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The issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice All media that is created in the world today

whether its film, music or printed media is all owned by a legal owner. For example Warner Bros own DC comics and therefore own the rights to all the characters in the DC universe. In terms of Star Trek Into Darkness which is owned by Paramount Pictures initially the influence it has is greater than a smaller media company would have over the type of film made. This is because Paramount (being one of the big six media companies in the world) has revenue of $1.2 billion. A media company that has a lot of money can team up with other media companies to produce a film together. Being a big media company with a great sum of money has a lot of influence over the type of film made because the more money they have the more they can possibly spend on good casting, CGI, filming spots and other key essential things for a good film. All this adds up to the amount of success the film makes such as Star Trek: Into Darkness that made a huge success in the box office due to the good casting and effects all due to the money and the owning media company Paramount Pictures. There are many film and production companies in the world today that are classed as massive companies and have produced bigger films that have come to cinema screens over the years. Star Trek was made by many companies such as Paramount who are a massive production company and have produced other films such as Transformers Dark of the Moon and Iron Man which both films did well in the Box office and are massive Hollywood films. It is commonly seen that if bigger well-known companies create and produce a film they will do much better than smaller companies in the Box office because the film companies that produce them are more recognised by the audience that the film is aimed at as well as other audiences as well. These big film production companies such as paramount pictures do make most of the money in film business because of how big they are and how well-known they are. They are able to make all this money in film producing because of the starting amount they have put into a film helps the film bring in massive actors which can have a massive effect on a film because better more well-known actors in a film can attract even bigger audiences meaning a larger profitable return for the film. The film Star Trek Into Darkness had a budget of around $190 million and grossed over around $467,365,247 million dollars in return showing a greater more profitable return. It is possible for small companies to succeed for example the Bad Robot who helped produce Star Trek: Into Darkness with Paramount was a part of the Touchstone Television but moved with J.J Abrams to Paramount Pictures and

Warner Bros. But out of the eight films they have produced (mostly with Paramount) seven of them have been very successful in the box office.

Companies that helped produce Star Trek Into Darkness are mainly bigger well-known companies and these companies are Paramount Pictures, Sky Dance Productions and Bad Robot which isnt as well-known as Paramount Pictures. These companies impacted loads on the Star Trek film because having larger companies like this investing in a film and setting up a massive budget for the film means that the director and the producers of the film have allot of money to play around with. For example a larger budget provided by these production companies means larger more spectacular special effects could be added to the film in which Star Treks whole film was mainly CGI and green screening. This would add effect to the film giving it a better review and response attracting even more views and audiences.

The importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing The company that distributed Star Trek Into Darkness was Paramount picture and Dolby Laboratories, Paramount are a massive company in the movie making industry so they would have the funds to advertise and publicize the film. Another much smaller production company that was working with Paramount to produce the film was Dolby Laboratories. Paramount made the official trailer for star trek into darkness that was released on April 8th, for the trailer Anna Behlmer and Andy Nelson were in charge of creating the soundtrack for the international.

Dolby Laboratories are a small company but were able to advertise the film due to the massive amount of resources and power that Paramount Pictures have in the movie making industry. Paramount pictures used the size and popularity of their company to advertise the film, they were able to show a 30 second clip at the super bowl XLVII and they also made apps for the film for windows iPhones and android. Paramount Pictures released poster on iTunes of Kirk, Spock, Uhura and Harrison.

The technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange.

There are now new ways that films can be distributed and marketed. One of these is that marketing can be done virally instead of just posters on walls and trailers in cinemas. This influenced the marketing of Star Trek as it combined with the computer developing company Acer and there was a campaign created to benefit both companies. They released a special edition Acer laptop, this technology has helped affect the film marketing because it changed the way people saw the film as they may believe that it is in fact more than just a film and that the laptop is not just an ordinary laptop. People may buy into the

campaign as they believe that Star Trek could actually be more realistic as it has combined with a real life brand. Also, a mobile app was released during the Super Bowl in order to gain publicity from as millions of people would be tuning in to see that it would now be available. The first screening of a trailer was also shown here; this would impact highly on the film as now millions would know it was coming out increasing the hype. Finally, they displayed trailers in multiple train stations all over London; these places include Waterloo station, London Euston and Leeds. These show how technology has increased as there are now wider places to broadcast trailers.

The type of exchange available now has impacted hugely on Star Trek. This is shown as the film was able to be viewed 3D, Blu-Ray and there was also plenty of IMAX screenings. This would affect the film as there would now be more viewings (IMAX cinemas) and also more copies may be sold as people may be enticed to buy it purely because it would be available on Blu-ray. Another benefit is the development of multiplex cinemas. This means that it could be broadcasted on multiple screens making it accessible to a wider audience.

The film was distributed by Dolby Laboratories and Paramount. It was available on different types of home media, one of these being Netflix. They may have aimed to have it on Netflix as the app is available on laptops, phones and many consoles such as the Xbox 360 and PS3. This shows how technology has advanced so far as it can be seen pretty much everywhere for a fairly small price. It was also viewed on thousands of screens across the world therefore the distribution was very broad.

The film was produced in IMAX for 30 minutes of the film and then was shot in both HD and digital cameras for the majority of the film. Edgar Wright, who is massive in production, directed one shot of the film. The film was also shot maily in paramount studios in Los Angeles where they have new advanced scenery technology so they can create HD quality background.

The significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences.

Film companies have changed the way they work by changing advertisement campaigns. The different ways that this could be done to cater for smart phones and web use is through the use of apps and motion posters. Also there are

trailers and downloads that can be accessed from phones and advertised through TV and online viewing. The way that J.J. Abrams marketed Star Trek: Into Darkness was by releasing an iTunes movie trailer on April 12 2013, which featured the USS Enterprise and announced that the final US trailer would be released on April 16. Leading up to the main trailer release character posters featuring Kirk, Spock, Uhura, and Harrison were released on iTunes also, making them available for download, advertising the film to a wider audience due to the use of film download and smartphone use.

Audiences have changed their viewing habits from going to the cinema to see a new release; to having the ability to view illegally recorded and posted films before the official release. This is not only harmful to the distributors and producers, because no money is made from illegal downloads, but also to the film industry as a whole. When the film is officially released, the public have access to websites such as Netflix, iTunes and LoveFilm. This means that you can watch what you want on demand at your leisure making them a rising success. Additionally they are available to download onto smartphones and tablets, meaning they can be watched at any time and in any place. Obviously, DVDs and Bluray are available to purchase immediately after domestic release, making the viewing as cinematic as possible. Additionally, Sky Movies, Virgin Media, BT Vision Player and YouView etc. allow customers to rent and buy movies and watch them on a range of different devices such as; TV, PlayStation and AppleTV.

Star Trek was released as a digital download on August 20, 2013. It was first released on DVD, Blu-ray and Blu-ray 3D in the United Kingdom on September 2 2013, and in the United States on September 10. The Bluray 3D edition allowed

the audience to have a cinematic experience at home without having to go to the cinema to experience the film in 3D, furthermore allowing them to watch it more than once without having to pay multiple times to go to the cinema. Sainsbury's had an exclusive edition of the film with a second bonus DVD disc containing 33 minutes of extra features not shown in the cinema, allowing the viewers to see unseen footage that wouldnt have been released in the box office. There is also a Special Limited Edition Blu-ray set available with a model on a stand of the USS Vengeance as seen in this movie, enticing Trekkies to purchase this edition.

The importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences

Star Trek Into Darkness is marketed on a widening range of platforms in formats such as games, clips and pictures this will make more people watch the film, overall will create more money for the company and industry. It is available to download from websites such as Netflix which people can connect on PCs, tablets, x-box and smartphones, also you can buy it from I tunes for 13.99 to put it on you I pad, I pod , I phone or any other apple product. The DVD and blu ray from shop or to order online for 13.99 DVD or 21.99 on blu ray. There is also a 3D DVD version available to buy for 21.99 this will give the viewers a more realistic experience as if they were involved in the action themselves. There is a Star Trek Into Darkness soundtrack cd you can buy from shops for 7.99, it is also available to download on I tunes for 9.99 or you can stream it off of Spotify and You Tube. Also it is available as a video game to order off of the internet or to buy in shops for 13.99.

The issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions. Star Trek Into Darkness had a rather large impact on America considering one of the premiers was held in Hollywood on Tuesday, May 14, 2013 until Wednesday, May 15, 2013, this was just In the USA, more premiers had been held in other places such as the UK. Also within the USA On April 12, 2013, iTunes Movie Trailers revealed the final domestic one-sheet featuring the USS Enterprise, and announced that the final US domestic trailer would be released on April 16. Most of the cast participated in May 2013 press junkets. On May 7, Simon Pegg appeared on Jimmy Kimmel Live! On May 8, Zachary Quinto was interviewed on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon. He was followed on May 10 by Benedict Cumberbatch. A problem may have been the old fans of the original Star Treks thoughts on Khan because he was a well-known character in the older episodes and movies. But having such a wide audience (original fans, teenagers and the lower age group) allowed the film to be experimental because with such a wide audience they were bound to get both negative and positive comments. There were merchandise to help promote the film; these consisted of IPhone cases, key rings as well as dolls and costumes. Bryan Burk, an Into Darkness producer showed 35 minutes of the film to journalists and exhibitors in South America, Europe and Asia on an 11-city foreign tour. The Into Darkness marketing campaign targeted international markets in attempt to boost the franchises popularity around the world. The openings in the UK, Australia and Germany were 56% ahead of the 2009 openings. Mexico, New Zealand, and Switzerland were 250% ahead. Into Darkness was distributed in China, whereas the 2009 film was not. Appealing to national and local audiences would be difficult as the first film was regarded as Too Trekkie and too sci-fi. Chris Pine said Classically people think that its a space film, but this one is a very earthbound story, at a convention for theatre owners. The self-contained plot was produced to be exciting to

previous fans and new fans who know nothing about the franchise, therefore attracting more people.

The ways in which the candidates own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour.

Star Trek Into Darkness was released in May 2013 after a previous star trek film. Critics said that Paramount earnt their money back on the new film. Star trek received $467,365,246 at the box office, this is because of the vast amount of marketing that they did. Posters were displayed in December 2012, 6 months before the release date to start the fan base for the film. Actors from the film hit American Talk shows such as Jimmy Kimmel which have massive audiences. The film was released on DVD and Blu-ray in September and advertised on iTunes for 10.00. Owning the DVD meant that viewers could watch the film over and over again without having to pay the high prices of the cinema. Whilst super bowl was on an app was released to unlock new surprises and features of the film. Such as, seeing the trailer and poster earlier. Top critic Mark Kermode said: Having successfully resurrected the moribund Star Trek franchise with his 2009 reboot, JJ Abrams goes for broke with Star Trek Into Darkness (2013, Paramount, 12), in which both action and spectacle are set to warp factor nine from the off. The film opens with Kirk (Chris Pine) being chased over the edge of a cliff while Spock (Zachary Quinto) wrestles with the exploding insides of a volcano, a sequence which pretty much sets the pace for the rest of the movie. Chasing an evil nemesis across the galaxy, the Enterprise and its crew boldly go where many have gone before, but with a lot more splash. The usual conversations about loyalty, logic and the transgression of the "Prime Directive" are generally held while

hanging off the edge of a collapsing building, punching a running adversary in the face or being fried alive in a nuclear reactor In my opinion, I think that seeing films in the cinema is the best way to watch a movie, I think that the growing market of the digital download and DVD sales are a good thing. Sometimes, people do not have the time or money to watch films in the cinema, so they have to download or buy their own copy. Although, seeing Star Trek: Into Darkness in the cinema would be the best possible way, as I am sure that the 3D features are worth the money, I think that the fact that the distributors released the DVD version so close to the cinema release date, shows us that there was method in that. I believe that the distributors thought that if they released the DVD sooner rather than later, the audience that saw the film in the cinema or the excellent marketing around the world, will buy the DVD as they will have not forgotten about it. I think that watching films in the cinema is the best option by far, but I think for this film, maybe the DVD may be better. This is also proven from the many extras that are available with the DVD/Blu-ray.