sideimperceptibly needto keepyour machinecarefully tunedto getsmoothandaccurate cuts. Withoutsuchfastidious maintenance, crosscutting andrippingwill beimprecise. Bandsaw blades alsohave a tendency "lead," to or veerawayfrom a straight lineduringa cut.Thiseffect canbeminimizedby reducing feedspeed andusing sharpblades that areproperlytensioned and tracked(pageBB). Although more pronouncedwith narrower leadis genblades, some blade However, erallyunavoidable. theleadof is usually a particular blade constant and predictable, so you can usuallyangle your rip fence to compensate for it. Crosscutting is a safeprocedure on thebandsaw. But remember, oneof the shortcomings of this machine is that crosscutting islimited by thewidth of the 10to 14inches throat: typically on a twowheelconsumer-grade tool.

9HO7Tt?
Compenoaling for blade lead Tosetlhe anqle of Ihe riofence and enaure I acc uraf,e,obr aiqhl culo whenuoinqLherip fenceae a 7uide, adjueLNhepooition of lhe fenceon |he eawtable for eachbladein lhe shoo.Mark a cuttinq lineon a boardthat is parallel Io ite edqe. Then, cut haltway alonqthe linefreehand. Youmay have Io angle the boardeliqhLly to keep Ihe bladeon Ihe line; Lhisis lhe resull of bladelead.Marka lineon Ihe Lablealonq the edqeof the board.Align Ihe riVfenceparallel wiLhthielinewhenever ueinqNhe eameblade.

RIPPING

Ripping a board Position theripfence forthewidth of cut,adjusting itsangle to compensate for blade lead. Butt theworkpiece against thefence andfeedit steadily into theblade (above). proper withthethumbs Tomaintain of bothhands control of thecut,stradwiththefingers dlethefence of your lefthand andkeep fingers three of your right hand braced onthetable. Make sure thatneither hand is in line withtheblade.

94

BAND SAW

2"x2"x14"

A SHOP-MADE RIP FENCE Like a commercial fence, theripfence to comshown at leftcanbeadjusted pensate for blade lead. First, fasten a fence with wooden to a support board a boltandwingnut.Theboard should restflushagainst thefrontedge of the saw table. Ensure thatthefence will pivot when thewingnutis loosened. Tousethefence, firstmark a line onthetableforthe blade lead(page in posi94).Hold thesuppod board tion,thenloosen thewingnutto pivot thefence andalignitsedge withthe marked line. Tighten thewingnut, thenclamp thefence in place. Feed using short or narrow stock, asshown, a push stick.

Ripping a cylinder Ripa cylinder using a shop-made V-block jig.First, make of thejig theV section (page 98)a 2-by-2 diagobybevel cutting nally. Then, sidescrew thetwocutpieces wood by-side to a base of solid or 3/q-inch plywood to forma V.Toprovide clearance fortheblade when using thejig,make a cut halfway across thecenter of theV andthebase. Tomake theblade through theripcut,slip t h ec l e a r a n c e u t ,t h e nc l a m p t h ej i g Feed thecylinder intothe to thetable. blade using thethumbs of bothhands (left).Keep yourfingers away fromthe blade. For a cylinder thatistoonarrow to becutthrough from thefront of thetable your without endangering thumbs, stop feeding midway through thecut.Then, move to theback of thetable to oullthe past cylinder theblade.

95

BAND SAW

RESAWING
featherboard Using a pivot block and make I Toresaw a board, a pivot block perpenfromtwopieces of wood loined piece dicularly, withtheshorter trimmed toform a r o u n d en do s el.n s t a t l lh er i o fence andscrew theoivot block to it so d i t ht h e t h a tt h er o u n d e td i p i s a l i g n ew (inset). Position for blade theripfence itsangle thewidth of cutandadjust to compensate for blade lead(page 94). Tostart thecut,feed theworkpiece into theblade using thethumbs of both hands; your use fingers to keep theworkpiece flush against thetip of thepivot block. A fewinches into feeding thecut,stop andturnoff thesaw. Clamp a featherpropping board to thetable, it ona wood scrap to support themiddle of theworkpiece. Turn onthesaw and continue the fingers reach cuI1efil untilyour the featherboard. 'l

r) Gompleting thecut Z- Wttn m , ove t h es a ws t i l lr u n n i n g o f t h et a b l e tofinish the t o t h eb a c k c u t .U s eo n eh a n d to keep t h ew o r k piece t lock s q u a ra eg a i n s th t ep i v o b pulling while i t p a stth eb l a d w e ith the otherhand(right),

96

BAND SAW

CROSSCUTTING
Using theripfence asa guide Position forthelength theripfence of itsangle cut,adjusting to compensate for blade lead(page 94). ButItheedge of theworkpiece against thefence and withthethumbs feed it into theblade (left). Tomaintain conof bothhands trolof thecut,straddle thefence with of your lefthand while keepthef ingers ingthefingers of your right hand braced Besure on thefaceof theworkoiece. neither hand is in line with that theblade.

gauge Using themiter asa guide thatthe Use a caroenter's souare to ensure gauge miter is perpendicular totheblade. Mark line ontheleading edge of a cutting Holding theworkpiece flush theworkpiece. align thecutting line with against thegauge, With of your right hand theblade. thethumb gauge, hold theworkhooked over themiter piece and thesaw f irmly against thegauge your table; use lefthand to push them togetherto feed theworkpiece into theblade tighil. (Note: lead Donottryto compensate forblade gauge forcrosscutting.) when using themiter a cylinder Crosscutting Tocrosscut make a V-block asdescribed on page a cylinder, against 95 butomitting theclearance cut.Butt theV-block slotonthebase theblade andmark thecenter of themiter of theV-block. Screw a narrow strioof wood to the bottom of withthe theV-block to serve asa miter bar, aligning thescrews fromscratchcenter mark; countersink thescrews to keep them i n gt h es a w table when usint gh eV - b l o cG k .l u e a sandpaper edges of theV-block to keep theworkpiece strip to theinside from during thecut.Insert themiter barinto themiter slipping theworkpiece in theV-block sothatit overhangs slotandseat byanamount equal to thewidth of cut. theedge of theV-block your ight hand f ie rmly i nt h e Using to hold t h ew o r k p i e c push (lefil. V-block, it intotheblade

Miter bar 5 l a "x 3 / + " x12"

97

ANGLEANDTAPERCUTS
'f) mitergauge y setting thebandsaw's l)at an angle or tilting the sawtable you canmakeprecise angle cuts,suchas andtapers. Fora mitercut, miters, bevels to setthemiter gauge usea slidingbevel to the desiredangle-the gaugecan beturneduo to 90"-and thenmakethe crosscut cut asyou would a standard (page97).For bestresults, makea test cut, checkthe angleof the cut edge with a square andadjust themitergauge setting, ifnecessary. For a bevelcut, tilt the tableto the tilt up to desired angle-band sawtables 45o to theright and 10o to theleft-and, for a cut alongthe grain,installthe rip fence on therighrhandside of theblade. Thiswill positiontheworkpiece on the "downhill" sideof the blade,keeping theworkpiece-andyour hands-from cut. slippingtowardthebladefor a safer For moreaccurate cuts,adjustthe angle for blade of the rip fence to compensate Iead(page 94} Then,cut thebevelasyou rip cut. The simple would a standard setuDs shownbelowcanbe usefulfor makingmultiple miter and bevelcuts. Thper cutscanbemadefreehand, but pieces, for several identical usinga jig (page uniform results. 99)guarantees

ANGLE MAKING REPEAT CUTS

Mitering both ends of a board gauge to the Loosen of themiter andsetthegauge thehandle asanextenangle. Then, screw a board to thegauge desired a blade. Glue sion andcutofftheendto theleftof thesaw to minimize thechance of sandpaper strip to theextension asa slipping during a cut.Use theextension theworkpiece's guide thenmake themiter cutonone to cutthefirstmiter, Tocutthesecond miter, mark a cutting endof a stopblock. Holding theworklineontheleading edge of theworkpiece. piece gauge, align thecutting line with flush against themiter against theendof theworktheblade andbuttthestop block piece. to theextension, Clamp thestopblock andworkpiece gauge right hand over themiier thenhook thethumb of your to hold theworkpiece firmly against thegauge andthetable. (abovd. yourlefthand intotheblade to feed theworkpiece Use

Cutting bevels Loosen thetable lockknobs andsetthesaw table to the gauge desired angle. Screw a board to themiter asanextension andcutofftheendof it. Use theextension asa guide mark to cutthefirstbevel. Tocutthesecond bevel, a cutting line ontheleading edge of theworkpiece. Then, holding the gauge, workpiece f lush against the miter align thecutting linewiththeblade against theendof andbutta stopblock thestopblock to theextension, then theworkpiece. Clamp gauge right hand to hook thethumb of your over themiter f irmly hold theworkpiece against thegauge and thetable. your gauge lefthand Use to push themiter andworkpiece together through thecut (above).

98

BAND SAW

TAPER CUTS MAKING


jig taper a commercial Using of the the right rip fence to Install the j i g f l ush t a p e r h o l d t h e b l a d et,h e n arm Pivot the hinged fence. the against jig indicates scale the taper of the until or inches degrees angle-in thecutting perfoot. line on theleada cuttrng Mark seatit workprece, then of the ingedge hinged arm. and stop against thework line cutting so that the thefence Position with the saw is aligned ontheworkpiece of thefence theangle thenadjust blade, (page 94). lead for blade to compensate both thumbs of the Tomake thecut,use and the to slide theworkpiece hands j i g a sa u n i ta c r o sts h et a b l ef,e e d i n g (left). the Use intotheblade theworkpiece your hold the worklefthand to fingers of piece thatneithejig,ensuring against w i t ht h eb l a d e . isin line t h e rh a n d

TAPER JIG then taper ontheworkpiece, a linewiththedesired Mark place square witha perfectly on a board the workpiece edge. linewiththe board's the marked edge, aligning to markan of ihe workpiece the longedge Trace along thecutting Saw along lineontheboard. angled cutting fromtheendof thecut 2 inches stopping linefreehand, 90" to cut out Turn the board of the board. at the bottom asa jig,setupthe rip fence the lip.Tousethe board against the thejig flush thenhold of theblade, to theright jig's lip withthesawblade of the fence. Align theedge to its angle in position, adjusting thefence and lock theworkpiece 94. Seat for blade lead@age compensate the to slide of bothhands thethumbs against thejig.Use feeding thetable, andthejig asa unitacross workpiece of yourleft thefingers intothe blade. Use theworkpiece that thejig,ensuring against theworkpiece hand to hold withtheblade. hand is in line neither

99

PIECES CUTTINGDUPLICATE
methodfor producing I n effective A multiple is copies of thesame shape layers andcut to fasten ofstocktogether with a techthepieces in oneoperation niqueknownasstack sawing. Not only is it faster thancuttingall thepieces seppiece is arately; it alsoensures that each a precise copyofthe originalpattern. The methodis possible because of theband to cut throughvery saw's uniquecapacity thickwood.With a 6-inchdeothof cut a cancut*rou$ asmany asei$t bandsaw pieces in a single pass. of %-inchplywood Tobond thelayers of woodtogether in preparation for thecut,some woodworkers drivenailsthroughthe waste area; others useclamps. Bothmethods, however, canbe hazardous ifthe blade accidentally strikes a nail or a clamp. A wayis to usedouble-sided safer tapeto hold thepieces together temporarily. A stopblockon thesawtable will also save time when you are crosscutting repeatedly pieces. to turn out duplicate With the setupshownbelow, you can speed thejob of cuttinga cylinder into identical slices.

TWO FOR DUPLICATE PIECES SETUPS

Stack sawing Fasten in a stack, thepieces together thenmark a cutting line onthetoppiece. Before turning onthesaw, make sure thatthe blade is perfectly square withthesaw table(page 84);any error will becompounded fromthetopto the bottomof thestack. Tocutthestack, firstmake anynecessary release culs(page 89. For thecurve shown, align theblade justto thewaste side of thecutting line, thenuse thethumbs ofboth h a n dt so f e e d t h es t a c k s t e a d i la yl o n g t h em a r k e d palh (above). your Keep fingers ontheedges of thestack and braced onthetable to keep them safely away from theblade.

Using a stop block Make a V-block witha miter barasyouwould to crosscut (page pieces, a cylinder 97).Toproduce several identical insert theV-block miter barintothemiter slotandclamo a stop block to thetable sothatthedistance between thestop block a n dt h eb l a d e q u a lts h ed e s i r ec du t - o flfe n g t h F .or each cut,seat theworkpiece in theV-block andbuttit against your thestop block. Using right to hold theworkpiece firmly push in theV-block, themtogether to feedtheworkpiece intothe blade hbove).

r00

BAND SAW

BAND SAWTOINERY
the of finecraftsmanship, I hallmark joint iscommonly used by A dovetail corners of to join together cabinetmakers The andcasework. drawers better-quality pinsandtailsprointerlocking dovetail's vide a joint that is not only strongand aswell. durablebut visuallypleasing joints on the band Cuttingdovetail overusingeither sawoffersadvantages handtoolsor otherpowertools.Forall ofhandthe artistryand uniqueness approach dovetails, thehand-tool crafted process. And whilea router is a laborious will makequickwork of thejob, it often on the band saw Cutting dovetails andprecispeed offerspower-tool-qpe show it sion.And asthefollowingpages joint on the is possible to tailora dovetail band sawwith the sameflexibility you joint. mightbringto a handmade is straightofoperations Thesequence of pins First,outlinethepattern forward: on oneendofa pin board.Then,usea simplesetupto cut all the pins on both ends ofeach oin boardoneafteranother. out, you can Oncethe *aite is chiseled for usethe finishedpieceasa template outlinins the tailson the tail boards.

joint Dovetail produces pinsandtailsthat areuniform is a strong Theresult in size andspacing. joint but onelackingin character.

JOINT A D()VETAIL MAKING


Shoulderline

thepins 1 Marking th ge f o rt h e1 o i n f h ep i n s I O u t l i nte to , llowin mark at left.First, in thediagram shown sequence w i t ha b i gX . workpiec e ace ofeach t h eo u t s i dfe gauge of thestock to thethickness Then, seta cutting o f t h ew o r k h ee n d s a n ds c r i b e a l i n ea l l a r o u ntd Next, of thepins. pieces lines theshoulder to mark onanendof thepins to outline a dovetail square use edge; at each withhalf-pins starting oneworkpiece, youwant to beon the sides of the pins thenarrow Outline theremaining faceof theworkpiece. outside pins(above), withan X as sections thewaste marking guidelines forspacing yougoalong. There arenorigid joint, fairly eventhem butspacing thepins of a dovetail joint. for a strong andattractive makes ly,asshown,

101

BAND SAW

r2) Setting upthetable and firstcut L nakingthe pinwiththesaw Cutoneedge of each Toset table tilteddownward to theright. loosen knobs and upthetable, the lock setthetable angle to match theedge of (lnsefl, thedovetail square thentighten the l o c kk n o b sS . e tu p t h e r i pf e n c e and L-shaped auxiliary fence screw a wooden withtheworkpiece onthesaw to it. Then, table outside-face up,align themarked of thefirst linefortheright-hand edge w half-oi ni t ht h es a wb l a d eB . u t tt h e To auxiliary fence against theworkpiece. make thecut,feed theworkpiece into t h et h u m b s of both t h eb l a d e using (left);press hands the workpiece flush fence withyour left against theauxiliary hand thefence withyour andstraddle righthand. Stop thecutandturnoffthe reaches saw when theblade theshoulder line onthefaceof theworkoiece.

forrepeat cuts a stop block Q Using butted against the \,, Withthe blade shoulder line, hold a stop block against theworkoiece andscrew it to theauxil(ilgh).fo cuttheright-hand iary fence at theother end edge of thefirsthalf-pin rotate theworkpiece of theworkpiece, hold it flush agains th t ea u x i l 180'and iaryfence. Then, make thecutthesame youcut thefirsthalf-pin, stopping way when theworkpiece touches thestop block. Rotate theworkpiece 180' again, line for align theblade with themarked pin, ed dge o f t h en e x t t h er i g h t - h a n fence against theworkbutttheauxiliary piece block. Continue, andcutto thestop of theripfence asnecshifting theposition edge of essary andcutting theright-hand pinonboth each ends of theworkpiece.

r02

BAND SAW

left-hand edges thepins' ,{ Cutting 't pin of each edge Cuttheleft-hand to theleft. tilted downward withthetable square to setthetable Use thedovetail stop, if necesremove thetable angle; to theleftof the sary. Install theripfence fence to it. theauxiliary blade andscrew edges of theptns Then, cuttheleft-hand wayyoucut the right-hand thesame to remove the Next, usea chisel edges. Withtheworkthe pins. waste between piece surface, upona work outside-face to mallet witha wooden strike thechisel justto the waste thewood cut through Then, hold the line. of theshoulder side square to theendof theworkpiece chisel in thin waste section to splitoff each one-half of each Remove about layers. to over section, thenturntheworkpiece pare . Finally, the half remove theother withthechisel. edges of thepins

thetails f, outlining surface. down ona work outside-face r.,l Setthetail board with onthetailboard end-down holding thepinboard Then, align the pins fromthetail board, faceaway itsoutside mark theouta pencilto Use withtheendof thetail board. (above),lhen tail board of each lineof thetailsontheends pieces. mark thewaste

thetails 1i cutting position to cutoutthe to thehorizontal Return thetable L.l thehalttails beside Cutthewaste waste between thetails. intersecting cuts.For with two workpiece edges of the at the pivwith blade, waste the nibble at the between tails, waste into the to avoid cutting as necessary the workpiece oting joint (above). necessary make any and Test{it the tails witha chisel. adiustments

103

DruLLPRESS
r,r shops, woodworking

ii'taiirl|'.ssa]sod.-,esdut''as.a..@,Somemachinest911u'..i{ol *na.i*d.ortiserandyetJespite I
ItSvervll*rrr'-tlt1i.\c5xPLrl[\'als\t I L

E-I f rerativervinexpeneive*#il"'#"'$: E E ''il a thismachine consider

L-

7-

sitionforthewoodworkerwithlirnof ol a range primarilytobore andtwo.belts,.providing isused thedrill press Although it J rpu.. undbudget. in all. 12 speeds perform woohuorking other ako can holes, it the that"distinguishes feature One according arerated Drill.presses surfaces. curved ai sanding such tasl<s, drill fres fromotherwo|dworking of the center from o the distance variabiliti .*[in.t is its speed widest the that determines factor a the column, to the chuck preset factory at the are saws astable Wh.r.6 po*., toolrsuch A l5-inchdrill of handling. is capable a machine for workpiece ian beadjusted thedrill press speed, to op.tuti ata single of aworkthe center hole through cut a can press, for example, motor Yz-horsepower t[. rang.for a typiial ifr"pU athand. from thechuck The distance in diameter. (rpm). 15 inches piece is that per minute revolutions to 4500ipindle from400 extends or TVzinches. half that diametet is one io the column with to bore allows,you theabilityto varythespeed Aauing arein the11-to workslop presses for thehome in ranging andhardwood, Joftwo6a through Jfficiency eqoal Yqrt drill 3/+-horsepower motors. V+to poweredby are range and 16-inch end thick. 4 inches fromafractiin of aninchto 3 or thickness more for example-are models, Laygr.machines-20-inch g limit of drillin thisouter l 15,even lateron page asyousee woodworkers. professional jig. and production shops for suitable shop-made of asingle bymeans J.fth .unU.clcumueited

ffi'|f*I?tl.#fflJl;f,l.;:

jigsand accessories, thedrill with theappropriate Equipped precision unmatched with a press canborea varietyof holes jig allowsa woodworker Here,a shop-made by hand tools. will house in a rail. Theholes holes of angled to drill a series therail to a tabletop. that connect thescraus and conceal

105

ANATOMYOF A DRILL PRESS


come in various models T-\ till presses LJ andsizes, butthebasic design isthe same: A steel column 3 or soinches in diameter serves asabackbone to support atable andamotorthatdrives a spindle. Thespindle isattached to ageared chuck jaws whose griptheshank of adrill bit or oneof a variety of other accessories. On some models, spindles areinterchangeable. Thestandard spindle ismatedto a chuck with aVz-inch capacity, whichmeans thatitsjawscanaccept shanks ofdrill bitsandaccessories upto Vzinchin diameter. Other spindles allow ttredrill press to accept router bits, moldingcutters andmortising attachments. The columnis helduprightby a heavy base, usually made of cast iron. Forextra support andstability, thebase canbebolted to theshop floor,but the weight of thedrillpress isnormally adequate to keep it stationary. Thetwomost common tfpesof drill presses arethe floor modeland the bench variety. Thedistinguishing feature isthelength of thecolumn: Floor models have columns from66to 72inches high, whereas bench models ranqe from36 to 44inches. Since thetable of a drill press canbe positioned anywhere along thelength of thecolumn, floormodels canhandle longer workpieces. However, youcan-to some extent-overcome thelimitations of a bench-model drill press simply by swingingaround the head of the machine. With the spindle extended beyond theedge oftheworkbench, the effective column length is thedistance fromthechuck to theshop floor.

Whilemostdrill presses havetables that tilt, theradialarm drill press a head that rotates more than9tr right and left. features jobsimpossible Such tools canperform on conventional drill presses, including drilling throughthecenter of a j2-inch-diameter circle.

DRIttPRESS BELTS AND PULTEYS


Jaakahaft pulley lntermediatepulleyconnected to epindlepulley eo ae to increaaethe ranqe of apeede; drivenby motor pulley Eelt Tranaferapower from motor pulley to jackahaft pulley;(other belt tranafere powerfrom jackahaft to epind.le pulley) Motor pulley Drivenby motor: connected by belt.to drivejackahaft pulley. Features different otepe to providea ranqe of epeede

106

DRILL PRESS

Belt guard Protects operato r's fi n6ero from turninq belto

BelttenElon lever )lideo motor alon7 track to alackenor tenaion belta

Belt tenaion loak knob Locks motor in poaition once belt tenaion i6 6et

Onloff awitah toqKemovable qle prevento accidental 6tarD-up

Quill Movablealeeve attached to apindle and chuck; quill travel determines maximum d rillinq d epth--'ty pi' cally,4 incheo 9pindle Hold s chuck; i nt erchan6ea ble to accept variouaaccesaoriea auch as router bita Chuak Holdadrill bita and aacee' soriea for drillin4: ti1ht' ened with a qeared key Depth-etop loak handle For aettinj drillinT depth; when locked,preventz quill from deacendin7past a oet Point Feed lever Lowerequill; adjuotable coil apri nq a uto mati ca IIy retu r ne leverto original poaition Tablelook Holda table in fixed position on column

Table Raiaadand loweredto accomand drillinq modate workpiece depth; mosttablea can be tilted up to 45" laft and ri1ht for borinq an1led holea

height Table adJuatment handle


Table rotation Ioak handle Allowstableto be tumed on its axia to position workpiece undar opindle

Column Supporte table and head of drill preaa

to7

SETTING UPAND SAFETY


power tool,the T ikeanystationary I-l drill press has to bekeptin adjustmentto perform well.Before switching a machine on,check it carefully. Make sureall nutsandlockknobs aretightened. Even if youbought yourmachine new, there isno guarantee thatit isperfectly ready to run.Check regularly that thetable issquare to thespindle. There are also adjustments thathave to bemade job depending ontheparticular athand, beginning withsetting the&illing speed. Thespeed is changed either by turning aknoborbyshifting theposition of thebelt-or belts-thatconnect the motorpulley to thespindle pulley. Thedrill press hasa reputation asa "safe" machine, andthere isnodenying thatmachines such asthetable saw and jointeraccount for a greater number of serious accidents. Nevertheless, it ispossible for even seasoned woodworkers to have accidents onthedrill press. Unlike thetable saw, a drill press will not kick back, but it cangrip a small workpiece andsend it spinning outof control if the stock isnot clamped properly.

SETTING THE DRILLING SPEED


Delt tenaion

Changing beltposition andsefting belttension Loosen thebelttension lockknob andturnthe belttension lever counterclockwise to shiftthemotor toward pulthespindle leyandslacken thebelts. Tosetthedesired rpm,position each beltonthecorrect steps of thepulleys, taking care notto pinch (lf your your fingers. drillpress has a drilling speed chart onthe inside of thebeltguard, refer to it in selecting thecorrect speed forthedrillbit diameter youwillbeusing andforthetype and thickness of stock.) Tosetthe belttension, turnthetension lever clockwise whilepressing the beltconnected to the motor pulley untilit flexes about 1 inchoutof line(left). Tighten the belttension lockknob. Donotovertension thebelt;this can reduce beltandpulley life.Undertensioned belts may slip.

SOUARING THE TABTE


Aligning thetable Install an8-inch-long steel rodin the chuck asyouwould a drillbit (page 111), thenraise thetable untilit almost touchestherod.Butta trysquare against the rodasshown; theblade should rest flush against the rod(right). lt thereis a gap, pinunder remove thealignment thetable (inset). using a wrench Loosen thetable locking bolt. Swivel thetable to bring the rodflushagainst thesquare, thentighten (Since thelocking bolt. theholes forthe pinwill nowbeoffset, alignment do not reinstall thepin.Thelocking boltis sufficient to hold thetable securely in place.)

r08

DRILL PRESS

you arefamiliarwith your Makesure anywork. beforeattempting machine Run through the drilling procedure and you turn on the machine, before thatwarns theinnervoice ignore never Stop, may be amiss. you something the andcontinue again thesetup check that onlywhenyou arecertain operation whatyou aredoingis safe.

llllllllllllllllllll lllllllllllllllll]ll lllllllt lllllllt lli lllllll l]ll


Tt? 1HO?
g table alignment Cheakin the table ie TocheckwheNher makea 9Oo to Nheepindle, aauare bdndat eacheid of a \2-inchlenqNh of wirecoaNhanqer. lnserLoneend of lhe and wirein lhe chuck adjuet LheNable h e i q h t ' u n ttih le ot'herend of the juol Nouchee wire table,Rotat'elhe wire; Nhe the table at ecra?e iNehouldbarely nor, trherotaLion.lf durina all ooinbe pinunder lhe ,"^or" the aliqi,ment' locking bolt Lable t able,loosen Nhe Lhetable Nooquareit'. and ewivel bolL. Lhe lockinq Tiqhten

OF CTAMPING THE IMPORTANCE


clamp right making-the Ghoosing-or grabbing thedrillbrtfrom Toprevent it unconandspinning theworkpiece or irregusmall always clamp trollably, to thetable stock securely larly shaped a convenintoit. When boring before notworkdoes setup clamping tional shown-improvise. asforthecylinder outof a wedges V-shaped opposing Cut in r t h ec y l i n d e aw n dc l a m p handscre C clamPs to use then handscrew, the to thetable(/eff). secure thehandscrew

109

BITSAND ACCESSORIES
-f h. range of accessories forthedrill I press isa testament to itsversatility. In addition to a variety of sanding attachments, thereare alsobits for &illittg t/az-inch holes, fly cutters for cutting8-inch circles andplugcutters for plugs making anddowels. Mostdrillingis donewith twistor brad-point Bothconsist bits. of acylindricalshanh whichisheldin thejaws of the chuc(andspiral-shaped grooves, known asflutes. Thegrooves allow waste chips andsawdust to escape fromthehole, preventing overheating. Theactual cutting is done byeither sharp spurs or acutting lip. As with anycuttingtool,drill bits mustbesharp to workwell.Andlikea saw blade, adrill bit isactually more dangerous whenit is dull.A bluntbit has trouble digging into a workpiece and tends to heat up quickly, scorching the woodandthebit. Overheating canalso result if drill bitsare dirtyor gummed up. Clean themwith finesteel wool. Foranyaccessory youinstall in the drill press, besure to remove thechuck keyafter tightening thejaws; otherwise, yourisklaunching projeca dangerous tileonceyou turnonthemachine. Some keys havea springat the endof the geared segment. Pressure is required when inserting thekey; youletgo, once thekeyejects automatically.

COLUMN-M()UNTED ACCESS()RY RACK


Holefor 1%"No.B ecrew Diameterof drill preoocolumn

Jiq aupport

Tosave timesearching forchuck keys anddrillbits,usea shop-made storagerack. Cuttwoidentical keyholepieces plywood shaped of 3/q-inch to thedimensions shown above. Use a saber saw or coping saw to cuta cirpiece cleoutof each thesame diam-

eterasyour drillpress column. Then saw onepiece in halflengthwise to serve asthejig support. Theother piece willbethejig top;sawit across thecircular cutout. Bore sixscrew holes forjoining thetopto itssupports. Then, bore holes intothework-

A RANGE OF BITS AI{D ACCESSORIES


MuMapurbit
Alao knownae sawDootLt bit; borea clean, amooth, nearly flat-bottomed holes.Rim does not heat up ae quickly aa Foretner bit. Foretner bit Boreo perfeotly flat-bottomed holes.Razor rim guidaabit.while chippero cut.

FIycutter
AIao knownaa a circle cutter, Cuts holeafrom 11A to B incheoin diameter. Cutter blade ie adiuoted for diffe rent diametera by ioooen inq a oetacrew and elidinq the cutter blade in or out.

Twiat blt The leaat expeneive of oommonlyuaed drill bita; frequently sold in aata with a ran6e of aizea,

tsmd-point bit Froducescleaner holee than twiat bit; doee not " akate" offJine. Featuree a aharpenedcenterpoint and two cuttinq epur6.

DRILL PRESS

BIT A DRILL CHANGING

your bits of thejigto hold ingsurface down shank-end andaccessories (above, woodworkers nghf).Some receptaa small to have findit useful onthejig;a andends cleforodds quick work of bit willmake Forstner such a hole. cutting

the to hold willneed a helper You while of thejig in place fourpieces youscrew Before themtogether. make sure that that,however, doing not sothatit does thejig is turned of thedrill the rotation obstruct press's quilllever.

a bit installing Removing and keY to thechuck a bit,use Toremove jaws the holding thechuck while loosen your thebitout hand. Slip other bitwith the Toinstall a bit,open of thechuck. jaws theninsert aswideasnecessary, hg e n t h ec h u c kS . t e a d y itn t h es h a n ik the tighten it in the1aws, bitto center ug sing ightenin . i n i sth b yh a n dF chuck f ittingit in turn key@bove), thechuck Remove in thechuck. hole intoeach key. thechuck

Pluq cutter For makin7omall dowelaand bapered pluqeto.conc.eaI counterbored gcrewa.

Hole saw For borin4 larqe holea-ty pica IIy, Ia rqer Available than 1%inchea. in modelawith fixeddtameter or with adjuetabte bladea,Fitot bit centera cuttinq edqea,

Dowelcutter For cuttinq dowels up to 3 inchealong into end 4rain.Ae cutter bores into waod,dowelridea up cutter barrel.

4
Spade bit For boringholeoup to 1%inchea.tharp centerpoint7uideo penetration, whileflat blade 'elices and into workpiece removeowaote,

Planer head For ourfacin7 woodand formin4 rabbeta. Th e 3%-inch-dia meter head holdathree hiqh-epeed eteel cuttera that can trim up to'/aoinch with eaahpaee,

AND ANGLEDHOLES STRAIGHT


with itstiltabletable, thedrill f, quipped L press canboreholes at virtuallvanv angle. Thesteeper however, the angle, the moredifficultit isfor abrad-pointor twist bit to dig into the stockwithoutskating. Choose a Forstner or multispurbitwhen drillingholes at averysteep angle; both of guiding these cuttingaccessories feature rims that provide penetration. cleaner

Before drilling,make sure thatthe drillbit islinedup over theholein the table: Otherwise, youriskdamaging not onlythebit but also thetable itself. For furtherprotection, some woodworkers also clamp a piece of wood to thedrill press table. Forgood youwill need results to find therightcombination of drilling speed

(page pressure-the 108)and feed rate at whichyoulower thebit into thestock. Toomuchspeed pressure or feed can cause burnmarks ontheworkpiece and biq too littlewill dull thebit'scutting edge. Withtheproper you combination, should beable to cutsteadily without having pressure to put undue on the lever. ouillfeed

TECHNIOUES F(|R BASIC DRILLING


Setting upand drilling Toavoid spl interi ng-particu larly with plywood or particleboard-clamp a supportboard to thetable andsettheworkpiece point ontopof it. Mark a starting ontheworkpiece andalign thebitover it. Rotate thefeedlever steadily to feed thebitinto theworkpiece; use only enough (/effl. pressure to keep thebit cutting Retract thebitoccasionally to clear the hole of wood chips, andif themachine labors orthewood stafts to smoke, reduce thefeedoressure or cut back onthe (page drilling speed 108).

Ji4 baoe

7" x 20"

Tobore a rowof uniformly spaced holes, jig to systematize make a shop-made the provided task, following thedimensions at left.Screw thefence to thejig base, flush withoneedge, thenattach a wood block at the center of thefence to serve asa dowel holder. Tousethe jig, set it on thetableof your points drillpress, thenmark starting on theworkpiece forthe firsttwoholes in theseries. Seat theworkpiece against thefence of thejig andposition thejigto align the bit-preferably a Forstner-over thefirstdrilling mark, Butta guide block against theback of thejig andclamp it to

tt2

DRILL PRESS

HOTES BORING STOPPED


depth Setting thedrilling that For a stopped or blindhole-one a notpass completely through does workpiece-mark a lineat thedesired of the of the hole ontheedge depth Then, lower thequilluntil thetip stock. line. themarked of thedrillbit reaches y i t ho n eh a n d Hold t h eq u i l ls t e a dw unscrew the and, forthemodel shown, handle withtheother denth-stoo lock asfar hand andturnit counterclockwise Tighten thehandle. as it willgo (left). press from drilling This willkeep thedrill mark. than thedepth anydeeper

stopped holes, lf youareboring thetable. (above). Bore the depth setthe drilling thejig along the f irsthole, thenslide guide a hole through the block andbore Fita dowel through the holder. dowel in the hole in theholder andintothehole theguide thejig along workpiece. Slide mark ontheworkblock untilthesecond piece the is aligned under thebit.Clamp jigto thetable thehole. andbore holes, of theremaining Tobore each andslidethe workretract thedowel piece fence u n t i lt h e along t h ej i g ' s youmade dowel drops intothelasthole (right), hole. thenboreanother

113

DRILL PRESS

ANGLED HOLES BORING


Setting thetable angle Install a straight 8-inch-long steel rodin the chuck asyouwould a drillbit,thenuse a proyou to setthedrilling angle need ona tractor sliding bevel. Loosen thetable asyouwould iI (page 108. fhen buttthe bevel to square rodandswivel thetable until against thesteel flushagainst thehandle of the thetablerests (lefl. Remove beuel the rodfromthechuck After installing andtighten thelocking bolt. (page thedrillbit,setthedrilling depth 113) to prevent thebitfromreaching thetable. protection, For added clamp a piece of wood to thetable.

)teel rod

)lidin7 bevel

TILTING TABLE JIG

Tobore angled holes without tilting jig,shopuse a tilting thetable, plywood. Refer builtfrom7+-inch to forsuggested the illustration above dimensions. Connect thejigtopto butt the base using twosturdy hinges. Cuta %-inch-wide slotin

the support brackets, thenscrew each oneto thetop;secure the withwingnuts brackets to the base andhanger bolts. Touse thejig,center it under the spindle. Clamp thebase to thetable. Loosen thewingnutsandsetthe

angle of thejig asyouwould the table(sfep above), butwithout pinor removing thealignment loosening thetablelocking bolt. Tighten thewingnuts, clamp the workpiece to the jig andbore the hole(above, right).

tt4

DRILL PRESS

DEEP HOLES BORING

Exceeding thequillstroke length thatthequill Themaximum asthequill canbeextended-known most drillpresses to stroke-limits se e p t h a n4 i n c h ed borinn g om o r e hole, use at a time.Todrilla deeper bitor,if the holeis less anextension perform ihantwice thequillstroke, in twostages, asshown the operation to First, a scrap board above. clamp andbore a guide thedrillpress table clamp theworkpiece hole intoit. Then, intoit asdeeply andbore to the board willallow. Remove asihequillstroke into the andf it a dowel theworkoiece guide board. Fitthe hole in thescrap thedowel holein theworkpiece over fromthe into theworkpiece andbore willensure that Thedowel other side. are in theworkpiece thetwoholes
norfonf lv alionpd

llllllllllll llllfilllllllllllllill llj] ilIl lllllll] fill lllllllllllllll]


1HO?TI?
A eimplecenterfinder Cul a 90"wedqeout of of a7-by-12-inch piece 3/o-inch ood. 3 crew olvw l-by-Z a 12-inchllonq oo lhat to Ihe piece onelonqed4eof the the 1-W-2bieecls wedge aI 45".To uee eea|lhe lhe centerfinder, ae a guideIo in the wedqe and ueelhe 1-by-2 workpiece Kolat'e of t'heworkViece. drawa lineacroeelhe diameber lineacross it. The workpiece 90" and drawa eecond Nhe NwolineewillintersectaNt'hecenler of the workpiece.

I15

DRILL PRESS

BORING INTO CYTINDRICAT STOCK

V eection 11/2" x 1'/2" x B"

%"x6"x8"

Using a V block Thesafest wayto bore intoa cylinder isto secure it in a shoo-made V-block jig.Make theV section of thejig by bevel cutting a 2-by-2lengthwise using a tablesaw(page 23) or band saw (page 98).Then, screw thetwocut to thebase to form oieces a V.Position thejigonthetable sothat thedrill bit touches thecenter of theV when the ouillis extended. Clamo thebase to thetable, seat theworkpiece in thejig andbore the holehbovd.

llllllll lllt llll lttl lll] illt lllt llll lllllllill llllillllll illt lllllllt
1HO? Tt?
Drillingaompoundangleo Tohelplineup enNrance and youare drillinq exit holee wh,en jig. at an an6le, useNhie eimple Oluea 4-inchlongcylinder to a5-by-1O-inch of Vlywood. piece lhe basetn Nhe Clamp drillVreee Lable so that lhe cylinder ie cenlered underNhe epindle and bore a hole inlo il.1haroen one endof a2-inchlonq dowel,Nhen fiL the dowelinio Nhecylinder. Mark both lhe enNrance and exiLholeson the workpiece and elrikeeachmarkwith a punch. Tosition the exit ounch mark on lhe dowel, holdthe workfirmlyand boreinto lhe Viece entrance ounch mark. (Cautionz DonoI uoethiojiq wiNh eNockNoo shorlto hold eecurely.)

116

DRILL PRESS

Cradle 6" x 15" 2" x 15"


Ji7 baae 7" x 18"

9upport brackeL x 4%" x 1% "

H(IIE JIG POCKET with used arecommonly Pocket holes rails to a tabletop, to attach screws andsolve at anangle aredrilled They straight to screw of having theproblem A rail. a 3- or 4-inch-wide through pocket shop-built holejig (left,fop), plywood, simple makes from%-inch For thejig, openings. work of such of thecradle screw thetwosides cut a 90' to forman L.Then together so bracket support fromeach wedge will side of thecradle thatthewide theverti15'from about sitatanangle to thejig base the brackets cal.Screw to thebrackets. thecradle andglue theworkPiece Tousethejig, seat thatwill withtheside in thecradle theholes facing out.Bore bedrilled bits: withtwodifferent in twosteps thewidth bit twice Usea Forstner for theentrance heads of thescrew bit slightly anda brad-point holes of thescrew thanthewidth wider (The wider fortheexitholes. shanks expanforwood bit allows brad-point andcontraction.) sion the install the process, Tobegin withthemachine bit and, brad-point the bit withthefeedlever, off, lower thenbuttthe endof the workpiece thejig to thebit. Position against of the align thebit withthecenter (inset). of theworkpiece edge bottom andreplace thejigto thetable Clamp bit, bitwiththeForstner thebrad-ooint firmly in Holding theworkpiece the to bore thebit slowly thejig,feed justdeep the enough to recess holes thebradinstall heads. Then, screw pointbit andbore through theworkpiece holes thepocket to complete (left, bottom).

T17

DOWELS, PLUGS AND TENONS


are2- to 4-inch-long wood f-\ owels I-r' cylinders usedto reinforce simple constructions suchas butt joints in which two pieces of wood arebutted together andheldin place with glue. By drilling perfectly aligned holes in both pieces of suchajoint andinserting dowels,you greatly strengthen the joinery. Anothervariation is theintegral tenon, which looksand functionslike a dowel part of one of the wood but remains joined. pieces being The plug-a shortercousinof the dowel-servesto conceal counterbored screws. Dowelsand plugscanbe cut from eithersoftwood or hardwood. The difference between them-other than theirlength-is that dowels arecut from end grainto givethem cross-sectional strength. Plugs, on the otherhand,are not subiect to anyradialstress andcanbe cut eitherwith or against thegrain.They caneitherbeconcealed or used asa decorationdepending on whether theyare cut from thesame stockastheworkpiece. Dowels of various diameters and in 3- or 4-foot lengths arewidelyavailable wherever wood is sold,but you canmake your own if you outfit your drill press with a dowel cutter.The bestway to makeplugsis to cut down a dowelor to usea plug cutter.Wth the latter accessoryyou caneithercut throughstock thesame thickness astheplugor borea stopped holethroughthicker stock and pry the plugsout with a chisel.

'l

An integral tenon makes0 strong joint and is relativelyeasyto cut. The tenon is produced with a dowel cutter at the end of a squarepieceof stock.

MAKING DOWELS ANDINTEGRAT TENONS


Using a dowel cutter Tocutdowels, clamp a block of wood to thetable andbore intoitsendgrain totherequired depth witha dowel cutter (farleft).Free the dowels by cutting through theblock witha table saw or a band saw. lf youwillbeusing thedowels forjoinery, crimp their ends withtheserjaws rated of plrers; thiswillprovide the glue withanescape route andensure proper glue coverage. Tocut an integral tenon on a long workpiece, tiltthetable 90' and clamp theworkpiece pads to thetable, using to protect thewood. Also clamp a support board to theworkpiece andto thetable. Use a dowel cutter to bore to therequired (near depth /eft), thensawaway the waste to expose thetenon.

118

DRILL PRESS

MORTISINGTECHNIQUES
Thebit cutsa roundhole;the Q ince the time of ancientEgYPt, chisel. square. thecorners thenpunches haverelied on the chisel r.) woodworkers on easiiy be cut can tenon matching joint The connect to mortise-and-tenon (page46). pieces Today, thejoint iscom- atablesaw ofwood. to cut sizes in different come Chisels ondesls, to legs tojoin rails used monly The widths. of joints, variety in a mortises the most Like chairs. and tables press depththe drill with is set depth hand. by cut can be mortise-and-tenon on As shown is typical. out stop;7a-inch in carving andefficiency Butfor ease sure to make important it is page I20, a press equippedwith drill the mortises, to keep is adjusted the thit theattachment hasbecome attachment mortising If chisel. to the square workpiece the consists attachment The choice. toolof round in mortise the cutting you are a square-edged inside rotates that ofa bit
of a chisel consists attachment A typicatmortising to thedrillpres quill holder(l), whichis secured Thefence at thetopof theholder' by machinebolts (3) on thetableare bracket (2) and thehold-down and wing nuts. washers heldin placewith scrans, arm thehold-down Theverticalbar (4) supports (6), (5), which, alongwiththehold-downrods the against holdtheworlepiece hetps fence. frrmly

usea V blockto holdtheworkstock, in place. piece securely (Page 108)for speed drilling The the tYPe both on depends mortising The the chisel. of the size and of stock speed, the slower the chisel, larger the whenyou aredrillinginto especially mortise Fora /r-inch-wide hardwood. for a set uP for example, in hardwood, up to set for softwood, 1200 rpm; speedof cutifyou are higher even rpm-or 1500 thegrain. tingagainst

BIT AND THE CHISET SOUARING AND INSTALTING

andbit thechisel thegapbetween 1 Setting andtighten intoits holder thechisel I Insert thechisel thebit upthrough Push thelockscrew. with thetip of thebit level Hold intothechuck. then of wood, witha scrap of thechisel thebottom proper This willensure thebit by%zinch. lower thetip ofthebitandthepoints between clearance jaws(/effl. thechuck Tighten of thechisel.

119

DRILL PRESS

SOUARING THECHISET
r) Adjusting thechisel 1 me chisel must besquare to themortising attachment fence or themortises youcutwillangle producing off-center, joints. ill-f itting Tomake sure thatthe chisel is properly aligned, butt a trysquare against thefence andchisel. The square should rest flushagainst both. lf it does not,loosen thechisel holder lockscrew justenough you to allow to rotate thechisel andbring it flush against thesquare. Donot raise or lower thechisel while making the (/eff). adjustment. Tighten the lockscrew

CUTTING A MORTISE 'l Setting up I 0 u t l i nte h em o r t i s oe nt h ew o r k piece, centering themarks between the
edges of thestock. Tocheck whether themortise chisel willbecentered onthe workpiece, butta scrap board the same width a n dt h i c k n e s as st h ew o r k p i e c e against the mortising attachment fence andsecure it withthehold-down rods. Bore a shallow cut intothe board. Then, f l i pt h e b o a r d a r o u na d n dm a k e a secondcutnext to thefirst. Thecuts should bealigned. lf not,shiftthefence byonehalf theamount thatthecuts were misaligned andmake twomorecuts(right) to repeat thetest.(Note: Hold-down arm raised forclaritv.)
Hold-downarm

Mioaliqned cute

r20

DRILL PRESS

r) Boring theends ofthemortise armandrods to secure thehold-down Z. ROjust freely along the it to slide while allowing theworkpiece that mortise-one lf youareboring a stopped fence. theworkpiece-set through does notpass completely (page end 113). l4ake a cut at each deplh thedrilling (above), feeding thechisel and mortise of theplanned pressure them to diginto the to allow bitwithenough often to clear laboring. Retract thechisel wood without overheating. waste chips andprevent away

themortise Completing of staggered cutsto Make a series Follow thesequence complete themortise. row making a single shown in the inset, in a chisel equal of cutsif youareusing rows ortwoparallel width to the mortise, s t o ow i d e t o b ec u t i n a i f t h em o r t i sie pass. In thelatter case, use a chissingle thewidth wider thanone-half el slightly of themortise.

r2r

THE DRILL PRESS AS SANDER


makeexcellent sanders. f-\ rill presses L) Themachine's good tableprovides holdingit at supportfor theworkpiece, 90oto the sandingdrum to produce sanded edges that aresquare to adjacent surfaces. Andwith helpfrom some simplejigs,thedrill press cansandnot only aswell. straight surfaces but curved ones drums comein diameters Sanding rangingftomYzto3 inches. Theshaftof a drum is insertedinto the jawsof the in the same chuckandsecured waythat drill bitsareinstalled. Sanding sleeves to cover the drum areavailable in a variety of grits-from a coarse 40 grit to a fine 220 grit. In most cases, sleeves are changed by loosening a nut at eitherthe top or the bottom of the drum, which reduces the pressure and releases the sandpaper. Remove the old sleeve and slip on the new Tightening the nut will cause the drum to expand and grip the sleeve securely. Aswith standard drilling operations, sandingrequiresa variety of speeds depending on the job. The higherthe rpm, the smoother the finish,but high speeds will alsowearout your sleeves more quickly.Most sandingis done between 1200and 1500 rpm. Sanding

produces finedust soremember to wear a dustmask. In addition to sanding, thedrill press candouble asa router, although itsrelatively slow spindle speed keeps it from performing wellasitsportable as coungenerates terpart. Whilea drill press roughly 3500 to 4500 rpm,arouter tums at morethan20,000 rpm,producing muchsmoother results. To use yourdrill press asa router, youwill need to buya special spindle routerbitsto the machine. to attach Feeding thestock slowly will helpcompensate for themachine's slower speed.

AUXITIARY TABTE AND SAI{DING PATTERN SAITDII{G II{SERT Sanding drums larger than 7/e-inch in diameter aretoowideto f it through the holein most drill press tables. Tomake full useof thesanding surface of wider drums youwillneed to make a sanding Iable(nearright, top). Usea coping sawor saber saw to cut a holein the plywood top, centering theopening 3 inches fromtheback of thetable. jig base Assemble the L-shaped from1-by-4 and2-by-2 stock, thenglueit to thetable. Tousethejig, clamp the base to thedrillpress withthecirtable cularhole directly underneath the Adjust drum. thetable height to bring the bottom of the drum level withthejig. Holding theworkpiece f irmly, feedit at a uniform speed in a direction opposite the rotation of the sanding drum(near right,bottom).To avoid burning or gouging

AUXITIARY SANDING TABTE

Hole for oandingdrum


31/o"

Table %"x11"x15" Jig baee


11,/2"x11/2"x11" 7/+"x31,/2"x11"

t22

DRILL PRESS

'Illl'llll"llll 'llll.'fl1.'fi1"ffi""1[l"'lll lll fll lIlll|l llll'"ffi lll'"1l|l llll


1HO?TI?
drume eanding Shop-made off'oizeeandinq lf yoi needa opecial ownfroma dowel. drum,youcan makeyour then cul a Findthe riqht,oizeof dowel, as wideae Lhedowel'e elrip of eandpaper Applya thin coat of white circumference. qlueNothe doweland fasten Nhepaper sander NhaI can to iI (top). For a flexible or ehapedworkVieceo oanAirieqularly LhenfiN holao, cut' a slot in a dowel, enlarye paperiniloit (bottom). a etrip of abraeive

withone feedthe stock the workpiece, Assegmotion. smooth, continuous wear out, sleeve ments of thesanding fresh table to bring raise thedrillpress to bear. surfaces withtheauxilin conjunction Used pata shop-made table, iarysanding (right, will fopl allow ternsanding lig parallel youto sand Tomake the curves. jig, cut a U-shaped out of the wedge plywood asthe hole thesame size table jig.Then, use a %table in thesanding a hole thesame bit to bore inchForstner of the U asthe fromthe bottom distance thatwill besanded. widthof thestock as a dowel intothe holeto serve lnsert post. a guide it to theauxilTousethejig,clamp edges sothatopposite iary sanding table the dowrestagainst of the workpiece Remove the drum. el andthesanding on thedrill workpiece, thenswitch press. slowly but Feed the workpiece of thedirection against continuously withyourleft drumrotation sanding guiding it withyourright hand while hand (right, bottom).

INSERT SANDING PATTERN

3'/o"

Guide poaf, '1" x 1%"


aowet

r23

&
.1j ,l **
l *

"t:

IONTER
prinAlthough thejointer's roleisin surfacing opercipal ations, usingit for nothing to the table saw compared more than thatwouldbe eouivbut anywoodor bandsaw, thetible alent to restricting to precision worker dedicated sawto simole cut-offwork. will attest andcraftsmanship in salThejointerisalso useful tool thissurfacing thatusing vagingwarpedstock(page properlyis the first stepin rabI35)as wellasin shaping turning rough boardsinto legs andtapered bets, bevels pieces well-built of furniture. (pages jigclampedto 1j6-38). With aV-block the Themachine's mainpurpose jointer infeed you cancut beveled edges table, of is to shave smallamounts Jointersare categorized of their according to thelength accurately and safely. into a workpiece andfaces woodfromtheedges In practical cutterhead knives. yielding of boards, smooth, and, thislength determines thewidthof thejointerttable measure- terms, fromwhichallsubsequent andeven surfaces straight machine of cutthatthe importantly, themaximumwidth itsname fromthe more Thejointergets ments andcutsaremade. models range from4 to 8 inches; make. forconsumer should fit can Sizes run across its planing blades factthattwo edges jointers joint. popular. Depth of cut,which are themost 6-and8-inch perfectly, forminga seamless together feature. But fromVatoyzinch, isanother distinguishing will have aripple effect ranges Enors atthejointing stage of aproject rabbeting youplanto make frequent use of thejointer's square edge to set unless Withouta perfectly in alllaterprocedures. Thetypicalbite a shallow depthof cutis adequate: aboard to capabiliry rip fence, for example, trimming against atable saw t/a pass inch. seldom exceeds when for a surfacing a flawthatwill befurthercompounded size will produce joint. lookfor a machine onwhichthe When choosing ajointer, youtry to cuta precise-fitting areadjustable. Andmake of thecutterhead was tables onbothsides smooth, square edges Traditionally, thetaskof creating fence thatcanbetilted has a rigid,lockable planes, proces themachine performed thatdepend- sure withhand apainstaking relyonthe for angle cuts. woodworkers Nowadays, edon skillandexperience. jointer (page jointerto dothejob morequickly, 139),but isoften withtheplaner confused andaccurately. The effortlessly notinterchangeable. Oneimportant funcare of a hand thetwomachines it is useful to consider theworkings Nevertheless, performed byajointhatcannot beeffectively to work.The tionof theplaner plane visualizing howajointerisintended when it parallel to theopposite surface. asurface to make handplane with terisplaning muchlike an inverted machine functions important when constructhandle widerstock, canalso byamotor, addressing thework- Planers larger blades driven somewhat ingpanels such astabletops. piece frombelow rather thanabove.
he jointer may seema machine ratherpedestrian

stock or producing In additionto smoothing to cut square edges, a jointer canbeused tapers in a workpiece, suchasa tableleg.

t25

ATATOMYOFA JOINTER
f hejointerconsiss of infeed andoutI feed tables separated byacylindrical cutterhead. typicallyhold Cutterheads at several thouthreeknives androtate perminute. revolutions Forajointer sand theoutfeed table must to workproperly, belevel with theknives at thehighest pointof ttreirrotation. Themodel illushasanoutfeed table thatis trated below it atthesame height adjustable to keep as theknives. Formodels onwhich theoutmustbe feedtableis fixed,theknives raised or lowered to bringthemto the proper height. Depthof cut is determined by the amount thattheinfeed table isset below theoudeed table. Thefence used to guide isnormally stock over thecutterhead set Buton mostmodels at a 90o angle. the fence will tilt forwardor backward for cuttingbevels andchamfers.

Outfeedtable )upporte workpiece at endof cut

Fence Guidea the workpiecealon4 tablaa

Guard )prinq-activated plate that covara cutterhead; protecta operator from knivea.Fivoted away from cutterhead by workpiece, than aprin7a back into poaition

Rabbetlng notch )upporta the uncut ,urTace of a workpiece durinq rabbetin4 operationo

Outfeed table adjuetment handle Raiaeaand lowara outfeed table to heiqht of knive7

Infeed table )upporta workpiece at the atart of the cut; heiqht adjuatable to aet depth of cut Depth acale lndicates depth of cut

FRONT VIEW

JOINTER

Althoughthe guardshouldalways for standard operations, beleftin place it hasto beremoved on mostmodels work,such asrabbeting. for specialized machines, theguard canbe On some proinstalled thefence to provide behind work. tection duringrabbeting

with a jointer on theright and a planeron theleft,thismachine combines twofunctionsin a single Themodelshowncan appliance. joint stockup and to 6 incheswide planeboards aswideas12 inches.
Fencecontrol handle Allowa fence to be anqled 45" in either direction or movedacroas the tablee and cutterhead; locka fence in fixed pooitiono Fenceatop Setacrew and metal etop hold the fence verEicalor in ita moat frequently ueed an1led eettinqo Oib ecrew Adluotable to keeptablee parallelto each other and in 'aame horizontalplane;model ahownhaa three such gcrews on each eide of pulleycover

Friction knob Ti4htened to ffom etrPPtn4 from aelected hei4ht eetting lnfeed table adjuatment handle Kaieeeand lowera infeed table to set depth of cut

\eept1lte.

Tilt eaale lndicatee an1leof the fence

REAR VIEW

UP AND SAFETY SETTING


jointingdepends onprecise I ccurate A alignment andthe of thetwotables that fence-the partsof the machine guidea workpiece into and overthe knives. Begur by ensuring that theoutfeed table isatthesame height as thecutof theknives at theirhighest ting edges poinr Then check thatthetables arcperfectlysquare to the fenceandaligned properly with each other. Before starting, makesurethat the jointerisunplugged andinstalla clamp guard ontherabbetingledge to holdthe temporarily out ofyour way. properly Onceyou have themachine pause andconsider safety. The tuned, knives cutterhead look of a spinning It is easy to forget seductively benign. cancause thatthisharrnles-lookingblur muchdamageto fingers andhands as as canatable saw blade. Resist thetemptation to operate thejointerwithoutthe guard in place.When theguard mustbe removed from its normalpositionin front of thefence for rabbeting operaif your tions,installit behindthefence jointeris setup for such a switch. in place, Even with theguard always yourhands keep away fromtheknives. jointingtheedge your When of aboard, hands should ridealong theworkpiece, ratherthanon thetables. Whenfacejointing,always pushbloclsto feed use Whatever aworkpiece across theknives. thecut,remember to prestheworlgiece firmly against thetables andfence.

TABTE HEIGHT SETTING OUTFEED


height 1 Checkingtable I Usea smallwooden wedge to rotate the cutterhead untilthe edge of oneof point, is at its highest Then the knives holda straight hardwood board on the outfeed tablesothat it extends over the without cutterhead contacting the infeed just brush Theknifeshould table(left). against theboard. Perform thetestalong the length of the knife, moving the board fromthe fence to the rabbeting ledge. Repeat thetestfor the otherknives. lf oneknifefailsthetest,adjustits height when installing asyouwould a blade (page 131). lf none of theknives touches the board, adjust the height of the outfeedtable (step2).

r) Adjusting tirbleheight theoutleed hardwood I Keepingthe board overthe cutterhead, turnthe outfeed tableadjust(right), raising menthandle or lowering just thetableuntiltheedge of a knife brushes against theboard. Then check the in relation to theother knives. tableheight

t28

IOINTER

ANDFENCE ALIGNING THETABLES


thetables 1 Aligning use theadjustI Remove thefence, then table to bring ment handle fortheinfeed table. it to thesame height astheoutfeed thatthetwo a straightedge to confirm Use level. lf thealignment absolutely tables are of the is notperfect, adjust oneor more gibscrews until of thejointer at theback rests flush onboth tables; thestraightedge cover, if necessary, to remove the pulley first Toadjust a screw, thescrews. access make theadjustloosen its locknut, then (left). wrench Trghten ment using witha hex thedepth scale Atthispoint, thelocknut. "0." lf not,move (page 126)should read
i h p n n i n t ptrn t h p " O " m a r k . ReCheC t hk e you moved 128)if the tableheight @age outfeed table.

TIPS SAFETY JOINTER . Check sure regularly to make aresharp and securethattheknives ly fastened to thecutterhead. . U n p l utg r hile w h ej o i n t e installin kg n i v eo sr p e r f o r m i n g operation. anysetup . Wear glasses safety appropriate protection when operandhearing ating thejointer. . Donotjointstock withloose may catch knots ortheworkpiece i n t h ec u t t e r h e a d . . Never jointstock thatis less
lhan 12 innhoc lnno

. Donotface-joint stock thatis thick. less than % inch . Donotjointtheendgrain of than6 thatis less a workpiece i n c h ew side. . When sr u n n i n g , t h em a c h i ni e your hands outof thearea keep side 4 inches above andto either cutterhead. of thejointer's . Never reach up intothedust isunplugged unless thejointer chute

r) Squaring with thetables thefence position, ontheoutfeed hold a trysquare setin itsvertical L Wttn thefence The blade against thefence. andbutt thesquare's near thecutterhead table gapbetween thetwo, lf there isany fit flush against thefence. square should flush withthesquare handle andbring thefence thefence control slacken pivot making this when themetal stop outof theway necessary, bbove).lf of thefence stop should Thesetscrew Then tighten thehandle. adlustment. locknut stationstop. lf it is not,hold thesetscrew against themetal bebutted (inset) wrench unlil thesetscrew witha hex while turning arywitha wrench Move indicator to "0." stoo. thetilt scale it touches themetal

t29

JOINTE,RKNIVES
T T nlikethe blades of otherwoodwhose height L-/ workingmachines, jointerknives areadjustable, andangle aredesigned to functionatjustonesetheight ting:parallel to andat the same table. As such, asthemachine's outfeed the height of all the knivesmust be identical; a difference of aslittle asa fraction of an inchcancomoromise the j o i n t e r ' s - a b i l itto yp r o d u c e smooth, square eoges. jointerknives Likeall blades, work wellonlywhentheyaresharp. However, removinga jointer knife for because it propsharpening andthenreinstalling erlycanbea time-consuming operation, go to great lengths manywoodworkers It isposto avoid changing these blades. to honethecutsible to usean oilstone while ting edges of slightlydull knives But you risk theyarein thecutterhead. removing moremetalfrom the cutting necessary edges than is absolutely and this canthrow the knives out of alignmentwith theoutfeed table. Therearetricksyou canuseto pro(page longtheusefi.rl lifeof a setof knives prol3l), but once yourrnachine begins limp shavings ducinguneven or burnishing it is timeto remove lhewood, Be theknives andhave themreground. sure to give theperson doingthesharpinstructions regarding ening explicit the sameamountof steel to be removed from each knife.Otherwise, thecutterhead maybecome imbalanced, causing machine vibrationand alsopossible motor failure. Whenchanging yourjointerknives, remove andreinstall themoneat a time. Taking theblades all offat onceandthen installing themoneafteranother canput stress on the cutterhead, Ifyou areconsidering replacing the you canchoose knives, between high speed steel or tungsten carbide. Thecarperformance bidevariety offers superior in cuttingabrasive materials suchasplywood;theycostmore,however. Always replace the entiresetofblades,rather knives. In themeantime, thanindividual keep your knives clean by rubbingthem occasionally with a clothdampened in turpentine or lacquer thinner.

JOINTER KNIVES CHANGING

anoldknife 1l Removins I Remove a clamp ontherabbeting thefence, theninstall ledge to hold theguard temporarily outof theway. Use a wood scrao to rotate thecutterhead untilthe lock small theknife areaccessible between thetables. screws securrng yourhands, of theknife witha ragto protect Cover theedge in Iurn(abovd. thenusea wrench to loosen each screw lift the knife Remove Carefully outof thecutterhead. the it clean. retaining wedge andwipe

Installing a new knife Insert theretaining wedge in thecutterhead, centering


d d g ef a c i n g i t i n t h e s l o tw i t h i t s g r o o v e e up;make sure that the heads of the lockscrews are buttedagainst the b a c ke d g eo f t h e s l o ta s s h o w n W . i t ht h e b e v e l e d edge placeit of the knifefacingthe outfeedtable (above), between the retaining wedge andthe frontedgeof the slot, p a r tp r o t r u d i nfg l e a v i nt gh e b e v e l e d r o mt h e c u t t e r h e a d .

r30

IOINTER

JIG A KNIFE-SETTING USING

height theknife Q Setting lock screw tighten each witha ragandpartially r-J Cover theedge of theknife andworkin thecenter withtheones fully, beginning tighten them in turn; then (page to 128)in relation height theoutfeed table Check ingoutto theedges. just screws slightly, loosen thelock lf theknife is settoolow, theknife installed. (above) thecutterhead while holding using a screwdriver thenpryuptheknife Tighten block. using a wood if it is toohigh, tap it down witha wedge; stationary ledge. from therabbeting andremove theclamp thelock screws

llll llll ll|lllJ illl llll llll llll illl llll llll r]ll r]ll llllllt illl tltl ru
1HO?TI?
Shiftingknivee for lonqer life To prolongxhe life ,/ of a eeI of jointer knives that havebeennicked, looeen lhe lockecrewo oneknife eecurinq the knife and slide inch abouL'/,o in eiNher direcf'ion. and carefully li4hten the lockocrewo rolale the culterhead by handto enoure lo thifXinqa knife Lhat the knifeturne freely. oeqmenl ouN of iLodamaqed oneeidemove6 knivee, onlhe oNher wilhthe damaqe ali4nment g omo othly. g the seLt'o continue cuLLin enablin

setting the knifeheight l new R e m o va e n o l d k n i f ea n d i n s t a la to one(page130). Usea smallwedge of rotate t h e c u t t e r h e au dn t i lt h e e d g e toint. t h e n e wk n i f ei s a t i t s h i g h e sp T h e nm a r ka l i n eo n t h e f e n c ed i r e c t l y a square e d g eu s i n g above thecutting p e n c i l . P o s i t i o a n c o m mercial a and i g o n t h e o u t f e et d able, k n i f e - s e t t i nj g jig line on the arm the reference aligning ,s l i n eo n t h e f e n c e a w i t ht h e m a r k e d l i n e o n t h e f e n ce M a r k a n o t h e r shown. line reference above the second directly the jig andextend onthejig arm.Remove table( . The l i n e a c r o s t s h e o u tfeed this q u i c k l y p o s i t i o n y o u t he w i l l h e l p line j i g t h e n e x t i m ey o u i n s t a l a l knife.) , ligning R e p o s i t i otn h e j i g o n t h et a b l e a lines lines with the marked its reference j i g ' s m a g n e t i a c rms o n t h e f e n c et;h e c o r r e c h t e ight w i l l h o l dt h e k n i f ea t t h e y o u t h rrse a wrench to trghten e while Remove the clampfromthe lockscrews.
r:hhcfino lpdsp

131

IOINTING
n. of thefirstrules of jointing is A workpiece that a should always be \,/ fed across the cutterhead so that the knives arecutting with thegrain,In this wayyouwill getthesmoothest cut while reducing theriskof splintering or kickback. Ifthe grainchanges in a direction workpiece, feedthestocksothatmostof the cut is following thegrain. Thesequence for jointingoperations shoulddepend on the wood you are joint thefaces using. Forroughlumber, first (page 134),then do the edges (below). Forwoodon whichboth faces jointingthe have already been surfaced, is edges usually sufficient. In general, seta cuttingdepthof 7s inchfor softwoods or '/re inchfor hardjoint theedges woods. Youcanusually by hand,but always usea pushblockto face-joint. Whatever thedepth youselect, check the setting before makingthe first pass. Unplug thejointeranduse ascrap of woodto rotate thecutterhead sothatallthe knives arebeiowthe levelofthe tables. Then,place a boardflushon theoutfeed gap table;the between theboard's edge and theinfeed table will equal thedepthof cut. If mostof yourjointinginvolves working with boardedges, avoiddullingthe same narrowsegment of yourknives by routinely movingthefence overslightly to evenly distributethewear.

J()INTING ANEDGE
Feedins a workpiece into thecut 1 t I Lav theworkoiece ontheinfeed table a fewinches from theknives, butting itsface against thefence. Slowly (/eff), pressfeed theworkpiece intothecutterhead knives i n gi t a g a i n s t ef e n c e w i t hy o u r l e f th a n d th while moving it steadily forward withyour right hand. Astheworkpiece gradually crosses to theoutfeed table, weight shiftyour your from foot back to your front foot. Continue feeding the stock untilyour righthand approaches theoutfeed table.

r) Finishing thepass I Wnenyour right hand reaches theoutfeed table, reverse the position ofyour hands while continuing tofeed theworkpiece. your Gradually slide lefthand toward theback oftheworkpiece (right), pressure your mainlaining against thefence. Then shift right hand further back onthestock to maintain downward justtotheoutfeed pressure side oftheknives. Continue these hand-over-hand movements until thepass iscompleted.

132

JOINTER

GRAIN END JOINTING

pass a partial 1 Making a few table onthe infeed end-down theworkpiece I Place fence' the flat against withits face fromthe knives inches your your thumb andwrap right hand wrth thefence Straddle intothecutterhead' to feedit slowly theworkpiece around tilt andimmediately thepass I inchinto about feeding Stop asshown. away fromtheknives back theworkpiece

r) Reversing thepass completing and thewolkpiece across feed thestock 180"andslowly workpiece L furnthe (above), righthand withyour thefence straddling theknives Thepartial pressure lefthand. withyour maintaining while prevent at theend splintering pass in step1 should made of thisoass.

TABTE ATIGNMENT OUTFEED

Workpiece

/
Outfeed table table 0utfeed table

r------1 laPer I I
t
____l

[lI

-_l

table

0utfeed table

,//lN --) L Even I aut


I

lnfeed table

enrPe I

to misbeattributed canoften wrth a jointer Poor results cutterrelation to the in table of theoutfeed alignment jointing at being onthetable's depends head. Perfect 128).The the knives precisely height as thesame @age if theoutcangowrong what illustrate above diagrams hapshould low-and what feed tableis toohighortoo

penwhen table height. lf theoutfeed it is at thecorrect jointing willproduce a taper than theknives, issethigher (lefil;if thetableis toolow, will leave a conthe blades at theendof theworkpiece a snipe, cut,called cave (center). theresult adjusted When thetableis properly even cut tight). will bea smooth,

r33

JOINTER

JOINTING A FACE
push Using blocks Move thefence toward therabbeting ledge, if necessary, sothatno portion of theknives willbeexposed astheworkpiece passes over thecutterhead. Lay the workpiece face-down onthe infeed table a fewinches from theknives, butting its edge against thefence. Thenputtwo push blocks squarely ontopof thestock, (Use centered push between its edges. blocks withangled your handles to keep hands fromhitting thefence.) Slowly feed theworkpiece across theknives (left) applying pressure downward onthe outfeed side of theknives to keeo thestock pressure flatonthetables andlateral to keep it flush against thefence. For a long your workpiece, bring lefthand totheback your of theworkpiece when righthand reaches theoutfeed table.

A PUSH BTOCK push Instead of buying blocks such astheones shovrrn above, some woodprefer workers to make theirown. Refer to the illustration at rightfor you suggested dimensions, although yourdesign cantailor to theworkpiece at hand. Glue thelipto theunderside of the base, flushwithoneend,Then position thehandle onthetopofthe base sothat its backendis flush withtheendof the base. Screw the handle to thebase, driving thescrews fromthe underside of thebase. Countersink thescrews to avoid you scratching theworkpiece when usethepush block. Bore a hole near thefrontendof the base so

youcanhang thepush block onthe wallwhen it is notin use. Usethe pushblock asdescribed above, butposition it ontheworkpiece

sothatthelip hugs thetrailing endof yourleft hand thestock. Position on theworkpiece near itsfrontend,bracingyour thumb onthe push block.

134

STOCK SALVAGINGWARPED
value principal I lthoughthejointer's and smooth to in its ability A rests also it can surfaces, wood rough square defects. with other out stock straighten out for evening Thejointer is alsouseful (inward-bowhave concave that boards (outward-bowing) faces. ing) or convex correct how to show below Thediagrams of irregularities. both types on thehighspots In each operation, repeatedly arepassed thewoodsurface until they are the cutterhead across edge(below,left), Fora convex removed. pass the high spotat the middle of the as the cutterhead across boardrepeatedly (cuts1 and2). manytimesasnecessary 'hose-dive" or to allowtheleadTrynot to to rideup whileyouarecutting. ingedge make is roughlyeven, Whenthe surface alongtheentireedge(cut3). a final pass pass thehigh spot edge, Fora concave theknives at oneendofthe boardacross (below, right)asmanytimesasnecessary (cutsI and 2), then turn the board at theother theprocess aroundto repeat is 3 and4).Whenthe surface end(cuts makea final pass(cut5). roughlyeven,

EDGES AND CONCAVE CONVEX

3
1 :

EDGE A CURVED JOINTING


edges and convex concave Trimming witha concave anedge Tostraighten endof theworkhold theleading curve, in level piece table an inchor soabove guard. Feed the front of thecutterhead useyour righthand; withyour workpiece pressure against to maintain lefthand partof the When thedeepest thefence. (/eft), is over thecutterhead edge concave endof theworkpiece lower the leading the table andcomplete onto theoutfeed pass. feeding theworkpiece Continue end past until thetrailing thecutterhead 180" Then turntheworkptece is straight. fortheother the procedure andrepeat along a finalpass Make endof theboard. make curve, For a convex edge. theentire for asyouwould over the blades a pass (page jointing 132), operation a standard asposasparallel theworkpiece keeping making Keep tables. sible to thejointer passes until thejointer through shallow istrue. theedge

135

JOINTER

RABBETS, CHAMFERS AND TAPERS


youcan ith a littleresourcefi;lness, do more than producesquare boards on ajointer.Bytakingfull advantageof the machine's capabilities, you canshape woodwith tapers andchamfers,or evencut rabbets for ioinery. In [act,manywoodworkers considei the jointer the besttool for cuttingrabbets-at leastwhen you areworking with thegrainof a workpiece. Aslongasyourjointerhasa rabbeting ledge, it cancut rabbets along either the edge or the faceof a board,Since the guardmustberemoved for edge rabbets on stockthicker than3/sinchand for any rabbetalongthe faceof a board,extra caution is essential. Angledcutsalongthe corners of a workpiece, knownaschamfers, aremade on thejointerby tiltingthefence to the required angle or with theaidof a shopjig. Tapers made arealso straightforward. With a stopblockclamped to each table, you cancut stopped tapers that leave square ends for joiningto a tabletop or seat, or for carving into a decorative foot.

A leg taperedon thejointer provides gracefulsupportfor this table.

RABBETING ON THE JOINTER

Cutting rabbets Mark cutting lines f o rt h ew i d t h a n dd e p t h o f t h er a b b e otn theleading endof theworkpiece. Align thewidth mark withthe ends of theknives, thenposition thefence flush against the workpiece. Setthe cutting depthnodeeper Ihanr/,t inch. (above, Fora rabbet along a board edge lefil,feed theworkpiece fromabove withyour yourlefthand righthand while pressure maintains against thefence. Increase thecutting

depth byincrements nodeeper thanI/qinch andmake addipasses tional if necessary. Fora rabbet along a board face(above, guide right), the workpiece near itsfront endwithyour lefthand, while usrng a push block to apply pressure downward andkeep theworkpiece f latonthetables. Slowly feed theworkpiece across the knives, then deepen therabbet, if necessarV.

136

IOTNTER

JIG A V-BI()CK use thissimple onthejointer, Tocuta series of chamfers jig. Refer shown at leftfor to the illustration shop-made suggested dimensions. 2-by-2s. cutttng of thejig bybevel Begin theV section beyond sothattheyextend Position thetwocut pieces a t/z' 6 inches, andhave byabout oneendof the base gapbetween through Attach thetwopieces them. inch the to avoid scratching screws withcountersunk thebase jointer in place. when thejig isclamped table withoneendof the it in place Touse thejig,clamp table. of theinfeed withthecutterhead-end base aligned depth of cut, table to themaximum Lower theinfeed in thegapof the Seat theworkpiece typically Yzinch. jig,thenfeedit across righthand, withyour theknives lefthand. it f irmly in theV withyour while holding

i
I

t t
I

*--*J
TAPER A SIMPLE MAKING

thecut upand starting 1 Setting gauge the to outline a marking I Use (lnset); thenmark taper ontheworkpiece of thestock to lines onthefourfaces willbegin. Install where thetaper indicate ledge to hold a clamp ontherabbeting Seta 7s-inch outof theway. theguard holding theworkpiece depth of cutand, start align thetaper thefence, against of theoutfeed table. withthefront line theother end block against Butta stop it tothe ce n dc l a m p o f t h ew o r k p i e a pass, carefully Tostart each infeed table. while onto theknives lower theworkoiece ir a g a i nt sh te em l y h o l d i nt g h ew o r k p i efc hands sure thatyour fence andmaking (/efil. side of theknives areontheinfeed right hand, withyour thefence Straddle your theworkpiece thumb to keep using block. flush against thestop

1.37

JOINTER

Cutting thetaper to feed theworkpiece Use a push stick Withyour righthand, across thecutterhead. pressure onthetrailing apply downward yourlefthand use to endof theworkpiece; keep flushagainst thefence theworkpiece (right). passes Make asmany across the thetaper knives asnecessary to complete Tocutthe onthefirstface oftheworkoiece. remaining faces, rotate theworkpiece clockpasses wise 90oandmake repeated over the youhave until trimmed thestock cutterhead to thetaper marks. down

A STOPPED TAPER IOINTING

withtwinstop Gutting blocks lines of theworkoiece to indicate where the Mark on all faces a clamp ontherabbeting iapering willbegin andend.Install depth of ledge to hold theguard outof theway. Seta %-inch withthetaper cut,thenbutttheworkpiece against thefence 3/qinch (The startline behind thefrontof theoutfeed table. forthefactthat,when the infeed extra3/q inchwillcompensate it willalso Butta table is lowered later, slide back slightly.) it to the stop block against theendof theworkpiece andclamp infeed table. Next align thetaper endlinewiththe back end table. Butta second stopblock against theother of the infeed

endof theworkpiece andclamp in place. Tomake thefirst pass, lower theworkpiece onto the knives, keeping it f lush against thefence andthestopblock Feed onthe infeed table. theworkpiece using thethumb of yourrighthandbbove), fingers yourlefthand straddling thefence; use to press theworkpiece against thefence anddown ontheknives. Keep both hands wellabove Make thecutterhead. onepass on each face, inchandreoeat thenlower the infeed tabler/a theDrocess on increasing allfour sides. Continue, thecutting depth until the taper is completed.

138

PLANER
planing a rough stock, N or smoothing r e d u c i n t g h e p a n e o l r I'glued-up planthe uniforrnly, of aboard thickness Its machine. woodworking eristheideal from a plane wood isto mainfunction that surface producing a smooth board, face. with theopposite isparallel
areeasy to use,but keepthe Planers followingpointsin mind to getthebest Alwaysfeedstockinto the knives results. following the direction of grain. Althoughthe maximum depthof cut for pass to is 7einch,limit each mostplaners %oinch and makemultiple passes. Someof the tasksyou perform on on the jointer cannotbe duplicated the planer.You cannot,for example, the board.Since out a warped straighten waqped parallelsurfaces, planerproduces stock will emergethinner from the but just aswarped. machine,

H(lW A PLANER W()RKS


lnfeed roller

Chipbreaker Freaaeaworkptece againot table before it reacheaknivee

Preasurebar Tresaeoworkpiece down after it ie ehaved,keepinq it flat

?Fii#i#,",
-)
Tableroller Helpe reduce fric' Lion betweenworkpieceand table Tableroller

A BOARD PLANING
Using theplaner laytheworkpiece depth, Tosetthecutting itsendwiththe andalign onthetable guide. depth Xo-inch For a typical depth handle adjustment thetable of cut,turn justclears the untilthetopof theboard a Tomake of theguideInset). bottom pass stand to one side theplaner, through to andusebothhands of theworkpiece roller, keepintotheinfeed feedit slowly parallel edges. to thetable ingitsedges grips roller theworkpiece theinfeed Once pulling it past thecutterhead, andbegins to endof thestock thetrailing support Asthetrailit flatonthetable(left). keep reaches theplaningendof theworkpiece side of the move to theoutfeed er's table, withboth theworkpiece machine. Support roller. To theoutfeed hands untilit clears prevent plane from fromwarping, stock rather than bothsides of a workpiece only. fromoneside removing thickness

r39

GLOSSARY
A-B
Arbor: A round shaftprojectingfrom the sawmotor to turn revolvingsaw blades or othercuttingimplements. Bead:A rounded,convexshapecut in wood. Bevelcut: Sawingat an anglefrom faceto facethrough the thickness or alongthe lengthof a workpiece. Bladelead:The tendency ofa band sawbladeto drift offthe'intended line of a cut. Bladeset:The amount that sawteeth areoffsetalternately to the left and to the right, allowing a bladeto cut a kerf slightly wider than its own thickness to helppreventbinding. Box joine Identicalinterlocking fingersthat meshtogetherto form a cornerjoint. C Carbide-tipped blade:A saw's cutting edgeon which the teetharemade of a compoundof carbonand steel; suchbladeedges arestronger and staysharper longerthan conventional high-speed steel. The box-like frame of a Carcase: pieceof furniture,suchasa chest or bookcase. Chamfer:A decorative bevelcut alongthe edge of a workpiece. Cheek The faceof the projecting joint. tenonin a mortise-and-tenon Chippers:Auxiliary cuttersthat cleanout the wastewood between the cuts madeby the two sawblades ofa stacking dadohead. jaws on a drill for Chuck Adjustable holdingbits.orothercuttingor sandlng accessorles. Compound cut Sawingthrough a boardwith the bladepresented at angles other than 90orelativeto the faceand edge ofthe stock. Concave: A roundedinward shape, like the insideof a bowl. Contour cut Sawingalonga curved line; usuallywith a band saw. Convex A roundedoutward shape, like the outsideof a bowl. Countersink: To drill a hole that permits the headof a screw or bolt to lie flush or slightlybelowa wood surface. Cove A hollow concave form cut into wood. CrosscufiSawingacross the grain of a workpiece.

F Faces: Thewidersurfaces of a piece


ofwood. jointing: Usinga jointer to cut Face thin shavings from the faceof a workpieceuntil it is flat and square to the edge. Featherboard: A pieceofwood cut with fingersor "feathers" at one end; usedin conjunction with clamps to holll workpieces against a sawtable or tence. Feedpressure:Rateat which a workpieceis pushed into the bladeor cuttersof a woodworking machine. Fence: An adjustable guideto keep the edgeof a workpiecea setdistance from the cuttingedge of a tool. Fingerjoint: Similarto a box joint but with narrowerintermeshing fingers,typically lessthan /a inch wide. Flute: A roundedconcave groovecut with a moldinghead. Fly cutter: A drill pressaccessory with a shaftand a sliding cutter blade that canbe adiusted to makeholesof variousdiameters. Freehand:To cut a workpieceon a band sawwithout usingeitherthe miter gauge or the fence; freehand cutting shouldneverbe attempted on the tablesawand radial arm saw G-H-I Grain: The arrangement and direction of the fibersthat makeup wood; grain will look different in different treesand asa resultof the sawing technioue usedto harvest lumber from tlie log. Gullet: The gapbetweenteeth on a sawblade. Hardwood: Wood cut from deciduous (leaf-shedding) trees; sometypes may actuallybe soft and easy to cut.

D-E
Dado: A.rectangular channelcut into a worKplece. Dado head:A blade-or combination of blades and cutters-used to shapedadoes in wood. The two main typesarewobblers,one or tlvo bladesthat wobblebackand forth on adjustable hubs,and stacking dadoheads, which arepairsof blades sandwiched around one to five interior chippers. Dovetail joint A method of joining wood at corners by means of interlocking pins and tails;the name derives from the distinctiveshapecut into the endsof thejoining boards. Dowe} Wood pins usedto reinforce certaintypesof joints. Edges: The narrowersurfaces ofa pieceof wood. Edgejointing: Usinga jointer to cut thin shavings from the edgeof a workpieceuntil it is flat and square to the face.

140

Hook angle:Angleof the faceof a tooth in relationto a line sawblade's from the tip of the tooth to the center of the b-lade. table Infeed:The part of a machine's that is in front of the bladeor cutter during a cuttingoperation. In-rip: The positiona radialarm sawblademust be in to rip a narrow board;the motor is rotatedto situate the bladenearthe fence.

o-P
molding with an A decorative Ogee: profile. S-shaped Outfeed:The part of a machine's tablethat is behindthe bladeduring a cuttingoperation. Out-rip: The positiona radialarm sawblademustbe in to rip a wide board;the motor is rotatedto posithe bladeand fence. tion it between Pawls:Pivotingleverswith sharp endsdesigned to grip a workpiece and preventit from beingkicked backtoward the operator. Pushstick A deviceusedto push a workpiece into a bladeor cutterso fingers. asto protectthe operator's Q-R surroundingthe spinQuill A sleeve the amount that dle of a drill press; the quill canbe raisedand lowered the depthof holea drill determines press can Dore. Rabbet A step-likecut in the edgeor formspart of end of a board;usually a joint. Raker:A tooth in a sawbladethat and wood chips clearsawaysawdust from the kerf. cut A preliminary incision Release to a from the edge of a workpiece line aboutto be cut; suchpreparations enable a band sawto cut along tighter turns by facilitatingthe wood. removalof waste Reliefcut Sawinginto an auxiliary for a table fenceto provide clearance sawor radial arm sawbladeor cutter. To reducethe thickness of a Resaw: boardby cuttingit into two or more thinnerpieces.

Reverse thread: Machinethreadscut so that a nut turns counterclockwise to tighten;commonlyfound on saw arborsto preventbladefasteners from workingloose. Rip cut A cut that followsthe grain of a workpiece-usually madealong its length.

S.T-U
In a mortise-and-tenon Shoulder: joint, the part of the tenonperpendicularto the cheek. Softwood:Wood cut from logs of (coniferous) trees. cone-bearing Spindle:The verticalrotating shaft holdsthe chuckthat of a drill press; gripsthe bit. A groovethat does StoppedgrooYe: not run the full length or width of a workpiece. Stoppedhole: A hole that doesnot passall the way through a workpiece; alsoknown asa blind hole. Thpercut: An angledcut alongthe that reduces lengthof a workpiece its width at one end. Tearout:The tendencyof a bladeor cutter to tear the fibersof the wood it is cutting,leaving ragged edges on a problemespecially the workpiece; when crosscutting. Tenon:A protrusionfrom the end of a boardthat fits into a mortise.

for guidinga tool or fig: Device in position. holdinga workpiece Kerf: A cut madein wood by the width of a sawblade. Kickback The tendencyof a workpieceto be thrown backin the directionof the operatorof a woodworking machine. M-N across Miter cut A cut that angles the faceof a workpiece. Miter gauge:A devicethat slidesin a slot on the sawtable,providingsuppastthe port for the stockasit moves canbe adjusted bladefor crosscuts; for miter cuts. to differentangles Moldinghead:A solidmetalwheel to the arbor and holds that attaches setsof identicalknivesfor carving and moldings;usedon tablesaws radial arm saws. hole cut into Mortise: A rectangular a pieceof wood. Mortise-and-tenonjoint A joinery in which a projecting technique tenonon oneboardis madeto fit in an into a mortiseon another; joint, the openmortise-and-tenon mortiseis not stopped, but passes throughthe workpiece. completely

I-K-L

V-W-X.Y-Z
Veneer:A thin layerof decorative wood laid into or overa more common wood.

r4l

INDEX
in iralicsindicate Pagereferences an illustration of subjectmatter. in bold indicate Page references a Build It Yourselfproject. taperjigs,99 Drill presses rack,110-111 aciessory jigs for equally spaced holes,ll2-ll3 pocketholejigs,l17 sandingtableand pattern sanding insert, L22-123 tilting tablejigs, 114 Iointers pushblocks,134 V-blockjigs,137 Radialarm saws fenceand tablefor dado and molding cuts,72 miter jigs, 65 taperjigs,68 Tablesaws jigs,33 crosscut jigs for repeatnarrow cuts,27 jigs,47 tenoning plugcutters, .111, 118 r a c k sl,l 0 - l l l drums, 105,122-123 sanding (Shop sanding drums,off-size Tip), 123 Alignment,108-109 (ShopTip), i09 checking B i t s .l I 0 - l l I Clamping,109 Integraltenons,I .18 Radialarm drill press,106 precautions, 108,109 Safety Sandingtableand pattern sanding rnsert,122-123 T i p s ,1 0 9 , 1 1 5 , 1 11 62 ,3 Shop 108,122 Speeds, See alsoDrilling Duginske, Mark, ll

A
Ames,Judith,l0 Angle cuts,back endpaper Band saws,98 fointers,136-138,137 Radialarm saws,63-64 miter cuts,48-49, 63,65 35 Tablesaws, Angled holes: 104,lI2, 114, Ll4, ll7 Drill presses, (ShopTip), 116 compoundangles jigs,114,117

B
Band saws,9, 78-79,80-81 Alignment,82-84 Angle cuts,98 Bladeguards,8Q 85 Blades, 79, 81,85, 8688 bladelead (ShopTip), 94, 97 installation,87 roundingofback edge(ShopTip), 88 94, 97 Crosscutting, 92 Curved cuts,78-79, 89blades, 86 circle-cuttingjigs, 93 quarter-circle -cutting jigs, 79, 92 rounding corners,92 - 103 joints, 101 Dovetail Guideassemblies, 84 81,83,85 Guideblocks,82, 83 100 Multiple duplicatepieces,90, Pattern sawing,90-91 Pivot blocks,96 Rip fences,80,94, 95, 97 Ripping, 94,95,96 precautions, 79, 85 Safety ShopTips, 88, 94 Stopblocks,100,102 Tapercuts,98,99,99 Three-wheel band saws,8I Benchtop table saws,13, .15 Bevelclamps,5Q 53 Bevelcuts, 64, 98 see alsoAngle cuts Bits: 110-111 Drill presses, Bladeguards,50,60,61 Band saws, 80 Radialarm saws, 50,60,61 Band saws; Radialarm saws; Blades. See Tablesaws Boxjoints,44,45 Fingerjoints,49,7G77 ligs, 13,76 Build It Yourself: Band saws circle-cuttingjigs, 93 rip fences,95

F-G-H
Featherboards, backendp aper Fingerjoints, 49, 76-77 Grooves: 71,72,73-74 Radialarm saws, Table saws, 36,38,39 Hold-down devices: 60, 6I, 66 Radialarm saws, Tablesaws,15,18,24,25 Holes.See Drilling

C
Carbide-tipped blades: 58 Radialarm saws, Tablesaws. 20-21 136,137 Chamfers, Circles: Centerfinders(ShopTip), lI5 Circle-cuttingjigs, 93 -cutting jigs,79,92 Quarter-circle Clamping: 109 Drill presses, 13 Contractor's saws, Covecutting, 43 Crosscutting: Bandsaws,94,97 Radialarm saws, 60, 62 Tablesaws, 30-33 blades,20,21 jigs,30,33 wide panels,34 saws: Curvedcuts Curved cuts.SeeBand 126,130-131,133 Cutterheads,

I-J
Integraltenons,118 figs: Band saws jigs,93 circle-cutting -attting jigs, 79,92 quarter-circle V-block jigs, 95, 97 Drill oresses jigs for equallyspaced holes, lt2-tt3 pocketholejigs, 104,ll7 l4 t i l t i n g t a b l e j i g ls , V-blockjigs,116 Jointers jigs, l3l knife-setting V-blockjigs,137 Radialarm saws auxiliary fenceand table,72 fingerjointjigs,26 miter jigs, 48-49,65 taperjigs,68 Tablesaws box joints, 13,45 crosscuts, 30,33 multiple angledcuts,35 repeatnarrow cuts,27 taper cuts,29 jigs, 12-13, tenoning 46,47 foinery, backendpaper Bandsaws, 101-103 Drill presses, 118-121 49, 76-77 Radialarm saws, Tablesaws,12-13, 13,44-47 11, 124125,126127 Jointers,

D
Dado cuts.SeeDadoes; Grooves; Rabbets Dadoes: Radialarm saws,69-70 repeat cuts(ShopTip), 70 Tablesaws, 36-37 Dado heads, 36-37, 69-70 joints, 101103 Dovetail 111, 118 Dowels, Drilling, 112-118 ll2, 114, Angledholes,104-105, tL4. tt7 (ShopTip), 116 compoundangles j i g s ,1 1 4 , 1 1 7 Centerfinders(ShopTip), 115 Equallyspaced holes,ll2-ll3 Drill presses, 10,104-105, 106-107 Accessories. 1 10111 dowelcutters,111,118 mortising attachments, 1 19121

t42

Alignment,128129,133 Guards,126,127,128,136 126,130-131 Knives, prolonginguse(ShopTip), 131 Pushblocks.134 |ointing, 132-134 Chamfers,136,137 136 Rabbets, 136,137-138 tapercuts, 124-125, Warpedboards,135 See alsofointers

K-L.M
Klausz,Frank, 8 Lap joints,44 2.1 Melamineblades, Miller-Mead, Giles,6-7 Miter clamps,50,51,52 Miter cuts,48-49, 63,65,98 see alsoAngle cuts Miter gauges: Band saws,80,81, 84, 97, 98 73,14,15,17,30,32 Table saws, fixing a loose(ShopTip), 17 rip fences with, 18,24,30,31 wide panels,34 Miter jigs, 48-49,65 Moldings: Radialarm saws,72,75 Tablesaws,40-43 joints: Mortise-and-tenon 119-121 Drill presses, Table saws,12-13,44,46-47

P-Q-R
Panels: Radialarm saws,67 26, 34 Table saws, 125,127,139 Planers, Drill presses, lll 58 Radialarm saws, ll,118 P l u g sl , 2l Plywoodblades, Pdckethole jigs, 104,Ll7 Pushblocks,134 Pushsticl,rs, /ront endpaper -attting jigs, 79,92 Quarter-circle Rabbets: 136 Jointers, Radialarm saws,7l 36, 38 Tablesaws, 106 Radialarm drill presses, 8, 48-49,50-51 Radialarm saws, Accessories, 5& 75 60,61, 66 hold-down devices, router bits, 5-l specialized bladeguards, 60,61,75 Adjustment,49,52-57 Angle cuts, 48-49,63-64,65 Auxiliarytables,51,57,72 finger joints,49,76 Bladeguards,50,60,61,75 Blades, 49,58,59,62 alignment,55-57

dadoheads,69-70 installation,59, 69 molding cutters,75 62 Crosscutting, Dado cuts,69-74 auxiliary fenceand table,72 repeatdadoes(ShopTip), 70 Fences, 51,57,72 |oinery,49,7G77 Moldings,72,75 Panels,67 Portable,5l cuts,62,70 Repeat ShopTips,64,70 (ShopTip),64 Shortworkpieces alsosubheading Radialarm See sawsunder figs; Ripping;Safety precautions Resawing,28,96 Rip clamps, 51,54 Rip fences: 80,94,95,97 Bandsaws, 17,18,24 Table saws, 14,15, guide,3l crosscutting miter gauges with, 18,24,30,31 Ripping: Bandsaws, 94,95,96 cylinders,95 Radialarm saws, 60-61, 66-67 taper cuts,68 Tablesaws, 20,24-25 anglecuts,35 narrow strips,27,27 resawing,23 taper cuts,29 26 wide panels, Roller stands,14 26 Routers: 122 Drill presses, 5l Radialarm saws,

Drill presses, 105,122123 off-sizedrums (ShopTips), 123 58 Radialarm saws, Dave,9 Sawyer, ShopTips: Bandsaws,88,94 Drill presses, 109,115,116, 123 l3l Jointers, Radialarm saws,64,70 Tablesaws, 17,22,32 14 Stationarysaws,13, Stoppedgrooves, 36, 39, 74 Stopped holes,113 138 Stopped tapers,

T
49 Tablesaws, 6-7, 12,13,14-15, l3 Accessories, hold-down devices, 15, 18,24, 25 molding cutters,13,40-41 roller stands,.1426 specialized bladeguards,19 Nignment, 16-17 Angle cuts,35 13,14,18,19 Bladeguards, Blades, 20-21,23 dado heads. 36-32 installation,22, 37 Dadocuts,36-39 "Off' Hands-free switch (Shop Tip),32 Moldings, 40-43 Portable, 13,15 Repeat cuts,27,32 ShopTips, 17,22,32 Tableinserts(ShopTip), 22 Tablesawsunder See alsosubheading Crosscutting; |igs; Miter gauges; Rip fences; Ripping; precautions Safety Tapercuts: Bandsaws, 98,99,99 136,137-138 fointers,124-125, Radialarm saws,68 Tablesaws, 29 Taperjigs: Bandsaws,99 68 Radialarm saws, Tablesaws.29 jigs, 12-13, Tenoning 46,47 Tenons: Integraltenons,l18 joints also Mortise-and-tenon See Three-wheel band saws, 8l jigs,l14 Tiltingtable V-block jigs, 95,97, 1 16,137 Warpedboards,135, 139 Yoke clamps,5Q 53

S
precautions, front endpaper Safety Bandsaws, 79, 85 108, 109 Drill presses, fointers, 126,127,128,129,136 guards,126,127,128,136 58,60,62,67 Radialarm saws, 50,60,61,75 bladeguards, hold-down devices, 60,61, 66 kickback,58,60,61,66 Tablesaws, 13,l& 30 guards, 13,14,18, 19 blade "Off' hands-free switch (Shop Tip),32 15, 18,24, 25 hold-down devices, kickback, 18,L9,20,24,25 moldingcutters,40 (ShopTip), 22 tableinserts Sanding: 122-123 Drill presses, sandingtableand pattern sanding inserL,122-123 drums: Sanding

U-V.W-X-Y-Z

143

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Theeditors wish to thank thefollowing TABLESAW Delta InternationalMachinery,Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmore Tools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa, Ont.; LeichtungWorkshops,Cleveland, OH; Makita Canada Ltd., Whitby, Ont.; HTC Products,Inc., RoyalOak, MI; Richards Engineering Co., Ltd., Vancouver,BC; Sears, Roebuck and Co., Chicago,IL; Shopsmith,Inc., Montr6al, Que.; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY RADIALARMSAW AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; FisherHill Products,Inc., Fitzwilliam,NH; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Montrdal, Que.; Ont.; G & W Tool, Inc., Tulsa,OK; Jon Eakes, RichardsEngineering Co. Ltd., Vancouver,BC; Ryobi America Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Corp., Anderson,SC;Sears, Shopsmith,Inc., Montr6al, Que.;Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY BANDSAW Delta InternationalMachinery Guelph,Ont.; GarrettWade Co., Inc., New York, NY; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Montr6al, Que.; Mohawk FinishingProductsof Canada, Shopsmith,Inc., Montr6al, Que.;Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY DRILLPRESS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta International Machinery,Guelph,Ont.; G & W Tool, Inc., Tulsa,OK; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. JOINTER/PLANER AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A. Ltd., Norcross,GA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Norcross,GA; Shopsmith, Inc., CommunicationMasters, Montrdal,Que.;UniquestCorp.,Murriy, UT Thefotlowingpersonsalso assisted in thepreparation of this book: Nyla Ahmad, RenaudBoisjoly,MaryseDoray, Lorraine Dor6, Naomi Fukuyama, Graphor Consultation,fos6eLaperrilre, G6rardMariscalchi,JenniferMeltzer,NicolasMoumouris, Maryo Proulx, ShirleySylvain,James Therrien

PICTURE CREDITS
Cover PaulMcCarthy/Au Puits de LumiEre 6,7 RobertChartier 8 PatrickHarbron/Outline 9 Carl Valiquet Photographe l0 RaymondGendreau 11 GlenHartjes/Image Studios

144

GP UIDE WORKSHO
MAKINGYOUROWNFEATHERBOARDg I'o keepolock are ueed' also knownae fin7erboarde, Fealherboarde, Sincethey 7ermit' eaw' Lable of a fence or enuqly aqatnellhe Vreooed L o m o v eo n l y i n o n e d i r e c t i o n - f o w a r d t h e b l a d e a workpiece is one baeic dev'tcee.There featherboardsalEoeerveae anti-kickback euit' Lhe laek aL varied to be lenqlh can righl: the deoiqnehownat, eecurea lo the saw lable are clampedLo hand. Lonqfeat'herboarde to lhe lence workpiece againoL|,hefence:shorler oneeare aLLached lo hold ef,ockaqainet'Ihe Iable. 3/q To make a fealherboard,cul a 3OoLo 45o mit'er at' one end of a or i n c h - l h i c k b o a r d :c h o o s eL h i c k e re t o c k i f y o u w i l l b e r e e a w i n q f r o m L he i n c h e s 5 i n e a b o u l M a r k a w o o d , p a r a l l e l thtck cuf,f,ing 1/e inch-wide Lo cul' aaw mif,ered end.Then uee a table aaw or a band finqere. b u Lp l i a b l e c r e a t i n ga r o w o f o N u r d y s l o L et o | , h em a r k e dl i n e , Io a saw I'able,cul a nor'chfor a Seforeeecurin7a feal,herboard to a I'ableaf' a 90" anqleI'o the feat'herboard, eu??orLboard.Clamped added el'abiliIy. Ihe oupporl pieceprovidee

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