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Newman University Systematic Synthetic Phonics A University, School !ase" Trainin# an" In"e$en"ent St%"y &oc%ment

Newman University Systematic Synthetic Phonics A University, School-Based Training and Independent Study Document
The recent O(STE& "oc%ment )emovin# *arriers to literacy +',--. hi#hli#hte" the im$ortance o/ $honic s0ills /or rea"in#, writin# an" s$ellin#1 There/ore $ractitioners nee" the relevant s%*2ect 0nowle"#e an" $e"a#o#ical s0ills to teach $honic s0ills e//ectively1 This *oo0let has *een "esi#ne" as a wor0in# "oc%ment to *e com$lete" thro%#ho%t yo%r co%rse an" to s%$$ort yo% with the teachin# o/ systematic synthetic $honics +SSP.1 At $oints in"icate" *y yo%r t%tor, yo% will *e e3$ecte" to set yo%rsel/ tar#ets /or yo%r own $ro/essional "evelo$ment as a teacher o/ SSP an" there are a n%m*er o/ o$$ort%nities /or yo% to recor" yo%r learnin# an" re/lect on what yo% still nee" to 0now1 It is im$ortant that these re/lections an" tar#ets are 0e$t %$ to "ate an" com$lete" with "%e consi"eration, as they will $rovi"e $art o/ the evi"ence re4%ire" /or yo% to *e awar"e" 4%ali/ie" teacher stat%s +5TS. at the en" o/ yo%r co%rse1 6em*ers o/ the Newman University Partnershi$ incl%"in#, yo%r APT, School !ase" T%tor, Class Teacher, Partnershi$ T%tor, the Pro#ramme 7ea"er an" O(STE& may as0 to see yo%r re/lections an" comments at any time thro%#ho%t yo%r trainin#1 The "oc%ments in this *oo0let are /rom a ran#e o/ so%rces an" %se the $hases o/ learnin# /rom 7etters an" So%n"s, which is c%rrently in %se in many schools, as a /ramewor0 /or teachin#1 However, yo%r "evelo$ment as a teacher o/ SSP is "e$en"ent on atten"ance at lect%res, e//ective o*servation an" re/lection on lessons, yo%r own in"e$en"ent st%"y an" investi#ation o/ other /ramewor0s /or teachin# SSP whilst yo% are en#a#e" in school *ase" trainin#1 This com*ination o/ learnin# metho"s is essential to ens%re that yo% are con/i"ent to teach $honics when yo% enter yo%r N5T year an" that yo% meet one o/ the criteria /or8 Teachers9 Stan"ar"s +',--. :8 &emonstrate #oo" s%*2ect an" c%rric%l%m 0nowle"#e I/ teachin# early rea"in#, "emonstrate a clear %n"erstan"in# o/ systematic synthetic $honics1 ;e wo%l" li0e to wish yo% every s%ccess in this element o/ yo%r trainin# an" i/ yo% have any 4%estions $lease /eel /ree to as0 Pro#ramme 7ea"ers or any mem*er o/ the En#lish core team who will *e only too $lease" to s%$$ort yo%1

&e*orah !oe0estein Un"er#ra"%ate Pro#ramme 7ea"er

<%stin =ray Primary Post#ra"%ate Pro#ramme 7ea"er

=reat !ritain &e$artment /or E"%cation1 +',--. )emovin# !arriers to 7iteracy1 O(STE&

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Contents
Section 1 )ea"in# e3$ectations )e/lection an" evi"ence sheets > ? 6 -' -: -? -@ -A ',

Section 2 Guidance Prom$ts /or o*servin# a $honics session Criteria /or Ass%rin# hi#h 4%ality $honic wor0 Pron%nciation #%i"e Phonics r%les an" $atterns Phonemes list

Section 3 Planning and Assessment Overview o/ $honics 0nowle"#e to *e covere" in Bey sta#e Plannin# e3em$li/ication 7etters an" So%n"s $lannin# /or Phase : A wee09s "iscrete $honics teachin# C $hase ? &aily "irect teachin# o/ $honics

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'' ': '6

!lan0 Plannin# "oc%ments 7etters an" So%n"s $lannin# A wee09s "iscrete $honics teachin# &aily "irect teachin# o/ $honics 'A 'D :-

6a0in# sec%re assessments

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Glossary of Terms =lossary

Section 1
)ea"in# e3$ectations )e/lection an" evi"ence sheets

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Reading expectations
The En#lish mo"%le covers many o/ the *asic conce$ts an" s0ills re4%ire" to teach Primary En#lish1 There is c%rrently a stron# $olicy /oc%s on the teachin# o/ systematic synthetic $honics as a 0ey strate#y in the teachin# o/ early rea"in#1 Ens%rin# yo% are well $re$are" to teach systematic synthetic $honics an" early rea"in# is an im$ortant as$ect o/ achievin# 5%ali/ie" Teacher Stat%s1 The /ollowin# materials will s%$$ort the "evelo$ment o/ yo%r $honics s%*2ect 0nowle"#e an" $e"a#o#y in $re$aration /or School E3$erience1

Required reading
&e$artment /or E"%cation an" S0ills +&/ES. +',,@. 7etters an" so%n"s1 Norwich8 &e$artment /or E"%cation an" S0ills1 <olli//e, ;1, ;a#h, &1 an" Carss, A1 +',-'. Teachin# systematic synthetic $honics in Primary Schools1 7on"on8 Sa#e1 The a*ility to teach "%rin# School E3$erience re4%ires st%"ents to *e very /amiliar with the a*ove te3ts1 There/ore, it is recommen"e" that yo% $%rchase the <olli//e et al1 +',-'. te3t an" "ownloa" the &/ES +',,@. materials an" re/er to them to s%$$ort yo%r learnin# "%rin# University *ase" sessions an" teachin# "%rin# School E3$erience1

Recommended reading
The /ollowin# te3ts are $art o/ the wi"er rea"in# list /or the En#lish mo"%le8 =oo%ch, B1 an" 7am*rith, A1 +',--. Teachin# Early rea"in# an" $honics8 creative a$$roaches to early

literacy1 7on"on8 Sa#e1


7i*rary hol"in#s -, co$ies 7ewis, 61 an" Ellis, S1 +e"s1. +',,6. Phonics8 Practice, research an" $olicy1 7on"on8 Sa#e1 7i*rary hol"in#s D co$ies an" also availa*le as an e *oo01 This *oo0 will *e %se" in $artic%lar "%rin# the secon" year o/ the Un"er#ra"%ate Pro#ramme1 6e"well, <1, ;ray, &1, 6inns, H1, Coates, E an" =ri//iths, V1 +',-'. Primary En#lish8 teachin# theory an" $ractice1 ?th e"n1 E3eter8 7earnin# 6atters1 7i*rary hol"in#s C > co$ies O) 6e"well, <1, ;ray, &1, 6inns, H1, Coates, E an" =ri//iths, V1 +',,D. Primary En#lish8 teachin# theory an" $ractice1 >th e"n1 E3eter8 7earnin# 6atters1 7i*rary hol"in#s C > co$ies an" also availa*le as an e *oo0

Systematic Synt etic P onics Sc emes


He$$lewhite, & +"evelo$e" *y. +',--. (lo$$y9s Phonics, So%n"s an" 7etters O3/or"8 OUP 7loy", S1 +',,'. <olly Phonics1 Chi#well8 <olly 7earnin# 6is0in, )1 +series "evise" *y. +',--. )ea" ;rite Inc1 O3/or"8 OUP

Reflection and !"idence S eets #ntroduction to Systematic Synt etic p onics su$%ect &no'ledge and practice(
Please re/lect on the $ro#ress yo% have ma"e at %niversity, "%rin# school *ase" trainin# an" in"e$en"ent learnin# PART 1 ;hat have yo% learnt a*o%t $honics /rom yo%r t%torial, yo%r rea"in# an" any $revio%s e3$erienceE

;hat "o yo% nee" to 0now a*o%t $honicsE

Set yo%rsel/ a tar#et *ase" on a re/lection o/ yo%r nee"s an" how yo% are #oin# to achieve this1

&ate set8 FFFFFFFFFFF1

&ate /or )eview8 FFFFFFFFF

)eviewe" FFFFFFFFFFFF1 APT si#nat%re

PART 2 Havin# watche" a systematic, synthetic $honics session8 ;hat /%rther s%*2ect 0nowle"#e "o yo% nee" in or"er to teach an e//ective $honics sessionE

Havin# *een o*serve" teachin# a systematic synthetic $honics session, what are the 0ey $oints /rom /ee"*ac0 /or yo% to im$roveE Note any strate#ies yo% %se" which wor0e" well an" "escri*e why1

How "oes $honics lin0 to the e//ective teachin# o/ rea"in#E

)in&ing T eory to Practice(


Please re/lect on the $ro#ress yo% have ma"e at %niversity, "%rin# school *ase" trainin# an" in"e$en"ent learnin# PART 1 )e/lect on what yo% have learnt a*o%t $honics /rom *oth %niversity an" school *ase" trainin#1

Thin0 o/ two 4%estions which this re/lection has raise"8

Set yo%rsel/ a tar#et *ase" on a re/lection o/ yo%r nee"s an" the res%lts o/ yo%r a%"it1

&ate set8 FFFFFFFFFFF1

&ate /or )eview8 FFFFFFFFF

)eviewe" FFFFFFFFFFFF1 APT si#nat%re

)in&ing T eory to Practice( $lease re/lect on the $ro#ress yo% have ma"e at %niversity, "%rin# school *ase" trainin# an" in"e$en"ent learnin#
PART 2 &isc%ss the ' 4%estions yo% have as0e" with school *ase" collea#%es1 Note *elow what yo% have learne" /rom this "isc%ssion1

Havin# o*serve" a $honics session, %sin# the criteria in the #%i"ance section o/ this *oo0let, what are the im$lications /or yo%r own learnin#E 6a0e a note *elow1 Please attach o*servation sheet1

S%mmarise the /ee"*ac0 /rom the o*servation o/ *+, teachin# a systematic synthetic $honics session1 ;hat s$eci/ically went well an" what "o yo% nee" to "evelo$E

Consolidating in Practice(
Please re/lect on the $ro#ress yo% have ma"e at %niversity, "%rin# school *ase" trainin# an" in"e$en"ent learnin# PART 1 ;hat have yo% learnt a*o%t $honics "%rin# yo%r time at %niversityE

;hat has yo%r e3$erience o/ o*servin# $honics teachin# in school ta%#ht yo%E

How have these two elements com*ine" to ens%re that yo% are con/i"ent to teach SSPE

-,

PART 2 )e/lect on where yo% saw $honics *ein# a$$lie" in lessons other than 7iteracy1 ;hat im$lications "oes this have /or yo%r teachin#E

;hat 4%estions has this raise" /or yo% a*o%t the teachin#Glearnin# o/ $honics

Set yo%rsel/ a tar#et *ase" on a re/lection o/ yo%r nee"s1 &isc%ss this tar#et with yo%r APT1

&ate set8 FFFFFFFFFFFF

)eviewe" FFFFFFFFFFFF1 APT si#nat%re

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Section 2 Guidance
Prom$ts /or o*servin# a $honics session Criteria /or ass%rin# hi#h 4%ality $honic wor0 Pron%nciation #%i"e Phonics r%les an" $atterns Phonemes list

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Prompts for +$ser"ing a -iscrete P onics Session -AT!(.../ C)ASS.......


Planning and discussion ;hat $hase o/ the $honic $ro#ramme is the teachin# $itche" atE Is this a$$ro$riate to the $%$ils9 a#e an" level o/ attainmentE Is there a ti#htly /oc%se" learnin# o*2ectiveE

Can all $%$ils see Ghear the teachin# in$%tGo*2ects %se"E Is the session well $ace"E

Is assessment /or learnin# *%ilt into the $lannin#E

Teac ing sequence(


Re"isit0Re"ie' Are chil"ren $ractisin# $honemesG#ra$hemes they alrea"y 0nowE

Is this $art o/ the se4%ence lively an" well $ace"E

Are all chil"ren en#a#e"E

Teac Are $honemes artic%late" correctly *y the st%"entE

Are chil"ren #iven the o$$ort%nity to artic%late the $honemesE

Is st%"ent ens%rin# the chil"ren artic%late the $honemes correctlyE Is there evi"ence o/ new learnin# not 2%st consoli"ationE Are the chil"ren *ein# ta%#ht to *len" an" se#mentE This may incl%"e oral *len"in# an" se#mentin#1
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Practice &o the activities in this section #ive the chil"ren the o$$ort%nity to $ractise the $honemes an" #ra$hemes they have 2%st learntE !len" $honemes /or rea"in#E

Se#ment $honemes /or s$ellin#

APP)* Are chil"ren #iven the o$$ort%nity to a$$ly their $honics s0ills in an" activitiesE )ea"in# activities

;ritin# activities

T roug out t e Session Are the activities m%ltisensoryE

Is the session /%nE

+t er t oug ts Is the o%t"oor s$ace %se" e//ectivelyE

Use o/ ICT1 Is this %se" e//ectively to $romote learnin#E Is the session a*o%t ', min%tes lon#E

Are a""itional a"%lts %se" e//ectivelyE

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T e Criteria for Assuring 1ig 2uality P onic 3or& 4-f! 25116


The core criteria $rovi"e schools with clearly "e/ine" 0ey /eat%res o/ an e//ective, systematic, synthetic $honics $ro#ramme1 P%*lishe" $ro#rammes /or $honic wor0 sho%l" meet each o/ the /ollowin# criteria1 (%rther e3$lanatory notes are o//ere" *elow1 The $ro#ramme sho%l"8 $resent hi#h 4%ality systematic, synthetic $honic wor0 as the $rime a$$roach to "eco"in# $rint, i1e1 a $honics H/irst an" /ast9 a$$roach +see note -. ena*le chil"ren to start learnin# $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills %sin# a systematic, synthetic $ro#ramme *y the a#e o/ /ive, with the e3$ectation that they will *e /l%ent rea"ers havin# sec%re" wor" reco#nition s0ills *y the en" o/ 0ey sta#e one +see note '. *e "esi#ne" /or the teachin# o/ "iscrete, "aily sessions $ro#ressin# /rom sim$le to more com$le3 $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills an" coverin# the ma2or #ra$hemeG$honeme corres$on"ences +see note :. ena*le chil"renIs $ro#ress to *e assesse" +see note >. %se a m%lti sensory a$$roach so that chil"ren learn vario%sly /rom sim%ltaneo%s vis%al, a%"itory an" 0inaesthetic activities which are "esi#ne" to sec%re essential $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills +see note ?. "emonstrate that $honemes sho%l" *e *len"e", in or"er, /rom le/t to ri#ht, Iall thro%#h the wor"I /or rea"in# "emonstrate how wor"s can *e se#mente" into their constit%ent $honemes /or s$ellin# an" that this is the reverse o/ *len"in# $honemes to rea" wor"s ens%re chil"ren a$$ly $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills as their /irst a$$roach to rea"in# an" s$ellin# even i/ a wor" is not com$letely $honically re#%lar ens%re that chil"ren are ta%#ht hi#h /re4%ency wor"s that "o not con/orm com$letely to #ra$hemeG$honeme corres$on"ence r%les $rovi"e /i"elity to the teachin# /ramewor0 /or the "%ration o/ the $ro#ramme, to ens%re that these irre#%lar wor"s are /%lly learnt +see note 6. ens%re that as $%$ils move thro%#h the early sta#es o/ ac4%irin# $honics, they are invite" to $ractise *y rea"in# te3ts which are entirely "eco"a*le /or them, so that they e3$erience s%ccess an" learn to rely on $honemic strate#ies +see note @.1 !xplanatory notes Phonic wor0 is *est %n"erstoo" as a *o"y o/ 0nowle"#e an" s0ills a*o%t how the al$ha*et wor0s, rather than one o/ a ran#e o/ o$tional Imetho"sI or Istrate#iesI /or teachin# chil"ren how to rea"1 (or e3am$le, $honic $ro#rammes sho%l" not enco%ra#e chil"ren to #%ess wor"s /rom non $honic cl%es s%ch as $ict%res *e/ore a$$lyin# $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills1 Hi#h 4%ality systematic, synthetic $honic wor0 will ma0e s%re that chil"ren learn8 ' #ra$hemeG$honeme +letterGso%n". corres$on"ences + the al$ha*etic $rinci$le. in a clearly "e/ine", incremental se4%enceJ to a$$ly the hi#hly im$ortant s0ill o/ *len"in# +synthesisin#. $honemes, in or"er, all thro%#h a wor" to rea" itJ to a$$ly the s0ills o/ se#mentin# wor"s into their constit%ent $honemes to s$ellJ an" that *len"in# an" se#mentin# are reversi*le $rocesses1

Teachers will ma0e $rinci$le", $ro/essional 2%"#ements a*o%t when to start on a systematic, synthetic $ro#ramme o/ $honic wor0 *%t it is reasona*le to e3$ect that the #reat ma2ority o/ chil"ren will *e ca$a*le o/, an" *ene/it /rom "oin# so *y the a#e o/ /ive1 It is e4%ally im$ortant /or the
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$ro#ramme to *e "esi#ne" so that chil"ren *ecome /l%ent rea"ers havin# sec%re" wor" reco#nition s0ills *y the en" o/ 0ey sta#e one1 : The $ro#ramme sho%l" intro"%ce a "e/ine" initial #ro%$ o/ consonants an" vowels, ena*lin# chil"ren, early on, to rea" an" s$ell many sim$le CVC wor"s1 I/ the $ro#ramme is hi#h 4%ality, systematic an" synthetic it will, *y "esi#n, ma$ incremental $ro#ression in $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills1 It sho%l" there/ore ena*le teachers to8 trac0 chil"renIs $ro#ressJ assess /or /%rther learnin# an" i"enti/y inci$ient "i//ic%lties, so that a$$ro$riate s%$$ort can *e $rovi"e"1 6%lti sensory activities sho%l" *e interestin# an" en#a#in# *%t /irmly /oc%se" on intensi/yin# the learnin# associate" with its $honic #oal1 They sho%l" avoi" ta0in# chil"ren "own a circ%ito%s ro%te only ten%o%sly lin0e" to the #oal1 This means avoi"in# over ela*orate activities that are "i//ic%lt to mana#e an" ta0e too lon# to com$lete, th%s "istractin# the chil"ren /rom concentratin# on the learnin# #oal1 The $ro#ramme sho%l" not ne#lect en#a#in# an" hel$/%l a$$roaches to the more challen#in# levels where chil"ren have to "istin#%ish *etween $honically irre#%lar #ra$hemes an" $honemes1 It is im$ortant that te3ts are o/ the a$$ro$riate level /or chil"ren to a$$ly an" $ractise the $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills that they have learnt1 Chil"ren sho%l" not *e e3$ecte" to %se strate#ies s%ch as whole wor" reco#nition an"Gor c%es /rom conte3t, #rammar, or $ict%res1

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-6

Pronunciation guide

Continuant consonant p onemes 4stretc y p onemes6 This set can *e $rono%nce" witho%t any a""e" schwa so%n" H%h98

f
+as in Hfan9. +as in H at9.

l
+as in le#9.

m
+as in Hman9.

n
+as in Hnet9.

r
+as in Hrat9.

s
+as in Hs%n9.

"
+as in 7"et9.

8
+as in 8i$.

s
+as in s o$.

t
+as in t is.

t
+as in t in#.

ng
+as in sing.

8
+as in vision.

Stop consonant p onemes This set can *e $rono%nce" witho%t any a""e" schwa so%n" H%h91 They are %nvoice" so%n"s1 c +as in cat. p +as in pen. t +as in ta$. c +as in c i$.

Stop consonant p onemes It is har"er to #et ri" o/ the H%h9 at the en" o/ this ne3t set o/ so%n"s1 They are voice" so%n"s 1$ +as in $e". d +as in do#. g +as in gate6 % +as in %am. ' +as in 'i#6 y +as in yet.

a +as in cat.

9o'els ( short e i +as in *e". +as in sit.

o +as in ro".

u +as in s%n.

ay
+as in "ay.

ee +as in /eet. ear +as in "ear.

ig +as in ni#ht.

o' +as in cow.

9o'els( stretchy oo oo ar +as in +as in +as in *oot. loo0. /arm.

or +as in /or.

air +as in /air.

ur +as in h%rt.

o' +as in cow.

oi +as in coin.

ure +as in s%re.

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P1+:#C R,)!S A:- PATT!R:S; 31#C1 <A* =! ,S!>,) AT !AC1 ST!P +> P)A*#:G 3#T1 S+,:-S

In En#lish there are '6 letters which re$resent >> $honemes1 These $honemes are re$resente" *y ->, "i//erent letter com*inations1 A/ter a short vowel, wor"s en" in Hss9 instea" o/ Hs9, // instea" o/ H/9, ll instea" o/ Hl9, KK instea" o/ HK9 +e# hiss, whiff, hill, /i88.1 A/ter a short vowel, wor"s en" in Hc09 instea" o/ H09 +e# lic0.1 :=/ T ese are t e only consonants ' ic dou$le in t is position/ At the en" o/ a wor" GvG is %s%ally s$elle" Hve9 +e# ha"e, li"e.1 CCVC wor"s8 A/ter a short vowel, wor"s en" in Hss9 instea" o/ Hs9, H//9 instea" o/ H/9, Hc09 instea" o/ H09, Hll9 instea" o/ Hl9 +e#1 "ress, sniff, *loc&, /rill.1 This is the same as CVC wor"s at Ste$ >1 CVCC wor"s8 A/ter a consonant, wor"s en" in H/9 instea" o/ H//9, H09 instea" o/ Hc09 +e# shelf, sin&.1 GlG "oesn9t a$$ear in /inal $osition an" GsG only as a $l%ral +an" there/ore re$resente" *y Hs9.1

A/ter a "i#ra$h, wor"s en" in H/9 instea" o/ H//9, H09 instea" o/ Hc09, Hl9 instea" o/ Hll9 +e# s%rf, $ar&, heel., Hce9 or Hse9 instea" o/ Hss91 )e#ional $ron%nciation8 +this is relevant in areas where H$ath9 is $rono%nce" H$arth9. GarG /ollowe" *y GsG +e# #rass., GthG +e# *at . or a consonant cl%ster +e# $lant, as&, clasp. is written Ha91 ;here it is /ollowe" *y GsG, this is written Hss9 +e# #lass.1

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T is ta$le s o's ' at position in a 'ord "o'el p onemes are most li&ely to occur/
In other wor"s, which re$resentation is most li0ely in initialGme"ialG/inal $osition in a monosylla*ic wor"E 7etters in *rac0ets show less li0ely re$resentations1 <ost li&ely "o'el p oneme in #nitial and <edial position in a 'ord ai a e ea ee +e e. <ost li&ely p oneme in >inal position in a 'ord ay ee e ea +wor"s with - sylla*le. y +wor"s with ' or more sylla*les.

i e +i#h i ie.

y +ie i#h.

oa o e +o ow.

ow +o oe.

oo % e

ew +oo %e.

ar +aL.

ar

oi

oy

o% ow

ow

ir %r er +ear or.

ir %r er

aw or a +a%#h o%#h.

ore aw +oor.

oo % +o%l.

are +air ear. ear eer

L areas o/ the co%ntry in which H*ath9 is $rono%nce" H* ar th9

-D

)ist of P onemes
This is a sim$le ta*le showin# the >> $honemes #enerally reco#nise" as those o/ !ritish )eceive" Pron%nciation +)P. an" one s$ellin# /or each is #iven1 The corres$on"ences #iven here can *e %se" e4%ally in the #ra$heme to $honeme "irection nee"e" /or rea"in# an" in the $honeme to #ra$heme "irection nee"e" /or s$ellin#1 This list is ta0en /rom the H7etters an" So%n"s9 $ro#ramme *%t there are variations in other SSP $ro#rammes which are %se" in schools1

Consonant p onemes; 'it sample 'ords -1 G*G C *at -:1 GsG C s%n '1 G0G C cat :1 G"G C "o# >1 G/G C /an ?1 G#G C #o 61 GhG C hen @1 G2G C 2et A1 GlG C le# D1 GmG C ma$ -,1 GnG C net --1 G$G C $en -'1 GrG C rat ->1 GtG C ta$ -?1 GvG C van -61 GwG C wi# -@1 GyG C yes -A1 GKG C Ki$ -D1 GshG C sho$ ',1 GchG C chi$ '-1 GthG C thin ''1 GthG C then ':1 Gn#G C rin# '>1 GKhG C vision-

9o'el p onemes; 'it sample 'ords -1 GaG C ant -:1 GoiG C coin '1 :1 >1 ?1 61 @1 A1 D1 GeG C e## GiG C in GoG C on G%G C %$ GaiG C rain GeeG C /eet Gi#hG C ni#ht GoaG C *oat ->1 GarG C /arm -?1 GorG C /or -61 G%rG C h%rt -@1 GairG C /air -A1 GearG C "ear -D1 G%reG C s%re' ',1 G G C corner +the Hschwa9 C an %nstresse" vowel so%n" which is close to G%G.

-,1 GooG C *oot --1 GooG C loo0 -'1 GowG C cow

The #ra$heme HKh9 "oes not occ%r in En#lish wor"s, *%t GKhG is a lo#ical way o/ re$resentin# this isolate" $honeme on $a$er8 there is no other sim$le an" o*vio%s way, an" the $honeme is the H*%KKin#9 +voice". version o/ the Hwhis$ery9 +%nvoice". so%n" GshG, 2%st as GKG is the voice" version o/ GsG1 !eca%se this so%n" "oes not occ%r in sim$le CVC wor"s, however, it can *e omitte" in Phase Three1 This $honeme "oes not occ%r in all accents1 It occ%rs only i/ $eo$le $rono%nce wor"s s%ch as s%re an" $oor with an GooerG vowel so%n", not i/ they $rono%nce them as shaw an" $aw1 It, too, can *e omitte" in Phase Three, an" $erha$s even $ermanently1

'

',

Section 3 ? Planning and Assessment


Overview o/ $honics 0nowle"#e to *e covere" in Bey sta#e Plannin# e3em$li/ication o o o 7etters an" So%n"s $lannin# /or Phase : A wee09s "iscrete $honics teachin# C $hase ? &aily "irect teachin# o/ $honics

!lan0 Plannin# "oc%ments o o o 7etters an" So%n"s $lannin# A wee09s "iscrete $honics teachin# &aily "irect teachin# o/ $honics

6a0in# sec%re assessments

'-

)etters and Sounds 3ee&ly Planning -ocument P ase 3


<onday Teach GchG Tuesday Teach GshG 3ednesday Teach GthG T ursday Teach Gn#G >riday )evise $honemes )eco#nition /or rea"in# /rieKe %sin# GchG etc1 an" any insec%re $honemes )evise any o/ > consonant "i#ra$hs which nee" /%rther $ractice1 Contin%e al$ha*et son# +silly voices. PD' Practise H( wor"s1 )evision o/

+$%ecti"e

Re"isit and re"ie' Practise )eco#nition $revio%sly /or rea"in# learne" letters or (lashcar"s /or #ra$hemes set 6 #ra$hemes Teac Teach new #ra$hemes

)ecall /or s$ellin# (ans with set @ #ra$hemes $l%s GchG

)eco#nition /or rea"in# C I;! sets 6G@ an" GchG an" GshG

)ecall /or s$ellin# C 5%ic0write set @ #ra$hemes $l%s GchG GthG an" GshG : $art lesson /or Gn#G +$A7MS. an" <olly $honics1 Contin%e to sin# al$ha*et son#, $oint to letters whilst sin#in# PD' Practise H( wor"s1 )evision o/ $hase ' wor"s $l%s

Teach - or ' tric0y wor"s

: $art lesson /or GchG +$A7MS. an" <olly $honics1 Contin%e to sin# al$ha*et son#, $oint to letters whilst sin#in# PD- +7MS. 7earnin# to rea" tric0y wor"s we, me, *e

: $art lesson /or GshG +$A7MS. an" <olly $honics1 Contin%e to sin# al$ha*et son#, $oint to letters whilst sin#in# PD:1 )evise $revio%s tric0y wor"s he, she an" recall we, me, *e1 7oo0 at $atternGs$ell

: $art lesson /or GthG +$A7MS. an" <olly $honics1 Contin%e to sin# al$ha*et son#, $oint to letters whilst sin#in# PD>1 Teach rea"in# two sylla*le wor"s1

will, that, then, this,


intro"%ce

will, that, then, this


PA6 co%nt"own 6i3 o/ GchG GshG an" GthG list wor" car"s $-,-

them, with

Practise Practise *len"in# an" rea"in# wor"s with a new =PC

PA? +7MS. ;hat9s in the *o3E ;or" car"s /rom GchG list $-,PAAPhoneme /rame +' letter #ra$hemes section. GchG an" GshG

Practise se#mentin# an" s$ellin# wor"s with new =PC

PAD 4%ic0 write %sin# wor"s /rom GchG GshG GthG an" Gn#G wor"s $-,$1D? +7MS. )ea"in# a ca$tion Hmatchin#9 +with teacher. Hchic0en an" chi$s9 PD@ "emo writin# Ha moth in with a chi$9

PD, /%ll circle %sin# wor"s /rom #ame list

APP)* )ea" or write ca$tionGsentence %sin# - or more tric0y wor"s containin# the new #ra$hemes

$1D? +7MS. )ea"in# a ca$tion Hmatchin#9 +with teacher. Hchic0en an" chi$s9

PD@ "emo writin# H/ish in a "ish9

;rite sentence with wor" missin#1 Han" o%t wor"s C one correct to match1

''

A 'ee&@s discrete p onics teac ing ? P ase A


<+:-A* )evisit $honemes an" #ra$hemes we alrea"y 0now an" learn a new #ra$heme /or the $honeme GaiG1 T,!S-A* )evisit $honemes an" #ra$hemes we alrea"y 0now an" learn a new #ra$heme /or the $honeme GeeG1 3!-:!S-A* )evisit $honemes an" #ra$hemes we alrea"y 0now an" learn a new #ra$heme /or the $honeme Gi#hG1 T1,RS-A* )evisit $honemes an" #ra$hemes we alrea"y 0now an" learn a new #ra$heme /or the $honeme GaeG1 >R#-A* )evisit $honemes an" #ra$hemes we alrea"y 0now an" learn to rea" two sylla*le wor"s that contain the vowel "i#ra$hs we have loo0e" at this wee0 Share learnin# o*2ectives /or the "ay8 ;e shall *e *len"in# an" se#mentin# /or s$ellin# in wor"s an" sentences

+=B!CT#9!S

#:TR+-,CT#+:

Share learnin# o*2ectives /or the "ay8 ;e shall *e *len"in# an" se#mentin# /or s$ellin# in wor"s an" sentences

Share learnin# o*2ectives /or the "ay8 ;e shall *e *len"in# an" se#mentin# /or s$ellin# in wor"s an" sentences

Share learnin# o*2ectives /or the "ay8 ;e shall *e *len"in# an" se#mentin# /or s$ellin# in wor"s an" sentences

Share learnin# o*2ectives /or the "ay8 ;e shall *e *len"in# an" se#mentin# /or s$ellin# in wor"s an" sentences

)evisit the GaiG $honeme /rom $hases : an" > !len" wor"s /or rea"in# R!9#S#T A:- R!9#!3 Se#ment wor"s /or s$ellin#

Usin# /lashcar"s revisit #ra$hemes GaiG, GayG, GeeG )ea" H( tric0y wor" H6r9

Usin# /lashcar"s revisit #ra$hemes GaiG, GayG, Gee,

Usin# /lashcar"s revisit #ra$hemes GaiG, GayG, GeeG,

Gi#hGG
)ea" H( tric0y wor" H6rs9 )evisit some $revio%sly learne" tric0y wor"s C )evisit some $revio%sly learne" tric0y wor"s C

Gi#hG, GieG
)ea" H( tric0y wor" H$eo$le9 )evisit some $revio%sly learne" tric0y wor"s CHthere9,

Usin# HCo%nt"own9 reso%rces rea" a list o/ wor"s %sin# all =PCs covere" this wee01 Use timer to *eat tar#et time1

Hthe9, Hher9, Hwhen91


)ea" sentence to#ether containin# new tric0y wor"1 Practise writin# the tric0y wor" Hsome9 %sin# a $honeme /rame1

Hsai"9, Hthey9, Hhave9, Hsome9, Hto9, H6r91


)ea" sentence to#ether containin# new tric0y wor"1 Practise writin# the tric0y wor" Hcome9 %sin# a $honeme /rame1

Hare9, Hsome91
)ea" sentence to#ether containin# new tric0y wor"1 Practise writin# the tric0y wor" Hhave9 %sin# a $honeme /rame1

':

Teach the new #ra$heme

Hay91
Intro"%ce Hay9 within tar#ets wor"s1 Ta0e /%rther s%##estions /rom the chil"ren1 I"enti/y the $osition o/ the Hay9 #ra$heme within the tar#et wor"s1 &emonstrate se#mentin# $honemes %sin# a $honeme /rame1

Usin# !est *et9 reso%rces revisit $revio%sly learnt =PC Hee9 in tar#et wor"s as rea"in#1 Intro"%ce new #ra$heme

Usin# !est *et9 reso%rces revisit $revio%sly learnt =PC Hi#h9 in tar#et wor"s as rea"in#1 Intro"%ce new #ra$heme

Teach the s$lit "i#ra$h Ha e91 &emonstrate how the s$lit "i#ra$h chan#es 6ae9 into

Hma"e91
)e$eat with more tar#et wor"s C e1#1 Hcame9, Hshame9,

Hea9 I as a /lashcar"1
;rite tar#et wor"s on *oar"1 Investi#ate /%rther list o/ tar#et wor"s containin# Hee9 /ollowe" *y H"9 + most wor"s %se #ra$heme Hee9 /ollowe" *y H"9. &emonstrate as se#mentin# one tar#et wor" that %ses Hea9 /ollowe" *y H"9 C Hrea"9 C on a $honeme /rame1 Usin# a $honeme /rame chil"ren to s$ell a new list o/ tar#et wor"s either in"ivi"%ally or wor0in# with a $artner1 Hrea"9,

Hie9 I as a /lashcar"1
;rite tar#et wor"s on *oar"1 As0 the chil"ren /or other s%##estions where they can hear an GieG $honeme at the en" o/ the wor"1 &emonstrate as se#mentin# one o/ the new tar#et wor"s on a $honeme /rame

Hname9, 9/rame91
&emonstrate how to recor" the s$lit "i#ra$h1

So%n" tal0 list o/ wor"s containin# two sylla*le wor"s an" =PCs covere" thro%#ho%t the wee01 &emonstrate so%n" tal0 o/ a two sylla*le wor" containin# =PCs covere" thro%#ho%t the wee0 e1#1 Hcrayon C c r ay C

T!AC1

cray o n ,on crayon9


)e$eat with another tar#et wor"1 Cla$ sylla*les in wor"s &emonstrate on a $honeme /rame how yo% wo%l" se#ment a two sylla*le wor"1

PRACT#S!

Usin# a $honeme /rame chil"ren to s$ell a new list o/ tar#et wor"s either in"ivi"%ally or wor0in# with a $artner1 HShow me9 activity o*servin# an" "ealin# with any misconce$tions1 Practise *len"in# /or rea"in# all tar#et wor"s1

Usin# a $honeme /rame chil"ren to s$ell a new list o/ tar#et wor"s either in"ivi"%ally or wor0in# with a $artner1 H$ie9, Hlie9,

Usin# a $honeme /rame chil"ren to s$ell a new list o/ tar#et wor"s either in"ivi"%ally or wor0in# with a $artner1 H#ame9, Htame9,

Usin# a $honeme /rame chil"ren to s$ell a new list o/ two sylla*le tar#et wor"s either in"ivi"%ally or wor0in# with a $artner1 Hs$raye"9, Hrainin#9,

Hlea"9, H*rea"9, H#ree"91


HShow me9 activity o*servin# an" "ealin# with any misconce$tions1 Practise *len"in# /or rea"in# all tar#et wor"s1 &isc%ss any o*servations o/ $atterns in tar#et wor"s

Htie9, H"ie91
HShow me9 activity o*servin# an" "ealin# with any misconce$tions1 Practise *len"in# /or rea"in# all tar#et wor"s1 &isc%ss any o*servations o/ $atterns in tar#et wor"s

H*lame9, H/lame91
HShow me9 activity o*servin# an" "ealin# with any misconce$tions1 Practise *len"in# /or rea"in# all tar#et wor"s1 &isc%ss any o*servations o/ $atterns in tar#et wor"s

*ri#htly91
HShow me9 activity o*servin# an" "ealin# with any misconce$tions1 Practise *len"in# /or rea"in# all tar#et wor"s1

A"a$te" /rom C77& Phase ?

'>

Chil"ren to rea" $re$are" tar#et sentence incl%"in# tar#et wor"s an" $revio%sly learne" hi#h /re4%ency wor"s1 Chil"ren to write "ictate" sentence a$$lyin# all new an" $revio%sly learne" =PCs1 Enco%ra#e chil"ren to $roo/rea" the "ictate" sentences a#ainst the $re$are" sentence, with a $artner1 Chil"ren to /ee"*ac0 s%ccesses an" iss%es1

Chil"ren to rea" $re$are" tar#et sentence incl%"in# tar#et wor"s an" $revio%sly learne" hi#h /re4%ency wor"s1 Chil"ren to write "ictate" sentence a$$lyin# all new an" $revio%sly learne" =PCs1 Enco%ra#e chil"ren to $roo/rea" the "ictate" sentences a#ainst the $re$are" sentence, with a $artner1 Chil"ren to /ee"*ac0 s%ccesses an" iss%es1

Chil"ren to rea" $re$are" tar#et sentence incl%"in# tar#et wor"s an" $revio%sly learne" hi#h /re4%ency wor"s1 Chil"ren to write "ictate" sentence a$$lyin# all new an" $revio%sly learne" =PCs1 Enco%ra#e chil"ren to $roo/rea" the "ictate" sentences a#ainst the $re$are" sentence, with a $artner1 Chil"ren to /ee"*ac0 s%ccesses an" iss%es1

Chil"ren to rea" $re$are" tar#et sentence incl%"in# tar#et wor"s an" $revio%sly learne" hi#h /re4%ency wor"s1 Chil"ren to write "ictate" sentence a$$lyin# all new an" $revio%sly learne" =PCs1 Enco%ra#e chil"ren to $roo/rea" the "ictate" sentences a#ainst the $re$are" sentence, with a $artner1 Chil"ren to /ee"*ac0 s%ccesses an" iss%es1

Chil"ren to rea" $re$are" tar#et sentence incl%"in# tar#et wor"s an" $revio%sly learne" hi#h /re4%ency wor"s1 Chil"ren to write "ictate" sentence a$$lyin# all new an" $revio%sly learne" =PCs1 Enco%ra#e chil"ren to $roo/rea" the "ictate" sentences a#ainst the $re$are" sentence, with a $artner1 Chil"ren to /ee"*ac0 s%ccesses an" iss%es1

ASS!SS )!AR:#:G CR#T!R#A

APP)*

Orally se#ment $honemes within wor"s1 =ive the so%n" when shown any /oc%s #ra$hemes1 (or any #iven so%n" write the common #ra$heme1 A$$ly $honics 0nowle"#e an" s0ill when rea"in# an" s$ellin# %n/amiliar wor"s that are not com$letely "eco"a*le1 )ea" a sentence that incl%"es irre#%larGhi#h /re4%ency wor"s1 ;rite a sentence that incl%"es irre#%larGhi#h /re4%ency wor"s, /ormin# the letters correctly1

A"a$te" /rom C77& Phase ?

'?

-A#)* -#R!CT T!AC1#:G +> P1+:#C SC#))S A:- C:+3)!-G!


R!9#S#T and R!9#!3 )ecently an" $revio%sly learne" $honeme #ra$heme corres$on"encesG*len" in# se#mentin# s0ills Play noisy letters %sin# Ci#h, %r, er, ar, ee, n#, ch, ai, sh, ar <onday T!AC1 New $honeme #ra$heme corres$on"ences, s0ills o/ *len"in# an" se#mentin#

3!!C =!G#::#:GDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD PRACT#S! New $honeme #ra$heme corres$on"ences, s0ills o/ *len"in# an" se#mentin# APP)* New 0nowle"#e an" s0ills while rea"in#Gwritin#

Tell the chil"ren they are #oin# to learn a new $honeme which ma0es the so%n" Hear91 E3$lain it is ma"e %$ o/ : letters *%t ma0es one so%n"1 Tell them Tessa is a little nervo%sG%ns%re an" nee"s their hel$1 As0 chil"ren to thin0 o/ an action to hel$ Tessa remem*er Hear9 +t%# ear.1 Say the wor" Hyear9, so%n" tal0 it, re$eat with chil"ren 2oinin# in1 Say the wor" H/ear9 as0 chil"ren to se#ment then orally *len"1 )e$eat with H#ear1

=ive the chil"ren +in $airs. *a#s o/ letters #GtGnG"GhGyGrG/G*Gear an" a white*oar"1 Tell them I have *ro%#ht some new wor"s in /or Tessa to learn an" then #et Tessa to as0 /or their hel$1 Have Tessa select a car" an" rea" the wor" to the chil"ren chil"ren to se#ment an" /orm wor" %sin# the letters1 A/ter a /ew #oes choose a co%$le o/ chil"ren to come o%t an" choose a wor" which they will rea" to their $eers an" then chec0 that they have se#mente" an" *len"e" it correctly1 Tal0 chil"ren thro%#h C $%ttin# each $honeme *ac0 into the *a#

;rite on white*oar" the /ollowin# yesGno 4%estions Can yo% hear *ees *%KKin# nowE Can yo% hear m%sicE

Tuesday

THIS HAS !EEN 7E(T !7ANB (O) NOU TO CONSI&E) ;HAT THE NEXT SESSION SHOU7& CONTAIN IN O)&E) TO ENSU)E CONSO7I&ATION AN& P)O=)ESSSION

3ednesday

Play 6aster 6aster %sin# noisy letter car"s

Usin# $%$$et enco%ra#e chil"ren to "isc%ss the new so%n" that they have learnt this wee0 C ear1 Pro"%ce new so%n" Hair9 an" so%n" tal0 with chil"ren an" $%$$et1 So%n" tal0 the wor" Hhair91 As0 chil"ren to se#ment wor"s H/air9, Hlair9, H$air91

Provi"e chil"ren with envelo$es o/ letters hGlG$G/Gair1 As0 chil"ren to ma0e the /ollowin# wor"s with their $honeme car"s C Hhair9, H/air9, H$air9, Hlair91

Show chil"ren 4%estionsJ Is all hair /airE Can a chic0en sit on a chairE Can a coach Koom in to the airE
'6

T ursday

THIS HAS !EEN 7E(T !7ANB (O) NOU TO CONSI&E) ;HAT THE NEXT SESSION SHOU7& CONTAIN IN O)&E) TO ENSU)E CONSO7I&ATION AN& P)O=)ESSSION

>riday

As0 chil"ren to sit in a circle1 )evise recently intro"%ce" $honemes %sin# Tessa +$%o$et. an" $honeme tree1

Use Tessa to revise recent tric0y wor"s1 Tell chil"ren they are #oin# to learn a new tric0y wor" show car" Hare91 E3$lain that it is one o/ those wor"s that they have to loo0 at an" try an" remem*er1 =ive e3am$le o/ wor" in sentence C H6ari#ol" class are sittin# *ea%ti/%lly19

Tell the chil"ren we are #oin# to $lay a #ame on the I;!1 E3$lain to them that the $irate nee"s hel$ to "eci"e which coins are real #ol" an" which are not1 The real #ol" coins have real wor"s on them an" can #o in the treas%re chest1 Choose "i//erent chil"ren to come %$ an" "eci"e i/ a wor" is real or not1 Note the total they #et correct at the en" an" tell them this is the tar#et to *eat /or ne3t time1

)ea" to#ether the /ollowin# 4%estions Are /in#ers as lon# as armsE Are the teeth o/ shar0s shar$E &isc%ss an" a#ree on answers +th%m*s %$G"own.

Resources

htt$8GGwww10ente"1or#1%0Gn#/lG#amesG$oo$&ec0Ov>1ht ml 6on"ay C Tessa +$%$$et.1 7etters #GtGnG"GhGyGrG/G*Gear1 ;or" car"s C #ear, tear, near, "ear, hear, year, rear, /ear, *ear"1 Noisy letter car"s +i#h, %r, er, ar, ee, n#, ch, ai, sh, ar.1 5%estion car"s C can yo% hear *ees *%KKin# nowE Can yo% hear m%sicE T%es"ay C ;e"nes"ay C P%$$et1 7etters i#h, %r, er, ar, ee, n#, ch, ai, sh, ar, ear, air1 5%estion car"s C Is all hair /airE Can a coach Koom into the airE Th%rs"ay C (ri"ay C Hair9 an" Hear9 car"s1 Tric0y wor" car"s C no, #o, I to, he, she, we, me, *e, was, my, yo%, they, her, all, are1 5%estion car"s /or O Are /in#ers as lon# as armsE Are the teeth o/ shar0s shar$E

'@

)etters and Sounds Planning


<onday +$%ecti"e Re"isit and re"ie' Practise $revio%sly learne" letters or #ra$hemes Teac Teach new #ra$hemes Tuesday 3ednesday T ursday >riday

Teach - or ' tric0y wor"s

Practise Practise *len"in# an" rea"in# wor"s with a new =PC

Practise se#mentin# an" s$ellin# wor"s with new =PC

APP)* )ea" or write ca$tionGsentence %sin# - or more tric0y wor"s containin# the new #ra$hemes

'A

A 'ee&@s discrete p onics teac ing


<+:-A* T,!S-A* 3!-:!S-A* T1,RS-A* >R#-A*

R!9#S#T A:R!9#!3

#:TR+-,CT#+:

+=B!CT#9!S

'D

ASS!SS )!AR:#:G CR#T!R#A

APP)*

PRACT#S!

T!AC1

:,

-A#)* -#R!CT T!AC1#:G +> P1+:#C SC#))S A:- C:+3)!-G!


R!9#S#T and R!9#!3 )ecently an" $revio%sly learne" $honeme #ra$heme corres$on"encesG*len"in# se#mentin# s0ills T!AC1 New $honeme #ra$heme corres$on"ences, s0ills o/ *len"in# an" se#mentin#

3!!C =!G#::#:GDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD PRACT#S! New $honeme #ra$heme corres$on"ences, s0ills o/ *len"in# an" se#mentin# APP)* New 0nowle"#e an" s0ills while rea"in#Gwritin#

3ednesday

Tuesday

<onday

:-

Resources

>riday

T ursday

:'

Communication; )anguage and )iteracy -e"elopment programme <a&ing 7secure at@ assessments
<a&ing 7secure at@ %udgements ' en using t e p onic progress trac&ing s eet The $honic $ro#ress trac0in# sheet is "esi#ne" to $rovi"e an overview o/ chil"ren9s $ro#ress thro%#h the $honic $hases1 )e#%lar monitorin# o/ the trac0in# sheet will allow teachers an" mana#ers to ens%re that all chil"ren ma0e e3$ecte" $ro#ress, incl%"in# chil"ren in the most v%lnera*le #ro%$s1 3or&ing on Teachers sho%l" enter chil"ren9s names on the trac0in# sheet, %n"er the a$$ro$riate hal/ term hea"in#, as chil"ren *e#in wor0in# on a $artic%lar $hase1 (or e3am$le, the names o/ those chil"ren who *e#in wor0in# on Phase ' in Se$tem*er sho%l" *e written into the *o3 alon#si"e the Phase ' "escri$tors an" in the /irst a%t%mn col%mn1 As chil"ren *e#in wor0in# on Phase :, their names sho%l" *e written alon#si"e the Phase : "escri$tors an" in the a$$ro$riate Hterm9 col%mn1 Secure at Chil"ren are 2%"#e" to *e sec%re at a $artic%lar $hase once they 0now most o/ the $honemes associate" with that $hase most o/ the time, an" can a$$ly the s0ills o/ *len"in# an" se#mentin# %sin# an a$$ro$riate ran#e o/ #ra$hemeC$honeme corres$on"ences1 6any teachers have a"o$te" a strate#y o/ hi#hli#htin# chil"ren9s names once they are 2%"#e" to *e sec%re at that $hase1 This $rovi"es a sim$le system /or recor"in# an" re$ortin# as necessary +/or e3am$le, to the 7A. the n%m*er o/ chil"ren sec%re at any #iven $hase at any time1 As teachers hi#hli#ht the names o/ chil"ren who are 2%"#e" to *e sec%re at one $hase, it is li0ely that they will, at the same time, write these chil"ren9s names in the *o3 relatin# to the ne3t $honic $hase as chil"ren *e#in wor0in# on the 0nowle"#e an" s0ills associate" with that $hase1 It is im$ortant to remem*er that *o%n"aries *etween the $hases sho%l" not *e seen as /i3e"1 (or e3am$le, some chil"ren will *e intro"%ce" to Phase : #ra$hemes *e/ore they are sec%re at Phase ', while contin%in# to $ractise the s0ills o/ *len"in# an" se#mentation1 Similarly, some chil"ren will learn to *len" an" se#ment wor"s containin# a"2acent consonants "%rin# Phase ' or :, rather than waitin# %ntil Phase >1 <a&ing secure %udgements a$out 7secure at P ase 2@ The $%r$ose o/ Phase ' is to teach chil"ren at least -D #ra$hemes an" move them on /rom oral *len"in# an" se#mentation to *len"in# an" se#mentin# with letters1 This $hase sho%l" ta0e %$ to 6 wee0s1 Chil"ren are sec%re at Phase ' when they can8 #ive the so%n" when shown any Phase ' #ra$heme, sec%rin# /irst the starter letters s, a, t, $, i, n /in" /rom a "is$lay any Phase ' #ra$heme when #iven the so%n" orally *len" an" se#ment CVC wor"s *len" an" se#ment in or"er to rea" an" s$ell +%sin# ma#netic letters. VC wor"s s%ch as i/, am, on, %$ an" Hsilly names9 s%ch as i$, %#, an" oc01 The ma2ority o/ the evi"ence /or the /o%r *%llet $oints a*ove can *e #athere" c%m%latively "%rin# the "aily "iscrete $honics sessions, $artic%larly "%rin# the Hrevisit an" review9 an" Ha$$ly9 sections1 TeachersG $ractitioners sho%l" also, o/ co%rse, collect a""itional evi"ence /rom their o*servations o/ chil"ren rea"in# in"e$en"ently C /or e3am$le, in #%i"e" rea"in# sessions or in the *oo0 corner, or /rom their writin#, s%ch as in #%i"e" writin# sessions or in in"e$en"ent activities1 It is cr%cial that chil"ren have meanin#/%l o$$ort%nities to $ractise, consoli"ate an" e3ten" their $honic s0ills an" 0nowle"#e in a *roa" ran#e o/ conte3ts, thro%#ho%t the settin#, in"oors an" o%t"oors an" thro%#ho%t the "ay1 O*servation o/ chil"ren9s achievements in sel/ initiate" activities will rea//irm the o*servations ma"e "%rin# a"%lt le" $honics, rea"in# an" writin# sessions1 )eco#nisin# that some chil"ren, $artic%larly *oys, are more li0ely to choose to write o%tsi"e than insi"e, teachersG$ractitioners sho%l" ens%re that o$$ort%nities, reso%rces an" s%$$ortive a"%lts are always availa*le in the o%t"oor learnin# environment1 ;hen o*servin# a chil" rea"in#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase ' is8 HIs the chil" %sin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills to i"enti/y the $honemes in a wor" an" *e#innin# to *len" them in or"er to rea" wor"sE9
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;hen o*servin# a chil" writin#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase ' is8 HIs the chil" %sin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills in hisGher writin#, e1#1 *e#innin# to orally se#ment wor"s an" attem$tin# to write, or %se ma#netic letters to /orm wor"s, %sin# the #ra$hemes heGshe 0nowsE9 In in"e$en"ent rea"in# an" writin#, chil"ren sho%l" 0now most o/ the Phase ' #ra$hemeC$honeme corres$on"ences most o/ the time1 >requently as&ed questions - &o chil"ren nee" to *e a*le to rea" an" write CVC wor"s to *e sec%re at Phase 'E ' Some chil"ren may *e %na*le to rea" an" s$ell CVC wor"s in"e$en"ently *y the en" o/ Phase '1 However, as lon# as they are a*le to *len" an" se#ment CVC wor"s orally an" 0now most o/ the Phase ' #ra$hemes most o/ the time, they can $ro#ress to Phase : where they will contin%e to $ractise the s0ills o/ CVC *len"in# an" se#mentation1 : ;hat a*o%t chil"ren who are %na*le to orally se#ment CVC wor"sE > Chil"ren who cannot orally se#ment CVC wor"s, e1#1 chil"ren who say G$G GiG GtG when as0e" to so%n" tal0 H$in9 are not yet sec%re at Phase '1 Teachers an" $ractitioners nee" to ens%re that these chil"ren have $lenty o/ o$$ort%nities to $ractise oral *len"in# an" se#mentation *oth in $honics sessions an" thro%#ho%t the "ay, as witho%t these necessary s0ills, chil"ren will not $ro#ress to *ecome con/i"ent rea"ers an" writers1 <a&ing secure %udgements a$out 7secure at P ase 3@ The $%r$ose o/ Phase : is to teach chil"ren another '? #ra$hemes an" /%rther "evelo$ their a*ility to a$$ly the s0ills o/ *len"in# /or rea"in# an" se#mentation /or s$ellin#1 This $hase sho%l" ta0e %$ to -' wee0s1 Chil"ren are sec%re at Phase : when they can8 #ive the so%n" when shown all or most Phase ' an" Phase : #ra$hemes /in" /rom a "is$lay all or most Phase ' an" : #ra$hemes when #iven the so%n" *len" an" rea" CVC wor"s consistin# o/ Phase ' an" : #ra$hemes se#ment an" ma0e a $honemically $la%si*le attem$t at s$ellin# CVC wor"s %sin# Phase ' an" : #ra$hemes1 The ma2ority o/ the evi"ence /or the /o%r *%llet $oints a*ove can *e #athere" c%m%latively "%rin# the "aily "iscrete $honics sessions, $artic%larly "%rin# the Hrevisit an" review9 an" Ha$$ly9 sections1 Teachers an" $ractitioners sho%l" also o/ co%rse collect a""itional evi"ence /rom their o*servations o/ chil"ren rea"in# in"e$en"ently, /or e3am$le in #%i"e" rea"in# sessions or in the *oo0 corner, or /rom their writin#, either in #%i"e" writin# sessions or in in"e$en"ent activities1 It is cr%cial that chil"ren have meanin#/%l o$$ort%nities to $ractise, consoli"ate an" e3ten" their $honic s0ills an" 0nowle"#e in a *roa" ran#e o/ conte3ts, thro%#ho%t the settin#, in"oors an" o%t"oors an" thro%#ho%t the "ay1 O*servation o/ chil"ren9s achievements in sel/ initiate" activities will rea//irm the o*servations ma"e "%rin# a"%lt le" $honics, rea"in# an" writin# sessions1 )eco#nisin# that some chil"ren, $artic%larly *oys, are more li0ely to choose to write o%tsi"e than insi"e, teachers an" $ractitioners sho%l" ens%re that o$$ort%nities, reso%rces an" s%$$ortive a"%lts are always availa*le in the o%t"oor learnin# environment1 ;hen o*servin# a chil" rea"in#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase : is8 HIs the chil" %sin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills to i"enti/y the $honemes in a wor" an" *len"in# them in or"er to rea" sin#le sylla*le wor"s consistin# o/ Phase ' an" : #ra$hemesE9 ;hen o*servin# a chil" writin#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase : is8 HIs the chil" %sin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills to se#ment sin#le sylla*le wor"s an" ma0in# $honemically $la%si*le attem$ts at s$ellin# %sin# Phase ' an" : #ra$hemesE9 In in"e$en"ent rea"in# an" writin#, chil"ren sho%l" 0now most o/ the Phase ' an" : #ra$heme $honeme corres$on"ences most o/ the time1 !y the en" o/ Phase :, chil"ren will have *een ta%#ht one re$resentation /or each o/ the common so%n"s in En#lish +e3cl%"in# GKhG.1 In or"er to *e sec%re at Phase :, they m%st *e a*le to ma0e $honemically $la%si*le attem$ts at most o/ the wor"s they wish to %se, %sin# the #ra$hemeC$honeme corres$on"ences they have *een ta%#ht1 6any chil"ren will also *e a*le to rea" two sylla*le wor"s an" sim$le ca$tions1 The s0ills o/ *len"in# an" se#mentin# sho%l" *e well esta*lishe" *y the en" o/ Phase :1
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>requently as&ed questions How many #ra$hemeC$honeme corres$on"ences "o chil"ren nee" to 0now to *e consi"ere" sec%re at Phase :E Chil"ren sho%l" 0now one way o/ writin# every so%n" they can hear in wor"s +aro%n" >: $honemes, "e$en"in# on local accent. an" sho%l" *e a*le to a$$ly this 0nowle"#e in their in"e$en"ent writin#1 A chil" in my class can #ive the so%n"s /or all the #ra$hemes she has *een ta%#ht "%rin# the revisit an" review $art o/ the "aily $honics session, *%t she "oesn9t seem to *e a*le to %se these #ra$hemes in her writin#1 &o yo% thin0 she is sec%re at Phase :E Chil"ren who are %na*le to ma0e a $honemically $la%si*le attem$t at writin# %sin# ta%#ht #ra$hemes are not yet sec%re at Phase :1 These chil"ren nee" on#oin# o$$ort%nities to $ractise oral *len"in# an" se#mentation to ens%re that they can hear all the so%n"s in wor"s, an" /%rther consoli"ation o/ their 0nowle"#e o/ #ra$hemeC$honeme corres$on"ences in a ran#e o/ conte3ts1 <a&ing secure %udgements a$out 7secure at P ase E@ The $%r$ose o/ Phase > is to consoli"ate chil"ren9s 0nowle"#e o/ Phase ' an" : #ra$hemes an" teach *len"in# an" se#mentin# o/ a"2acent consonants an" $olysylla*ic wor"s1 This $hase sho%l" ta0e >C6 wee0s1 Chil"ren are sec%re at Phase > when they can8 #ive the so%n" when shown any Phase ' an" Phase : #ra$hemes /in" /rom a "is$lay any Phase ' an" : #ra$heme when #iven the so%n" *len" rea" wor"s containin# a"2acent consonants se#ment s$ell wor"s containin# a"2acent consonants1 The ma2ority o/ the evi"ence /or the /o%r *%llet $oints a*ove can *e #athere" c%m%latively "%rin# the "aily "iscrete $honics sessions, $artic%larly "%rin# the Hrevisit an" review9 an" Ha$$ly9 sections1 TeachersG $ractitioners sho%l" also o/ co%rse collect a""itional evi"ence /rom their o*servations o/ chil"ren rea"in# in"e$en"ently, /or e3am$le in #%i"e" rea"in# sessions or in the *oo0 corner, or /rom their writin#, either in #%i"e" writin# sessions or in in"e$en"ent activities1 It is cr%cial that chil"ren have meanin#/%l o$$ort%nities to $ractise, consoli"ate an" e3ten" their $honic s0ills an" 0nowle"#e in a *roa" ran#e o/ conte3ts, thro%#ho%t the settin#, in"oors an" o%t"oors an" thro%#ho%t the "ay1 O*servation o/ chil"ren9s achievements in sel/ initiate" activities will rea//irm the o*servations ma"e "%rin# a"%lt le" $honics, rea"in# an" writin# sessions1 )eco#nisin# that some chil"ren, $artic%larly *oys, are more li0ely to choose to write o%tsi"e than insi"e, teachers an" $ractitioners sho%l" ens%re that o$$ort%nities, reso%rces an" s%$$ortive a"%lts are always availa*le in the o%t"oor learnin# environment1 ;hen o*servin# a chil" rea"in#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase > is8 HIs the chil" %sin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills to i"enti/y the $honemes in a wor" an" *len"in# them in or"er to rea" sin#le sylla*le wor"s consistin# o/ Phase ' an" : #ra$hemes an" a"2acent consonantsE9 ;hen o*servin# a chil" writin#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase > is8 HIs the chil" %sin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills to se#ment sin#le sylla*le wor"s incl%"in# a"2acent consonants an" ma0in# $honemically $la%si*le attem$ts at s$ellin# %sin# Phase ' an" : #ra$hemesE9 Some s$ellin#s may *e inacc%rate at this sta#e, *%t chil"ren9s letter 0nowle"#e alon# with their a*ility to se#ment sho%l" allow them to ma0e a #oo" attem$t at writin# many o/ the wor"s they wish to %se1 In in"e$en"ent rea"in# an" writin#, chil"ren sho%l" 0now an" %se correctly most o/ the Phase ' an" : #ra$heme $honeme corres$on"ences most o/ the time an" rea" an" write $honemically $la%si*le re$resentations o/ wor"s containin# a"2acent consonants1 >requently as&ed questions A chil" in my class can *len" a"2acent consonants /or rea"in# *%t he can9t se#ment a"2acent consonants at the en" o/ wor"s in his writin#1 Is he sec%re at Phase >E Chil"ren who are %na*le to se#ment to s$ell wor"s containin# a"2acent consonants at the *e#innin# an" en" o/ wor"s are not yet sec%re at Phase >1 These chil"ren nee" more $ractice in oral se#mentation o/ a"2acent consonants an" then re$resentin# them in writin#1
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<a&ing secure %udgements a$out 7secure at P ase A@ The $%r$ose o/ Phase ? is to teach alternative $ron%nciations /or 0nown #ra$hemes, an" teach new #ra$hemes an" their alternative $ron%nciations1 &%rin# Phase ?, chil"ren will learn to choose the a$$ro$riate #ra$heme to re$resent $honemes an" *e#in to *%il" wor" s$eci/ic 0nowle"#e o/ the s$ellin# o/ wor"s1 This $hase sho%l" contin%e thro%#ho%t Near - +a$$ro3imately :, wee0s.1 Chil"ren are sec%re at Phase ? when they can8 #ive the so%n" when shown any #ra$heme that has *een ta%#ht write the common #ra$hemes /or any #iven so%n" %se $honic s0ill an" 0nowle"#e as the $rime a$$roach to rea"in# an" s$ellin# %n/amiliar wor"s, incl%"in# those that are not com$letely "eco"a*le rea" an" s$ell $honically "eco"a*le two sylla*le an" three sylla*le wor"s1 The ma2ority o/ the evi"ence /or the /o%r *%llet $oints a*ove can *e #athere" c%m%latively "%rin# the "aily "iscrete $honics sessions, $artic%larly "%rin# the Hrevisit an" review9 an" Ha$$ly9 sections1 Teachers an" $ractitioners sho%l" also o/ co%rse collect a""itional evi"ence /rom their o*servations o/ chil"ren rea"in# in"e$en"ently, /or e3am$le in #%i"e" rea"in# sessions or in the *oo0 corner, or /rom their writin#, either in #%i"e" writin# sessions or in in"e$en"ent activities1 It is cr%cial that chil"ren have meanin#/%l o$$ort%nities to $ractise, consoli"ate an" e3ten" their $honic s0ills an" 0nowle"#e in a *roa" ran#e o/ conte3ts, thro%#ho%t the settin#, in"oors an" o%t"oors an" thro%#ho%t the "ay1 O*servation o/ chil"ren9s achievements in sel/ initiate" activities will rea//irm the o*servations ma"e "%rin# a"%lt le" $honics, rea"in# an" writin# sessions1 )eco#nisin# that some chil"ren, $artic%larly *oys, are more li0ely to choose to write o%tsi"e than insi"e, teachers an" $ractitioners sho%l" ens%re that o$$ort%nities, reso%rces an" s%$$ortive a"%lts are always availa*le in the o%t"oor learnin# environment1 ;hen o*servin# a chil" rea"in#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase ? is8 HIs the chil" a$$lyin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills, incl%"in# 0nowle"#e o/ alternative $ron%nciations, as the $rime a$$roach to rea"in# %n/amiliar wor"s, incl%"in# those that are not com$letely "eco"a*leE9 ;hen o*servin# a chil" writin#, the 4%estion the $ractitioner sho%l" *e as0in# in relation to Phase ? is8 HIs the chil" a$$lyin# hisGher $honic 0nowle"#e an" s0ills in writin# %n/amiliar wor"s, incl%"in# those that are not /%lly "eco"a*le an" is heGshe *e#innin# to consi"er correct s$ellin# choicesE9 Some s$ellin#s may *e inacc%rate at this sta#e, *%t chil"ren9s 0nowle"#e o/ #ra$hemes, alon# with their a*ility to se#ment, sho%l" allow them to ma0e a #oo" attem$t at writin# most o/ the wor"s they wish to %se1 >requently as&ed questions ;hich #ra$hemes "o chil"ren nee" to *e a*le to rea" to *e sec%re at Phase ?E Chil"ren sho%l" *e a*le to #ive the so%n" /or the #ra$hemes on $a#e -:> o/ 7etters an" So%n"s an" the alternative $ron%nciations on $a#e -:61 How many #ra$hemes "o chil"ren nee" to 0now /or each $honemeE Chil"ren sho%l" have *een intro"%ce" to all the alternative s$ellin#s /or each $honeme *y the en" o/ Phase ?1 They sho%l" *e a*le to write the common #ra$hemes +tho%#h not necessarily all the rare alternatives. in in"e$en"ent writin# an" sho%l" *e a*le to o//er a common alternative, *ase" on their #rowin# 0nowle"#e o/ s$ellin# choices, when $rom$te" *y an a"%lt1 &o chil"ren have to s$ell correctly to *e sec%re at Phase ?E Chil"ren9s s$ellin# sho%l" *e $honemically $la%si*le *y the en" o/ Phase ?, /or e3am$le, Ha noyKy trane at the staysh%n9 /or Ha noisy train at the station91 Some %nconventional s$ellin#s are to *e e3$ecte" while chil"ren are learnin# the correct s$ellin#s /or an ever increasin# n%m*er o/ common wor"s1
P Crown co$yri#ht ',-, ,,,@? ',-,P&( EN ,A"a$te" /rom8 The National Strate#ies Q Primary C77& C 6aterials /or cons%ltants

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Glossary of Terms

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G)+SSAR*
P onics(

Phonics consists o/ the s0ills o/ se#mentin# an" *len"in#, 0nowle"#e o/ the al$ha*etic co"e an" an %n"erstan"in# o/ the $rinci$les %n"er$innin# the way the co"e is %se" in rea"in# an" s$ellin#1
Ad%acent Consonant( Consonants which a$$ear ne3t to each other an" can *e *len"e" to#ether n0 as in *an0 an" the str as in strin# +note the n# in strin# is a "i#ra$h as these two letters ma0e a sin#le so%n". Alp a$etic code( In En#lish everythin# that is sai" or written is enco"e" in a$$ro3imately >> so%n"s +$honemes. which are re$resente" *y '6 letters in a*o%t ->, letter com*inations1 Analytic p onics( In this /orm o/ $honics instr%ction, st%"ents analyse the letter so%n" relationshi$s in $revio%sly learne" wor"s in or"er to "eco"e new wor"s1 They are enco%ra#e" not to $rono%nce the so%n"s o/ a wor" in isolation1 (or e3am$le, a st%"ent mi#ht reco#niKe the similarity in the so%n" o/ the wor"s #ear, /ear, hear1 =lending( )eco#nisin# the letter so%n"s in a written wor", /or e3am$le c % $, an" mer#in# them in the or"er to rea" the wor" Hc%$91 Consonant( All letters o/ the al$ha*et e3ce$t a, e, i, o, % Consonant -igrap ( A consonant "i#ra$h contains two consonants sh

c0

th

ll

C9; C9C; CC9C( These are the a**reviations /or vowel consonant, consonant vowel consonant, consonant consonant vowel consonant an" are %se" to "escri*e the or"er o/ grap emes in wor"s +a #ra$heme may consist o/ more than one letter.1 E1#1 am +VC., Sam +CVC., slam +CCVC., or each +VC., *each +CVC., *leach +CCVC.1 -igrap ( A two letter #ra$heme which re$resents one so%n", e1#1 Hea9 in *eat >our letter grap emes( Uses /o%r letters to re$resent one $honeme e1#1 Hei#h9 as in wei#h Grap eme( A letter or #ro%$ o/ letters re$resentin# a so%n" +$honeme.1 There is always the same n%m*er o/ #ra$hemes as $honemes in a wor"1 P oneme0Grap eme correspondence( An %n"erstan"in# o/ which #ra$hemes corres$on" to which $honemes an" vice versa1 ;e convert #ra$hemes to $honemes when we rea" +"eco"in# written wor"s.1 ;e convert $honemes to #ra$hemes when we are s$ellin# +enco"in# wor"s /or writin#.1 P oneme( Smallest %nit o/ so%n" in a wor" there are >> $honemes1 It is #enerally acce$te" that in most varieties o/ s$o0en En#lish

Sc 'a An %nstresse" vowel so%n" which is close to G%G s$ellin#s incl%"e8 teacher; collar; "octor; a*o%t Segmenting( I"enti/yin# the in"ivi"%al so%n"s in a wor" +e1#1 h i m. in or"er to *e a*le to s$ell1 Split -igrap ( This is a "i#ra$h which has a letter which s$lits, comes *etween, the two letters o/ the "i#ra$h e1#1 ta0e an" ma0e where the H09 s$lits the two letters which ma0e the Hae9 "i#ra$h which in *oth wor"s re$resents theGaiG $honeme1 There are 6 s$lit "i#ra$hs in En#lish s$ellin#8 Ha e9, He e9, Hi e9, Ho e9, H% e9, Hy e9, as in8 ma0e, scene, li0e

*one, c%*e, ty$e1


Sylla$le( A wor" or $art o/ a wor" consistin# o/ a vowel $honeme with either, no, one or more consonant $honemes *e/ore or a/ter it1 E1#1 Htele$hone9 has : sylla*les telGeG$hone Synt etic p onics( Synthetic $honics teaches the $honemes +so%n"s. associate" with the #ra$hemes +letters.1 The so%n"s are ta%#ht in isolation then *len"e" to#ether +i1e1 synthesise"., all thro%#h the wor"1 They are ta%#ht to $rono%nce each $honeme in a wor", then to *len" the $honemes to#ether to /orm the wor" +e1#1 GsG GaG GtGJ RsatR.1 Systematic p onics( This relates to either analytic or synthetic $honics $ro#rammes which *%il" s0ills /rom easy to more com$le31 Trigrap ( A three letter #ra$heme which re$resents one so%n" e1#1 H%re9 as in $%re 9o'el -igrap ( Two letters com*ine to re$resent one vowel so%n" e1#1 out, *oat 9o'el( In En#lish, the vowel so%n"s are a e I o % an" y which sometimes acts as a consonant when at the *e#innin# o/ a wor"1
:A