Está en la página 1de 21

The Lord of the Rings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the novel. For the film series, see The Lord of the Rings (film series). For other uses, see The Lord of the Rings (disambiguation).

The Lord of the Rings

Tolkien's original cover designs for each of the three volumes which would not be used until the 50th anniversary editions were published.

Volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring The Two Towers The Return of the King

Author

J. R. R. Tolkien

Country

England, United Kingdom

Language

English

Genre

High fantasy Adventure

Publisher

George Allen & Unwin

Published

29 July 1954, 11 November 1954, 20 October 1955

Media type

Print (hardback & paperback)

Preceded by

The Hobbit

The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English philologist and University of Oxford professor J. R. R. Tolkien. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's 1937 children's fantasy novel The Hobbit, but eventually developed into a much larger work. It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949, much of it during World War II.[1] It is the second best-selling novel ever written, with over 150 million copies sold.[2] The title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron,[note 1] who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a Hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across northwest Middle-earth, following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, the hobbits Frodo Baggins, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck andPeregrin "Pippin" Took, but also the hobbits' chief allies and travelling companions: the Men Aragorn, a Ranger of the North and Boromir, a Captain of Gondor; Gimli, a Dwarf warrior;Legolas, an Elven prince; and Gandalf, a Wizard. The work was initially intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, the other to be The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher.[4][5] For economic reasonsThe Lord of the Rings was published in three volumes over the course of a year from 29 July 1954 to 20 October 1955.[4][6] The three volumes were entitled The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end of the third volume. Some editions combine the entire work into a single volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many languages. Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its themes and origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917,[7] in a process he described as mythopoeia.[citation needed] Influences on this earlier work, and on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology, religion and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.[1] The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy; the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" have been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.[8] The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works,[9] and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the Rings has inspired, and continues to inspire, artwork, music, films and television, video games, and subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio, theatre, and film.[10]
Contents
[hide]

and Sauron loses his physical form.1 Editions and revisions 4. He is vanquished in battle by an alliance of Elves and Men. When Isildur is later ambushed and killed by Orcs. claiming it as an heirloom for his line. Elves and Dwarves.1 Background 3. the Ring is lost in the River Anduin at Gladden Fields.3 Impact on popular culture 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Plot summary[edit] See also: The Fellowship of the Ring.3 The Return of the King 2 Main characters 3 Concept and creation o o o  3. where the Ring extends his lifespan and transforms him over the course of hundreds of years into a twisted. Isildur cuts the One Ring from Sauron's finger.2 The Two Towers 1. 1 Plot summary o o o   1. He loses the Ring. the Dark Lord Sauron forges the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power and corrupt those who wear them: the leaders of Men. his .1 The Fellowship of the Ring 1. the Ring is found by one of the river-folk called Déagol. Over two thousand years later.3 Translations 5 Reception 6 Themes 7 Adaptations 8 Legacy o o o      8. and The Return of the King plot summaries Long before the events of the novel. His friend[11] Sméagol immediately falls under the Ring's influence and strangles Déagol to acquire it. The Two Towers. Sméagol is banished and hides under the Misty Mountains.2 Writing 3.2 Music 8.3 Influences 4 Publication history o o o     4.2 Posthumous publication of drafts 4. corrupted creature called Gollum.1 Influences on the fantasy genre 8.

to seize it. After repulsing an attack. When he becomes certain. where the Hobbit Frodo Baggins inherits the Ring from Bilbo. but that can only be done by returning it to the flames of Mount Doom in Mordor. the company travel down the River Anduin to the hill of Amon Hen. suspects the Ring's identity. Merry. Samwise ("Sam") Gamgee. They nearly encounter the Nazgûl while still in the Shire. Neither is aware of its origin and nature. Meriadoc ("Merry") Brandybuckand Peregrin ("Pippin") Took. and. but the Nazgûl follow and attack them on the hill of Weathertop. and two cousins. Isildur's heir. The Council of Elrond reveals much significant history about Sauron and the Ring. Aragorn. The others escape and take refuge in the Elven forest of Lothlórien. but flood waters summoned by Elrond. who learns from him that "Baggins" in the Shire now has it. Sauron re-assumes physical form and takes back his old realm of Mordor. he strongly advises Frodo to take it away from the Shire. He persuades them to take him on as guide and protector. Legolas the Elf. master of Rivendell. while Frodo gradually succumbs to the wound. where they are counselled by Galadriel and Celeborn. The Ringwraiths nearly overtake Frodo at the Ford of Bruinen. and a "Fellowship of the Ring" is formed to aid him: Sam. Gandalf confronts the Balrog. a wizard and old friend of Bilbo. rise up and overwhelm them. both fall into a deep chasm. Saruman. The Two Towers[edit] . where they are attacked by the Watcher in the Water before the gate. though Sam guesses his intent and comes along. and Sauron. and the Man Boromir."precious". but is captured by Sauron. Frodo volunteers to take on this daunting task. as well as the news that Sauron has corrupted Gandalf's fellow wizard. With boats and gifts from Galadriel. who alone is unaffected by the Ring's corrupting influence. where they are aided by the enigmatic Tom Bombadil. wounding Frodo with a Morgul blade. they are pursued by orcs and an ancient and powerful demonic creature called a Balrog. but in their struggle. but shake off pursuit by cutting through the Old Forest. The Fellowship of the Ring[edit] The story begins in the Shire. After leaving the forest. where it was forged. Gollum sets out in search of the Ring. Meanwhile. the company are forced to try a more perilous path through the Mines of Moria. Frodo escapes and determines to continue the quest alone. they stop in the town of Bree where they meet Strider. Gandalf. as recounted in The Hobbit. Boromir succumbs to the lure of the Ring and attempts to take it from Frodo. Gimli the Dwarf. Inside. Gollum is set loose. sends forth his powerful servants. son of the Ruling Steward Denethor of the realm of Gondor. After a failed attempt to cross the Misty Mountains via the pass below Caradhras. who is later revealed to be Aragorn. but Gandalf the Grey. Bilbo Baggins finds it. who needs the Ring to regain his full power. the Nazgûl. Frodo recovers in Rivendell under the care of Elrond. Aragorn leads the hobbits toward the Elven refuge of Rivendell. they discover the fate of Balin and his colony of Dwarves. Frodo leaves. accompanied by his gardener and friend. Pippin. The Council decides that the Ring must be destroyed. The Fellowship of the Ring is broken. his cousin[note 2] and guardian. They flee from Bree after narrowly escaping another assault.

With time running out. After agonizing over which pair of hobbits to follow. chief city of Gondor. Gandalf then parleys with Saruman at Orthanc. In order to distract Sauron from his true danger. Gandalf assures them that Merry and Pippin are safe. the Ents. Gandalf arrives at Minas Tirith to alert Denethor of the impending attack. Frodo and Sam capture Gollum. and they set out across Mordor. The Huorns dispose of the fleeing orcs. nearly taking his remaining son Faramir with him. attack Isengard. and suddenly and fiercely . In the kingdom ofRohan. King of Rohan. Merry and Pippin escape into Fangorn Forest. Frodo is felled by Shelob's bite. Saruman's stronghold. The Return of the King[edit] Sauron unleashes a heavy assault upon Gondor. Gimli and Legolas pursue the orcs bearing Merry and Pippin to Saruman. Aragorn leads reinforcements up the Anduin to relieve the siege of Minas Tirith. Torn between his loyalty to Frodo and his desire for the Ring. where they free Théoden. and force him to guide them to Mordor. believing him to be dead. Meanwhile. Aragorn leads the armies of Gondor and Rohan in a march on the Black Gate of Mordor. Théoden musters his fighting strength and rides to the ancient fortress of Helm's Deep. resurrected as the significantly more powerful "Gandalf the White" after his mutually fatal duel with the Balrog. Aragorn. There Aragorn raises an undead army of oath-breakers bound by an ancient curse. Gimli and the Dúnedain Rangers from the North. Gollum eventually betrays Frodo by leading him to the great spider Shelob in the tunnels of Cirith Ungol. Sam overhears them say that Frodo is only unconscious. The city is besieged. Frodo is unable to resist the Ring any longer. His vastly outnumbered troops fight desperately against Sauron's forces. the capital of Rohan. where they are befriended by Treebeard. Pippin looks into a palantír. but en route Gandalf leaves to seek help from Treebeard. Sam takes the Ring and leaves Frodo. gives up hope and commits suicide. and the forces of Gondor and Rohan defeat Sauron's army in the Battle of the Pelennor Fields. from the influence of Saruman's henchman Gríma Wormtongue. Meanwhile. the oldest of the tree-like Ents. but Sam fights her off. and trap the wizard in the tower of Orthanc.Orcs sent by Saruman and Sauron kill Boromir and kidnap Merry and Pippin. When Saruman rejects his offer of redemption. and chases after them. They then ride to Edoras. accompanied by Legolas. deceived by Sauron. Gandalf convinces Treebeard to send an army of Huorns to Théoden's aid. Sam rescues Frodo from the tower of Cirith Ungol. they travel instead to a secret passage Gollum knows. who had been following them from Moria. and encounter Gandalf. Commandeering the ships of the Corsairs. Aragorn feels he has no choice but to take the Paths of the Dead. Aragorn. taking Pippin with him. Gandalf and Rohirrim reinforcements arrive at Helm's Deep just in time to defeat and scatter Saruman's army. and Denethor. the orcs are slain by a company of the Rohirrim. Gandalf strips him of his rank and most of his powers. Gandalf rides for Minas Tirith. When orcs find Frodo. Reaching the edge of the Cracks of Doom. The ghostly army help them to defeat the Corsairs of Umbar invading southern Gondor. roused from their customarily peaceful ways by Merry and Pippin. Gimli and Legolas track the hobbits to Fangorn. Finding Mordor's Black Gate too well guarded to attempt. a seeing-stone that Saruman had used to communicate with Sauron and through which he was enslaved.

taking the Ring with him. given to him by Círdan of the Grey Havens. raise a rebellion and overthrow him. Keeper of another of the Elven rings. an orc term for "Old Man". an Elf prince and son of King Thranduil of Mirkwood Gimli. Main characters[edit] Protagonists:      Frodo Baggins. Boromir. He bears the Ring of Fire. containing the account of Bilbo's adventures and the War of the Ring as witnessed by the hobbits. enslaves the Shire through Lotho Sackville-Baggins bearing the name "Sharkey". Samwise Gamgee. and his armies are thrown into such disarray that Aragorn's forces emerge victorious. a dwarf Denethor. husband of Galadriel. struggles with Frodo and bites off his finger. But Gollum suddenly reappears. however. a wizard. bearer of the One Ring. Frodo. remains wounded in body and spirit after having borne the spiritual weight of the One Ring so long. Celebrating wildly. Gríma turns on Saruman and kills him. King of Arnor and Gondor. the last of the Ring-bearers. The War of the Ring thus comes to its true end on Frodo's very doorstep. descendant of Isildur and rightful heir to the thrones of Arnor and Gondor Legolas Greenleaf. Elf co-ruler of Lothlórien. accompanied by Bilbo and Gandalf. given to him by Bilbo Baggins. one of the three Elven rings. Frodo's cousin Peregrin Took (Pip or Pippin). The four hobbits. Merry and Pippin are acclaimed heroes. Half-elven Lord of Rivendell and father of Arwen Undómiel. Gollum accidentally falls into the fire. . upon returning home. Sam is then said to have crossed west over the Sea himself. the Nazgûl perish. Saruman escapes from Isengard and. the eldest son of Denethor Faramir. and so Frodo's mission is completed. ruling Steward of Gondor and Lord of Minas Tirith. Aragorn is crowned Elessar.   Celeborn. and is slain in turn by hobbit archers. Sam gives his daughter the Red Book of Westmarch. daughter of Elrond. He later becomes mayor of the shire. Frodo's cousin Gandalf. Keeper of one of the three Elven rings. and grandmother of Arwen Undómiel (Arwen Evenstar). an angelic being sent by the god-like Valar to fight Sauron. son of Glóin. Arwen. Sauron is permanently shorn of his power. gardener and friend of the Bagginses Meriadoc Brandybuck (Merry). After Rosie's death. He is a Maia. Ring and all. With the destruction of the One Ring. Elf co-ruler of Lothlórien. Several years later. while Sam marries Rosie Cotton and uses his gifts from Galadriel to help heal the Shire. younger brother of Boromir Galadriel.claims it for himself. seeking to carve out a new kingdom. and grandfather of Arwen Undómiel Elrond.        Aragorn. he sails from the Grey Havens west over the Sea to the Undying Lands to find peace. With the end of the War of the Ring. and marries his long-time love.

Writing[edit] .  Treebeard. a giant spider who dwells in the passes above Minas Morgul.  The Witch-king of Angmar. sister of Éomer. who commands Sauron's army. the Dark Lord and titular Lord of the Rings. oldest of the Ents. the publishers. R. published in 1937. to request a sequel. Corrupted by Sauron through the palantír. The Balrog. and accepting Farmer Giles of Ham.  Saruman. in 1949. The story would not be finished until 12 years later.  Gríma Wormtongue. King of Rohan. Éomer. Concept and creation[edit] Background[edit] The Lord of the Rings started as a sequel to J.  Éowyn. Théoden.    Gollum. R. a fire-demon dwelling beneath the Mines of Moria awakened by the digging and mining of Dwarves. Tolkien began writing the story that would become The Lord of the Rings. and Sauron's most powerful servant. and would not be fully published until 1955. he is a Maia. the 3rd Marshal of the Mark and Théoden's nephew. and responded with several stories he had already developed. a secret servant of Saruman and traitor to Rohan. Tolkien warned them that he wrote quite slowly. Tolkien's earlier work The Hobbit. Antagonists:  Sauron. men enslaved by Sauron when they accepted his treacherous gifts of Rings of Power. Later King of Rohan after Théoden's death.[12] The popularity of The Hobbit had led George Allen & Unwin. a wizard who seeks the One Ring for himself. who poisons Théoden's perceptions with well placed "advice". love interest of Aragorn Bilbo Baggins. a fallen Maia who helped the Elves forge the Rings of Power long ago. daughter of Elrond.    Arwen. Like Gandalf. Shelob.  The Nazgûl or Ringwraiths. a river hobbit originally named Sméagol. Frodo's adoptive uncle. the Lord of the Nazgûl. ally of Gondor and father of the late Theodred. who disguises herself as a male warrior named Dernhelm to fight beside Théoden. putting on hold Roverandom. Allen & Unwin thought more stories about hobbits would be popular. Having rejected his contemporary drafts for The Silmarillion. Lieutenant of Morgoth in the First Age. when Tolkien was 63 years old.[13] So at the age of 45.

[21] Slavic. R. Main article: J. practically all references to .[12]as a serial for his son Christopher Tolkien.[12] As the story progressed.250 pages. and needed to earn further money as a university examiner. the Ivy Bush[17] is the closest public house to Birmingham Oratory which Tolkien attended while living near Edgbaston Reservoir. moral philosophy.[12] After several false starts. the significance of the Ring. Tolkien made another concerted effort in 1946. and cosmology of the Lord of the Rings reflect his Catholic worldview.[29] The question of a direct influence of Wagner's The Nibelung's Ring on Tolkien's work is debated by critics. he planned to write a story in which Bilbo had used up all his treasure and was looking for another adventure to gain more. or have cut out.[22][23][24] Persian. although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance. now reside in the J. the story of the One Ring emerged. he started "a new Hobbit" in December 1937.[12] The original manuscripts. Tolkien's influences The Lord of the Rings developed as a personal exploration by Tolkien of his interests in philology. who was sent chapters as they were written while he was serving in South Africa with the Royal Air Force. which total 9. the influences of George MacDonald and William Morris[28] and the AngloSaxon poem Beowulf.[14] Writing was slow.[15] Tolkien abandoned The Lord of the Rings during most of 1943 and only re-started it in April 1944.[26] and Finnish mythology.Persuaded by his publishers. religion (particularly Roman Catholicism[18]). R. and showed the manuscript to his publishers in 1947. Tolkien Collection at Marquette University. Perrott's Folly is nearby. fairy tales.[19][20] and also Celtic. he also brought in elements from 'The Silmarillion' mythology. Tolkien included neither any explicit religion nor cult in his work.[25] Greek.[16] Influences[edit] Mentioned at the beginning of The Lord of the Rings. The idea for the first chapter ("A Long-Expected Party") arrived fully formed. and external critics have verified. and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of 1938. but Tolkien did not complete the revision of earlier parts of the work until 1949. unconsciously so at first. however. "The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work.R.[12] The story was effectively finished the next year. Rather the themes.[27] Tolkien acknowledged. That is why I have not put in. In one of his letters Tolkien states. he remembered the Ring and its powers and thought that would be a better focus for the new work. Norse and general Germanic mythology. because Tolkien had a full-time academic position.R. but consciously in the revision.[12] Originally.

and II. and so Tolkien wrote to Allen and Unwin. and IV. The Two Towers (Books III.[36][37][38] Editions and revisions[edit] In the early 1960s Donald A. and VI.[32] Publication history[edit] A dispute with his publisher. and later near Edgbaston Reservoir. but A&U were unwilling to do this. George Allen & Unwin. his contact at Collins. which was dismissed by his publishers. after which he would take a large share of the profits. Tolkien. The Ring Goes East). maps and especially indices led to the volumes being published later than originally hoped — on 21 July 1954. Wollheim.[30] There are also hints of theBlack Country. on 11 November 1954 and on 20 October 1955 respectively in the United Kingdom.[33] Collins did not. The Ring Sets Out. Tolkien intended The Silmarillion (itself largely unrevised at this point) to be published along with The Lord of the Rings. to cults or practices. The End of the Third Age. hardcover publisher. and slightly later in the United States."[12] For publication. the U. Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in 1952.[34] The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement.[31] The work was influenced by the effects of his military service during World War I. science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books. with over 150 million copies sold. The Ring Goes South). saying.S. After Milton Waldman. The Treason of Isengard. expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting". or "shell-shock. which is within easy reach of north west Edgbaston. had neglected to copyright the work in the . andThe Return of the King (Books V. whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even. led to the book being offered to Collins in 1950.[35] It has ultimately become the second best-selling novel ever written. He had originally suggested The War of the Ring. in the imaginary world. plus six appendices). For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism. This was due largely to post-war paper shortages. claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin. moreover. did not especially like the title The Return of the King.[2] Only A Tale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens has sold more copies worldwide (over 200 million) while the fourth best-selling novel is Tolkien's The Hobbit. at which Tolkien served." which was first diagnosed at the Battle of the Somme. and the description of Saruman's industrialisation of Isengard and The Shire. believing it gave away too much of the storyline.anything like 'religion'. It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the 1940s. as well as being a way to keep down the price of the book. The War of the Ring. The Return of the King was especially delayed."[18] Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in Birmingham. "I would gladly consider the publication of any part of the stuff. the book was divided into three volumes: The Fellowship of the Ring (Books I. Delays in producing appendices. where he first lived near Sarehole Mill. to the point that Frodo has been "diagnosed" as suffering from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. This shows in such names as "Underhill".

Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch. in volumes 6–9 of his History of Middle-earth series. Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright." [48] W. such as the Swedish translation by Åke Ohlmarks.[42] Houghton Mifflin editions after 1994 consolidate variant revisions by Tolkien. and gave several examples along with general guidance. with the English language representing the Westron of the "original". Reception[edit] Main article: Reception of J. into at least 38 other languages. an admirer of Tolkien's writings.United States. On its initial review the Sunday Telegraphfelt it was "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century. Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. writing in its review that they were "destined to outlast our time. reviews in various media have been.[45] Tolkien.[44] Posthumous publication of drafts[edit] From 1988 to 1992 Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings. and corrections supervised by Christopher Tolkien. Auden. on the whole.[41] Grassroots pressure from these fans became so great that Ace Books withdrew their edition and made a nominal payment to Tolkien."[47] The New York Herald Tribune also seemed to have an idea of how popular the books would become.[42][43] Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success. The Treason of Isengard. R. Tolkien While early reviews for The Lord of the Rings were mixed. Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work. further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton's Paradise Lost. R. The four volumes carry the titles The Return of the Shadow. and made comments on each that reflect both the translation process and his work. By the mid-1960s the novel had become a cultural phenomenon. regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece".[46] Tolkien wrote a "Guide to the Names in The Lord of the Rings" (1967). The War of the Ring. in a computer-based unified text. H. and Sauron Defeated. As he was unhappy with some choices made by early translators. unauthorized by Tolkien and without paying royalties to him. published in 1965. an expert in philology.[39][40] Ace Books then proceeded to publish an edition. examined many of these translations. which resulted. chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development."[47] The Sunday Times seemed to echo these sentiments when in its review it was stated that "the English-speaking world is divided into those who have read The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit and those who are going to read them. highly positive and acknowledge Tolkien's literary achievement as a significant one. with various degrees of success.[49] . This text became the Second Edition of The Lord of the Rings. after some initial glitches. Translations[edit] Main article: Translations of The Lord of the Rings The novel has been translated.

according to Jenkyns. and lacking in fibre. The Inklings.[65][66][67] cite imagery from adaptations rather than the work itself. Orc). saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist. Here is a book which will break your heart. Númenórean. Hobbit.[58] Themes[edit] Main article: Themes of The Lord of the Rings Although The Lord of the Rings was published in the 1950s.[68] ignore the absence of evidence of racist attitudes or events in the author's personal life[65][68][69] and claim that the perception of racism is itself a marginal view. The Lord of the Rings was found to be the "Nation's best-loved book. had very different feelings. commented that while there are movements within academia to approach The Lord of the Rings as a serious literary work. Tolkien insisted that the One Ring was not an allegory for the Atomic Bomb. "anemic. "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. S. C.New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style.[54] In the 2003 "Big Read" survey conducted in Britain by the BBC." Despite these reviews and its lack of paperback printing until the 1960s. characters' race (e.comcustomers. Ethan Gilsdorf. The Lord of the Rings was awarded the International Fantasy Award. The book has remained so ever since." In similar 2004 polls both Germany[55] and Australia[56] also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. Elf. Lewis. the 2001–2003 film trilogy has contributed to a dumbing down of the reception of the novel by the forces of mass-commercialization. Despite its numerous detractors. criticized the work for a lack of psychological depth."[57] The Lord of the Rings was awarded the Prometheus Hall of Fame Award in 2009. but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit. not another Elf!'"[52][53] However.[7] In 1957. 'Oh God.g. and lolling and shouting and saying. another Inkling.[59] nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind.[69] Critics have also seen social class rather than race as being the determinant factor for the portrayal of good and evil. and that the character's race is seen as determining their behaviour."[50] Critic Richard Jenkyns. the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the 1960s. judged by both sales and reader surveys. Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings. reviews were mixed. Both the characters and the work itself are. ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century. The Lord of the Rings was judged to be their favourite "book of the millennium. which turns out to be death to literature itself.[60][61] A few critics have found what they consider to be racial elements in the story. and Christopher Tolkien records Dyson as "lying on the couch. writing for The Boston Globe. generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil. The Lord of the Rings initially sold well in hardback. writing. Southron. writing in The New Republic.[62][63][64] Counter-arguments note that race-focused critiques often omit relevant textual evidence to the contrary. Dwarf. In a 1999 poll of Amazon.[65] Commentators such as science fiction author David Brin have interpreted the work to hold ."[51] Even within Tolkien's literary group.

[70] In his essay "Epic Pooh". The final instalment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars (something only two other films in history. Recorded Books published an audio version of The Lord of the Rings.[74] the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story. the two segments are very different. was released on the internet in May 2009 and has been covered in major media. by animator Ralph Bakshi.[75] In 1990. The second and far more critically and commercially successful adaptation was Peter Jackson's live action The Lord of the Rings film trilogy. A three-issue comic book version of the movie was also published in Europe (but not printed in English). "Best Director". In 1981. including "Best Picture". In the 1960s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation. Ben-Hur and Titanic. For this purpose it is generally edited into 13 one hour episodes. A 1979 dramatization of The Lord of the Rings was broadcast in the United States and subsequently issued on tape and CD. The Hunt for Gollum. The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers (2002). a 12-part radio adaptation of the story. a fan film based on elements of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings.[76] with British actor Rob Inglis – who had previously starred in his own one-man stage productions of The Hobbit and The Lord of . the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings. produced by New Line Cinema and released in three instalments as The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001). The book has been adapted for radio four times. In 1955 and 1956. All three parts received nearly universal acclaim and were each nominated for and won multiple Academy Awards. When Bakshi's investors shied away of financing the second film that would complete the story. the BBC broadcast The Lord of the Rings. This dramatization of The Lord of the Rings has subsequently been made available on both tape and CD both by the BBC and other publishers. Two film adaptations of the book have been made. with illustrations by Luis Bermejo. in both the 'paternalism' of the narrative voice and the power-structures in the narrative. R. including consecutive Best Picture nominations. "Best Adapted Screenplay" and "Best Original Score". Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (1978). have accomplished). it coversThe Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers. The first was J. Stylistically. a new dramatization in 26 half-hour instalments. radio and stage.[72] The book has been read as fitting the model of Joseph Campbell's "monomyth". and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003).[73] Adaptations[edit] Main article: Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings The Lord of the Rings has been adapted for film. R. science fiction and fantasy author Michael Moorcock critiques the world-view displayed by the book as deeply conservative.unquestioning devotion to a traditional elitist social structure.[71] Tom Shippey cites the origin of this portrayal of evil as a reflection of the prejudices of European middle-classes during the inter-war years towards the industrial working class. the remainder of the story was covered in an animated television special by Rankin-Bass.

[84] and a recording of the songs performed by singer William Elvin with Swann on piano was issued that same year by Caedmon Records as Poems and Songs of Middle Earth.[79][80] the Ultima series .[83] The songs were published in 1967 as The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle. orcs. "Lothlórien". most notably halflings (another term for hobbits). who was best known for his collaboration with Michael Flanders as Flanders & Swann. which Lin Carter called "the single most cold-blooded. Tolkien suggested for "Namárië" (Galadriel's lament) a setting reminiscent of plain chant. When Swann met with Tolkien to play the songs for his approval. dwarves. stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game. The opus has spawned many imitators. complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read". with some featuring recitation by Christopher Lee. R. 1 "The Lord of the Rings". .[78] Because D&D has influenced many popular role-playing video games. EverQuest. songwriter Donald Swann. which popularized the role-playing game(RPG) genre in the 1970s. Research also suggests that some consumers of fantasy games derive their motivation from trying to create an epic fantasy narrative which is influenced by The Lord of the Rings. Canada in 2006 and opened in London in May 2007.[77] Dungeons & Dragons. Legacy[edit] Main article: Works inspired by J. such as The Sword of Shannara. features many races found in The Lord of the Rings. The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto. with titles such as Dragon Warrior. and dragons.[85] In 1988. and "Hobbits". "Journey in the Dark". set six poems from The Lord of the Rings and one from The Adventures of Tom Bombadil ("Errantry") to music.[82] Music[edit] In 1965. the genre flowered throughout the 1960s. "Gollum". R. which encompassed 5 movements. which Swann accepted. A large-scale musical theatre adaptation. awarded biennially for best wind band composition. lead designer of the game. Dutch composer and trombonist Johan de Meij completed his Symphony No.the Rings – reading. half-elves. However. and enjoys popularity to the present day. titled "Gandalf". the influence of The Lord of the Rings extends to many of them as well. Ontario. The Danish Tolkien Ensemble have released a number of albums that feature the complete poems and songs of The Lord of the Rings set to music. the Warcraft series. elves. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings. In 1989 the symphony was awarded the Sudler Composition Award. Gary Gygax. Tolkien Influences on the fantasy genre[edit] The enormous popularity of Tolkien's epic saga greatly expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. and the Elder Scrolls series of games[81] as well as video games set in Middle-earth itself. maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings.

the name of another character. British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings("Ramble On". "The Battle of Evermore". which appeared on their debut album. and "Misty Mountain Hop"). the Futurama film "Bender's Game". was influenced by Tolkien's hero. many heavy metal acts have been influenced by Tolkien. "Over the Hills and Far Away". The Finnish metal band Nightwish and the Norwegian metal band Tristania have also incorporated many Tolkien references into their music. from the 1980s to the present day.[86] The album was subsequently released internationally as Music Inspired by Lord of the Rings in 1972.[citation needed] Enya wrote an instrumental piece called "Lothlórien" in 1991. Styx also paid homage to Tolkien on their "Pieces of Eight" album with the song "Lords of the Ring. beginning with its publication in the 1950s. Gandalf. during which time young people embraced it as acountercultural saga. and Progressive rock band Barclay James Harvest was inspired by the character Galadriel to write a song by that name. which was the title of the Swedish translation of The Lord of the Rings at the time). the VeggieTales episode "Lord of the Beans". The heavy metal band Cirith Ungol took their name from a mountain pass in Middle-earth. Impact on popular culture[edit] The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture.[88] Parodies like the Harvard Lampoon's Bored of the Rings. there are other references scattered through the BJH oeuvre. The Big Bang Theory episode "The Precious Fragmentation". In 1970. Later. Gorgoroth and Amon Amarth take their names from an area of Mordor. and composed two songs for the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring—"May It Be" (sung in English and Quenya) and "Aníron" (sung in Sindarin).[86] The songs "Rivendell" and "The Necromancer" by the progressive rock band Rush were inspired by Tolkien. "The Wizard". but especially throughout the 1960s and 1970s. and used "Bombadil". the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the book entitled Sagan om ringen(translated as "The Saga of the Ring". and Burzum take their name from the Black Speech of Mordor. . based their song "Shadows" on the nine ring wraiths. The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius episode "Lights! Camera! Danger!". A Swedish metal band. Sabaton. Progressive rock group Camel paid homage to the text in their lengthy composition "Nimrodel/The Procession/The White Rider". and the American Dad! episode "The Return of the Bling" are testimony to the work's continual presence in popular culture. Blind Guardian has written many songs relating to Middle-earth.Rock bands of the 1970s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time. Almost all ofSummoning's songs and the entire discography of Battlelore are Tolkienthemed." while Black Sabbath's song. as a pseudonym under which their 1972 single "Breathless"/"When the City Sleeps" was released. the South Park episode "The Return of the Fellowship of the Ring to the Two Towers". including the full concept album Nightfall in Middle Earth.[87] "Frodo Lives!" and "Gandalf for President" were two phrases popular amongst United States Tolkien fans during this time.

Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987).. The Tolkien Society.Toronto Star.5% royalty after costs. "Tolkien proves he's still the king". Retrieved 5 February 2011. The Fellowship of the Ring. ^ Jump up to: ^ Jump up to: a b a b "World War I and World War II". Retrieved 8 March 2011. from the late 1960s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise. Jump up^ Tolkien. The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar by Turbine.[92] Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations.[90] payable to Allen & Unwin and the author. The Lord of the Rings. where Glorfindel states: "[E]ven if we could [hide the Ring]. "The Lord of the Rings: The Tale of a Text".In 1969. tabletop and role-playing games. video. National Geographic. Recent examples include the Spiel des Jahres award winning (for best use of literature in a game) board game The Lord of the Rings by Reiner Knizia and the Golden Joystick award-winning massively multiplayer online role-playing game. who now trade as Tolkien Enterprises. Since then all "authorized" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises. References[edit] 1. soon or late the Lord of the Rings would learn of its hiding place and would bend all his power towards it. (1954). Pat. ^ Jump up to: a b Reynolds. 2. three years after the author's death. to figurines and miniatures tocomputer.000[89] plus a 7. R. R. See also[edit] Middle-earth portal      Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century Norse mythology in popular culture 1954 in literature 1955 in literature Literature of the United Kingdom Notes[edit] 1. they were in fact first and second cousins. Vit (16 April 2007). Wagner. The Council of Elrond.[91] In 1976. from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Pauline Baynes and the Brothers Hildebrandt. Jump up^ This is made clear in the chapter The Council of Elrond. 3. J.ISBN 0-395-08254-4 4. once removed either way (his paternal great-great-uncle's son's son and his maternal great-aunt's son). Retrieved 16 June 2006. Inc. although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors. [3] Jump up^ Although Frodo referred to Bilbo as his "uncle". United Artists sold the rights to Saul Zaentz Company. . Tolkien sold the merchandising rights to The Lord of The Rings (and The Hobbit) to United Artists under an agreement stipulating a lump sum payment of £10." 2.

R. The Letters of J. Boston: Houghton Mifflin (published 1987). he writes that they were "evidently relatives". Book 1. Retrieved 4 January 2012.5. from time already mortgaged. paragraph 8.. Tolkien Finally Speaks Out | Worldcrunch 15. "Elvish Impersonators".org. "The Shadow of the Past". ed. The Letters of J. Jump up^ Gilsdorf. Jason (20 October 2009). Jump up^ Carpenter 1977. 12. 11. Ethan (23 March 2007). TolkienSociety. Retrieved 29 October 2011. The Lord of the Rings.R. Retrieved 28 October 2011. Tolkien. Peter (2006). Boston:Houghton Mifflin. "Re Redigast Quid * cum Boromir?" (in Polish).. The Fellowship of the Ring. #17. The Road to Middle-earth. R. (1981). ISBN 0- 618-05699-8. "J. R.A. R. ISBN 0-395-08254-4 They are popularly thought to be cousins. Jump up^ Gilliver.R. R. Oxford University Press.. 10. R. J. Jump up^ Lesniewski. Jump up^ My Father's "Eviscerated" Work . . Jump up^ "The Lord of the Rings".] Writing stories in prose or verse has been stolen. Tolkien. page 172 19. Tolkien. R. 13. Jump up^ Tolkien.. R. 3rd ed. David. Jump up^ "J.. 9. 142. Jump up^ The Fellowship of the Ring. ISBN 0-261-10275-3. ISBN 0-19-861069-6. Humphrey (1995). 20. R. Jump up^ Fisher. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h "The Lord of the Rings: Genesis" (PDF). ISBN 0-395-31555-7 16. Shippey: Tolkien. R. "Slavic echoes in Tolkien — A response". Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch". 17. Houghton Mifflin. Michal (3 September 2003). 23. Retrieved 2012-12-26. Tolkien Collection | Marquette Archives | Raynor Memorial Libraries | Marquette University". (1981). (2005 [1982]).. ed. Tolkien. #214). Jump up^ Shippey. 8. Retrieved 3 April 2007.R. R. 195 14. but Tolkien only calls them "friends" in The Lord of the Rings. #126. The Letters of J. Jump up^ "The Life and Works for JRR Tolkien". Archived fromthe original on 27 February 2008. In a later letter (The Letters of J. Jump up^ "I have spent nearly all the vacation-times of seventeen years examining [. R. (1954).A. Author of the Century HarperCollins. Retrieved 4 December 2010. The Ring of Words: Tolkien and the Oxford English Dictionary . 2000 21. "Tívar in a timeless land: Tolkien's Elves". ^ Jump up to: a b Carpenter. 7. Humphrey. 18. Chapter 1. Terry (13–14 September 2002). 7 February 2002. T. BBC. Retrieved 16 June 2006. HarperCollins Publishers. Retrieved 14 June 2006. ISBN 0-395-31555-7 6. Jump up^ Gunnell." Carpenter. Humphrey.R. ^ Jump up to: a b Doughan. Letter no.Son Of Hobbit Scribe J. pp. Jump up^ T. 22. The New York Times. The Lord of the Rings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. often guiltily. Jump up^ Carpenter.

R. Grass Valley. ISBN 1-4039-6025-9.24. Gale document #A253314734. 32. Science. R. Letter #19. Quote: "The Prince remains a king among books. Hobbits. #178 & #303. Locus Online. Tolkien's Lord of the Rings". (2000). Jump up^ Carpenter. Retrieved 3 June 2011.R. Tolkien. 28. ISBN 0-04-928037-6 34. The War of the Ring: The History of The Lord of the Rings. Brian (1 March 2004). Michael (2007). Tolkien. Connecticut:Greenwood Press. Westport. (1981). Robert Reilly . has sold more than 200 million copies to date. 211 ff. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-395-31555-7 31. Elizabeth M. . Jump up^ Stanton. Humphrey. 6 November 2011 (subscription). p. 18.R. Humphrey (1977). "In the Valley of the Hobbits". Tolkien Author of the Century. Dmitry. Institutional Investor. pp. p. and Wizards: Exploring the Wonders and Worlds of J. Tokien encyclopedia.R. New York: Ballantine Books. "Middle America Meets Middle-earth: American Publication and Discussion of J. Jump up^ Handwerk. Jump up^ The Telegraph on A Tale of Two Cities: "Charles Dickens’ second stab at a historical novel. R. Jump up^ Kuzmenko. R. 31 December 1960 29. pp. Part Three. Retrieved 5 October 2006. (1985). 35. R.R. "Persian Influences in J. making it the bestselling novel – in any genre – of all time. R. (2011) "Hotelier Saint-Exupery's Princely Instincts". ed. 36. Paul. R. 27. Jump up^ Tolkien.C. R." 38. J. Jump up^ Carpenter. Jump up^ Livingston. Jump up^ D. Mythlore (Mythopoeic Society). pp. Reflections & Refractions: Thoughts on Science Fiction. "Lord of the Rings Inspired by an Ancient Epic". 253–6. 26. Jump up^ Allen. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-313-23062-5. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings" in The Transcendent Adventure: Studies of Religion in Science Fiction/Fantasy." (8 May 2010) 37. Jump up^ Joseph Ripp. ISBN 0-618-08359-6. 41.ISBN 9780415969420. Elves. ed. Jump up^ The Letters of J. Tom (2000). 77–92. retrieved online from General OneFile. National Geographic News (National Geographic Society). making it one of the bestselling volumes of any kind. June 2006. March 2011. R. Travel Lady Magazine. 189–206. 33. 40. Retrieved 4 October 2006. Jump up^ Silverberg.R. Boston:Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 1-887424-22-9. 25. Jump up^ Shippey. Tolkien: A Biography. 38. Calif: Underwood. J. Tolkien" (in Ukrainian). ISBN 0-26110401-2 30. Michael (2006). Michael (2001). Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. R. Drout.R. Retrieved 22 January 2011. pp. A Tale of Two Cities. p.R. Jump up^ BBC: Tolkien's memorabilia go on sale. Retrieved 6 November 2011. "The Shellshocked Hobbit: The First World War and Tolkien’s Trauma of the Ring". 1–2. and Other Matters. R. Jump up^ Edwards. Jump up^ Inman.. HarperCollins. Jump up^ "Betsy Wollheim: The Family Trade". 18 March 2008 39. William H. "Slavic echoes in the works of J. CRC Press. with more than 200 million copies sold in more than 190 languages. J. Robert (1997). The Letters of J.

Jump up^ Jenkyns. Andy (16 December 2003). Jump up^ Cooper. Retrieved 4 December 2010." 43. Victory". a new edition for which he would still own the copyright. ABC News Online. This was published by Ballentine [sic] Books in October 1965. Retrieved 13 February 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2006. Tolkien began to revise The Lord of the Rings. was "Not another fucking Elf!" Grovier. But. "At the End of the Quest. 48. 50. Krysia (5 October 2004). and more importantly. The New York Times. Jump up^ Carpenter. R. (22 January 1956). "Bored of the Rings". 51. ^ Jump up to: a b Reynolds. The Sydney Morning Herald. xi–xiii. 55. as a result of being advised that he had lost his copyright. Retrieved 12 March 2006. Archived from the original on 30 May 2007. in the 1994 HarperCollins edition of The Fellowship of the Ring.. Jump up^ Dyson's actual comment. Retrieved 3 June 2006. "There was a campaign against Ace. ^ Jump up to: a b "The Lord of the Rings Boxed Set (Lord of the Rings Trilogy Series) section: Editorial reviews". ISBN 0-395-31555-7 44. "Lord of the Gold Ring".42. 54. Jump up^ Letters. Kelly (29 April 2007). "The Lord of the Rings: The Tale of a Text". Jump up^ Shulevitz. even before the Ace edition was issued. The Observer. "Epic trilogy tops favourite film poll". "In the Name of the Father". ed.f. Archived from the original on 16 January 2006. Jump up^ O'Hehir. Retrieved 30 May 2006. especially #270. (1981). Retrieved 12 March 2006. . A Film Portrait of J. Douglas A. Retrieved 13 May 2006. R. Jump up^ Diver. Retrieved 4 December 2010. R. Jump up^ Seiler. 46. "A lord for Germany". 49. as a result. "'Rings' comes full circle". c. Tolkien. Judith (22 April 2001). Andrew (4 June 2001). who. Anderson. 52. bowdlerized in the TV version. Tolkien (Television documentary). Jump up^ "Notes on the text" pp. R. Humphrey. Richard (28 January 2002). so that there could be an authorised paperback which would be a new edition. Salon. Retrieved 16 June 2006. Jump up^ Gilsdorf. Who Really Killed the WitchKing?" 47. 56. 57. The New York Times. 58. H. Callista (5 December 2005). Pat. Visual Corporation. and not to print any more copies. agreed to pay royalties. 45. Ethan (16 November 2003). USA Today. 305f. "Hobbits in Hollywood". W. Jump up^ "From the Critics". The New Republic. The Boston Globe. The Letters of J. Martin Andersson "Lord of the Errors or. Jump up^ "How many languages have The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings been translated into?". Retrieved 12 March 2006. #273 and #277. Boston:Houghton Mifflin. Jump up^ Derek Bailey (Director) and Judi Dench (Narrator) (1992). Jump up^ Auden. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 53. The Tolkien Society. "The book of the century".

J. 30–33. "'American Pop'. Salon Magazine. ^ Jump up to: p. J. John (2 December 2002). Sandra Ballif. Lin (1978). Jump up^ Masters. "High-Def 'Hunt For Gollum' New Lord Of The Fanvids". J. 75. "Wraiths and Race". Shyam (8 January 2003). ISBN 0-312-17671-6.R. cited in "Influences on "The Lord of the Rings"". (1991). from Encyclopedia of Science. Matters: Ron Thompson. Macmillan Reference USA. Retrieved 9 January 2006. David (December 2002). Christine (2007). Jump up^ Tolkien. The Guardian(London). 63.. Late Roman history and Multiculturalism in Tolkien's Middle Earth". Cited in "J. The Roots of Tolkien's Middle Earth (review) Tolkien Studies – Volume 4. The Year's Best Fantasy Stories: 4. University Press of Kentucky. Jody G. copyright 2001). Tolkien". pp. 207–208.BBC News (BBC). 72. Charges of". Technology. and Ethics . 113. "The Lord of the Rings rooted in racism". Tim (30 April 2009). All Things Considered (NPR). pp. 70. A. In Michael Drout. "We Hobbits are a Merry Folk: an incautious and heretical reappraisal of J. John (2007). "Why is the Only Good Orc a Dead Orc? The Dark Face of Racism in Tolkien's World". Jump up^ Brin. 76. . Jump up^ Bower. New York: DAW Books. R. Jump up^ The Lord of the Rings: The Mythology of Power.R. 71. R. by Jane Chance. Jump up^ Bhatia. (Revised Edition. Retrieved 1 May 2009. R. Jump up^ Straubhaar. 68. Retrieved 27 January 2006. [verification needed] a b Magoun. the Illustrated Man Unsung". Tolkien Encyclopedia. Jump up^ Yatt. Michael. PopMatters. "Making Middle-earth on a shoestring". "Racism. Retrieved 4 December 2010. Anderson (Winter 2004). 64. Christine (2007). Jump up^ J. BookRags. Retrieved 1 May 2009. 65. 622. 861. 307–311 73. 69. Rediff India Abroad. 60. "Myth.59.R. 66. Jump up^ ISBN 1-4025-1627-4 77. In Chance. p. R. T. Jump up^ Chism. The Lord of the Rings. National Geographic Society. J.R. "The South". 62. Retrieved 25 May 2010.R. pp. Laura (30 April 2009). Patrick (2004). 67.R. Jane.C. Tolkien Encyclopedia. 74. Jump up^ Shippey. In Michael Drout. Jump up^ Tolkien. 2007. "Race and Ethnicity in Tolkien's Works". ^ Jump up to: a b Rearick. HarperCollins.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia.R. Jump up^ Carter. p. Modern Fiction Studies. Houghton Mifflin. In Michael Drout.. ISBN 0-261-10238-9. Jump up^ Chism. Maçek III (2 August 2012). "Epic Pooh". J. Defending Middle-earth: Tolkien: Myth and Modernity. ^ Jump up to: a b c Curry. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 61. Jump up^ Moorcock. Sydell. Tolkien Summary". "The Lord of the Rings" — An Archetypal Hero's Journey".R.

R. 91. 120–121. (2004). Retrieved 20 November 2011. Ernest (2006).  Day. Retrieved 29 September 2009. Raymond (2001). "Hobbit movies meet dire foe in son of Tolkien". "The History of Dragon Quest". 12 July 2001. J. 31 (June).R. Tolkien reads and sings The Lord of the Rings (LP recording TC1478). Routledge. St. Tolkien: A Look Behind The Lord of the Rings.78. The Strawberry Bricks Guide to Progressive Rock. (2008). Retrieved 28 March 2011. C. Lin (1969). Perry (17 May 2006). Jump up^ Kalata. The Road Goes Ever On: A Song Cycle New York: Ballantine Books (1967). 86. David (2004). ISBN 0-34527539-X. ISBN 0-615-17566-X. J.ISBN 0-312-302908. . R. Brett (15 July 2009). LP recording. Martin's Press. Donald. Tolkien Encyclopedia. Gamasutra. ISBN 978-0-415-96942-0. Journal of Consumer Research. Michael D. 81. ISBN 0-61805702-1. 136-149. The One Ring.R. London Evening Standard. Further reading[edit]  Carter. Charles. Houghton Mifflin. TC1231/TC91231. Gamasutra. p.R. Retrieved 4 January 2012. Jump up^ Pulley. Meditations on Middle-earth. Jump up^ Feist. Jump up^ "The Gamasutra Quantum Leap Awards: Role-Playing Games". Wallflower Press. Retrieved 28 May 2006. S. 25. 92. J. ISBN 1-904764-82-7.R. Jump up^ Tolkien had recorded a version of his theme on a friend's tape recorder in 1952. Poems and Songs of Middle EarthNew York: Caedmon Records (1967). The Lord of the Rings: Popular Culture in Global Context. The Times Online (London: The Times). "‘Hobbit’ Heirs Seek $220 Million for ‘Rings’ Rights (Update1)" . Jump up^ Swann.R. Jump up^ Martin. John (28 May 2008). Retrieved 20 November 2011. Tolkien: A Biography. pp. Jump up^ Douglass. Jump up^ Mathijs. IGN. Jump up^ Gygax. Gary. This was later issued by Caedmon Records in 1975 as part ofJ. "Using the Imagination: Consumer Evoking and Thematizing of the Fantastic Imaginary".000". Jump up^ Harlow. Jump up^ Carpenter. J. 83. 87.Honorable Mention: Dragon Warrior.R. Bloomberg.R. ISBN 978-0-517-22317-8. ^ Jump up to: a b Snider. 88. Donald and Tolkien.  Drout. 79. Retrieved 24 July 2008. The World of Tolkien: Mythological Sources of the Lord of the Rings . Jump up^ Tolkien. "Gary Gygax — Creator of Dungeons & Dragons". 84. Strawberry Bricks. 90. 89. and Swann. 85. (2006). Gramercy Books. Brett A. 82. 6 October 2006. Ballantine Books. Humphrey (2000). 80.net. Kurt.R. Jump up^ "Tolkien sold film rights for £10. "The Influence of Literature and Myth in Videogames".

The History of The Lord of the Rings. R. Foster. Tolkien. ed. S. ISBN 0-87338-890-9.). Tolkien Companion and Guide (2006). The Company They Keep: C. Hammond. External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Lord of the Rings. ISBN 0-7394-3297-4 hdbk. The J. Robert (1978). R.R. Lewis and J.R. 4 vols (1988–1992). Christina Scull (2005).  Christina Scull and Wayne G.  Glyer. Kent State University Press. The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth: from "The Hobbit" through "The lord of the Rings" and Beyond. ISBN 0618-39113-4  Christopher Tolkien (ed. R. and enl. Rev. The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion. Diana Pavlac (2007). R. Ballantine Books. N. R. ISBN 0-618-64267-6.: An alphabetical dictionary of personages and lore in this body of works by J. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Lord of the Rings     Tolkien website of Harper Collins (the British publisher) Tolkien website of Houghton Mifflin (the American publisher) The Encyclopedia of Arda: An Interactive Guide to the Works of J. Tolkien The Tolkien Library .. Wayne G. R. Houghton Mifflin Co. Tolkien as Writers in Community.B.  Hammond.