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Training For Professional Performance

This manual is one of a series for


your use in learning more about equipment
that you work with in the oilfield. Its
purpose is to assist in developing your
knowledge and skills to the point that you
can perform your work in a more
professional manner.
The manual was prepared so that you
can learn its contents on your own time,
without the assistance of an instructor or
classroom discussion. Educators refer to
learning by self-study as Programmed
Learning. It is a method widely used in all
industries as means of training employees
.... to do their job proper.1y and teach them
how to perform higher rated jobs.
You can demonstrate your desire to
be a professional by taking a pOSitive
attitude toward learning the contents of
this manual and others that are applicable
to your job.
The author of this mBIlual has years
of experience in operating petroleum
equipment. He also has the technical
knowledge of how and why petroleum
equipment functions . The text was written
for use by personnel with little or no
previous experience with petroleum eqUip-
ment. Consequently, some of the material
may be familiar to you if you have
experience with oilfield equipment. From
such experience, you have observed the
-.. effect of making operating changes. The
manual will help explain why the changes
occurred that you observed. It will also
teach you how and why equipment
functions.
In order for you to learn the contents
of the manual, you must dig out the perti-
nent facts and relate them to the subject.
Simply reading the material and answering
the questions is not enough. The more
effort you make to learn the material the
more you will learn from the manual.
Teaching yourself requires self-
discipline and hard work. In order to pre-
pare yourself for the sacrifice you will have
to make, you should set goals ' for yourself.
Your ultimate goal is to perform your work
in a more profeSSional manner. ' Training is
one step in reaching that goal. Application
of what you learn . is another. Seeking
answers to questions is a th.ird. '
Once you have established .your final
goal, you must determine the means for
reaching that goal. You may decide, for
example, that you must complete a series of
10 or 15 manuals to get the basic knowledge
and skills you need. After you decide which
training material is required, you should set
a time table for completing each section of
the material.
/
Achieving your final goal may take
more than a year, and will require hourS of
hard work on your part. You will know you
have achieved your goal when you under-
stand how and why to operate oilfield equip-
ment in order to obtain the maximum pro-
duct at the lowest cost. Your sacrifice will
have been worth-while from the satisfaction
of knowing that you can perform your job in
a methodical professional manner! instead of
a trial-and-errorapproach.
Instructions For Using This Manual
This is your manual. You should
write your name on the cover. Upon
comoletion you will find it helpful to
keep it in an accessible place for future
reference.
Problems may be included through-
out the text. The solutions to the prob-
lems are given at the end of the book.
The manual is used in training pro-
grams all over the world. In some coun-
tries, English units of measurement such
as feet, gallons, pounds, etc. , are used.
In other countries, Systems Inter-
nationale (SIl or Metric units, such as
meters, liters, kilograms, etc., are
In order for the manual to be of maXI-
mum use, both 51 and English units are
shown.
The SI unit always appears first,
and the English unit follows in brackets
( 1. Example: the temperature is
25C [77 OF J. The English equi valent of
the 51 Unit will be rounded off to the
nearest whole number to Simplify the
text and examples. A distance of 10 m
may be shown as 33 ft when the exact
equivalent is 32.81 ft.
If you are working in English uni ts,
you may find it helpful to mark out the
parts tha t are in 51 uni ts, and vice versa.
Some of the Figures have units of
-measurement. In- cases, two
Figures are included. The first one
51 units, and the Figure number IS
followed by the letter A (Example ,
Figure lA). The second Figure will be on
the next page and will have English
units. It will be the same number as the
first one, but it will be followed by the
letter B (Figure 18). If you use 51 units,
be sure to refer to Figures followed by
the letter A; if you use English units,
refer to Figures followed by the letter 8.
The following:' general procedure is
recommended fo r using this manual:
1. Turn to Page 1. Read the mate-
rial until you come to the first
problem or question.
2. Work the first problem or answer
the question and enter the answer
in the proper space in ink. If the
problem or question is shown in
both 51 and English units of mea-
surement, answer only the part in
units of measurement that you
use.
3. Comoare your ans wer with that
sho"'/n a t the end of the book; De
sure to use solutions to the prob-
lems in the units you are working
in.
If vou r answer is correct, con-
reading until you come to
the next problem and work it. If
not, restudy the manual until you
understand the reason for your
error. Rework the problem if
necessary. Leave your wrong
answer and note the correct one.
This will keep you from making
the same mistake later on.
4. Proceed stepwise as shown above
until you have completed the
text .
The above approach will require
thought, making mistakes, and rethi,nking
the situation. Concentrate on two thIngs -
the hoW' and the why, Do not cheat your-
self by taking short -cu ts or up the
answers in advance. It saves time and
errors but produces no real understanding.
Your future depends on how efficiently you
perform your job and not on how
you proceed through this manual. Since
this is your manual, any errors you make
are private.
2
Abbreviations Used
In This Manual
SI UNIT ABBREVIATIONS
s, min second, minute time
h, d hour, day time
mm millimeter length
cm centimeter length
m meter length
km kilometer length
m 2
square meter
area
m' cubic meter volume
m'/d cubic meters per day volume rate
L Ii ter volume
g gram weight
kg kilogram weight
kPa kilopascal pressure
" IPa megapascal pressure
KPa(al kilopascal absolute pressure
bar bar (1 bar = 100 kPal pressure
kJ kilojoule heat, work
MJ rnegajoule heat, work
W,kW watt, kiloWE. tt power
M meta million
ENGLISH UNIT ABBREVIATIONS
s, min second, minute time
h, d hour, day time
in, ft inch, foot length
sq in square inch area
sq ft square foot
area
eu ft cubic foot volume
" II gallon volume
obI barrel (42 US gall volume
BPD barrels per day volume rate
Ib pound weight
psi lbs per squa re inch pressure
psia lbs per sq in absolute pressure
Btu British thermal unit heat
MBtu thousands of Btu heat
MMBtu millions of Btu heat
W, kW watt, kilowatt power
hp horsepower power
cf/d cubic feet per day gas flow rate
Mcf/d thousands of cfld gas flow rate
MMcf/d millions of cf/d gas flow rate
M thousand
MM million
Units Of Measurement
SI UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
Most of the SI uni ts of measurement used in
the oilfield are traditicnal metric units . The
exceptions we are concerned with are pressure
and heat units, which differ as follows :
METRICI
Sl UNIT CONVERSION
UNIT
Pressure bar kilopascal, kPa
kPe
bar = 100
Heat kiloeal kilojoule, kJ kcel =
4. 2
]
STANDARD CONDITIONS FOR GAS VOLUME
Measurement units for gas volume are cubic
meters (m 3) or cubic feet (cfl. The letters st
or s are sometimes used with the units to
deSignate volume at standard temperature and
pressure: m 3 (st) or sef. In this manual, stan-
dard volumes are corrected to a temperature
of 15 'c and a pressure of 101.325 kPa(al, or
60 'F and 14. 7 psia.
To simplify the text, the letters st and
s are omitted However, all gas volumes
sho wn are at standard conditions unless
specifically stated otherwise.
HEAT CAPACITY AND RELATIVE DENSITY
Specific heat and specific gravity are tradi-
tional terms that have been used in both
Metric and English units for many years.
These names are being replaced with the
words: heat capacity and relative density.
The new names are used in this manual. When
you see the term heat capacity (Ht Cap), it
will have the same meaning as speCific
heatj and relative density (ReI Dens)
means specific gravity.
HYDRATE INlimITION
TABLE OF CONTt:NTS
I. HYDRATE ..
II.
III.
A. Definition
B. When Hydrates Cun OcellI'
C. lIydr'ate Pr'cvcntion .
D. Method" of Removing llydnltcs
HYDRATE INHIBITION IN GAS i'IPIN(;
A. Wuter Whicll Call Condense
Water Content of NaturHI Gus - SI Units
Water Content of Natut'8,! Ga.s - English Units
B. Hydrate Tcmpcrullu'c Reduction .
C. Inhibitor hlJcctioll Hitte .....
Mclhanollnjcction Rate -SI Lnils
Methanollrjection nate - English l!nits
Glycollnjcction Rate - 51 Units ...
Glycollnjeclion Rate - English Umts
D. Method of Injecting Inhibitor ....
E. Selection of Inhibi tor . . . . . .
HYDRATE INHIUITION IN LOW TEMPERATUHE PROCESSING PLANT
A. lIydJ'ocarbon Dew Poi nl Control Plant
B. Refrigerated Lean Oil Gasoline Plant
C. Glycol Dilution ..
D. Glycol Injection Rate
VALIDATION - SI UNITS ...
SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS - SI UNITS.
VALIDATION - ENGLISH UNITS
SOLUTIONS TO PRODLEMS - ENGLISH UNITS
2
3
6
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
18
20
20
21
23
24
37
38
39
40
Figure 1 t\
Figure 1 B
Figure 2A
Figure 20
Figure 3/\
Figure 30
Figure 4/\
Figure 40
LIST OF DRAWINGS, GRAPHS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
Hydrate Formation Conditions - 51 Unlls ..
Hydrate Formation Conditions - English Unils ,
Hydrate Formation in PipclinC'
Water Content of Natural Gas - 51 Units
Water Content of Natural Gas - l!lllts
Mcthanollnje('tion Rate, 51 Unit-; , .
Injection RatC', Engll.sh Units
Gly('ol Hate. SI Units
GlycollnJcction Rllte, English Units
Inhibitor Injection in Gus Pipeline.
Flow diagrAm of gAS ehlllmg ex ('hanger, in hydrocarbon
dew paint control plant
Flow diagram of gAS chilling ex ('hangers m
rcfrigeratcd lcan oil Gasoline Plont
l'igures 5,\ and B G1ycol-watC'r freezmg point curves
Figure 6A Glycol injection I'ate in gas chillcrs, Sl Units
figure 68 Glycol injection rate in gas chillers, English Units
Example of glycol injection rate calculation
Figure 7 A
Figure 7B
Figure SA
Figure 88
Flow of glycol injected in heat eXChanger
Differential pressure gauge used to detect hydrate
formation in heat eXChanger . , ,
Glycol spray patterns in heat exchangers .
Diethylene Glycol Concentration, SI Units ..
Diethylene Glycol Concentration, English Units
Ethylene Glyt;0l Concentration, SI Unlts , .
Ethylene Glycol Concentration, English Units
The methanol and glycol injection rates shown in Figures 3 and 4 were
determined from procedures described in GAS CONDITIONING AND
PROCESSING by Dr. J. M. Campbell.
2
3
4
7
8
11
12
13
14
16,17
20
21
22
24
25
26
27
29
30,31
33
33
34
34
J. HYDRATE 1
A. Definition
Hydrate is 8 mixture of water and light hydrocarbons. Its form varies from B jelly-
li ke mus h to 8 solid ice block. It can complet ely plug piping or valves 50 that no flow will
occur. Hydrates have been known to fl ow through piping like a shot out of 8 gun
rupture the piping when it made 8 bend.
~
~
--
~
--
1]
A
HYCRATE PLLG CAN FLOW IN A PIPELINE
~
..
I \"
WHERE n-E PIPE BEN:lS TI-: PLLG CAN RUPTlRE
THE UNE F IT IS TRAVELLING FAST ENOLGH
and
Methane and ethane are the most common hydrocarbons that combine with water to
form hydrate. In isolated cases, propane will also combine with water to for m hydrate.
Butane and heavier hydrocarbons will not form hydrates.
8. When Hydrates Can Occur
The unusual characteristic of hydrate is that it forms at temperat ures well above
the freezing point of water. As we mentioned, hydrate often takes t he form of ice. It is
difficult to imagi ne ice forming at a temperature of 20 C (68 OF], but under certain
condit ions of flow which are not unusual in the oilfield, hydrate will form at that
temperature.
In order for hydrates to form, free water must be present as a liquid, in a stream of
hydrocarbons containing methane, et hane, or propane. The most common occurrence of
hydrate is in natural gas, which is pr imarily composed of methane.
The temperature at which hydrate will form in a gas stream depends upon the
p r ~ u r of the stream. As the pressure increases, the hydrate formation temperature
also increases. The curves shown on pages 2 and 3 indicate average conditions of
te mperature and pressure at which hydra tes will start to form when free water is present.
2
,
,
. , .
. ".
HYDRATE FORMATION AND PREVENTION
- " CQr\OITI(>.IS IN WHICH'
MY RA T(S WI LL FORM-
" .
" .
. _ 1 T"'
~ ,
- Exampll :
, AI 90S prfuure of 6000 kP{),
hydrole. ..../U form .... hen -
Ilmper,OIUl" f ~ b ,!o_16
W
C; ._ '
- +--
I (I IS 20
CAS TEMP(RA lURE C
Example
At what temperature will
hydrates form in a gas pipeline
12 000 operating at a pressure of 10 000
kPa [ 1500 psi]?
~
-
Refer to Figures lA and B.
At the pipeline operating pres-
sure, when the temperature of
the gas drops to 18.6e [66
0
F j
hydrate will begin to form if
f ree water is present.
When gas containing moi s-
ture in the form of humidity
flows through piping that is ex-
posed to low temperature, the
gas will slowly begin to cool, and
water in the gas will begi n to
condense into drops. When the
condensed water cools to the hy-
drate fo rma tion temperature,
Figure lA
HYDRATE FORMATION CONDITIONS. 51 UNITS hydrate will form. It will be
pushed along the wall of the
piping until it reaches a n obstruction, such as a weld joint. It will begin to accumula te at
the obstruction, and will eventually fill the line and block the flow of gas.
Problem 1
a. At what temperature can hydrate begin to form in gas at a pressure of 5000 kPa
[750 ps i l? ___ _
b. At what pressure can hydrate form in gas at a temperature of 18C
[64'F]? __ _
C. Hydrate Prevention
Hydrates are prevented from forming in two ways:
HYDRATE FORMATION CONDITIONS
1. By removing mois-
ture from the gas stream in a
dehydration unit. The most
com mon way of drying gas is
that of contacting the gas
with a concentrated glycol
liquid which absorbs the water
from the gas.
2. Inject glycol or
methyl alcohol (methanol) into
the gas to dissolve in the
water that condenses as the
gas is cooled. Glycol or
methanol lowers the water
freezing point in the same way
that adding glycol or methanol
to 8 radiator prevents the
water from freezing. The pur-
pose of injecting glycol or
methanol is not to absorb
some water from the gas, but
to mix with the water that
condenses as the gas is cooled
and lower its freezing
temperature.
CAS TO",PffiATUREfC
Figure 18
HYffiATE FORMATION CQN)ITIONS
ENGUSH LNTS
3
Injecting methanol or glycol into gas to prevent hydrate formation is commonly
referred to as hydrate inhibition in oilfield terminology.
D. Methods oC Removing Hydrates
As hydrate begins to form in piping, it will will restrict the flow of gas through the
piping, and cause a pressure drop in the piping at the point of formation. It will
eventually completely block the flow of gas through the piping. If the piping becomes
completely plugged with hydrate, the quickest way to remove the hydrate block is to
depressure the piping and allow the hydrates to melt. Another method is to heat the
portion of piping in which the hydrate is located and thereby melt it. This is usually not
practical because the exact location of the hydrate blockage may not be known.
4
\
HYDRATE FORMATION CONDITIONS
'- .

'-.


AS GAS FLOWS DOWN PIPE, IT IS COOLED AND WATER
DROPLETS FORM.
Weld Joint
J
V

:J





,



. ' .
6 4' '.'

AS TEMPERATURE FALLS BELOW HYDRATE FOR-
MATION POINT, WATER AND GAS COMBINE TO
FORM HYDRATE. HYDRATE MOVES ALONG THE
WALL OF THE PIPE UNTIL IT REACHES AN
IRREGULARITY IN THE PIPE AT A WELD JOINT

,
,


HYDRATES ACCUMULATE AT THE IRREGU-
LARITY AND ST AR T RESTRICTING THE FLOW
OF GAS.
a
)
ENOUGH HYDRATE WILL EVENTUALLY ACCUMULATE
TO BLOCK THE FLOW OF GAS.
HYDRATE FORMATKJN 1'1 PIPELINE
If the hydl'ste formation has not completely blocked the flow of gas through the
piping, methanol can be injected into the gas and it will dissolve the hydrate over a period
of time. Methanol injection will be helpful only if gas is flowing m the line. In the case
of Ii complete line blockage with hydrate, the line must be completely filled with
methanol in order to melt the hydrate in 8 reasonable time.
Glycol can also be used to melt hydrate, but it is not as effective as methanol.
METHODS OF REMOVING HYDRATE
METHANDL
, "
, "
I I' " , ,
,
HYDRATE
METHANOL OR GLYCOL ADDEO TO THE GAS
WILL MELT HYDRATE SO LONG AS GAS
FLOW CARRIES INHIBITOR TO THE HYDRATE.
METHANOL
OR
GL
I, \
/ : \
, '
, , '
WHEN HYDRATE COMPLETELY BLOCKS TI- FLOW
OF GAS, THE PIPE MUST BE F1ULEO WITH
INHIBITOR IN DRDER TO MELT THE HYDRATE.
U. HYDRATE INHWmON IN GAS PIPING
5
As we mentioned, hydrate will form in a gas stream when free water is present and
the temperature and pressure of the gas is within the hydrate forming zone as shown in
Figures lA and B. We inhibit or prevent the formation of hydrate by injecting glycol or
methanol into the gas. The amount of inhibitor (methanol or glycol) which must be added
depends upon two factors:
1. The amount of water which can condense from the gas as it cools.
2. The hydrate temperature reduction, which is the difference in temperature at
which hydrates will start to form and the lowest temperature t he gas can reach.
Each will be discussed separately.
6
WATER WHICH CAN CONDENSE
A. Water Which Can Condense
Most gas produced from a gas or oil well contains wat er vapor. In fact , it is al most
always sat urated with water; that is, its relative humidity is 100%. As the gas cools, some
of the water vapor condenses and fall s to the bottom of the pi pi ng or vessels in which the
st ream flows. The water that condenses rnust mix with the glycol or methanol that is
injected t o prevent hydrate formation. The amount of inhibitor to inject wi ll depend in
part upon the amount of water which condenses.
The water content of natural gas is shown in Figures 2A and B.
Example
Gas is {lowing {rom an offshore platform at a rate of 10 million
m 'id [350 MMcfl dJ. Its pressure is 10 000 kPa [1 500 psi], and its
temperature is 30C [86F"1 . The gas flows into a pipeline
surrounded by water at 7C [ 45 Fl. How much water can condense
when the gas (s cooled to sea-water temperature?
PRESSURE =
TEMP
10 000 kPa [ 1500 ps i 1
30C [ B6Fl
FLOW
Temp/ Pres of gas entering pipeline
Water content of gas (Fig 2A/ B)
Water content of gas at seawater
temp and pipeline pres (Fig 2A/B)
Water that condenses in pipeline
Gas Flow Rate
Total Water that Condenses
10 million m
3
/d [ 350 MMcf/dl
WATER TEMP = r C
[45 FJ
Sl U N1TS ENGLlSH UNITS
30Cl l0 000 kPa 86F11500 psi
500 kg/ million m 3 311bl MMcf
135 kg/ million m 3 8.5lbl MMcf
365 kg/ million m 3 22. 51b1MMcf
10 million m 3/ d 350 MMcfl d
10 x 365
350 x 22.5
= 3650 k[!ld = 7875 Ibid
HYDRATE TEMPERATURE REDUCTION
9
Problem 2
Gas produced from a well flows through 8 pipeline to 8 processing plant 15
kilometers [10 miles] away. Following is a flow diagram .

!
GAS WELL
3 million m' /d
[100 MMcf/dl
Ground Temp =
_5C [2JoFI
H6w much water can condense if the gas cools to ground temperature? ____ _
B. Hydrate Temperature Reduction
The hydrate temperature reduction which must be obtained by injecting inhibitor is
the difference in t emperature between the temperature at which hydrate first starts to
form and the lowest temperature expected in the gas stream.
Temperature Reduction::: Temp Hydrate Forms - Lowest Temp Gas Can Reach
For example, if the hydrate formation temperature is lSoC [GOOF] and the gas
temperature . could cool to 10 c [50 OF J, then the Temperature Reduction by injecting
inhibitor is 16 - 10 ; 6 'c [ 60 - 50 ; 10 'F J
Addition of inhibitor to lower the hydrate formation temperature is similar to that
of adding anti-freeze to an engine radiator to lower the freezing pOint of the water
contained in the radiator. Consequently, when we speak of hydrat e temperature
reduction, we are actually talking about lowering the freezing point of the water that
10
INHIBITOR INJECTION RATE
condenses from the gas.
The temperat ure at which hydrate starts to form is shown in Figures lA and 8. As
long as the gas temperat ure stays above the hydrate formation point , no inhibi tor must be
injected. However, if the temperature can fall below the hydrate formation point, then
inhibitor must be injected or hydrate will form.
Example:
Determine the hydrate temperature reduction required in the exampl e on page 6.
SI UNITS ENGLISH UNITS
Pipeline pressure 10 000 kPa 1500 psi
Hydrate {ormation temperature 18.6 'C 66F
(Fig. 1A and B)
Lowest temperature in pipeline 7'C 45
0
F'
Hydrate Temperature Reduction 11.6'C 21 'F
Enough inhibitor must be added to reduce the hydrate format ion temperature by
11.6'C [21'F).
Problem 3
How much Hydrate Temperature Reduction is required in the gas from Problem
2? ___ _
C. Inhibitor Injection Rate
The inhibitor t hat is injected dissolves in the water that condenses from the gas to
form a liquid solution of water and inhibitor. The quantity of inhibitor that ends up in the
solution will be about the same whether methanol or glycol is used. However, more than
half of the methanol that is injected vaporizes and mixes with the gas. Very little glycol
vaporizes and enters the gas st ream. Consequently, the quantity of met hanol is
considerably greater than the quantity of glycol.
The inhibitor injection rate is determined from Figures 3 and 4 after calculating the
Hydrate Temperature Reduction and quantity of water that condenses from the gas.

1
1600 ~
METHANOL INJECTION RATE - SI UNITS
~
+
t
Example, When 800 kg/million M'
_ + ____ of woter condenses {rom the gas and
the hydrate temperature reduction
is 16C, the methanol injection rate
~ is 900 Ii ters/million M '.
METHANO... INJECTICN RATE, LITERS PER MILLION M'
Figure 3A
11
800
-< 700
I 600
--< 300
- 200
-1- 100
METHANOL INJECTION RATE TO PREVENT HYrnATE rrnMATION
51 LNTS
12 METHANOL INJECTION RATE - ENGLISH UNITS
90
80
50
1 Ex:'nJ:,
When 60 Ibl MMcf of water con-
. : ++- denses from the gas and the hy-
I drate temperature reduction is
-4 __ +-1 +-+ 40F, the methanol injection rate ==
is 9 gallons per MMcf of
,
10 14
METHANU.. RATE, GAL PER MMef
FIGURE 38
METHANOL RATE TO PREVENT HYORATE FORMATION
______________ ___________ SH UNTS
16
14


1:

CD
..J
.,;


'"
u..
t:l
'"
i5

u
....

i!:
ffi
....


GLYCOL INJECTION RATE - ENGLISH UNITS
90 m=a=ffffFrf
90
80
70
30 30
Example:
1G-1-I-W:4-4-W-l- When 65 Ibl MMcf of water
denses from the gas and the hy-
drate temperature reduction is
50F the injection rate
2345678 9
GLYCOL I'oIJECTION RATE GAL PER MMcf
FIGURE 46
GLYCCL INJECTICN RATE TO PREVENT HYDRATE FDRMATJO-j
__________________________
INHIBITOR INJ ECTION RATE 15
Example
Determine the methanol and glycol injection rates at the conditions in tile
previous examples.
Water that condenses (Example Page 6)
Hydrate Temp Reduction (Example Page 10)
Methanol injection rate (Fig 3A/ B)
Gas flow rate
Daily methanol injection rat e
Hourly methanol injection rate
Glycol injection rate (Fig 5A/ BJ
Gas flow rate
Total glycoL injection rate
Hourly glycol injection rate
SI UNITS
365 kg/ million m 3
11 .6C
630 L/ million m 3
10 million In 3d
630 x 10
= 6300 x Lid
6300 7 24
= 263 L/ hr
105 L/ million m 3
10 million m 3/ d
105 x 10
= 1050 L/d
1050 7 24
= 44 L/hr
ENGLISH UNITS
22.5 Ib/ MMc{
21F
5.0 gal/MMc{
350 MMc{/ d
5.0 x 350
= 1750 gal/d
1750 gal/d 7 24
= 73 gal/hr
0.8 gal/AlMc{
350 MMc{/ d
0.8 x 350
= 280 gal/d
280 7 24
= 11.7 gal/hr
In order to prevent hydrate from forming in the pipeline when the gas is cooled from
30
0
C to 7
0
C [86
0
F to 45
0
F ] I methanol must be injected into the stream at a rate of 263
Iiters/hr [73 gal/hr J or glycol must be injected at a rate of 44 liters/hr [11.7 gal/hr J.
The actual rate is usually increased about 10% above that calculated for a margin of
safety.
Problem 4
B. What hourly methanol injection rate is required for gas in Problems 2 and
31 ___ _
b. How much glycol must be injected to prevent hydrates from forming in the gas
in Problems 2 and 3?
D. Method of Injecting Inhibitor
In order for the inhibitor to be effective, it must mix with water that condenses
from the gas at the instant condensation occurs. If the inhibitor is flowing along the
16 METHOD OF INJECTING INHIBITOR
bottom of the pipeline, and water condenses on the wall of the pipeline, hydrate may form
before the water drops to the boltom of the line. In this case, the inhibitor is of very
little value in preventing hydrate from forming. The flow of gas through the piping must
be turbulent so that the inhibitor is continuaUy mixed with the gas and has an opportunity
to contact water the instant it condenses from the gas.
As we mentioned, most of the methanol which is injected in the gas vaporizes and
becomes part of the gas itself. However, as the gas cools, some of the methanol will
condense. In this situation, the methanol will condense at the same time that water
condenses and the two will mix as they condense and no hydrate will occur.
Glycol, on the other hand, does not vaporize in the gas. Consequently, the gas flow
must be turbulent when glycol is injected in order for the glycol to be dispersed
throughout the gas so that it can contact water the moment it condenses.
In order to be sure the inhibitor thoroughly mixes with the gas, it must be injected
so that thorough mixing occurs at the injection point. If liquid inhibitor is s imply added to
the pipeli ne, it may flow along the bottom of the pipeline even though the gas flow is
turbulent. So long as the inhibitor is injected in a mist in the gas, it will probably remain
in that form as lo", as gas flow is turbulent in the piping.

________ 7-
OR

CONTROL
VALVE
. .. :
CONTROL VALVE WLL TJ-K)ROUGI-LY MlX GAS ANO INHIBITOR
One way of assuring mixing at the point of injection is to add the inhibitor upstream
of a choke or a cont rol valve. As the gas flows through the control valve, its pressure is
reduced and violent agitation occurs within the control valve. The inhibitor and gas will
thoroughly mix in the valve.
METHOD OF INJECTING INHIBITOR 17
If a control valve is not available for mixing the inhibitor and gas, a spray nozzle
can be used to atomize the inhibitor as it is injected. The spray nozzle has a number of
small holes through which the inhibitor flows. Over 8 period of time, some of the holes
will plug from dirt and debris in the system. Dirt is blown out by closing 8 valve in the
inhibitor line and opening the valve in the back-flow line. This procedure should be
followed weekly.
-
Back
Flow
Valve
,:::-...... ----
\ '
\ '
-
INHIBITOR INJECTION IN GAS PIPE
Inhibitor is usually injected with 8 variable capacity pump. The pumping rate wiH
change as the gas now rate varies and/or the Temperature Reduction changes. The
Temperature Reduction will be higher in mid-winter than in the fall or spring, so a higher
injection rate is required.
The pump shown to the right is a type often
used for injecting inhibitor into a gas stream out of a
gas well. A drum of methanol or glycol is connected
directly to the pump. The injection rate is checked
by periodically measuring a change of level in the
drum with a calibrated dip stick inserted in the top.
The drum is replaced when it is empty.
The method of changirg the pumping rate will
depend upon the type of pump. Capacity of the gas
driven pump shown in the photograph is changed by
varying the gas pressure to the drive end. Motor
driven pumps are adjusted by varying the speed or
length of stroke of the plunger.
HYORATE INHIBITOR PUMP
18 SELECTION OF INHIBITOR
Problem 5
Match each item in the two columns.
___ 1. Methanol
___ 2. Glycol
____ 3. Control Valve
____ 4. Inhibitor Pump
___ 5. Spray Nozzle
E. Selection of Inhibitor
a. Variable capacity
b. Mixes gas and inhi bitor
c. About 50% vapor izes
d. Atomizes inhibitor
e. Turbulent gas flow
The selection of inhibitor - glycol or methanol - is usually one of lowest cost.
Methanol is generally more effective than glycol in preventing hydrate formation, so it
is the preferred selection.
A separator is usually installed at the end of a pipeline to recover the inhibitor so
that it can be reused. Essentially all of the glycol can be recovered in the separator.
Since part of the methanol is a vapor in the gas stream, recovery in the separator will be
only 40 - 60% of the total amount injected into the gas. Consequently, the price of
methanol must be about half that of glycol in order for it to compete cost-wise with
glycol.
Injecting hydrate inhibitor does not remove moisture from the gas. It is simply a
means of preventing hydrate from forming in a gas pipeline from the source of gas
(usually gas or oil wells) to a dehydration plant or processing facility. Selection of
met hanol or glycol often depends on the type of dehydration or processing facility.
If methanol is the selected inhibitor, and the gas enters a dehydration plant, the
methanol which is in a vapor in the gas, will be removed from the gas as though it was
wa ter. This can increase the load on the dehydrator as much as 25%. On the other hand,
the methanol removed by the dehydrator can be recovered and reused. Thus, the added
cost of operating the dehydration plant for removing methanol, less the methanol
recovery from the plant, are considered in evaluating the relative costs of glycol and
methanol.
If the gas enters a refrigerated type proceSSing plant, where it is chilled to no less
SELECTION OF INHIBITOR 19
than -29'C [-20'F J, glycol injection will probably be used in the gas chilling equipment
to prevent hydrate from forming. In this case, glycol would probably be selected as the
hydrate inhibitor in the pipeline so that it will be compatible with the glycol injection in
the processi ng plant.
If the gas enters a cryogenic processing plant, its temperature may be reduced to
-101
0
C [-150
0
F ]. In some cryogenic plants, methanol is injected in the gas prior to
Chilling to prevent hydrate formation. In this case, methanol injection in the pipeline is
the obvious choice.
Some cryogenic plants have dry desiccant dehydrat ion facilities to remove moisture
from the gas prior to Chilling it. As we previously said, methanol will be removed from
the gas in the dehydration plant as though it was water, but it can be recovered and
reused.
Another consideration in selecting glycol or methanol is that of the turbulence of
gas flowing in the pipeline. Glycol is heavy and viscous, and tends to fall to the bottom
of the pipe. In order for it to be effective, gas flow must be turbulent enough to keep the
glycol from dropping out. If the gas flow rate varies as much as 50%, glycol will probably
sett le out at the lower flow rate, and it may not effectively stop hydrate formation.
Problem 6
Indicate whether methanol or glycol would probably be selected to inhibit hydrate
formation in the following situations. Assume the cost of methanol is half that of glycol.
a. Gas from several wellhead separators that enters a gasoline plant where the gas
ischilledto-1S'C[O'FJ. Inhibitor
--------------------
b. Gas from the above enters a cryogenic processing plant using methanol
injection for preventi ng hydrate when the gas is chilled.
Inhibitor
c. Gas from an offshore platform with flow varying from 50 to 100% enters an
onshore cryogenic plant with a dry desiccant dehydration plant.
Inhibitor ____________ __
20 1lI. HYDRATE INHIBITION IN LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESSING PLANT
When gas is processed in 8 refrigerated lean oil absorption plant, or 8 hydrocarbon
dew point control plant, its temperature may be reduced to -29 C [_20op]. In these
plants, glycol is often used to prevent hydrate formation 85 the gas is chilled because it
can be recovered and reused with very little loss. If methanol is used, about half of it
would vaporize and leave in the outlet gas.
Gl ycol is injected into the stream as it enters heat exchangers in which the gas
temperature is lowered. It mixes with water, which condenses from the gas as it is
cooled, and ther eby prevents hydrate from forming. Tile glycol is recovered i n the low
temperature separator. It is diluted with water that condensed as the gas was chilled.
The diluted soluti on (ri ch glycol) flows to a reconcentrator, where the condensed water is
boiled out. The reconcentrated glycol is thcn pumped back to t he injection points.
A. Hydrocarbon Dew Point Control Plant
Inlet gas flows through a Gas-ta-Gas Exchanger, where it is partially cooled with
chilled gas leaving the plant. Glycol is injected into the inlet gas stream entering the
Gas-to-Gas Exchanger. The parti ally cooled inlet gas and glycol flowing out of the
exchanger then enter a Chiller, where its temperature is lowered to the desired point with
refrigerant - usually propane or fr eon. Glycol is also injected into the the gas stream
entering the Chill er.
Lean
Outlet
Gas
GAS-GflS
EXCHANGER
IIIIIlIIIIIlIIIIImI. Ref r ig.
Vapor
l l i r : l l J : ~ ~ Liqui d
Refr ig.
Hydrocarbon
GAS FLOW IN CHILLERS OF HYDROCARBON DEW POINT CONTROL PLANT
GL YCOL INJECTION IN REFRIGERATED GAS PROCESSING PLANTS 21
The stream leaving the Chiller is a mixture of gas, glycol, and liquid hydrocarbons.
It flows to a Low Temperature Separator, where the liquids fall to the bottom. Cold gas
leaves the separator and flows through the Gas-ta-Gas Exchanger, where it partially cools
the inlet gas. The outlet gas from the exchanger usually enters a pipeline.
Glycol, being heavier than liquid hydrocarbon, collects in the bottom of the Low
Temperature Separator, and flows to a reconcentrator, to remove the dilution water that
condensed when the gas was chilled.
Liquid hydrocarbons that collect in the Low Temperature Separator flow to other
processing facilities to stabilize or segregate the various hydrocarbons in the stream.
B. Refrigerated Lean Oil Gasoline Plant
Flow in this plant is similar to that of the hydrocarbon dew point plant. The
principal difference is that gas and liquid hydrocarbons from the Low Temperature
Separator enter an Absorber, where most of the propane and heavier hydrocarbons are
removed from the gas.
Outlet Gas
.15
0
C
[S' F]
-lSOC [SOF
--
Rich Glycol
to
Reconcentrator
Refrigerant Vapor
Liquid Refrigerant

GAS FLOW IN CHlU.ERS OF LEAN OIL GASOUNE PlANT
Rich Oil
22 GLYCOL FREEZING POINT
--','-'- -;-:---. -
FIGURE 5A
GLYCOL-WATER FREEZING POINT
51 UNITS
.1
I
. ,
.

IL , / , 1
( ;,#-, ;. I:. " --I -=1
5 I,' , . / :, . !
" 0
I" ,'i ,'. ' ,' .. '1 Indl .
, , . I , caUl fl"l!"zingzOl1e '
" ' . , - ,., . , "
i- ,', -,,,- ,
1 ; - , ", ' , 1
i,' , " t, ,
- 20; ,', ,V ,f ,
I " ' ,' -,'- '-,' r " ,
1
: . .. L
,
, '- "- , -. , .
- I - " ,
" I " , - ,' . ,'.: ", _'.' :,ci
l
'-:, : ','
Both pl ants ha vc two ex-
changers in which the gas i s
cooled and glycol is injected
into each. The rich or dilut ed
glycol solut ion is reconcen-
tr at ed and circulat ed back to
the injecti on points i n the gas
exchangers.
Although gl ycol is com-
monly used as an an t i-freeze
to prevent water from freez-
ing in automobile or engi ne
radiators, some mixtures of
glycol and wat er will freeze at
temperat ures whi ch occur in
low temperature processsing
plants. In fact , pure glycol
freezes at a t emperat ure of
-S'C [22'F). Consequentl y,
the concentration of glycol
that is injected in the gas
stream must be carefully con-
trolled so that it wi ll not
freeze when it passes through
the low temperature ex-
changers. Figur es 511 and B
indicat e the freezi ng point s of
various glycol-water mixtures.
As you can see from the
. ' .' ,', - " .; y L::-!'-'::.:.cJ-'-'..."':':'-'.:..L..4
to d zo iO 6li 80 100
PERCENT GLVc:o.... N GLVOlL WATER n...UTJ')N glycol freezing point curves, a
FIGURE 56
GLYCOL-WATER FREEZING POINT CURVES
ENGUSH UNITS
glycol concentration of 95% (5%
GLYCOL INJECTION IN REFRIGERATED GAS PROCESSING PLANT 23
water) will freeze at a temperatul' e of -25C [-13FJ. A solution containing 47% g lycol
and the balance water will freeze at the same temperature. If a low temperature plant
chills gas to -2SoC [-13F], the concentration of glycol used for injecting in the
exhangcrs to prevent hydrate from forming must be above 47% and less than 95%, or the
glycol will freeze.
C. Glycol Dilution
The glycol injected in an exchanger mixes with water that condenses from gas as it
is cooled. Consequently, the glycol is diluted as it mixes with water. Most glycol
injection systems operate with a dilution of 5% to 10%. Thi s means that thE' amount of
water that condenses from the gas will lower the glycol concentration by 5% to 10%. If the
concentration of lean glycol injected in a chiller is 75%, and the dilution is 5%, the
concentration of glycol after it mixes with condensed water is 70%.
Example
Lean glycol having a concentration of 70% is injected in an exchanger at
a "ate of 100 kg for each 8 kg of water that condenses liDO lb for each 8 Ib
of water that condenses}. How much is the glycol diluted?
Lean GlycoL Composition:
Weight of leon solution
Weight of glycol in 70% lean solution
Weight of water in lean solution
Rich Glycol Composition:
Weight of Glycol
Weight of water
Weight of rich glycol
% glycol in rich solution
Glycol Dilution
SI U Nlrs
100 kg
70%
100x 100 kg
= 70 kg
100 - 70
= 30 kg
70 kg
30 + 8 = 38 kg
70 + 38 = 108 kg
z.QEL (
108 kg x 100)
= 65%
70 - 65
= 5%
ENGLISH UNITS
100Ib
70% x 100 Ib
100
" 70 Ib
100 - 70
- 30 Ib
70 Ib
30 + 8 = 38 Ib
70 + 38 = 108 Ib
70lb
1081b x (l00)
= 65%
70 - 65
5%
24 GL' ('01 RATE TO PREIENT HYIlH,TE rOH)lATlO\
IN GAS rHILLEH 51 UNITS

100 _+ I
90
I t
80 __
I
60
70
!-----
I--
-+ I
aJ 50
Example:
leon glycol is 74% and dilution
is 8'4,. glycol Injectiol1 rate in ex-
changer is 7.6 liters per kg of
water that condenses in exchanger.
40
U
60 65 70
--t '
, '
r- t i
75
'LEAN GLYCOL CONCENTRATION
FIGURE 6A
+1+1
100
t t 9
a
O
,%:l 0
70
80
GLYCOL INJECTION RATE TO PREVENT HYDRATE FORMATION IN GA5 CHILLER
51 UNITS
GLYCOL INJECTION RATE TO PREVENT HYDRATE FORMATION 25
IN GAS CHILLER - ENGLISH UNITS
8
- ++--
+-+-1-- f--I-+--ji--+--j
5
W e m H 00
'LEAN GLYCOL CONCENTRA nON
FIGURE 69
GLYCa.. INJECTION RATE TO PREVENT HYORATE FORMATION IN GAS CHILLER
ENGLISH Lt-IITS
26
GLYCOL INJECTION IN COOLERS
O. Glycol Injection Rate
The flow of glycol in an injection system will depend upon three factors:
1. The concentration of lean glycol injected into the gas stream, which is
regulated at the glycol reconcentralor.
2. The amount the lean solution is diluted with water that condenses from the ga<;.
Dilution = % Lean Solution - % Rich Solution. Dilution is usually between 5 and
10%.
3. The quantity of water which can condense from the gas as it is chilled in the
exchangers.
Figures 6A and 13 sllow the relationship of these factors.
Example
Gas enters a low temperature processing facility at operation conditions
shown below. Calculate the glycol injection rate required in each exchanger,
and the tolal quantity required.
".
Inlel G .. Cood<uon.
JUCl8t.fJ
Pre. .6000 W.l 870 p .. l
110101 .2""II,onm
1
fd
110MMcI/d]
ell
GLYCOL INJECTION IN GAS COOLERS 27
Gl ycol Injection Rate in
Cas-to- Cas Exchanger 51 UNI TS ENGLISH UNITS
Lowest possible gas temp 15C 5F
Wa ter content inlet gas (Fig 2) 710 kg/ million m' 45lb/MMcf
WaleI' content at lowest temp (Fig 2) 42 kg/ million m 3 2.6Ib/MMc{
Wa ler tho t can condense 668 kg/ million m 3 42.4Ib/ MMc{
Glycol dilution, % lean - % rich 75-70 =5% 75-70 = 5%
Injection rate with 75% lean 12.9 L/ kg wa ter 1.55 gal/lb water
soPn and 5% dilution (Fig 6)
Injection ,'ate {Of' water that 12.9 x 668 1.55 x 42.4
can condense = 8617 L/million m 3
= 65. 7 gal/MMcf
Cas voLume
2 million m 3/ d
70 MMcf/ d
Glycol injection rate {or
= 8617 x 2 65.7 x 70
total gas {low rate 17234 L/ d = 4600 gal/d
Rate In Gas Chiller
Inlet gas temp -1C 30F
Lowest pOSSi ble gas temp -26C -15P
Water content of inlet gas kg/ million m 3 7.0Ib/ MMcf
Water content at lowest temp 18 kg/ million m 3 1.2Ib/ MMcf
Water that can condense 97 kg/ million m 3 5.8Ib/ MMc{
Glycol dilution 5%
Injection rate with with 75% teon 12.9 L/ kg water 1.55 gal/lb water
sol 'n and 5% dilution (Fig 6)
Cos volume
2 million m 3/d 70 MMc(/ d
Glycol injection rate for 97 x 12.9 x 2 5.8x1.55x70
total gas flow rate = 2503 L/ d = 629 gal/d
Add injecti on in Gas Exchanger 17234 L/ d 4600 gal/d
Total glycol injection ra te 19737 L/ d 5229 gal/d
Hourly Injection rate 19737 24 5229 24
= 822 L/hr = 218 gal/hr
In calculating the water that can condense in t he exchangers we used the
lowest possible temperat ure tt18t t he gas can r each in t hem. In the case of t he Gas-to-Gas
Exchanger, the gas is actually cooled to only -1C (30
o
p], However, cold gas at -15C
[5 p J is used to cool the inlet stream. It is possible for some of the inlet gas to reach
the sa me temperature as t hat of t he cold gas. Consequently, the glycol injection ra te
must be calculated for t he worst possible case that could occur in t he exchanger.
28
GLYCOL INJECTION IN GAS COOLERS
Inlet Gas
I
/II
I
BACK- FLOW LINE USED
TO BLOW DIR T OUT OF
NOZZLE.
Flow Control Valve
Flow Indicator
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GAUGE
INDICATES PRESSURE DROP
ACROSS SPRAY NOZZLE.
FILTER
Lean Glycol ~ = = = = l l ~ L=_!jt ,t---'
GLYCOL INJECTION IN HEAT EXCHANGER
The calculations made above will give til e min imum glycol i njection rate that is
required. In order for the gl ycol to be effective, it must be sprayed in each exchanger so
that the entire lube sheet of t he exchanger is covered with gl ycol. Hydrate will form in
the tubes that are not in the spray pattern and they will quickly plug. Often, the quantity
of glycol required to completely cover the tube sheet of the exchanger is considerably
more than the minimum required from the calculations made in the example.
The spray pattern from a nozzl e is pr i mari l y dependent upon t he pressure drop
across the nozzle. As the pressure drop increases, the spray pattern enlarges. Most
glycol injection nozzles are designed fot, a pressure drop of 200 to 400 kPa [25 to 50 psi].
A change in pressure drop will result in a differen t spray pattern. If the pressure drop
across the nozzle increases, and the glycol flow remains constant, some of t he holes in the
nozzle are apparently plugged. A filter on the inlet glycol line will usuall y remove solid
particles in the stream that could plug some of the nozzle openings.
A plugged nozzle can be cleaned by blocking in the flow of glycol and opening the
valve in the back fl ow line to allow gas inside t he exchanger to flow through the nozzle to
the vent and blowout dirt that plugged the nozzles.
HYDRATE DETECTION IN GAS COOLERS
29
When the pressU('e drop Across the nozzle decreases at a constant flow rate, the
holes in the nozzle have apparently become enlarged. The stream out of the nozzle is
probably in the form of drops rather than a mist, and the spray pattern may not cover the
entire tube sheet. Increasing the glycol flow rate until the design pressure drop is
indicated may temporarily solve this problem. However, the permanent solution lies in
replacing the nozzle wi th 8 new one.
Hydrate will form in the tubes of an exchanger which are not within the spray
pattern of the glycol. Since most tubes are fairly small, those beyond the spray pattern
will usually plug completely in a sho['t time. Once a lube has completely plugged with
hydrate, iner'casing the glycol injection rate will be of no help in melting the hydrate
because no gas is flowing ttlrough the tube to push the glycol to the point of the hydrate,
In order to remove hydrate from tubes that are completely blocked, the exchanger
must be heated above the hydrate formation temperature, or it must be deprcssured to
vaporize the hydrate. [ncl'easing the injection rate may melt some of the hydl'ate in tubes
that Are partially blocked, but It will be of no benefit in I'emoving hydrate from tubes that
are completely blocked.
Hydrate buildup in an cxelwngcr is detected by an increase in pressure drop across
the exchanger, \lost are designed so that the pressUt'e of the gas leaving the
exchanger is ubout 35 kPa [5 J less than the pt'essure of the gas entering the
Warm Gas
Oi ff erential
Pressure GauQe
/ f'
ij- If'
=tL_____

GlycDI Cold Gas
I'ICREASE 1'1 DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GAUGE READING
IIIDICATES HYMATE FMMATJON 1'1 lUBES
30
GL yeOL INJECfION IN GAS COOLE RS
exchanger. In other words, the pressure drop through the exchanger is 35 kPa l5 psi J. As
hydrate begins to form, flow through some of the tubes will be restricted ~ that the
entire gas stream has to pass through fewer tubes. Consequently, more pl'essurc will be
required to push the gas through the unplugged tubes and the pressure drop thl'Ough the
exchanger will increase.
Adjusting the glycol flow rate to an injection noz?le in an exchangel' to provide a
spray pattern that covers the tube sheet is a trial and error process that often requires
months and sometimes years to accomplish. The most common approach to correcting a
situation in which hydrate periodically forms is that of increasing the glycol flow rate. As
we mentioned, increasing the rate wi!! increase the size of the spray pattern. It may
re:-:;ult in most of the glycol being sprayed on the wall of the exchanger rather than on the
tube sheet. In this case. increasing the rate may do more hal'm than good.
/
/
-IT:.
/
<- -
::-::.
,'-
,'-
Glycol
SPRAY PATTERN AT
PROPER GLYCOL
flOW RATE
cr:
cr
/
/
-
cr 1/
~
\, -
[L
\'-
0::::
\
Glycol
SPRAY PATTERN AT
HIGH GLYCOL
flOW RATE
cr
/_-
[C
"
'-
0::::
'-
Glycol
SPRAY PATTERN AT
LOW GLYCOL
flOW RATE
The location of the nozzle or nozzles in an exchanger will also affect the spray
pattern. If the nozzle is too close to the tube sheet, the pattern will not cover the entire
sheet. Of course, if it is too far from the tube sheet, some of the stream will spray on the
wall and wilt be of no value in the exchanger. Nozzles in some exchangers can be moved
closer to or away from the tube sheet while the exchanger is in service.
GL YCOL INJ ECTION IN GAS COOLERS 31
I' l), U
/ /[I
AI
1// IT
~ ~
// - --
')
0
\' ,
'\ .... IT
'IT
' JT
rT
SPRAY PATTERN WITH
PROPER NOZZLE LOCA nON
SPRAY PATTERN WITH
NOZZLE TOO CLOSE
TO TUBE SHEET
SPRAY PATTERN WITH
NOZZLE TOO FAR
FROM TUBE SHEET
The inj ection nozzles on some exchangers can be moved vertica ll y or horizont all y,
or rotat ed i n the exchanger.
Another factor whi ch can affect the spray patt ern is t hat of the gl ycol
concent ra ti on. As the glycol concentr ation in creases , the liqui d becomes more visco us,
that is, it becomes t hicker, and is more difficult to spray. Consequentl y, t he lowest
concentrat ion which can be t olerat ed will usua ll y result in a more uni form spray patt ern.
The t emper ature at which the glycol is inject ed also aff ects its vi scosi ty. It will be
less viscous, that is, i t will fl ow more readily, at a high t e mper ature. Thus, raising the
temperature of t he glycol being injected will of ten res ult in a more uni form spray pattern
and less hydr at e probl ems.
/
/
r -'" //,.[L"
, / /
.. _ .... / ....
K-"'-- -[C
, "
,", n-
, ' LL
,
,
NOZZLE CAN BE MOVED UP OR OOWN NOZZLE CAN BE ROTATED
32
GL YCOL INJECTION IN GAS COOLERS
There are no hard and fast r ules to follow to determine the best operating condit ions
to prevent hydrate formation in an exchanger. When hydrate format ion is a problem, i t is
important that only one condition be changed at a time in order to evaluat e its effect. If
several changes are made at the same time, the positive effect of one change may be
offset by a negative effect from another, and no conclusions can be drawn from the
changes.
There are four changes that can be made in the glycol injection sytsem:
1. Increase or reduce the glycol now rat e.
2. Incr ease or reduce the glycol concentration.
3. Increase or reduce the temperature of glycol being injected.
4. Adjust the position of the spray nozzle inside the exchanger.
Before making any of the above changes, it is important that you know what the
system is doing when hydrate formation occurs regularly. The following process
information should be obtained:
1. Glycol flow rate to each exchanger.
2. Temperature of glycol entering each injection point.
3. Concentration of lean glycol and rich glycol. and the glycol dilution, which is
the difference of the two.
Determining glycol concentration is a complicated l aboratory procedure. However,
it can be estimated fairly close by measuring the glycol relative density with a hydro-
meter. The concentr ation can be obtained by applying the hydrometer reading and
temperature of glycol to Figures 7 or 8, depending on whether the glycol is diethelyene or
ethclenc.
Example
A sample of lean glycol from the reconcentrator in a system using
ethelyne glycol has a hydrometer reading of 1.076 at 50C [122FJ. Refer to
Figure 8-AIB. The lean glycol concentration is 79%.
A sample of rich glycol in this system taken from an accumulator at the
inlet side of the reconcentrator has a hydrometer reading of 1.0680 at 55C
[ 131 FJ. The concentration is 74%.
The glycol dilution is 79 - 74 = 5%
The glycol diluti on often gives an insight as to the cause of hydrate formation in an
exchanger. If the dilution is between 4 and 10%, the proper flow rate of glycol is being
SI UNTTS
l.ll{)
LI10
,
LIOO
5

""I ,

b I.D80
iLJ.<[A,/i


g
1.0&0
4
-


1.12D

l.lJO


.. t-
or

--1 :


1.070
t ,
IT
,.
l.060
I.
,
,

l.o,r


60 10 80 --'io
1001.040
Ca..conltA 110N Of OIETI-M...ENE Gl.. VCOL. WOGt-fA
nGlRE 7A
E
>
iJ

c
"

c
,
b



"
<
C
"
ENGLISH tJ-IITS
1.120 -rl 'l; I 1 -- --:-.!..,.k:' r' l.JlO
Lr i eLl . , . '.' '-
1'1'''- 'j 1'1 . d .' . rj;-+- r-,'
1.070
1.1.
1.040;0-
,.1 c,"-
..... f t7' : .J....
.": U 41 : 11.080
.J,
..
I.n70
kUtcl.'"
'$: .;-:-:::::.:
, .. '!'
, :-___ ;. : I: I '
._. j _' c. I

"'
"
50 90 100
CONCENTRA TlON CF DlETHYLN( CL yeo..... WEiGHn
FIGURE 78
CONCENTRATION OF OlETHYLENE GLYCOL AT
VARIOUS RELATIVE DENSITIES AND TEMPERATURES
OJ
r;;
..,
'"
'"
t:'"
'" Z
'"
o
t:'"
'"
()
o
t:'"
()
o
z
()
'"
Z
..,
'"
,.
..,
o
z
w
w
!
1.120
.,
l.110
l.UX), -<.
'-'m>

b LOSt!:

\;! I.OW
o
<
d
"
.. "'"
1.0)(1
l.tlll0X)
-+-t-
.c.
.,
SI UNITS
r
'6

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CONCENTRAl'JC:W\I CF' DHYLEJ..E CL YCOL. WOGHR CONC(NTRA nON CF ETHYLENE Gl.. vca....
naJ'n: 8A f"lGlJRE 88
CONCENffiATION OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL AT VARIOUS
RELATIVE DENSITIES AND TEMPERATURES
w
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GLYCOL INJECTION IN EXCHANGERS 35
maint ained in the system. However, if glycol is injected in two exchangers, the overa ll
glycol dilution will not necessarily apply to each of the two exchangers. Furthermor e, it
is almost impossible to get a sample of ri ch glycol leaving an exchanger to determine it s
diluti on in t hat exchanger . The point is that if the overall dilution is within the proper
range, the principal adjustment is that of properly dividing the glycol flow to the
exchangers. In the example on page 27 the glycol inj ection rate to the gas exchanger was
about 7 times as much as that to the chiller. Thi s is 8 fairly typical split of glycol
between the two exchangers.
If the glycol di lution is more than 10%, it is li kely that t he flow of glycol is not high
enough. The glycol flow rat e should be incr eased about 10% for each percentage of
dil uti on in excess of 10%. In other words. if the overall dilution is 12%, it is 2% more than
the maximum (l0%). The glycol flow rat e must be increased 2 x 10 = 20t in order to bring
the diluti on down to the allowabl e maximum of lOt .
The method for increasing the glycol flow will depend upon the type of pump. If it
is a gas driven pump, flow is increased by increasing gas pressur e t o the pump. If the
injection pump is electric driven, fl ow is increased by changing the length of the s troke or
some other variable means of controll ing t he output.
If the overa ll glycol diluti on is less than 3%, the glycol inj ection rate might be too
high, which results in a glycol spray pattern as shown in the middle drawing on page 30.
Reducing the glycol flow rate until the dilution is 4-5% will result in a better spray pa tt ern
inside the exchanger , and may prevent freeze-ups from occuring.
If freeze-ups are occuring when the dilution is in the proper range, the foll owing
procedure is suggested for making changes to prevent freeze-ups. Each change must be
made in a clean system with no hydrate present. If a change is made and a freeze-up
follows, thaw out the exchanger and proceed to t he next step.
1. Back flow the injection nozzle to remove dirt that may ha ve collected in it.
2. Increase the glycol flow rate 20%. If thi s <:bes not he lp, incr ease it another 20%.
3. If the above fai ls, reduce the glycol ci rculation 20% below its original rate. If
no improvement occurs, reduce it a nother 20%.
4. If no improvement is noted from changing t he fl ow rate, set the fl ow at its
original rat e a nd reduce the glycol concentration by 5%. Concentra ti on can be
reduced 5% by lowering the temperatur e of the reconcentrator 4 C [ 7 F J.
5. If no improvement is noted with a reduction in concentrat ion, repeat Steps 2
and 3 at the lower glycol concentration.
36 GLYCOL INJECTION IN EXCHANGERS
6. If no improvement is noted, set the flow at its original rate and increase the
temperatur e of the glycol a t the injection point, if possible. Hold the
concentration at its low point. The temperature should be raised at least 20C
[36 OF]. If no improvement is noted, change the flow rate as recommended in
Steps 2 and 3 at the lower concentration and higher temperature.
7. If the above does not improve the si tuation, the inj ecti on nozzle should be
moved or rotated in t he exchanger. Set the flow rat e at normal and maintain a
high glycol temperature and low concentr at ion. Each change in injection nozzle
position should be made in small steps. If a position change does not result in
improvement, follow it with a change of the same magnitude in the opposite
direction.
Problem 7
The chiller shown below is located in a low temper ature gas processing plant.
a. How much water can condense from the gas? ___________ _
b. How much glycol injection is required to inhibit hydrate from
forming? ____________ _
Temp
Press
Flow
0" C [32
0
Fl
kP. ( 800 pli 1
:: 5 million m' /d
(175 MMcf/dl
Inlet Gas t;:::EC!l::!!llll!llll:!!=
Outlet
Rich Glycol,


Vapor
Ref r iger an t
Liquid
-20
0
C (-4
0
F 1
__ .. Liquli' d Hydrocarbon
37
HYDRATE
INHIBITION
VALIDATION
SI UNITS
Trainee _______ _
METHANOL
. 10 000 kPa
2 million
m' /d
5500 kPa
--
Water Cant =
160 kg por
million m'
GAS CHILLER
r;::::=t GAS
WELLHEAD
GAS SEPARATOR
WELLS
GAS
DEHYDRA-
TION
15 km lklderground
Pipeline. Ground
Temp = 10 C
LNT
Six gas wells flow into a wellhead seperator. Gas from the separator passes through
a choke and enters a 15 kilometer pipeline to a dehydration plant. Gas from the
dehydration plant flows to a low temperature process plant, where it is chilled to -18 'C.
1. What is the hydrate formation temperature downstream of the choke?
'C.
----
2. How much hydrate Temperature Reduction is required? ______ 'C
3. What is the water content of gas leaving the choke? kg/million m 3
4. What is the water content of gas at the lowest temperature it can reach in the
pipeline? kg/million'
5. What methanol injection rate is required to prevent hydrate from forming in the
pipeline? L/hr
6. How much w ~ t r can condense in the gas chiller? ____ .kg/million m 3
7. How much glycol must be injected in the gas chiller? L/hr
38 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS -51 UNITS
1. 8. From Figure 1 A, hydrates will form at 5000 kPa and 14.5C.
b. From Figure lA, the pressure at which hydrate forms at 18C is 9000 kPa.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
Temperature of gas entering the pipeline
Water conlent of gas entering the pipeline at
7000 kPa and 25'C. (Figure 3A)
Water content of gas at ground temp, -5C. (Figure 28)
Water that can condense :;: 470 -76 :;::
Total daily weight of water that can condense 394 x 3 :;:
Hydrate formation temperature at 7000 kPa (Figure lA)
Lowest temperature in pipeline
Hydrate tempel'sture reduction:;:: 16.6 - (-5) = 21.6, use
a. Hydrate temperature reduction (Problem 3)
Water that can condense (Problem 2)
Methanol injection fate (Figure 3A)
Gus flow rate
Methanol injection rate for 3 million m 3/d :;:: 770 x 3 :;::
Hourly methanol injection rate:; 2310 .;. 24 :;
b. Glycol injection rate when condensed water is 417
kg/million m 3 and hydrate temperature reduction is
22 'C. (Figure 4A)

e
5
a
d
Gas flow rate
Glycol injection rate for 3 million rn 3 ;; 220 x 3 ;;
Hourly glycol injection rate = 660 .;. 24 ;;
1 6. a. Glycol
2 b. Methanol
3 c. :vI ethanol
4
5
Inlet gas tempct'lltur'e
Lowest possible gas temperature
Water content of inlet gas, 5500 kPa and OC (Figure 2A)
Water content at lowest temp, 5500 kPa and -20C (Figure 2A)
8. Water than can condense,
Glycol dilution: 70% lean - 60% rich:;
Glycol injection rate with 70% lean sol'n and
10% dilution (Figure 6A)
Injection rate for 100 kg of water:; 100 x 5.5:;
Gas flow rate
Injection rate for 5 million m 3/d ;:; 5 x 550 :;
b. Hourly injection rate;; 2750 f 24 :;
25C
470 kg/million m 3
76 kg/million m 3
394 kg/million m 3
1182 kg/d
16.6'C
-5'C
22 'c
22 'c
394 kg/million m 3
770 L/million m 3
3 millionm
3
/d
2310 L/d
96.3 L/hr
220 L/million m 3
3 million m 3/d
660 L/d
27.5 L/d
O'C
-20'C
130 kg/million m 3
30 kg/million m 3
100 kg/million m 3
10%
5.5 L/kg water
550 L/million m 3
5 million m 3/
d
2750 L/d
115 L/min
HYDRATE
INHIBITION
VALIDATION
ENGLISH UNITS
METHANOL
MMcf/d
10 mile under-
ground pipeline.
Ground Temp =
50' F
-+-
39
Trainee ______ _
75%
Lean
GAS Glycol
DEHYDRA-
TION
UNIT
Water Cant ;;;
10 Ib/MMcf
GAS CHILLER
f'Plll=:t GAS
Six gas wells flow into a wellhead separator. Gas from the separator passes through.
a choke and enters a 10 mile pipeline to a dehydration plant . Gas from the dehydration
plant flows to a low temperature process plant, where it is chilled to O'F.
1. What is the hydrate formation temperature downstream of the choke?
'F.
----
2. How much hydrate Temperature Reduction is required? ______ 'F
3. What is the water cont ent of gas leaving the choke? _____ lb/MMcf
4. What is the water content of gas at the lowest temperature it can reach in the
pipeline? Ib/MMcf
5. What methanol injection rate is required to prevent hydrate from forming in the
pipeline? gal/hr
6. How much water can condense in the gas chiller?
____ lb/MMcf
____ gal/hr
7. How much glycol must be injected in the gas chiller?
40 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS - ENGLISH UNITS
1. a . From Figure IB, hydrates will form at 750 psi and 59'F.
b. Fro.m Figure 18, the pressure at which hydrate forms at 64F is 1100 psi.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
Temperature of gas entering the pipeline
Wat er cont ent of gas entering the pipeline at
1, 000 psi and 77 'F. (Figure 28)
Water content of gas at ground temp, 23 'C. (Figure 28)
Water that can condense;: 31 - 4.8 ;:
Total dail y water that can condense 26. 2 x 100 =
Hydrate formation temperature at 1000 psi (Figure IB)
Lowest temperature in pipeline
Hydrate temperature reduction;: 63 - 23 ;:
a. Hydrat e temperature reduction (Problem 3)
Water that can condense (Problem 2)
Methanol injection rate (Figure 38)
Gas flow rat e
Methanol inj ection rat e for 100 MMcf/ d = 100 x 6.2 =
Hourly methanol injection rote;;; 620 ~ 24 ;:
b. Glycol injection rate when condensed water i s 6 2 ~
Ib/ MMcf and hydrat e temperatur e reduction is
40'F. (Figur e 48)
c
c
~
a
d
Gas now rate
Glycol injection ral e for 100 MMcf/d = 100 x 1.8 =
Hourl y glycol injection rate = 180 f 24 =
1 6. a . Glycol
2 b. Methanol
3 c. Methanol
4
5
Inlet gas temperature
Lowest possibl e gas temper ature
Water content of inlet gas, 800 psi and 32 'F. (Figure 2B)
Wat e, content a t lowest temp, 800 psi and _4 '1'. (Figur e 28)
a. 'Vater that can condense,
Glycol dilution: 70% lean - 60% rich =
Glycol injection rate with 70% lean sol'n and
10% di lution (Figure 68)
Injecl ion rat e for 6.0100 of water = 6.0 x 0.67 =
Gas now rate
Injection rate for 175 MMcf/d = 175 x 4 =
b. Hourly injection rate = 700 f 24 =
77' F
31.0Ib/ MMcf
4. 8Ib/ MMcf
26. 2 Ib MMcf
2620 Ib/d
63 'F
23 'F
40"F
40F
26.2Ib/ MMcf
6. 2 gal/MMcf
100 MMcf/ d
620 gal/d
25. 8 gal/hr
1.8 gal / MMcf
100 MMcf/d
180 gal/d
7.5 gal / hr
32 'F
-4 'F
8. 0Ib/ MMcf
2. 01b/MMcf
6.01b/ MMcf
10%
0. 67 gal/lb water
4 gal/ MMcf
175 MMcf / d
700 gal/d
29 ga l/ hr


40 SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS - ENGLISH UNITS
1. a. From Figure 18, hydrates will form at 75 0 psi and 59F.
b. Fro.m Figure 18, the pressur e at which hydrate forms at 64F is 1100 psi.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
Temperature of gas entering the pipeline
Water content of gas entering the pipeline at
1,000 psi and 77'F. (Figure 2B)
Water content of gas at ground temp, 23C. (Figure 28)
Water that can condense;; 31 - 4. 8:;
Total daily water that can condense 26.2 x 100 :;
Hydrate formation temperature at 1000 psi (Figure 18)
Lowest temperature in pipeline
Hydrate temperature reduction = 63 - 23 =
a. Hydrate temperature reduction (Problem 3)
Water that can condense (Problem 2)
Methanol injection rate (Figure 38)
Gas flow rate
Methanol injection rate for 100 YIlVicf/d = 100 x 6. 2 :::
Hourly methanol injection rate = 620 .;. 24 =
b. Glycol injection rate when condensed water is 26.2 "
Ib/MMcf and hydrate temperature reduction is
40F. (Figur e 4B)

e

a
d
Gas flow rate
Glycol injection rate for 100 MMcfld = 100 x 1.8 =
Hourly glycol injection rate = 180 .:. 24 =
6. a . Glycol
2 b. Methanol
3 c. Methanol
4
5
Inlet gas temperature
Lowest possible gas temperature
Water content of inlet gas, 800 psi and 32 of. (Figur e 28)
Water content at lowest temp, 800 psi and _4
0
F. (Figure 28)
a. Water that can condense,
Glycol dilution: 707. lean - 60% rich =
Glycol injection rate with 70% lean so1'n and
107. dilution (Figure 6B)
Injection rate for 6.0 100 of water = 6. 0 x 0. 67 =
Gas flow rate
Inj ection rate for 175 MMcf/d = 175 x 4 =
b. Hourly injection rate = 700 .:. 24 =
77F
31.0
4.8lb/MMci
26.2 lb MMcf
2620 Ibid
63 F
23' F
40F
40' F
26. 2 1b/MMcf
6.2 gal/MYlcf
100 MMcf /d
620 gal/d
25.8 gal/hr
1. 8 gal/MMcf
100 MMcf/d
180 galld
7.5 gallhr
32 OF
-4 OF
8. 0lb/MMcf
2. 0 lbl MMcf
6. 0lb/ MMcf
10%
0. 67 gallib water
4 gallMMcf
175 MMcf/ d
700 galld
29 gal/hr