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SIMPLE PAST TENSE Gen. overview Formation Affirmative for regular vbs. by adding d or ed to the short inf. close-closed; open-opened for irregular vbs. the IInd form of the vb. go-went-gone; eat-ate-eaten -vbs. ending in y preceded by a consonant change y into i before ed apply-applied; try-tried - final y remains unchanged if it is preceded by a vowel enjoy-enjoyed e ceptions pay-paid; lay-laid; say-said Interrogative au to do !past tense"#$ubj# main vb. !short inf." %egative $ubj #au to do !past tense"#not#main vb. !short inf." Uses of the S. Past Tense &. an action wholly completed at some point in the past with time indicators !e pressed or implied" yesterday, the day before yesterday, yesterday morning/afternoon/evening last night/ week/ month/year/Monday/January then, at that time when (not) long/ an hour/ a day/ a month/ week/year ago two/ a few/ (not) many hours/ days/ weeks ago with prepositional phrases on/before/ after Monday morning/ afternoon/evening the first of January January the first At/before/after a quarter past one/ half past one/oneo lo k/noon/ midnight/ !aster 1

"n the morning/afternoon/evening January (the) spring/summer/winter (the year) #$%& 'hen did they arrived( )is parents died many years ago. *he First 'orld 'ar began in &+&,. -. repeated actions with time indicators !e pressed or implied" - adverbials of duration - adverbials of fre.uency %ow and again I heard shots in the town. /very so often I stopped to loo0 at my map. $he always carried an umbrella. 1uring the summer I went swimming every day. 2. continuous actions !when there is no contrast between a longer and a shorter period of time" with time indicators !e pressed or implied"; adverbial of duration 'e lived in the country for a long time. $he did the rooms from eight to ten. )ow long did you boil the eggs(

PAST PERFECT TENSE Formation Affirmative - vbs au . to have!past tense" # past participle of the main vb. !vb2" Interrogative Au to have !past tense"#$ubj # vb2 %egative $ubj# au to have !past tense"# not# vb2 Uses of the P. Perf. Tense &. a single action or repeated actions which too0 place before a given past moment; the past moment from which the accomplished action is viewed may be - clear from the conte t )e said he had telephoned his father. I was angry with him because he had forgotten to post the letter. 2

- fi ed by an adverbial I saw the play last wee0. I had not seen it before. 3y that time the children had already gone to bed. - fi ed by another action in the past !the action e pressed by the past perfect was or was not completed before another action occurred" 3y the time the bell rang4 we had already done all the e ercises. After I had learnt my lessons4 I went to the cinema. - when two actions closely follow each other 'hen the play ended4 we went home. As soon as it began to rain we ran indoors. - we can describe two or more actions within the same sentence- use the past tense for all of them 'e pac0ed the suitcases and rang for a ta i. -. an action begun before a given past moment - and still going on at that past moment with time indicators5 for/sin ewhen' how long when( $he had been ill for two wee0s when I learnt about it. )ow long had you been at home when I rang you up( - or coming very close up up to that past moment but no longer going on at that past moment !this is shown by the conte t" I had waited for her for half an hour before she came. Other uses &. to indicate that an action was prevented or stopped before it was completed *hey had an accident before they had driven ten miles. -. with vbs. as 5 hope, e)pe t, intend, mean (intend), think, suppose, want to indicate that a past hope4 e pectation4 intention4 desire was not reali6ed I had hoped that they would be at home. 'e had wanted to help but couldn t get there in time.

PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE Gen. 7verview Formation Affirmative - vbs. to be !past tense"#main vb#ing Interrogative au to be !past tense"#$ubj# ing vb. %egative 3

$ubj #au to be !past tense"#not#ing vb. Uses of the Past Continuous &. an action going at a given past moment with time indicators !e pressed or implied" a" adverbials e pressing a point of time 'hat were you doing at + p.m.( I was watching television. $he was not coo0ing at midday. b" sub-clauses of time- this past continuous indicates that an action was going on at a time when something else happened $he was sitting at her des0 when I came in. 'hile I was reading. there came a 0noc0 on the door. -. an action filling up a whole period of time in the past !when the action is considered in its progress" with time indicators !e pressed or implied" a" adverbials of duration I was ta0ing notes during the wee0-end. It was raining all day yesterday. b" sub-clauses of time-parallel actions the two actions were going on at the same time 'hile we were dining4 the band was playing. 'hat were you doing while your wife was pac0ing( *he repetition of the same forms in both clauses is usually avoided 'hile we dined4 the band was playing or 'hile we were dining4 the band played. Other uses &. certain feelings !impatience4 blame4 praise" I thought you were never coming. !impatience" )e was always ma0ing troubles -. unfulfilled past intention I was just going to leave when they came. )e was going to telephone his father4 but he forgot. 2. cause or reason )e had an accident because he was driving too fast. I didn8 t come to school because I was feeling ill. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE Formation Affirmative 4

2 vbs au . to have!past tense" #to be !past participle" #the main vb. #ing Interrogative Au to have !past tense"#$ubj # to be !past participle"# vb ing %egative $ubj# au to have !past tense"# to be !past participle" # not# ing vb -the past perfect continuous is concerned with the continuity of an action rather than its completed state - an action begun before a given moment in the past and continued into that past moment or come very close up to that past moment with time indicators a" adverbials by9 for:since94 how long( 3y that time he had been teaching us for three years. It was ten to four4 and we had been waiting since two o8 cloc0. )ow long had you been learning ;omanian before you came here( Other uses &. to e press a previous action whose result is still continuing at a given past moment although the action itself has ceased 'hy did you feel e hausted( 3ecause I had been wor0ing hard all day. -. a repeated action can sometimes be e pressed as a continuous action by this sense !instead of the past perfect" I had tried three times to get you on the phone or I had been trying to get you on the phone. 2. it is not used with vbs. which do not occur in the continuous forms4 e cept with want and sometimes wish $he was delighted with her new doll. $he had been waiting one for a long time.