Está en la página 1de 44

-1-

/
an887:

(
)

3122

-2-

(
) ( . )22:

( )68;3111

.
( )412;2::2

" "McFarland


( )86;3113

( )7;3111

( )357;3114

( )76;3113

-3-

( ()271;2::2 )2:7;3114

()Adler, 1983: 57

4 .
( )56;3117

" "

( )75;3112

( )4;3117

( )2::6 ()) 2::7( )3112 ( )3112

( )3114 ( )3115 ( )3117 ( .) 3117

( )

-4-

( )4;3117

( )9;2:93

"

".

( ( .) ( ):6: )211;2::9

"

" .

(()Al safdi,1975:4 )5:;3116

.
():6;3114


( )98;3116
.

()Facione,16:2004

Scientifically

-5-

Literate

( ) .
()Debono,1992:7

( )246;3115


( ()228;2::6 )23212:92

()329;2::6

"

"

()48;2:95

( ( )883:2::9

( )89-44 :2::4 ( )3;2::: ( )66-4 :3112 .)23 :3113



( ( )412;2::2 ( )86;3113( )357: 3114 )76;3113

( ( .) ( ):6: ( )211;2::9 )271;2::2


( )2:7;3114 ( )246;3115 )228;2::6

( ( )232;2:92 .)92;2::8

-6-

( (. )62;2::: ( )6;3115 (. )Facione,2004:16( )98;3116( )237;3112

( ):6;3114.)225;3114
(( )329;2::6( )48;2:95 ()2::1 ()2::2 )2::3
( )2::7 ( )3111

( )2::8 ( )3113 (.)3115

( )8;3118(

( )883;2::9 ( )89-44 :2::4 ( )3;2::: )66-4 :3112

( ( )23 :3113 ) 6:5 6:4 : 2::9 ( .)71;2::8



( )

"

"
" :

( ) 6:5 6:4 : 2::9

( )71;2::8

.
( )8;3118

-7-

:
:

-:

-:

-:

:2

: 3

:4
.

:5

:6 .

-8-

:
: :
( ) 2::7 harnadek

( )323
:

harnadek
.



.
( )3112

( )61 ( )57 .


.
( )3112 ( )

( )

( )53 ( )53 ( )

-9-

( )3112

( )239 ( 42 45)
( 41 44) ( ) .



.
( )3114
( )223
: ( )36 ( )36 ( )43: ( )41 .

3114/3113



.
( )3115

- (-) ( )71 -
()2:6 -


() - - -

(--)

( ) (
:

1 ,12

- 10 -


()

( )11201

(-)(--)

.

( )3115

( )51

( )31 ( )31
( )

3115/3114

( )3116

. ( )71

( 41) ()41

- 11 -

( :)3117 " " risk

( )71
( )41 ( )41

risk ( ) )(
)

( )1016

risk .

( )3121

cort .

" "

( )67

( )3: " "

( )38 " " (

)

( )1016

. .

: :
( )Carlson,1979
( )361

( ) .

- 12 -


( )

.
( )SHella Solof,1988
:
:
: .
: .
: .
: .
( )21 ( )31
( )32 ( )33
( )3: .
:
:2

( )

:3

( )

:4 X

( )Selma Goore,1992



( ) 56
:
()
()

()

- 13 -

:
:2 ( )46 ( )56 %88
.
:3 ( )46 ( )56 %82
.
:4( )33 ( )56 %82 .
( Lumpkin (1992

( )29 ( )29
( )28

( )38
Alabama

-:
:
:2

: (3115) (.)3112

:3

()3117( )3112 ( )3112 ( ) 2::7 ( )3115

(.)3114

:3
(3115) 1 ( 1)3116 ; 13112 ()3121
:5 )
(( Lumpkin, 1992) )Tarkington,2:9: (.)3112

- 14 -

:6 ( )323 ( )2::7 ( )51


(.)315
:7
( )2::7 ( )3115 ( )2::3
(.)3115
:8
.
-9

(3115) ( )3117( )3112 ( )3112 ( ) 2::7


( )3115 ()3114
:: :
:2
:3 .
:4 ( )
-5 .
-6 .
-7 .
- 8 .
- 9 .
-: .

.
.
.

- 15 -

:
:
: ( )1016
.
-:
() ( )1016
.
() ( )1016
.
() ( )1016
.

: ( )1016

-:
-2 ( )1016
.
:3 ( )1016
.

- 16 -

:4 ( )1016
.

:
: Experimental Method

( )

( )
.

:
:
:2 .
:3 3123/3122

:4: .

:2 .

( )

:3

( )

:4

( )

:5
:6

( )
( )

-:
:
;
0

- 17 -

.
:

:2 : .
:3 : .

:4 : .
:

-:
:

:
.
:

- 18 -

:
.
:

: .

.
:

:2 ( )( ( t-test ()

:3

- 19 -

) (

- 20 -

(
) .

.
:
:
:

:
: .

- 21 -

:2 .)3116(. . : .
:3 .)2:::(. . : .

: :4 . )3118( .

.

:5 .)3121( .

.

:6 2::9 (.) . . :

:7 3114 (.) .

:8 .) 2::7 (.

:9 3114( .) .

:: . (1996).
.

:21 . ) 3111( .
( 37-36

3111) .

- 22 -

:22 .)3114(.

:23 3115( .) .

: .

:24 .)3111( .

(6 )9 .

:25 , .)3117( .
.

:26 , .)2::7(.
.

:27 .)3112(. /

:28 .)3117( . .

:29 . )3116(. :

:2: .)3118(.
.

:35 .)2:94(.

:36 )2::5(.

:37 .)2::1(.
: .

:38 . )2::5(.

- 23 -

.)3117(. :39

. :

. )2:93(. :3:

:
Alfaro-Lefevre, Rosalinda (1995). Critical Thinking in Nursing, Saunders Co.
Baron, J. (1988). Thinking and deciding. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hayes, J. R. (1981). The Complete Problem Solver. Hillsdale, N J: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates.
Koh, A.(2002).Towards a critical pedagogy. creating 'thinking school' in Singapore. Journal
of Curriculum Studies.34 (3), 255-264.
Lipman. M. (1988). Critical thinking, What can it be? Institute For Critical Thinking,
Montclair State College, Resource Publication, series 1 (1)
Michael P. Maina. (2000). Effect of initiative game problem solving activities on fifth grade
students' use of critical thinking skills in Physical Education. Research Quarterly of exercise
and Sports. v71 i1 PA76.
7: Seng, SeokHoon. (1998).Teaching thinking Skills for Pre-service and In-service Teachers
in Singapore. Paper presented at the International Conference on Critical Thinking and
Educational.

- 24 -

- 25 -

- 26 -

- 27 -

- 28 -

- 29 -

- 30 -

- 31 -

- 32 -

- 33 -

- 34 -

- 35 -

- 36 -

- 37 -

- 38 -

- 39 -

- 40 -

- 41 -

- 42 -

- 43 -

- 44 -