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A near-death experience (NDE) refers to personal experiences associated with imp ending death, encompassing multiple possible sensations

including detachment fro m the body, feelings of levitation, total serenity, security, warmth, the experi ence of absolute dissolution, and the presence of a light. These phenomena are u sually reported after an individual has been pronounced clinically dead or very close to death. With recent developments in cardiac resuscitation techniques, th e number of reported NDEs has increased.[1] The experiences have been described in medical journals as having the characteristics of hallucinations,[2][3][4] wh ile parapsychologists, religious believers and a number of scientists have point ed to them as evidence of an afterlife and mind-body dualism.[5][6][7][8] Accord ing to the 2013 PLOS ONE article by Thonnard et al., "near-death experiences can not be considered as imagined event memories. On the contrary, their physiologic al origins could lead them to be really perceived although not lived in the real ity."[9] Popular interest in near-death experiences was initially sparked by Weiss's 1972 The Vestibule,[citation needed] followed by Raymond Moody's 1975 book Life Afte r Life[10][11] and the founding of the International Association for Near-Death Studies (IANDS) in 1981.[12] According to a Gallup poll, approximately eight mil lion Americans claim to have had a near-death experience.[13] Some commentators, such as Simpson,[14] claim that the number of near-death experiencers may be un derestimated. People who have had a near-death experience may not be comfortable discussing the experience with others, potentially due in part to some seeing a n NDE as a paranormal experience.[12] NDEs are among the phenomena studied in th e fields of psychology,[15] psychiatry,[16] and hospital The earliest accounts of NDE can be traced to the Myth of Er, recorded in the 4t h century BC by Plato's The Republic (10.614-10.621), wherein Plato describes a soldier telling of his near-death experiences.[10]:115[19]:96 99 The cognate French term exprience de mort imminente (experience of imminent death ) was proposed by the French psychologist and epistemologist Victor Egger as a r esult of discussions in the 1890s among philosophers and psychologists concernin g climbers' stories of the panoramic life review during falls.[21][22] These exp eriences were popularized with the work of psychiatrist Raymond Moody in 1975 as the Near-Death Experience (NDE). It is uncertain if Moody was aware of the expr ession earlier used by Egger.[citation needed] Researchers have identified the common elements that define near-death experienc es.[23] Bruce Greyson argues that the general features of the experience include impressions of being outside one's physical body, visions of deceased relatives and religious figures, and transcendence of egotic and spatiotemporal boundarie s.[24] Many different elements have been reported, though the exact elements ten d to correspond with the cultural, philosophical, or religious beliefs of the pe rson experiencing it: The traits of a classic NDE are as follows: A sense/awareness of being dead.[23][25] A sense of peace, well-being and painlessness. Positive emotions. A sense of rem oval from the world.[23][25][26] An out-of-body experience. A perception of one's body from an outside position. Sometimes observing doctors and nurses performing medical resuscitation efforts. [23][25][26][27] A "tunnel experience". A sense of moving up, or through, a passageway or stairca se.[23][25][27] A rapid movement toward and/or sudden immersion in a powerful light. Communicati on with the light.[25][26] An intense feeling of unconditional love.[26] Encountering "Beings of Light", "Beings dressed in white", or similar. Also, the possibility of being reunited with deceased loved ones.[23][26][27] Receiving a life review.[23][25][26] Receiving a "life preview" in the cases of George Ritchie and Betty Eadie, which Ring calls an NDE "Flash Forward".[28] Receiving knowledge about one's life and the nature of the universe.[26]

A decision by oneself or others to return to one's body, often accompanied by a reluctance to return.[23][26][27] Approaching a border.[25] The notice of unpleasant sound or noise (claimed by R. Moody).[10] Connection to the cultural beliefs held by the individual, which seem to dictate the phenomena experienced in the NDE and the later interpretation thereof (Hold en, Janice Miner. Handbook of Near-Death Experiences. Library of Congress Catalo ging in Publishing Data, 2009.).