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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

KHOA VIN THNG 1


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N
TT NGHIP I HC
ti:
KHO ST

MNG TRUY NHP GPON DA TRN


PHN MM OPTISYSTEM

Ging vin hng dn : Th.S. NGUYN TH THU NGA


Sinh vin thc hin
: NGUYN TH KIM CC
Lp
: L10CQVT4-B
Kha : 2010 2012
H
: H - HCKT

H Ni, 12/2012

NHN XT CA GING VIN HNG DN


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im

H Ni, ngy thng nm 2012

Bng s

Bng ch

.......

Ging vin hng dn

NHN XT CA GING VIN PHN BIN


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im

H Ni, ngy thng nm 2012

Bng s

Bng ch

Ging vin phn bin

LI CM N
Sau gn 2 thng n lc tm hiu v thc hin nKho st mng truy nhp
GPON da trn phn mm OptiSystem c hon thnh, ngoi s c gng ht
mnh ca bn thn, em cn nhn c nhiu s gip , ng vin t pha thy c, gia
nh v bn b.
hon thin c n ny, em xin chn thnh cm n khoa Vin Thng 1
Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu Chnh Vin Thng to iu kin thun li cho chng em
c hc tp v thc hin n tt nghip ny.
c bit em xin t lng bit n su sc ti c gio NGUYN TH THU
NGAngi trc tip tn tnh hng dn, ch bo v gip em trong sut qu trnh
thc hin n.
Em xin gi li cm n ti cc thy gio, c gio ca Hc Vin Cng Ngh Bu
Chnh Vin Thng ni chung v c bit l cc thy c ca khoa Vin Thng 1 ni
ring tn tnh ging dy, truyn t nhiu kinh nghim v kin thc qu bu cho em
trong sut nhng nm hc va qua ti hc vin.
Li cui, em xin gi li cm n s quan tm, gip v ng h ca gia nh,
bn b gip ng vin em trong qu trnh hc tp v thc hin n tt nghip
ny.
Mc d em c gng ht mnh hon thnh n, nhng chc chn s
khng trnh khi nhng sai st. Em rt mong nhn c s cm thng ng gp v ch
bo tn tnh ca qu thy c v bn b.
H Ni, thng 12 nm 2012
Sinh vin thc hin
Nguyn Th Kim Cc

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Mc lc

MC LC
DANH MC BNG BIU .......................................................................................... ii
THUT NG VIT TT ..............................................................................................i
LI M U ..................................................................................................................1
CHNG I: TNG QUAN MNG TRUY NHP ........................................................... 3
1.1 S ra i .............................................................................................................3
1.2 Khi nim ...........................................................................................................3
1.3 Nhng giai on pht trin ca mng truy nhp .......................................5
1.4 Cc cng ngh truy nhp .................................................................................6
1.4.1 Ph}n loi .......................................................................................................6
1.4.2 So s|nh v{ |nh gi| c|c cng ngh truy nhp ...........................................8
1.4 Kt lun chng .............................................................................................. 11
CHNG 2: MNG QUANG TH NG VI CHUN GPON .................................12
2.1 Mng th ng PON......................................................................................... 12
2.1.1 Kh|i nim mng quang th ng ............................................................... 12
2.1.2 c im chnh ca h thng .....................................................................12
2.1.3 Kin trc mng quang th ng PON ........................................................ 13
2.1.5So s|nh mng PON v{ AON .........................................................................16
2.1.6 C|c chun mng PON ..................................................................................19
2.1.7 u, nhc im mng PON .......................................................................26
2.2 Gii thiu cng ngh GPON ...........................................................................26
2.3 Kin trc mng GPON. ....................................................................................27
2.3.1 Kt cui ng quang OLT ........................................................................27
2.3.2 Thit b u cui mng ONU/ONT ............................................................ 28
2.3.3 Mng ph}n phi quang ODN ......................................................................30
2.4 Cc tiu chun k thut ..................................................................................31
2.4.1 Tc bit .....................................................................................................31
2.4.2 Khong cch ................................................................................................ 32
2.4.3 T l chia .......................................................................................................32
2.5 K thut truy nhp v phng thc ghp knh trong mng GPON ......32
2.5.1 K thut truy nhp ...................................................................................... 32
2.5.2 Phng thc ghp knh .............................................................................33
2.6 Cu trc phn lp ca mng quang GPON ..................................................34
2.6.1 Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD. ...................................................34
2.6.2 Lp hi t truyn dn GTC .........................................................................35
2.6.3 Cu trc khung GTC ....................................................................................39
2.7 Phng thc ng gi d liu ......................................................................40

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Mc lc

2.7.1 Cu trc t b{o ATM ...................................................................................40


2.7.2 Cu trc khung GEM. .................................................................................42
2.8 Bo v i vi phn mng quang th ng ................................................43
2.8.1 Chuyn mch bo v ...................................................................................43
2.8.2 Bo mt trong GPON ...................................................................................44
2.9 Kt lun chng .............................................................................................. 45
CHNG 3: KHO ST MNG TRUY NHP GPON DA TRN PHN MM
OPTISYSTEM ...............................................................................................................46
3.1 Gii thiu phn mm OptiSystem ............................................................... 46
3.1.1 Gii thiu chung .......................................................................................... 46
3.1.2 C|c ng dng ca phn mm OptiSystem ................................................46
3.1.3 C|c c im chnh ca phn mm OptiSystem .......................................47
3.2 S h thng mng theo chun GPON...................................................... 49
3.2.1 C|c thng s thit lp mng GPON ............................................................ 49
3.2.2 S h thng mng GPON .......................................................................53
3.3 Kho st mng truy nhp GPON da trn phm mm OptiSystem............55
3.3.1 Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng mng quang .............................................55
3.3.2 Kho st cc yu t nh hng n mng quang .........................................59
3.4 Kt lun chng ................................................................................................ 69
KT LUN ..................................................................................................................70
TI LIU THAM KHO........................................................................................... 71

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Danh mc hnh v

DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1.1 : Mng truy nhp theo quan im truyn thng ...............................................3
Hnh 1.2: Mng truy nhp hin i di quan im ca ITU-T. ....................................4
Hnh 1.3: S pht trin ca cc dng thit b truy nhp. .................................................6
Hnh 2.1: M hnh chung ca mng quang th ng PON ...........................................13
Hnh 2.2: Cc dng kin trc ca PON .........................................................................14
Hnh 2.3: B chia cng sut quang ................................................................................15
Hnh 2.4: Cu trc ca WDM-PON. .............................................................................25
Hnh 2.5: Cc khi chc nng trong OLT .....................................................................28
Hnh 2.6: Cc khi chc nng ca ONU .......................................................................29
Hnh 2.7: Cu trc c bn mng cp quang thu bao ....................................................30
Hnh 2.8: S dng TDMA trn GPON hnh cy ........................................................... 32
Hnh 2.9: Cu trc phn lp mng GPON. ...................................................................34
Hnh 2.10: Ngn xp giao thc h thng GTC .............................................................. 36
Hnh 2.11: iu khin phng tin trong h thng GTC ..............................................37
Hnh 2.12: Cu trc khung ng xung hi t truyn dn lp GTC. ......................... 39
Hnh 2.13: Cu trc khung ng ln GTC ..................................................................39
Hnh 2.14: Cu trc t bo ATM ...................................................................................41
Hnh 2.15: Cu trc t bo ATM ti giao din UNI (a) v NNI (b) .............................. 41
Hnh 2.16: Cu trc khung v mo u GEM ............................................................... 43
Hnh 3.1: Giao din ngi s dng ca OptiSystem .....................................................46
Hnh 3.2: Thit lp cc thng s cho ng xung ...................................................... 51
Hnh 3.3: Thit lp cc thng s cho ng ln ............................................................ 52
Hnh 3.4: Thit lp cc thng s ton mng ..................................................................52
Hnh 3.5: S kt ni mng theo chun GPON ........................................................ 53
Hnh 3.6: Cu trc khi ONU........................................................................................ 54
Hnh 3.7: Mi lin quan gi tn hiu nhn c v hm phn b xc sut. ..................55
Hnh 3.8: Mi quan h gia h s phm cht Q v t l li bit BER ............................. 57
Hnh 3.9: H s Q tnh theo bin ..............................................................................58
Hnh 3.10: Cng sut o ti u ra ca OLT khi Ppht = 1dBm ..................................59
Hnh 3.11: Cng sut o ti u vo ca ONU 1 khi Ppht = 1dBm ............................ 59
Hnh 3.12: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1 ........................................60

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Danh mc hnh v

Hnh 3.13: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1 ............................... 60


Hnh 3.14: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1.........................................61
Hnh 3.15: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1 .................62
Hnh 3.16: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2 vi L = 10km .................62
Hnh 3.17: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2 ............................... 63
Hnh 3.18: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2.........................................63
Hnh 3.19: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2 .................64
Hnh 3.20: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3 vi b chia 1:16 .............64
Hnh 3.21: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3 ............................... 65
Hnh 3.22: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3.........................................65
Hnh 3.23: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3 .................66
Hnh 3.24: Cng sut o c ti u vo ca b ONU1 vi b chia 1:16 ..................66
Hnh 3.25: Cng sut o c ti u ra ca b OLT khi Ppht = 5dBm ....................67
Hnh 3.26: Cng sut o c ti u vo ca b ONU1 khi Ppht = 5dBm ...............67
Hnh 3.27: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4 vi Ppht = 5dBm ..........67
Hnh 3.28: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4 ............................... 68
Hnh 3.29: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4.........................................68
Hnh 3.30: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4 .................69

DANH MC BNG BIU


Bng 1.1: Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn. .................................................................7
Bng 1.2: nh gi chung v cc cng ngh truy nhp. ...............................................10
Bng 1.3: So snh v gi thnh cc cng ngh ............................................................. 11
Bng 2.1: Bng so snh AON v PON v bng thng ..................................................18
Bng 2.2: Bng so snh AON v PON v vic iu khin lu lng ........................... 19
Bng 2.3: So snh cc chun cng ngh TDMA PON ..................................................22

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Thut ng vit tt

THUT NG VIT TT
T vit
tt

Ngha ting anh

CATV
CDMA
CO
DTV
DBA

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber


Line
ATM-Based Passive Optical
Network
Asynchronous Tranfer Mode
Bit Error Rate (The ITU-T uses Bit
Error Ratio)
Broadband Passive Optical
Network
Cable Television
Code Division Multiple Access
Central Office
Definition Television
Dynamic Bandwidth Alocation

EPON

Ethernet PON

FEC
FO
FSAN
FTTB
FTTC
FTTCab
FTTN
FTTO
FTTP

FTTH
GEM
GPON
HDTV

Forward Error Correction


FiberOptic
Full Service Access Network
Fiber To The Building
Fiber To The Curb
FibertotheCabinet
Fiber To The Node
Fiber To The Office
FibertothePremises
Fibertothex, where x = (H)ome,
(C)urb, (B)uilding, (P)remesis,
etc.
Fiber To The Home
GPON Encapsulation Method
Gigabit Passive Optical Network
HighDefinition Television

HFC

Hybrid Fiber Coaxial

IPTV
ISDN
ISP

Internet Protocol Television


Integrated Services DigitaNetwork
Internet Service Provider
International Telecommunication
Union
Local Area Network

ADSL
APON
ATM
BER
BPON

FTTx

ITU
LAN

Ngha ting vit


ng dy thu bao bt i xng
Mng quang th ng dng
ATM
Ch truyn ti khng ng b
T l li bt
Mng quang th ng bng rng
Truyn hnh cp
a truy nhp phn chia theo m
Tng i trung tm
Truyn hnh k thut s
Cp pht bng thng ng
Mng quang th ng chun
Ethernet
Sa li trc
Si quang
Mng truy nhp dch v y
Cp quang n ta nh
Cp quang n cm dn c
Cp quang ko ti t
Cp quang n cc node
Cp quang n vn phng
Cp quang ko ti khch hng
Cp quang ko ti x, trong x c
th l Home, Curb, Building,
Premises
Cp quang n tn nh
Phng thc ng gi GPON
Mng quang th ng Gigabit
TV nt cao
Mng lai gia cp ng v cp
quang
Truyn hnh Internet
Mng dch v s tch hp
Nh cung cp dch v Internet
Lin minh vin thng quc t
Mng my tnh cc b

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MAC
MAN

Media Access Control


Metropolitan Area Network
Operations Administration and
OAM
Maintenance
ODF
Optical Distribution Frame
ODN
Optical Distribution Network
OLT
Optical Line Terminal/Termination
ONT Management Control
OMCI
Interface
Optical Network
ONT
Terminal/Termination
ONU
Optical Network Unit
P2P
Point-to-Point
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
Physical Layer Operations and
PLOAM
Maintenance
PMD
Polarization Mode Dispersion
PON
Passive Optical Network
QoS
Quality of Service
SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SNR
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SONET Synchronous Optical Network
TDM

TimeDivision Multiplexing

TDMA

Time Division Multiplex Access

UNI

User Network Interface


Very High Bit Rate Digital
Subscriber Line
Video On Demand
Voice over Internet Protocol
Wave Division Multiplexing

VDSL
VoD
VoIP
WDM

Thut ng vit tt
iu khin truy nhp
Mng th
Khai thc qun l v bo dng
Hp phn phi quang
Mng phn phi quang
Thit b u cui ng dy quang
Giao din iu khin qun l thit b
u cui mng
Thit b u cui mng
Thit b mng quang
im ti im
n v d liu giao thc
Qun l vn hnh bo dng lp vt
l
Tn sc mode phn cc
Mng quang th ng
Cht lng dch v
Phn cp ng b s
T s tn hiu trn tp m
Mng quang ng b
Ghp knh phn chia theo thi
gian
a truy nhp phn chia theo thi
gian
Giao din ngi s dng mng
ng dy thu bao s tc rt
cao
Video theo yu cu
Thoi qua giao thc Internet
Ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng

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Li m u

LI M U
Ng{y nay, s ph|t trin mnh m ca c|c khu vc kinh t, c|c t chc x~ hi
~ to ra nhu cu rt ln trong vic s dng c|c dch v tin ch tch hp thoi,
hnh nh v{ d liu.Bn cnh , c|c dch v ng dng trn Internet ngy cng
phong ph v{ ph|t trin vi tc nhanh chng nh c|c dch v mua b|n trc
tuyn, ng}n h{ng, c|c dch v {o to t xa, game trc tuyn, c bit nhu cu
v c|c loi dch v gia tng tch hp thoi, hnh nh v{ d liu ang ng{y cng
tng. S ph|t trin ca c|c loi hnh dch v mi, i hi h tng mng truy nhp
phi |p ng c|c yu cu v bng thng rng, tc truy nhp cao. Vy nn mng
quang l{ mt gii ph|p cn thit v{ quan trng gii quyt c|c vn trn.
Trong , mng truy nhp quang th ng GPON (Passive Optical Network) l{
mt gii ph|p trin vng y ha hn trong mng truy nhp l{m gim bt hin
tng tc nghn mng. Mng GPON l{ mng im n a im m{ khng cn c
c|c th{nh phn tch cc trong tuyn truyn dn t ngun n ch, c bn th n
bao gm si quang, v{ c|c thit b th ng. iu n{y l{m tit kim chi ph bo
dng, ph}n phi thit b, cp ngun v{ tn dng c kin trc mng quang.
Nhng nm gn }y Vit Nam cng ~ trin khai mng truy nhp quang th
ng GPON ang c nhiu u th. Cng ngh GPON hin nay l{ mt trong nhng
cng ngh c la chn h{ng u cho vic trin khai mng truy nhp ti nhiu
nc trn th gii. GPON l{ cng ngh hng ti cung cp dch v mng y ,
tch hp thoi, hnh nh v{ s liu vi bng thng rng.
Xut ph|t t v tr, vai tr ca mng truy nhp quang v{ c|c cng ngh truy
nhp quang trong s ph|t trin chung ca h thng mng vin thng v{ mong mun
tm hiu m hnh h thng GPON nn em ~ chn t{i Kho st mng truy nhp
GPON da trn phn mm m phng OptiSystem. l{m t{i |n tt nghip ca
mnh. Ngo{i phn li m u, ni dung |n c chia th{nh ba chng c th nh
sau:
Chng 1: Tng quang mng truy nhp .
Chng n{y trnh b{y kh|i nim mng truy nhp cng nh ph}n loi mng
truy nhp quang. Nhng u im vt tri ca mng truy nhp.
Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON.
Chng n{y trnh b{y kin trc mng quang th ng PON. V{ tm hiu s}u
hn v cng ngh GPON nh c|c tiu chun k thut, k thut truy nhp
Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON da trn phm mm
OptiSystem.

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Li m u

Chng n{y trnh b{y c|c ch tiu |nh gi| cht lng mng quang v{ kho
s|t c|c yu t nh hng n mng quang thng qua phn mm OptiSystem.

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

CHNG I: TNG QUAN MNG TRUY NHP


1.1 S ra i
Mng vin thng hin nay c ph|t trin theo hng ho{n to{n a
phng tin v{ Internet. iu n{y l{m cho vic tm kim phng |n gii quyt
truy nhp bng thng c gi| th{nh thp, cht lng cao ~ tr nn rt cp
thit.
Cng vi s ph|t trin ca x~ hi thng tin, nhu cu s dng dch v vin
thng ng{y c{ng tng, t dch v in thoi n dch v s liu, hnh nh, a
phng tin. Vic tch hp c|c dch v n{y v{o cng mt mng sao cho mng
vin thng tr nn n gin hn v ang tr th{nh vn nng bng ca
ngh{nh vin thng quc t.
1.2 Khi nim
Mng truy nhp theo quan im truyn thng.
Theo quan im truyn thng, mng truy nhp hay cng trnh ngoi vi l{
to{n b h thng thit b v{ ng truyn dn nm gia tng {i v{ thit b
u cui ca kh|ch h{ng, thc hin chc nng truyn dn thit b v{ c kt ni
trc tip n thu bao(hnh 1.1). Nh vy, mng truy nhp theo quan im
truyn thng l{ mt trong c|c loi hnh mng phc tp nht trn th gii,
cha ng mt khi lng khng l c|c i d}y c|p ng kt ni t tng
{i ni ht n c|c thu bao.

Hnh 1.1 : Mng truy nhp theo quan im truyn thng


Dch v c bn do mng truyn thng cung cp l{ dch v thoi truyn
thng POST(plain old telephone services). Vi s ph|t trin khng ngng ca
cng ngh, mng c|p ng ni ht ng{y nay cn c th cung cp nhiu loi
hnh dch v IPTV. Tuy nhin, mng truy nhp truyn thng bc l kh| nhiu
nhc im nh:
Hn ch kh nng cung cp c|c dch v mi, c bit l{ dch v bng
thng.
Chi ph u t ln, l~ng ph thit b
B|n knh phc v nh.
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

khc phc c nhng nhc im trn ca mng truy nhp truyn


thng, nhiu gii ph|p ra i. Ngo{i c|c gii ph|p n}ng cao nng lc ca mng
truy nhp truyn thng nh dng tng {i ph}n t|n RLC, dng b cung cp
mch vng thu bao s DLC, thay i ng knh c c|pcn xut hin c|c
cng ngh truy nhp kh|c nh truy nhp quang, truy nhp quang lai ghp
ng trc, truy nhp v tuyn. Nh vy kh|i nim mng truy nhp theo quan
im truyn thng khn cn ng vi tt c c|c mng truy nhp hin nay
Mng truy nhp hin i di quan im ca ITU_T
Theo c|c khuyn ngh ca ITU-T, mng truy nhp hin c nh ngha nh
trn hnh 1.2.Theo mng truy nhp l{ mt chui c|c thc th truyn dn
gia giao din nt dch v(SNI) v{ giao din ngi s dng- mng (UNI).Mng
truy nhp chu tr|ch nhim truyn ti c|c dch v vin thng. Giao din iu
kin v{ qun l mng l{ Q3
Thit b u cui ca kh|ch h{ng c kt ni vi mng truy nhp qua
UNI, cn mng truy nhp kt ni vi nt dch v (SN) thng quan SNI. V
nguyn tc khng c gii hn n{o v loi v{ dung lng ca UNI hay SNI.
Mng truy nhp v{ nt dch v u c kt ni vi h thng mng qun tr
vin thng (TMN) qua giao din Q3.

Hnh 1.2: Mng truy nhp hin i di quan im ca ITU-T.


Giao din nt dch v
L{ giao din mt ct dch v ca mng truy nhp. Kt ni vi tng {i SNI
cung cp cho thu bao c|c dch v c th. VD: tng {i c th kt ni vi mng
truy nhp qua giao din V5
Giao din V5 cung cp chun chung kt ni thu bao s ti tng {i s ni
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

ht. Gii ph|p n{y c th mang li hiu qu cao do cho php kt hp h thng
truyn dn thu bao v{ tit kim card thu bao tng {i. Hn na phng
thc kt ni n{y cng thc y vic ph|t trin c|c dch v bng rng.
Giao din ngi s dng- mng
}y l{ giao din pha kh|ch h{ng ca mng truy nhp. UNI phi h tr
nhiu dch v kh|c nhau, nh thoi tng t, ISDN bng hp v{ bng rng v{
dch v leased s hay tng t.
Giao din qun l
Thit b mng truy nhp phi cung cp giao din qun l c th iu kin
mt c|ch hiu qu to{n b mng truy nhp. Giao din n{y cn phi ph hp
vi giao thc Q3 c th truy nhp mng TMN v{ ho{n to{n tng thch vi
c|c h thng qun l mng m{ thit b do nhiu nh{ sn xut cung cp. Hin
nay phn nhiu c|c nh{ cung cp thit b s dng giao din qun l ca ring
mnh thay v dng chun Q3.
1.3 Nhng giai on pht trin ca mng truy nhp
Vi nh ngha mng truy nhp nh trn t c cu trc nh mong
mun th mng truy nhp ni ring v{ mng vin thng ni chung phi tri
qua nhng giai on qu| vi nhiu trng th|i kh|c nhau tng t vi
nhng xut ph|t im(mng truyn s liu, thoi truyn thng PSTN, mng di
ng, mng di ng ni ht) v{ gii ph|p s dng kh|c nhau. Hnh 1.3 cho
chng ta thy mc ph|t trin ca c|c dng thit b truy nhp trong mng vin
thng vi xut ph|t im l{ mng PSTN.

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

Hnh 1.3: S pht trin ca cc dng thit b truy nhp.

1.4 Cc cng ngh truy nhp


1.4.1 Phn loi
C rt nhiu tiu ch kh|c nhau ph}n loi cng ngh truy nhp. }y,
chng ta thc hin ph}n loi theo hai tiu ch: da trn bng thng v{ mi trng
truyn dn.
*Ph}n loi da trn bng thng:
Truy nhp bng hp:
L{ truy nhp c tc truy nhp <2Mbps. V d: truy nhp bng quay
s(dial-up), cng ngh ISDN bng hp (N-ISDN), xDSL bng hp (ISDN, SDSL,
ADSL lite)
Truy nhp bng rng:
L{ truy nhp c tc truy nhp >2Mbps. V d: cng ngh xDSL, cng ngh
Moderm c|p (MC), cng ngh truy nhp qua ng d}y in lc (PLC), cng
ngh truy nhp quang, LMDS, Wimax, truy nhp v tinh
*Ph}n loi da trn mi trng truyn dn:
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

Cng ngh truy nhp hu tuyn:


Cng ngh modem bng tn thoi, ISDN, xDSL, Ethernet da trn c|p ng
xon.
Cng ngh modem c|p CM trn mng c|p truyn hnh c|p CATV.
Cng ngh PLC trn mng c|p in
Cng ngh truy nhp quang trn c|p CATV, PLC, PSTN
Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn:
Chng ta c th nhn thy truy nhp v tuyn theo quan im ca IEE (bng
1.1). Theo cn c v{o vng bao ph h thng thit b chng ta c c|c mng din
hp PAN vi nhng v d cng ngh nh Blutooth, Wireless USB. C|c mng din
ni ht vi in hnh l{ cng ngh WLAN vi nhng chun cho lp vt l 802.11a,
802.11b,802.11g,802.11n. Tip theo l{ c|c mng din rng vi nhng ci tin ca
chun 801.11, nhng mng truy nhp v tuyn a knh a im, a knh a im
ni ht (MMDS v{ LMDS) vi xut ph|t im l{ dng qung b| tn hiu truyn
hnh. Cui cng l{ mng din rng vi c|c th h ca in thoi t b{o v{ cng
thm v{o h thng truy nhp s dng v tinh.

PAN

LAN
802.11a

Bluetooth
802.15

802.11b
802.11g
802.11n
HiperLAN2

Notebook/PC n
thit b / My in /
Bn phm/ in
thoi
< 1Mbps

MAN

WAN

802.11

2.5G/3G

802.16

GSM/GPRS

MMDS

CDMA/1x/3x

LMDS

4G

My tnh - My

Truy nhp n km

Cc my cm tay v

tnh v ti

cui cng v c

thit b PDA n

internet

nh

Internet

2 n 54 + Mpbs

22+ Mbps

10 n 384 kbps

Bng 1.1: Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn.


Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

1.4.2 So snh v nh gi cc cng ngh truy nhp


Chng ta c th th so s|nh c|c cng ngh truy nhp trn nhiu gc nhn
khc nhau:
Bng 1.2: cho chng ta so s|nh chung nht gia nhng cng ngh.
Bng 1.3: |nh gi| v c|c cng ngh truy nhp trn kha cnh kinh t khi trin
khai.

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Cng ngh

Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp


Bng thng

Tc ln
Dial up
(V90)

33.6 Kb/s

xDSL
(ADSL)

1.5 Mb/s

u im

Tc
xung

56.6 Kb/s

Phm vi cung cp
rng,
Tc rt chm
Gi| th{nh r

Tc cao
tin cy cao
Tc cao
Modem cp Ti a 10 Ti a 30
Gi| th{nh r
Mb/s
Mb/s
Chun thng dng
8 Mb/s

V tinh

33.6 Kb/s

Nhiu chun kh|c


nhau
Cu trc v{ bng tn
phi chia s

128 Kb/s

Tc chm
S dng rng r~i
Chi ph rt cao
Tng thch vi
Kh qun l gim
DSL
st

400 Kb/s

Tc lung ln
thp
Chi ph thit b cao
Kh nng ng
tin cy cha cao
dng rng r~i
nh hng do c|c
t|c dng ca thi
tit

IDSN
128 Kb/s

Nhc im

Nhiu chun cng


C kh nng di
V tuyn di Ty thuc Ty thuc
ngh
ng trin khai
ng
cng ngh cng ngh
Kh khn khi trin
dch v nhanh
khai trn din rng
Chi ph thit b cao.
Tc cao
Phm vi ng dng
V tuyn c Ty thuc Ty thuc
Nhiu cp ng hn ch.
nh
cng ngh cng ngh
dng.
Ph thuc v{o c ly
v anten
Cp quang

PLC

Ln ( c Ln
Gbps)
Gbps)

18 Mb/s

45 Mb/s

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

(c

Tc cao.
Cht lng kt ni Gi| th{nh t
cao
C mt khp ni
Cha
trn ng d}y
chung
in lc

chun

Page 9

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Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

Bng 1.2: nh gi chung v cc cng ngh truy nhp.


Cng ngh

Bng thng
Tc ln

Dial up
(V90)
xDSL
(ADSL)

u im

Tc

Nhc im

xung
Phm vi cung cp

33.6 Kb/s

56.6 Kb/s

rng,

Tc rt chm

Gi| th{nh r
1.5 Mb/s

8 Mb/s

Modem cp Ti a 10 Ti a 30
Mb/s

Mb/s

Tc cao

Nhiu chun kh|c

tin cy cao

nhau

Tc cao

Cu trc v{ bng tn

Gi th{nh r
Chun thng dng

IDSN

S dng rng r~i


128 Kb/s

128 Kb/s

Tng thch vi
DSL

phi chia s
Tc chm
Chi ph rt cao
Kh qun l gi|m
st
Tc lung ln
thp

V tinh

33.6 Kb/s

400 Kb/s

Kh

nng

ng

dng rng r~i

Chi ph thit b cao


tin cy cha cao
nh hng do c|c
t|c dng ca thi
tit

V tuyn di Ty thuc Ty
ng

cng ngh

thuc

cng ngh

C kh nng di
ng trin khai
dch v nhanh

Nhiu chun cng


ngh
Kh khn khi trin
khai trn din rng
Chi ph thit b cao.

V tuyn c Ty thuc Ty
nh

cng ngh

thuc

cng ngh

Tc cao

Phm vi ng dng

Nhiu cp ng hn ch.
dng.

Ph thuc v{o c ly
v anten

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Cp quang

Chng 1: Tng quan mng truy nhp

Ln ( c Ln
Gbps)

(c

Gbps)

Tc cao.
Cht lng kt ni Gi| th{nh t
cao
C mt khp ni

PLC

18 Mb/s

45 Mb/s

trn ng d}y
in lc

Cha

chun

chung

Bng 1.3: So snh v gi thnh cc cng ngh


Hin trng v hng pht trin
Rt nhiu t{i liu cng nhn rng xu hng ph|t trin ca mng truy nhp
bao gm hai hng c bn:
Th nht l{ cung cp cho kh|ch h{ng bng thng gn nh khng hn ch
chnh l{ xu hng ph|t trin c|c cng ngh quang th ng
Th 2 l{ cung cp cho ngi dng kt ni mi lc mi ni vi tc c th
tha m~n nhng ng dng c bn chnh l{ c|c truy nhp v tuyn vi c|c th
h t 2 n 4.
Pht trin ca truy nhp v tuyn hi t n 4G
tin n th h th 4 mng truy nhp v tuyn s hi t li t hai
hng:
Hng 1: T c|c h thng c| nh}n, ni ht, th{nh ph (vi nhng i din
in hnh WLAN v{ Wimax).
Hng 2: T pha c|c din rng ( vi c|c i din l{ GSM, IMT2000,
WCDMA).
1.4 Kt lun chng
Trong chng 1, em ~ gii thiu c|c quan im kh|c nhau v mng truy
nhp, nhng giai on ph|t trin ca mng truy nhp cng nh ph}n loi mng
truy nhp theo bng thng v{ mi trng truyn dn.
Xu hng ph|t trin ca mng truy nhp trong tng lai tuy c nhiu quan im
kh|c nhau nhng u thng nht hng ti cng ngh truy nhp theo mng th
h sau NGN vi tiu ch truy nhp mi lc, mi ni v{ khng hn ch tc .

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

CHNG 2: MNG QUANG TH NG VI CHUN GPON


2.1 Mng th ng PON
2.1.1 Khi nim mng quang th ng
Mng quang th ng PON l{ mt mng quang khng c c|c phn t in
ph hay thit b quang in t. PON l{ cng ngh s dng c|c b chia quang
(Splitter) ni ti rt nhiu thit b u cui mng quang. Nh vy, trong PON
s bao gm: Si quang, c|c b chia, b kt hp, b ghp nh hng, thu knh, b
lc, chnh nh v{o cu trc nh th m{ PON c nhng u im c trng nh:
- Khng yu cu cung cp ngun in nn khng nh hng ca li ngun.
- To th{nh ng truyn thng sut gia tng {i v{ thu bao. L{m cho cu
trc mm do hn v n ch ph thuc v{o dng tn hiu. V{ vic s dng
linh kin th ng s l{m tng tin cy ca h thng.
- Chi ph cho khai th|c vn h{nh v{ bo dng nh.
- i vi cu trc mng PON, cng sut quang s quyt nh s b chia
quang. Tn hiu c bng tn c{ng ln, cng sut quang c{ng nh th mc thu
gim, v vy kh nng chia knh s b gim so vi trng hp tn hiu bng
hp. Cho nn tng bng tn h thng phi |p dng c|c cng ngh truyn
dn tin tin nh k thut thu kt hp hay k thut ghp bc sng.
2.1.2 c im chnh ca h thng
c trng ca h thng PON l{ thit b th ng ph}n phi si quang n
tng nh{ thu bao s dng b chia splitter c th ln ti 1:128.
PON h tr giao thc ATM, Ethernet.
PON h tr c|c dch v voice, data v{ video tc cao.
Kh nng cung cp bng thng cao.
Trong h thng PON bng thng c chia s cho nhiu kh|ch h{ng iu
n{y s l{m gim chi ph cho kh|ch h{ng s dng.
Kh nng tn dng cng ngh WDM, ghp knh ph}n chia theo di tn v{
cung cp bng thng ng gim thiu s lng c|p quang cn thit kt ni
gia OLT v{ splitter.
PON thc hin truyn dn 2 chiu trn 2 si quang hay 2 chiu trn cng
1 si quang.
PON c th h tr topo hnh c}y, sao, bus v{ ring.

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

2.1.3Kin trc mng quang th ng PON


Cu trc mng PON c bn gm c|c th{nh phn l{ OLT, splitter quang,
ONU/ONT. OLT chnh l{ thit b u cui pha nh{ sn xut, c nhim v kt ni
tt c c|c loi dch v li v{ truyn tn hiu thng qua si c|p quang. Tn hiu t
OLT s n c|c splitter quang. Splitter quang c s dng ph}n chia cng
sut t mt si duy nht n x ngi s dng (x c th l{ 32, 64 hoc 128, iu
ph thuc v{o h s chia ca splitter) trn mt khong c|ch ti a l{ 20 km.
thu c tn hiu t OLT, ti pha ngi s dng cn c c|c b ONU/ONT.

Hnh 2.1: M hnh chung ca mng quang th ng PON

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

T m hnh chung trn, mng PON cn c trin khai di c|c dng


kin trc nh sau:

Hnh 2.2: Cc dng kin trc ca PON


Trong s trn, c|c th{nh phn chnh ca mt mng PON l{:
OLT: }y l{ thit b kt cui knh quang t ti Center Office. N l{ th{nh
phn quan trng nht trong h thng GPON, cung cp c|c giao din truy
nhp PON cho thit b ONU pha ngi s dng v{ c|c giao din kh|c cho
tn hiu pha ng ln.
ONU: }y l{ thit b lp t ti pha kh|ch h{ng. N l{ im cui ca mng
quang FTTH. ONU c nhim v chuyn tn hiu quang t giao din PON
th{nh c|c chun tn hiu cho c|c thit b mng, tn hiu truyn hnh, tn
hiu thoi c s dng ti thu bao.
ONT: }y l{ thit b u cui pha ngi s dng, l{ im cui cng ca
ODN.
ODN: H thng ph}n phi c|p quang tnh t sau OLT n ONU/ONT. C th,
h thng ph}n phi quang ODN bao gm c|c th{nh phn sau }y:
- Mng xng quang
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

- D}y nhy quang


- Hp phi quang ODF
- Splitter (b chia/ghp quang). }y b chia/ghp quang chnh l{ b chia
cng sut quang. Dng chia mt tn hiu quang u v{o th{nh nhiu
tn hiu u ra. C|c h s chia thng thng l{ 1:4, 1:8 }y l{ b chia
th ng tc l{ khng phi cp ngun. Suy hao trong b chia ph thuc v{o
h s chia. H s chia c{ng ln th suy hao c{ng ln. Vi h s chia l{ 1:2 th
suy hao khong 3 dB, vi h s chia l{ 1:32 th suy hao ti thiu l{ 15dB.
Suy hao n{y chnh l{ suy hao xen to ra bi s cha ho{n ho trong qu|
trnh x l. Hnh 2.3 cho bit nguyn l chung ca b chia cng sut quang.
Gi s ti u v{o c 3 bc sng 1 ng xung, 2, 3 ng ln,
vi b chia cng sut c h s chia l{ 1:2 th u ra c 2 ca ra, mt ca c
bc sng v{o l{ 2v{ bc sng ra l{ 1, mt ca kh|c li c bc sng
v{o l{ 3v{ bc sng ra l{ 1.

Hnh 2.3: B chia cng sut quang


2.1.4 Cc chun PON
ITU-TG983
APON (ATM Pasive Optical Network) Mng quang th ng ATM. }y l{
chun mng quang th ng u tin.Tng c s dng ch yu cho c|c ng
dng thng mi trn nn ATM.
BPON( Broadband PON) l{ chun trn nn APON. c b xung h tr
cho WDM ghp knh ph}n chia theo bc sng, cp ph|t bng thng ng ln
rng v{ ln hn, tnh chn lc cao. ng thi to ra giao din qun l chun gi l{
OMCI, gia OLT v{ ONU/ONT, cho php c|c mng cung cp hn hp, c th :
G983.1 : Nm 1998, trnh b{y v lp vt l ca h thng APON/BPON.
G983.2 : Nm 1999, c tnh ca giao din iu kin v{ qun l ONT.
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

G983.3 : Thng quan nm 2001, c tnh m rng cung cp nhng dch v


thng qua ph}n b bc sng.
G983.4 : Thng qua nm 2001, m t nhng c ch cn thit h tr
phan b bng tn ng trong c|c ONT ca cng mt mng PON.
G983.5 : Thng qua nm 2002, x|c nh nhng c ch chuyn mch bo
v cho BPON.
G983.6 : Thng qua nm 2002, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din
iu kin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nng chuyn mch ti ONT.
G983.7 : Thng qua nm 2001, nh ngha nhng m rng cho giao din
iu kin cn thit cho qun l nhng chc nng DBA ti ONT.
ITU-T984
GPON ( Gigabit PON) l{ mt s ph|t trin ca chun BPON. N h tr tc cao
hn, tng cng bo mt v{ chn lp giao thc ( ATM, GEM, Ethrenrt)
G 984.1 : m t nhng c tnh chung ca h thng GPON nh l{ kin trc,
tc bt, bo v v{ bo mt
G984.2 : X|c nh nhng thng s ca GPON ti tc ln l{ ( 155Mb/s,
622Mb/s, 1,5 Gb/s, 2,5Gb/s), xung l{ (1,5Gb/s v{ 2,5Gb/s)
G983.4 : M t nhng c tnh v khung hi t truyn dn ca GPON, bn
tin, phng ph|p x|c nh khong, hot ng, gi|m s|t, nhng chc nng bo
dng v{ bo mt.
IEEE 802.3ah
EPON hay GEPON ( Ethernet PON) l{ mt chun IEEE s dng Ethernet
cho d liu gi.
Trong c|c gii ph|p mng PON, gii ph|p EPON c h tr v{ ph|t trin
nhanh nht. Nhiu nh{ cung cp dch v ~ chn gii ph|p n{y l{m mng truy
nhp v{ truyn ti lu lng Metro (MEN) cung cp a dch v. Tuy nhin c
ch duy tr v{ phc hi mng ca gii ph|p EPON cn chm nn ch c th |p dng
cho mng c quy m va v{ nh.
2.1.5So snh mng PON v AON
Mng quang ch ng AON (Active Optical Network) l{ kin trc mng
im - im. Thng thng mi thu bao c mt ng c|p quang ring chy t
thit b trung t}m (Access Node) n thu bao.

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

C rt nhiu yu t so s|nh u im v{ nhc im ca hai k thut


PON v{ AON. Tuy nhin, }y chng ta s xem xt mt s thng s quan trng
nh bng thng, kh nng iu khin lung, khong c|ch
V bng thng
Ng{y c{ng c nhiu dch v vin thng yu cu tc cao nh IPTV, VOD,
Conference meeting Do bng thng l{ mt vn v cng quan trng. Bng
2.1 di }y s cho ta c|i nhn kh|i qu|t hn v bng thng |p ng c gia 2
cng ngh n{y.
AON

PON

nh gi

Bng thng ti a cho mt thu bao


Rng

Hp l

AON u th hn

Vi mi mt thu C|c chun ca mng PON Cng ngh AON tt hn, bng
bao s dng ring c nghin cu rng thng ti a ca mi thu bao
mt

ng

c|p r~i cho php bng thng l{ ln hn. Bi v i vi c|c

quang th bng thng cp ph|t n c|c port ti doanh nghip th bng thng
c th nm trong OLT l{ ging nhau.

thng ln hn c|c thu bao

khong t 100Mbps

ca h gia nh, nu s dng

n 1Gbps (i vi

PON th khng th iu khin

h gia nh hoc mt

s kh|c nhau n{y.

cng ty).
iu chnh bng thng
n gin

Kh khn

Khi mt node truy

iu

chnh

AON tt hn
bng Cng ngh mng AON tt hn

nhp c cu to t thng ca mt thu bao bi v n d d{ng n}ng cp


c|c module th ngi th rt kh v n ph hn.
ta c th n}ng cp thuc v{o cu trc ca
c bng thng cho mng PON. iu n{y c
mt thu bao n{o th c ci tin trong
bng c|ch can thip tng lai nu cu trc
v{o phn cng.

mng PON c cu hnh


d phng n +1.

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

Bng 2.1: Bng so snh AON v PON v bng thng

V lu lng
AON

PON

nh gi

S pht trin bng thng hin thi


n gin

Kh khn

AON chim u th

C th iu tit lu V mng PON ti pha


lng ti c|c node truy nh{ cung cp dch v s
nhp

thng

qua

c|c dng cng ngh ghp

switch di s qun l knh theo bc sng v{


ca h thng iu khin trong qu| trnh truyn
mng.

nhn li s dng c|c


splitter cho nn vic iu
khin bng thng l{ kh
khn.

Cc hin tng tr, jitter v cc nhiu khc trong qu trnh truyn


Thp

Thp

Nh nhau

u s dng si quang
nn nhng hin tng
n{y l{ khng |ng k.
S xung t ti cc node truy nhp

Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

Thp

Cao

AON t xung t hn

Thu bao ti mt node Ti OLT, mt splitter S lng thu bao s


truy nhp, s dng giao quang chia giao din dng mng AON chu
din quang v{ mt ngi dng ra l{m 32 nh hng ca s c
thu bao ti c|c card hay 64 tn hiu. Mt ng truyn t hn so
giao din tng i thp subrack

thng

cung vi mng PON.

so vi OLT s dng cp nhiu giao din thu


trong mng PON nn khi bao nn khi xy ra s c
c s c xy ra th c|c th thng c nhiu thu
thu bao b nh hng t bao chu nh hng.
hn.

Bng 2.2: Bng so snh AON v PON v vic iu khin lu lng


2.1.6Cc chun mng PON
C|c chun mng PON c th chia th{nh 2 nhm: Nhm 1 bao gm c|c chun
theo phng thc ghp knh TDM PON nh l{ APON, BPON, EPON, GPON; Nhm
2 bao gm chun theo c|c phng thc truy nhp kh|c nh: WDM-PON v CDMAPON.
2.1.6.1 BPON
Mng quang th ng bng rng BPON c chun ha trong chui c|c
khuyn ngh G.938 ca ITU-T. C|c khuyn ngh n{y a ra c|c tiu chun v c|c
khi chc nng ONT v{ OLT, khun dng v{ tc khung ca lung d liu ng
ln v{ ng xung, giao thc truy nhp ng ln TDMA, c|c giao tip vt l, cc
giao tip qun l v{ iu khin ONT v{ DBA.
Trong mng BPON, d liu c ng khung theo cu trc ca c|c t b{o
ATM. Mt khung ng xung c tc 155Mbit/s hoc 622 Mbit/s v{ mt t
b{o qun l vn h{nh bo dng lp vt l OAM c chn v{o c mi 28 t b{o
trong knh. PLOAM c mt bt nhn dng c|c t b{o PLOAM. Ngo{i ra c|c t
b{o PLOAM c kh nng lp trnh c v{ cha thng tin nh l{ bng thng
ng ln v{ c|c bn tin OAM.
Cn c v{o c|c thng tin v m~ s nhn dng knh o v{ nhn dng ng
o (VPI/VCI) trong cu trc ATM, c|c ONT nhn bit v{ t|ch d liu ng xung
ca mnh. Mi mt knh gm c mt t b{o ATM/PLOAM v{ 24 bit t m{o u. T
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

m{o u mang thng tin v thi gian bo v, m{o u cho php ng b v{ khi
phc tn hiu ti OLT, v{ thng tin nhn dng im kt thc ca t m{o u. Chiu
d{i ca t m{o u v{ c|c thng tin cha trong c lp trnh bi OLT. C|c
ONT thc hin gi c|c t b{o PLOAM khi chng nhn c yu cu t OLT. BPON
s dng giao thc DBA cho php OLT nhn bit lng bng thng cn thit cp
cho c|c ONT. OLT c th gim hoc tng bng thng cho c|c ONT da v{o gi c|c
t b|o ATM ri hoc l{m y tt c ng ln bi d liu ca ONT. OLT dng nh
k vic truyn ng ln do vy n c kh nng mi bt k ONT mi n{o tham gia
v{o hot ng h thng. C|c ONT mi ph|t mt bn tin phc hi trong ca s n{y
vi thi gian tr ngu nhin tr|nh xung t khi m{ c nhiu ONT mi mun
tham gia. OLT x|c nh khong c|ch ti mi ONT mi bng vic gi ti ONT mt
bn tin o c ly v{ x|c nh thi gian bao l}u thu c bn tin phc |p. Sau
OLT gi ti ONT mt gi| tr tr, gi| tr n{y c s dng x|c nh thi gian
bo v ng vi c|c ONT.

2.1.6.2 EPON
EPON c chun ha bi IEEE 802.3. Trong EPON d liu ng xung
c ng khung theo khun dng Ethernet. C|c khung EPON c cu trc tng
t nh c|c lin kt Gigabit Ethernet im ti im ngoi tr t m{o u v{ thng
tin x|c nh im bt u ca khung c thay i mang trng nhn dng
knh logic nhm x|c nh duy nht mt ONU MAC. Trong ng ln, c|c ONU ph|t
c|c khung Ethernet trong c|c khe thi gian ~ c ph}n b. ONU s dng giao
thc iu khin a im PDU gi c|c bn tin Report yu cu bng thng,
trong khi OLT gi bn tin Gate cp ph|t bng thng cho c|c ONU. C|c bn tin
Gate bao gm thng tin v thi gian bt u v{ khong thi gian cho php
truyn d liu i vi ONU. OLT cng nh k gi c|c bn tin Gate ti c|c ONU
hi xem chng c yu cu bng thng hay khng. C|c ONU cng c th gi
Report cng vi d liu c ph|t trong ng ln. Ngo{i ra, giao thc DBA
cng c th c s dng trong EPON thc hin c ch iu khin ph}n b
bng thng. Do khng c cu trc khung thng nht i vi ng xung v{
ng ln, do vy trong cu trc ca EPON, c|c khe thi gian v{ giao thc x|c
nh c ly l{ kh|c so vi BPON v{ GPON. OLT v{ c|c ONU duy tr c|c b m cc
b ring v{ tng thm 1 sau mi 16ns. Mi mt MPCPDU mang theo mt thi gian
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

mu, mu n{y l{ gi| tr ca b m cc b ca ONU tng ng. Tc truyn d


liu EPON c th t ti 1Gbit/s.
2.1.6.3 GPON
GPON c x}y dng da trn BPON v{ EPON. Mc d GPON h tr truyn
ti tin ATM, nhng n cng a v{o mt c ch thch nghi ti tin mi m{ c ti
u ha cho truyn ti c|c khung Ethernet c gi l{ phng thc ng gi
GPON. GEM l{ phng thc da trn th tc ng khung chung trong khuyn
ngh G.701 ngoi tr vic GEM ti u ha t m{o u phc v cho ng dng
ca PON, cho php sp xp c|c d liu Ethernet v{o ti tin GEM v{ h tr sp xp
TDM.
GPON s dng cu trc khung GTC cho c hai ng xung v{ ng ln.
Khung ng xung bt u vi mt t m{o u PLOAM, tip sau l{ vng ti
tin GEM v{/hoc c|c t b{o ATM. PLOAM gm c thng tin cu trc khung v{ sp
t bng thng cho ONT gi d liu trong khung ng ln tip theo. Khung
ng ln bao gm c|c nhm khung gi t c|c ONT. Mi mt nhm c bt u
vi t m{o u lp vt l m{ c chc nng tng t trong BPON, nhng cng bao
h{m tng hp c|c yu cu bng thng ca c|c ONT. Ngo{i ra, c|c PLOAM v{ c|c
yu cu bng thng chi tit hn c gi i km vi c|c nhm ng ln khi c
yu cu t OLT.

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

c tnh

B-PON
FSAN v ITU-T SG
T chc chun ha 15
(G.983 series)
155.52 Mbit/s
hng ln 155,52
Tc d liu
hoc
622,08Mbit/s
hng xung
T l
1:64
chia(ONUs/PON)
M~ ng truyn
Scramble NRZ
S lng si
1 hoc 2
quang
1310nm c 2
hng hoc
Bc sng
1490nm xung &
1310nm ln
C ly ti aOLT20km
ONU
Chuyn mch bo
C h tr
v
Khun dng d
liu

ATM

G-PON
FSAN v ITU-T SG
15
(G.983 series)

E-PON
IEEE 802.3
(802.3ah)

Ln ti 2,488
Gbit/s c 2 hng

1 Gbit/s c 2
hng

1:64

1:64**

Scramble NRZ

8B/10B

1 hoc 2

1310nm c 2
hng hoc
1490nm xung &
1310nm ln

1490nm xung &


1310nm ln

(10-20) km

(10-20) km

C h tr

Khng h tr

GEM v ATM

Khng( s dng
trc tip c|c
khung Ethernet)

Trc tip( qua


GEM hoc ATM0
hoc CES
Qua TDM hoc
VoIP

H tr TDM

Quan ATM

H tr thoi

Qua ATM

QoS

C (DBA)

C (DBA)

C (u tin
802.1Q)

Khng

RS (255,239)

RS (255,239)

AES-128

AES-128, 192, 256


GTC v ATM/GEM
OAM

Khng
802.3ah Ethernet
OAM

Sa li hng ti
trc FEC
M~ ha bo mt
OADM

PLOAM v ATM

CES
VoIP

Bng 2.3: So snh cc chun cng ngh TDMA PON


2.1.6.4 GEPON
Trong th|ng 6 nm 2004, cng ngh Ethernet c khuyn ngh dng cho
mng truy nhp v{ c tn l{ IEEE 802.3ah. N c coi l{ mt h thng mng truy
nhp quang tc cao. Do }y l{ h thng mng PON c ti u cho cng ngh
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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

Ethernet nn c tn thng gi l{ EPON. Ngo{i ra n cn c thm tin t G l{ vit


tt ca Gigabit nn cn gi l{ GEPON.
Mt h thng GEPON vi t l chia l{ 32 c th cung cp mt bng thng
i xng l{ trn 30 Mbps cho mi kh|ch h{ng. Bng thng n{y l{ cung cp
c|c dch v yu cu bng thng ln nh c|c ng dng video cng nh c|c ng
dng thoi v{ data. Thm ch vi ng thi 3 lung video n nt cao vi dung
lng mi lung l{ 6 n 7 Mbps (tng cng l{ 18 n 21Mbps) th vn cn
dung lng cho VoIP v{ truy cp internet. Dung lng d{nh ring cho VoIP thng
thng ch khong 64k trn mt knh thoi trong khi truy cp internet tc cao
thng gii hn c|c mc 512kbps, 1Mbps, 2Mbps, 4Mbps. Bng thng tng
cng cho c 3 dch v ch khong 25Mbps, do GEPON l{ mt cng ngh mng
truy nhp l tng cho vic h tr a dch v hin c v{ trong tng lai.
Hin ti, chun GEPON cng ang c ph|t trin c th h tr bng
thng ti a ln ti 10GB v{ t l chia s trn mt si quang l{ 1:64.
GEPON c c|c c im chnh sau }y:
- PON topology
- Tc truyn ti a 1,25Gbps trn mt ng quang v{ tc ti tng
user c th thay i ty theo t l chia (trn 30Mbps/1 user khi c t l
chia l 1:32)
- Tn hiu c gi v{ nhn bng c|c khung Ethernet.
Trong h thng PON, mc ch ca vic chia s ng quang cng nh thit
b ti phng m|y trung t}m l{ v l do kinh t. Thm v{o , vic gi v{ nhn c|c
tn hiu bng khung Ethernet, l{m cho h thng mng tr ln n gin v{ gi|
th{nh thp.
Cng sut v{ dng sng ca tn hiu quang c iu ch lp vt l. C 2
chun c bn l{ 1000 BASE-PX10 dng truyn vi khong c|ch ti a 10km v{
1000 BASE-PX20 dng truyn vi khong c|ch ti a 20km. Bc sng truyn
trn si quang c quy nh da trn khuyn ngh ITU-T G.983.3 l 1490nm cho
ng xung v{ 1310nm cho ng ln, v{ ta c th cung cp thm dch v
truyn hnh qung b| trn bc sng 1550nm. S lng u chia ti a khng
c quy nh trong IEEE 802.3ah v n ph thuc v{o suy hao ca tn hiu quang
trn thc t, v{ thng thng s lng u chia l{ 32. GEPON cung cp 2 octet (16
bit) cho th{nh phn nh danh lin kt logic (LLID - Link logic ID) v 15 bit dnh
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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

cho mi mt a ch MAC. V vy c th c hn 30.000 b ONU c s dng trong


mt mng PON. c im chnh ca GEPON l{ d liu c truyn nhn bng
c|c khung Ethernet c kch thc thay i ti 1518 octets. Vi d liu
downstream, OLT s broadcast khung Ethernet n tt c c|c ONU trong mt
mng PON.
Tuy nhin phn LLID bao gm thng tin a ch nh ch c ONU c
|nh a ch mi tip nhn khung d liu c a ch MAC ca n, c|c ONU s loi
b nhng khung m{ khng |nh a ch tng ng vi chng. Ngo{i ra vic
truyn d liu upstream da trn cng ngh a truy nhp ph}n chia theo thi
gian (TDMA) tr|nh xung t d liu gia c|c ONU. OLT ph}n phi mt ca s
truyn dn c gi l{ cng ng vi mt ONU. Khi mt ONU nhn c mt
khung cng, n s truyn c|c khung d liu vi tc 1 Gbit/s trong sut khe thi
gian c ng k bi cng. Giao thc iu khin a im (MPCP) qun l c|c
cng c cp cho mi ONU, cng c yu cu t ONU v{ c dng ph|t
hin v{ ng k c|c ONU vi mng PON. Do mi ONU ch c th nhn tn hiu
c a ch ng vi a ch duy nht ca n nn mt th{nh phn nh danh s c
gi km u khung Ethernet.
2.1.6.5 WDM-PON
WDM-PON l{ mng quang th ng s dng phng thc a ghp knh
ph}n chia theo bc sng thay v theo thi gian nh trong phng thc TDM.
OLT s dng mt bc sng ring r thng tin vi mi ONT theo dng P2P.
Mi mt ONU c mt b lc quang la chn bc sng tng thch vi n, OLT
cng c mt b lc cho mi ONU.
Nhiu phng thc kh|c nhau ~ c tm hiu to ra c|c bc sng
ONU nh l{:
S dng c|c khi quang c th lp t ti ch la chn c|c bc sng ONU.
Dng c|c laser iu chnh c.
Ct ph tn hiu
C|c phng thc th ng m{ theo OLT cung cp tn hiu sng mang ti
cc ONU.

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

S dng tn hiu ng xung iu chnh bc sng u ra ca laser


ONU
Cu trc ca WDM-PON c m t nh hnh 2.1. Trong WDM-PON c
th c s dng nhiu ng dng kh|c nhau nh l{ FTTx, c|c ng dng VDSL v{
c|c im truy nhp v tuyn t xa. C|c b thu WDM-PON s dng k thut lc
quang m{ng ng dn sng (AWG). Mt AWG c th c t mi trng trong
nh{ hoc ngo{i tri.

Hnh 2.4: Cu trc ca WDM-PON.


u im chnh ca WDM-PON l{ n kh nng cung cp c|c dch v d liu
theo c|c cu trc kh|c nhau (DS1/E1/DS3, 10/100/1000Base Ethernet) ty
theo yu cu v bng thng ca kh|ch h{ng. Tuy nhin, nhc im chnh ca
WDM-PON l chi ph kh| ln cho c|c linh kin quang sn xut b lc nhng
bc sng kh|c nhau.
2.1.6.6 CDMA-PON
Cng ngh a truy nhp ph}n chia theo m~ CDMA cng c th trin khai
trong c|c ng dng PON. Cng ging nh WDM-PON, CMDA-PON cho php mi
ONU s dng khun dng v{ tc d liu kh|c nhau tng ng vi c|c nhu cu
ca kh|ch h{ng. CDMA PON cng c th kt hp vi WDM tng dung lng
bng thng. CDMA PON truyn ti c|c tn hiu kh|ch h{ng vi nhiu ph tn
truyn dn tri trn cng mt knh thng tin. C|c k hiu t c|c tn hiu kh|c
nhau c m~ ha v{ nhn dng thng qua b gii m~. Phn ln cng ngh ng
dng trong gii m~. Phn ln cng ngh ng dng trong CDMA PON tu}n theo
phng thc tri ph chui trc tip. Trong phng thc n{y mi k hiu 0, 1
(tng ng vi mi tn hiu) c m~ ha th{nh chui k t d{i hn v{ c tc
cao hn.
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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

Mi ONU s dng tr s chui kh|c nhau cho k t ca n. khi phc li


d liu, OLT chia nh tn hiu quang thu c sau gi ti c|c b lc nhiu x
t|ch ly tn hiu ca mi ONU. u im chnh ca CDMA PON l{ cho php
truyn ti lu lng cao v{ c tnh nng bo mt ni tri so c|c chun PON kh|c.
Tuy nhin, mt tr ngi ln trong CDMA-PON l{ c|c b khuch i quang i hi
phi c thit k sao cho m bo tng ng vi t s tn hiu/tp }m (S/N).
Vi h thng CDMA-PON khng c b khuch i quang th ty thuc v{o tn hao
b sung trong c|c b chia, b xoay vng, c|c b lc m{ h s t chia ONU/OLT ch
l{ 1:2 hoc 1:8. Trong khi vi b khuych i quang h s n{y c th t 1:32
hoc cao hn. Bn cnh c|c b thu tn hiu trong CDMA-PON l{ kh| phc tp
v{ gi| th{nh tng i cao. Chnh v nhng nhc im n{y nn hin ti CDMAPON cha c ph|t trin rng r~i.
2.1.7u, nhc im mng PON
u im
- S dng c|c thit b th ng nn khng cn cp ngun, gi| th{nh r.
- Gim chi ph bo dng v{ vn h{nh.
- Tc download v{ upload cao.
- Gim chi ph si quang v{ gim chi ph c|c thit b cho php nhiu ngi
dng chia s chung mt si.
Nhc im
- Gii hn bng thng cho c|c thu bao v splitter chia u bng thng.
- Gii hn vng ph sng: Ti a l{ 20 km, ph thuc v{o s lng splitter
(c{ng nhiu splitter th khong c|ch truyn c{ng gim).
- Kh d o|n gi| th{nh khi c thu bao ph|t sinh.
- Khi c OLT mi cn lp t th gi| th{nh i vi mi thu bao c kt ni
n OLT s tng ln cho n khi c|c port ca OLT lp y.
2.2 Gii thiu cng ngh GPON
GPON nh ngha theo chun ITU-T G.984. GPON c m rng t chun
BPON G.983 bng c|ch tng bng thng, n}ng hiu sut bng thng nh s dng
gi ln, c d{i thay i v{ tiu chun ha qun l. Thm na, chun cho php
la chn tc bit ca ng ln v{ ng xung. Phng thc ng gi GPON GEM cho php ng gi lu lng ngi dng rt hiu qu, vi s ph}n on
Nguyn Th Kim Cc-L10CQVT4-B

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

khung cho php cht lng dch v QoS cao hn phc v lu lng nhy cm nh
truyn thoi v{ video. GPON h tr tc cao hn, tng cng bo mt v{ chn
giao thc lp 2 (ATM, GEM, Ethernet). iu cho php GPON ph}n phi thm
c|c dch v ti nhiu thu bao hn vi chi ph thp hn cng nh cho php kh
nng tng thch ln hn gia c|c nh{ cung cp thit b.
H thng GPON thng thng gm mt thit b kt cui ng d}y OLT v{
thit b kt cui mng ONU hay ONT c ni vi nhau qua mng ph}n phi
quang ODN. Quan h gia OLT v{ ONU l{ quan h mt - nhiu, mt OLT s kt ni
vi nhiu ONU.

2.3 Kin trc mng GPON.


Cu trc h thng GPON bao gm OLT, c|c ONU, b chia quang Splitter v{
c|c si quang. Si quang c kt ni vi c|c OLT i ti b chia quang Splitter, ti
b chia quang chia ra c|c si kh|c v{ c|c si ph}n nh|nh n{y c kt ni vi
ONU.
H thng GPON bao gm c|c th{nh phn sau }y:
OLT: Thit b kt ni c|p quang tch cc lp t ti pha nh{ cung cp dch
v, thng c t ti c|c trm {i.
ONT: Thit b kt ni OLT thng qua mng ph}n phi quang (ODN) dng
cho trng hp kt ni quang ti nh{ thu bao (FTTH).
ONU: Thit b kn ni OLT thng qua mng ph}n phi quang (ODN) dng
cho trng hp kt ni quang ti c|c ta nh{, ti c|c va h hoc c|c node
(FTTB, FTTC, FTTN).
B chia/ ghp quang th ng (Splitter): Dng chia/ghp tn hiu quang
t nh{ cung cp dch v n kh|ch h{ng v{ ngc li gip tn dng hiu
qu si quang vt l. Splitter thng c t ti c|c im ph}n phi
quang (DP) v{ c|c im truy nhp quang (AP). B chia/ghp quang c hai
loi, mt t ti nh{ trm vin thng, s dng c|c t kiu indoor, loi kia s
l{ loi thit b c bc kn c th m ra khi cn thit v{ t ti c|c im
mng xng.
FDC: T phi quang.
FDB: Hp ph}n phi quang loi nh.
2.3.1 Kt cui ng quang OLT

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

Kt cui ng quang OLT c kt ni ti mng chuyn mch thng qua


c|c giao din c chun ho|. OLT a ra giao din truy nhp quang tng ng
vi c|c chun GPON nh tc bit, qu cng sut, jitter, OLT bao gm ba phn
chnh: Chc nng giao din cng dch v; chc nng kt ni cho v{ giao din
mng ph}n t|n quang. C|c khi OLT chnh c m t trong hnh 2.5.
Khi li PON
Chc nng
giao din ODN

Khi kt ni cho

Khi dch v
Dch v
thch nghi

Chc nng
PON TC
Chc nng
kt ni cho

Chc nng
giao din ODN

Chc nng
PON TC

Dch v
thch nghi

Hnh 2.5: Cc khi chc nng trong OLT


Khi li PON (PON core shell): Khi n{y gm hai phn, phn giao din ODN
v{ chc nng PON TC. Chc nng ca PON TC bao gm to khung, iu
khin truy nhp phng tin, OAM, DBA v{ qun l ONU. Mi PON TC c
th la chn hot ng theo mt ch ATM, GEM v{ Dual.
Khi kt ni cho (Cross-connect shell): Cung cp ng truyn thng gia
khi li PON v{ phn dch v. C|c cng ngh s dng cho ng n{y ph
thuc v{o c|c dch v, kin trc bn trong ca OLT v{ c|c yu t kh|c. OLT
cung cp chc nng kt ni cho tng ng vi c|c ch c la chn
(ATM, GEM hoc Dual).
Khi dch v (Service shell): Phn n{y h tr chuyn i gia c|c giao din
dch v v{ giao din khung TC ca phn PON.
2.3.2 Thit b u cui mng ONU/ONT
Hu ht c|c khi chc nng ca ONU/ONT tng t nh c|c khi chc
nng ca OLT. Do ONU hot ng vi mt giao din PON (hoc ti a 2 giao din
khi hot ng ch bo v), chc nng u ni cho c th c b qua. Thay
v{o l{ chc nng ghp v{ t|ch knh dch v (MUX v{ DMUX) x l lu
lng. Cu hnh tiu biu ca ONU c th hin trong hnh 2.6. S c|c khi
chc nng ONU. Mi PON TC s la chn mt ch truyn dn ATM, GEM hoc
c hai.
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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

Khi li PON

La chn

Khi dch v

Chc nng
giao din ODN

Chc nng
PON TC

Dch v
thch nghi

Chc nng
giao din ODN

Chc nng
PON TC

Dch v
thch nghi
Ghp v gii
ghp dch v

Hnh 2.6: Cc khi chc nng ca ONU

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

2.3.3 Mng phn phi quang ODN


Mng ph}n phi quang kt ni gia mt OLT vi mt hoc nhiu ONU s
dng thit b t|ch/ghp quang v mng c|p quang thu bao.

Hnh 2.7: Cu trc c bn mng cp quang thu bao


B t|ch/ghp quang: Mng GPON s dng thit b th ng chia tn hiu
quang t mt si truyn i trn nhiu si v{ ngc li kt hp c|c tn
hiu quang t nhiu si th{nh tn hiu trn mt si. Thit b n{y c gi
l{ b t|ch/ghp quang.
C|c b t|ch/ghp c c trng bng c|c tham s sau }y:
- Suy hao chia: L{ t l gia cng sut u ra v{ cng sut u v{o ca b
ghp tnh theo dB.
- Suy hao xen: }y l{ cng sut b tn hao do qu| trnh sn xut, gi| tr n{y
thng thng khong 0.1dB n 1dB.
- Suyn }m: }y l{ mc cng sut o c u v{o b r t mt u v{o
kh|c. Vi nhng b t|ch/ghp l{ thit b c kh nng nh hng cao th
tham s iu hng khong t 40 n 50 dB.
Mng c|p quang thu bao: c x|c nh trong phm vi ranh gii t giao
tip si quang gia thit b OLT n thit ONU/ONT. Mng c|p quang thu
bao c cu th{nh bi c|c th{nh phn chnh nh sau:
- Cp quang gc (Feeder Cable): Xut ph|t t pha nh{ cung cp dch v (hay
cn gi chung l{ CO) ti im ph}n phi c gi l{ DP (Distribution
Point).
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- im ph}n phi si quang (DP): L{ im kt thc ca on c|p gc. Trn


thc t trin khai, im ph}n phi si quang thng l{ mng xng quang,
hoc c|c t c|p quang phi.
- C|p phi quang (Distribution Optical Cable): Xut ph|t t im phi quang
(DP) ti c|c im truy nhp mng AP (Access Point) hay t c|c t phi
quang ti c|c tp im quang.
- Cp quang thu bao (Drop Cable): Xut ph|t t c|c im truy nhp mng
(AP) hay l{ t c|c tp im quang n thu bao.
- im qun l quang FMP (Fiber Management Point): c s dng cho x
l s c v{ ph|t hin t ng.
2.4Cc tiu chun k thut
2.4.1 Tc bit
Tc truyn dn:
- 1244,16 Mbps ng xung / 155,52 Mbps ng ln.
- 1244,16 Mbps ng xung / 622,08 Mbps ng ln.
- 1244,16 Mbps ng xung / 1244,16 Mbps ng ln.
- 2488,32 Mbps ng xung / 155,52 Mbps ng ln.
- 2488,32 Mbps ng xung / 622,08 Mbps ng ln.
- 2488,32 Mbps ng xung / 1244,16 Mbps ng ln.
- 2488,32 Mbps ng xung / 2488,32 Mbps ng ln.
C|c thng s k thut kh|c:
- Bc sng: 1480 - 1500nm ng xung v{ 1260 - 1360nm ng ln.
- a truy nhp ng ln: TDMA.
- Cp ph|t bng thng ng DBA (Dynamic Bandwith Allocation).
- Loi lu lng: D liu s.
- Khung truyn dn: GEM.
- Dch v: Dch v y (Ethernet, TDM, POTS).
- T l chia ca b chia th ng: Ti a 1:128
- Gi| tr BER ln nht: 10-12
- Phm vi cng sut s dng lung xung: -3 n +2 dBm (10km ODN) hoc
+2 n +7dBm (20km ODN).
- Phm vi cng sut s dng lung ln: -1 n +4 dBm (10km v{ 20km ODN).
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- Loi c|p: tiu chun ITU-T Rec. G.652.


- Suy hao ti a gia c|c ONU:15dB.
- C ly c|p ti a: 20Km vi DFB laser lung ln, 10Km vi Fabry-Perot.
2.4.2 Khong cch
Khong c|ch logic: L{ khong c|ch ln nht gia ONU/ONT v{ OLT ngoi
tr khong vt l. Trong mng GPON, khong c|ch logic ln nht l{ 60 km.
Khong c|ch vt l: L{ khong c|ch vt l ln nht gia ONU/ONT v{ OLT.
Trong mng GPON, c hai ty chn cho khong c|ch vt l v{ 10 km v{ 20 km.
2.4.3 T l chia
i vi nh{ khai th|c mng th t l chia c{ng ln c{ng tt. Tuy nhin t l
chia ln th i hi cng sut quang ph|t cao hn h tr khong c|ch vt l ln
hn. T l chia 1:64 l{ t l l tng cho lp vt l vi cng ngh hin nay. Tuy
nhin trong c|c bc ph|t trin tip theo th t l 1:128 c th c s dng.
2.5K thut truy nhp v phng thc ghp knh trong mng GPON
2.5.1 K thut truy nhp

Hnh 2.8: S dng TDMA trn GPON hnh cy


K thut truy nhp c s dng ph bin trong c|c h thng GPON hin
nay l{ a truy nhp ph}n chia theo thi gian (TDMA). TDMA l{ k thut ph}n chia
bng tn truyn dn th{nh nhng khe thi gian k tip nhau. Nhng khe thi gian
n{y c th c n nh trc cho mi kh|ch h{ng hoc c th ph}n theo yu cu
tu thuc v{o phng thc chuyn giao ang s dng. Hnh 2.8 l{ mt v d v
vic s dng TDMA trn GPON hnh c}y. Mi thu bao c php gi s liu
ng ln trong khe thi gian ring bit. B t|ch knh sp xp s liu n theo v
tr khe thi gian ca n hoc thng tin c gi trong bn th}n khe thi gian. S
liu ng xung cng c gi trong nhng khe thi gian x|c nh.
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Mng GPON s dng k thut TDMA c u im rt ln l{ c|c ONU c


th hot ng trn cng mt bc sng v{ OLT ho{n to{n c kh nng ph}n bit
c lu lng ca tng ONU. OLT cng ch cn mt b thu, iu n{y s d d{ng
cho vic trin khai thit b, gim c chi ph cho c|c qu| trnh thit k, sn xut,
hot ng v{ bo dng. Ngo{i ra, vic s dng k thut n{y cn c mt u im
l{ c th lp t d d{ng thm c|c ONU nu c nhu cu n}ng cp mng.
Mt c tnh quan trng ca GPON s dng TDMA l{ yu cu bt buc v
ng b ca lu lng ng ln tr|nh xung t s liu. Xung t n{y s xy
ra nu hai hay nhiu gi d liu t nhng thu bao kh|c nhau n b ghp cng
mt thi im. Tn hiu n{y ln tn hiu kia v{ to th{nh tn hiu ghp. Pha
u xa khng th nhn dng c chnh x|c tn hiu ti, kt qu l{ sinh ra mt
lot li bit v{ suy gim thng tin ng ln, nh hng n cht lng ca mng.
Tuy nhin c|c vn trn u c khc phc vi c ch nh c v{ ph}n nh
bng thng ng ca GPON.
2.5.2 Phng thc ghp knh
Phng thc ghp knh trong GPON l{ ghp knh song hng. C|c h
thng GPON hin nay s dng phng thc ghp knh ph}n chia khng gian. }y
l{ gii ph|p n gin nht i vi truyn dn song hng. N c thc hin nh
s dng nhng si ring bit cho truyn dn ng ln v{ xung. S ph}n cch
vt l ca c|c hng truyn dn tr|nh c nh hng phn x quang trong mng
v{ cng loi b vn kt hp v{ ph}n t|ch hai hng truyn dn. iu n{y cho
php tng c qu cng sut trong mng. Vic s dng hai si quang l{m cho
vic thit k mng mm do hn v{ l{m tng kh dng bi v chng ta c th
m rng mng bng c|ch s dng nhng b ghp knh theo bc sng trn mt
hoc hai si. Kh nng m rng n{y cho php ph|t trin dn dn nhng dch v
mi trong tng lai. H thng n{y s s dng cng bc sng, cng b ph|t v{ b
thu nh nhau cho hai hng nn chi ph cho nhng phn t quang - in s gim.
Nhc im chnh ca phng thc n{y l{ cn gp i s lng si, mi
h{n v{ connector v{ trong GPON hnh c}y th s lng b ghp quang cng cn
gp i. Tuy nhin chi ph v si quang, phn t th ng v{ k thut h{n ni vn

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ang gim v{ trong tng lai n ch chim t l nh trong to{n b chi ph h


thng.

2.6 Cu trc phn lp ca mng quang GPON


Lp hi t truyn dn

Ph}n lp tng thch hi t truyn dn

(Transmission convergence)

(TC adaption sub- layer)


Ph}n lp ng khung GTC
(GTC framing sub- layer)

Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l (Physical Media Dependence)


Hnh 2.9:Cu trc phn lp mng GPON.
2.6.1 Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD.
Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l qun l c|c thng tin v tc , phng tin vt
l v{ phng thc truyn cng nh m~ ha ng d}y v{ bc sng hot ng.
Tc tn hiu: Tc ng truyn l{ c|c tc bi s ca 8 kHz. H
thng c chun ha s c c|c tc (ng xung/ng ln) nh sau:
- 1244,16 Mbps / 155,52 Mbps.
- 1244,16 Mbps / 622,08 Mbps.
- 1244,16 Mbps / 1244,16 Mbps.
- 2488,32 Mbps / 155,52 Mbps.
- 2488,32 Mbps / 622,08 Mbps.
- 2488,32 Mbps / 1244,16 Mbps.
- 2488,32 Mbps / 2488,32 Mbps.
C|c thng s n{y tng ng vi vi c|c thng s trong mng quang
t c t l li bit BER 10-10 trong trng hp iu kin suy hao v{ t|n sc
ng truyn ln nht do nh hng bi mi trng v{ yu t thi gian.
Phng tin vt l v{ phng thc truyn.
Tn hiu c truyn c ng ln v{ ng xung bng phng tin
truyn dn. Vic truyn dn song hng c thc hin bng c|ch ghp knh
theo bc sng WDM truyn trn mt si quang hoc truyn n hng trn
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hai si quang.
Tc bit.
Tc ng xung: Tc bit tn hiu t OLT ti ONU l{ 1244,16 Mbps
hoc 2488.32 Mbps. Khi OLT v{ u xa ang hot ng tc danh nh (ng
ln/ ng xung) ca n th tc n{y c theo di bi mt ng h lp 1 vi
chnh x|c 1 1011. Khi u xa hot ng ch t do, tc ca tn hiu
ng xung c theo di bi ng h lp 3 vi chnh x|c 4.6 10 6. Khi OLT
hot ng ch t do, tc ca tn hiu ng xung c theo di bi ng
h lp 3 vi chnh x|c 3.2 105.
Tc ng ln: Tc bit tn hiu t ONU ti OLT l{ 155,52 Mbps,
622,08 Mbps, 1244,16 Mbps hoc 2488,32 Mbps. Khi ang trng th|i hot ng
v{ c cp quyn, ONU s ph|t tn hiu vi chnh x|c bng chnh x|c ca
tn hiu thu c ng xung. ONU s khng ph|t tn hiu khi khng ang
trng th|i hot ng hoc khng c cp quyn.
M~ ha ng d}y.
M~ ha ng ln v{ ng xung s dng m~ NRZ. Phng thc ngu
nhin ha khng c nh ngha trong lp ph thuc vt l. Quy nh s dng
mc logic quang l{: Ph|t mc cao cho bit 1, ph|t mc thp cho bit 0.
Bc sng hot ng.
- ng xung: Di bc sng hot ng cho ng xung trong h thng
s dng mt si quang l{ 1480-1500 nm. Di bc sng hot ng cho
ng xung trong h thng s dng hai si quang l 1260nm - 1360 nm.
- ng ln: Di bc sng hot ng cho ng ln l{ 1260nm -1360 nm.
2.6.2 Lp hi t truyn dn GTC
Lp GTC bao gm hai ph}n lp: Ph}n lp ng khung GTC v{ ph}n lp
tng tch hi t truyn dn. Trong Hnh 2.10, phn ATM, GEM, OAM v PLOAM
trong ph}n lp ng khung GTC c ph}n bit theo v tr trong mt khung tn
hiu GTC. Ch c phn OAM mang thng tin vn h{nh, qun l v{ bo dng c
kt cui ti ph}n lp ng khung GTC ly c|c thng tin iu khin cho ph}n lp
n{y v thng tin trong phn OAM c gn trc tip v{o tiu ca khung GTC.
Thng tin vn h{nh, qun l v{ bo dng lp vt l PLOAM c x l ti khi
PLOAM trong ph}n lp n{y. C|c gi tin dch v SDU trong phn ATM v{ GEM c
chuyn th{nh t gi tin giao thc PDU ca phn ATM v{ GEM ti mi ph}n lp
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thch ng hi t tng ng. Ngo{i ra c|c PDU cn bao gm d liu knh OMCI,
c xem xt ph}n lp hi t n{y v{ c trao i vi thc th giao din iu
khin v{ qun l ONU.
Khi iu khin cp ph|t bng tn ng (DBA control) l{ khi chc nng
chung, c tr|ch nhim cp ph|t bng tn ng cho to{n b c|c ONU.

Hnh 2.10: Ngn xp giao thc h thng GTC


Trong lp hi t GTC, OLT v{ ONU khng cn thit phi c c 2 ch h
tr giao thc ATM hay GEM. Vic nhn dng ch n{o ang c yu cu ngay
khi c{i t h thng. ONU thng b|o ch l{m vic ATM hay GEM thng qua bn
tin Serial_Number. Nu OLT c th giao tip vi mt trong s c|c ch m{ ONU
a ra th n s tin h{nh thit lp knh giao din iu khin v{ qun l ONU
(OMCI) v{ thit b ONU s xut hin trong mng. Nu OLT khng h tr ch
hot ng m{ ONU a ra th ONU s c xp v{o h{ng i nhng s c
thng b|o khng tng thch vi h thng ang hot ng.
OAM v{ PLOAM: qun l c|c chc nng ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD
v{ c|c lp GTC.
OMCI: cung cp h thng qun l ng b c|c lp cao hn (lp dch v)

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Knh PLOAM bao gm c|c thng tin c d{nh ring ch trong khung GTC.
Knh n{y c dng cho tt c c|c thng tin qun l GTC v PMD khc khng
c gi qua knh OAM.
Knh OMCI c dng qun l c|c lp dch v nm trn lp GTC. GTC
cung cp 2 la chn v giao din truyn ti cho lu lng qun l n{y l{ ATM v{
GEM. Chc nng GTC cung cp phng tin cu hnh c|c knh ty chn n{y sao
cho |p ng c kh nng ca thit b bao gm nhn dng lung giao thc
truyn ti (VPI/VCI hoc Port-ID).
2.6.2.1 Cc chc nng chnh h thng GTC
Hai chc nng chnh ca lp hi t truyn dn mng GPON (GTC) chnh l{
iu khin truy nhp phng tin v{ ng k ONU.
iu khin truy nhp phng tin.
Lp GTC thc hin iu khin truy nhp cho lu lng ng ln. V c
bn c|c khung d liu ng ln s ch ra v tr lu lng ng ln s c php
truyn trong c|c khung ng ln ~ c ng b vi c|c khung ng xung.

Hnh 2.11: iu khin phng tin trong h thng GTC


Kh|i nim iu khin truy nhp phng tin trong h thng GTC c
minh ha trong hnh 2.11, OLT gn c|c con tr (pointer) v{o khi iu khin vt l
ng xung PCBd, con tr n{y cho bit thi gian ONU bt u v{ kt thc vic
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truyn d liu. Vi c|ch n{y, ch mt ONU c th truy nhp phng tin ti thi
im bt k, khng c xung t trong qu| trnh truyn. C|c con tr trong c|c byte
thng tin cho php OLT iu khin phng tin hiu qu ti bng tn c nh 64
kbit/s. Tuy nhin mt s OLT c th chn c|ch thit lp c|c gi| tr cho con tr ti
c|c tc ln hn v{ thc hin iu khin bng tn bng c ch ng.
ng k ONU.
Vic ng k ONU c thc hin trong th tc discovery t ng. C hai
phng thc ng k ONU. Trong phng thc A, s serial ca ONU c ng k
ti OLT qua h thng qun l (NMS hoc EMS). Trong phng thc B, s serial ca
ONU khng c ng k ti OLT qua h thng qun l.
2.6.2.2 Cc chc nng ca cc phn lp trong h thng GTC
Ph}n lp ng khung GTC thc hin ba chc nng sau:
Ghp knh v{ ph}n knh: C|c th{nh phn PLOAM, ATM v{ GEM c ghp
knh v{o khung TC ng xung ty theo thng tin v ranh gii trong tiu
ca khung. Mi th{nh phn c trch ra t mt ng ln ty theo ch
th trong tiu .
To tiu v{ gii m~: Tiu khung TC c to v{ nh dng trong
khung ng xung. Tiu trong khung ng ln c gii m~.
Chc nng nh tuyn ni b da trn Alloc-ID: nh tuyn da trn AllocID c thc hin i vi d liu n t b thch ng hi t truyn dn
ATM v GEM.
2.6.2.3 Phn lp thch ng GTC v giao din vi cc thc th lp trn
Ph}n lp thch ng bao gm 3 b thch ng ph}n lp hi t: B thch ng
hi t truyn dn ATM (ATM TC adapter), b thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM
(GEM TC adapter) v{ b thch ng giao din iu khin qun l ONU (OMCI
adapter). C|c b thch ng hi t ATM v{ GEM xem xt c|c PDU ca phn ATM v{
GEM trong ph}n lp ng khung GTC v{ |nh x c|c PDU v{o tng phn. C|c b
thch ng cung cp giao din sau }y cho c|c thc th lp trn:
Giao din ATM.
Ph}n lp ng khung GTC v{ b thch ng hi t truyn dn ATM lin kt
vi n cung cp c|c giao din ATM chun theo tiu chun ITU-T Rec. I.432.1 cho
c|c dch v ATM. C|c thc th lp ATM thng c th c s dng nh l{ c|c
ATM client.
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Giao din GEM.


B thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM c th c cu hnh tng thch
c|c khung v{o nhiu loi giao din truyn khung kh|c nhau. C|c b thch ng cn
nhn dng c|c knh OMCI theo tn knh o/tn ng o (VPI/VCI) i vi ATM
v theo Port-ID i vi GEM. B thch ng OMCI c th trao i d liu knh OMCI
cho c|c b thch ng ATM TC v{ GEM TC. B thch ng OMCI nhn d liu t c|c
b thch ng TC n{y v{ truyn n ti thc th OMCI v{ chuyn d liu t thc th
OMCI ti c|c b thch ng TC n{y.
2.6.3 Cu trc khung GTC
Cu trc khung ng xung.

Hnh 2.12: Cu trc khung ng xung hi t truyn dn lp GTC.


Khung c chiu d{i 125s cho c tc d liu 1244,16 Mbps v{ 2488,32
Mbps do khung d{i 19440 byte trong h thng tc 1244,16 Mbps v{ d{i
38880 byte trong h thng tc . Chiu d{i ca PCB ng xung l{ nh nhau
cho c hai tc v{ ph thuc v{o s lng cu trc cp ph|t i vi mi khung.
Cu trc khung ng ln.

Hnh 2.13: Cu trc khung ng ln GTC


d{i khung bng d{i ca khung ng xung i vi c|c loi tc .
Mi khung bao gm c|c truyn dn cho mt hoc nhiu ONU. BWmap (|nh x
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bng tn) thc hin sp xp c|c truyn dn n{y. Trong qu| trnh cp ph|t bng
tn theo s iu khin ca OLT, ONU c th ph|t t 1 ti 4 loi tiu PON v{ d
liu ngi dng. C|c loi tiu nh sau:
- Tiu lp vt l ng ln (PLOu).
- Qun l vn h{nh v{ bo dng lp vt l ng ln (PLOAMu).
- Chui nh mc cng sut ng ln (PLSu).
- B|o c|o bng tn ng ng ln (DBRu).
- Tiu khung ng ln GTC ch ra chi tit ni dung ca c|c tiu n{y.

2.7 Phng thc ng gi d liu


GPON nh ngha hai phng thc ng gi ATM v{ GEM. Cc ONU v OLT
c th h tr c T-CONT nn ATM hoc GEM.
Phng thc ng gi d liu GPON s dng ng gi d liu qua mng
GPON. GEM cung cp kh nng thng tin kt ni nh hng tng t ATM. GPON
cho php h tr nhiu loi hnh dch v kh|ch hng khc nhau. Khch hng ATM
c sp xp trong sut v{o khung GEM trn c hai ng ln v{ xung. Kh|ch
h{ng TDM c sp xp v{o khung GEM s dng th tc ng gi GEM. C|c gi
d liu bao gm c c|c khung Ethernet cng c sp xp s dng th tc ng
gi GEM. GEM cng h tr vic ph}n mnh hoc chia nh c|c khung ln th{nh c|c
ph}n mnh nh v{ ghp li u thu nhm gim tr cho c|c lu lng. Lu lng
d liu bao gm c|c khung Ethernet, c|c gi tin IP, IPTV, VoIP v{ c|c loi kh|c
gip cho truyn dn khung GEM hiu qu v{ n gin. GPON s dng GEM mang
li hiu qu cao trong truyn dn ti tin IP nh s dng ti 95% bng thng cho
php trn knh truyn dn.
2.7.1 Cu trc t bo ATM
Theo khuyn ngh ca I.113 chun ITU-T th t b{o c hiu nh sau: T
b{o l{ mt khi thng tin c chiu d{i c nh. Mi t b{o c x|c nh bi mt
nh~n ng vi lp ATM.

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Hnh 2.14: Cu trc t bo ATM

T b{o ATM c phn m{o u d{i 5 byte cn li phn ti tin d{i 48 byte.
Tng cng chiu d{i ca t b{o ATM l{ 53byte. Ty theo vai tr chc nng cng
nh d liu lu tr trong phn ti tin ca t b{o ATM m{ n c chia ra th{nh
nhiu loi kh|c nhau.
- T b{o rng (idle cell): T b{o n{y dng chn/t|ch bi lp vt l v{ ch
xut hin trong lp vt l. N xut hin ti min bin gia lp ATM v{ lp
vt l, n c nhim v m bo tng thch gia lung tc t b{o vi tc
truyn dn vt l.
- T b{o hp l (valid cell): L{ c|c t b{o c phn m{o u hp l, khng b
li hoc ~ c khc phc li do ~ thng qua c ch kim so|t li m{o
u HEC.
- T b{o li (invalid cell): L{ c|c t b{o c phn m{o u b li hoc khng
th khc phc li bi c ch HEC. N s b hy ti lp vy l.
- T b{o dch v (assigned cell): L{ t b{o c s dng cung cp dch v
cho c|c ng dng ca lp ATM.
- T b{o v nh (unassigned cell): L{ c|c t b{o khng phi l{ t b{o dch v.
T b{o dch v v{ t b{o cha g|n c truyn t lp vt l ln trn lp
ATM.
}y, t b{o c cp l{ t b{o c s dng trong lp ATM. Cu trc
t b{o ti giao tip UNI kh|c vi cu trc t b{o ti giao tip NNI trong vic s
dng 4 bit t bit 5 n bit 8 ca octet th nht phn m{o u. Ti giao tip NNI,
c|c bit n{y l{ mt phn ca trng VPI, trong khi ti giao tip UNI nhm bit
n{y to nn mt trng mi c lp gi l{ trng GFC. Hnh 2.15 di }y m t
cu trc t b{o tng ng vi hai giao tip UNI v{ NNI.

Hnh 2.15: Cu trc t bo ATM ti giao din UNI (a) v NNI (b)
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GFC (iu khin lung chung).


Gm 4 bit thc hin chc nng iu khin c|ch truy nhp vt l do tn ti
c|c thit b truyn dn kh|c nhau ca mi trng truyn dn nh c|p quang, c|p
ng trc, c|p ng mi loi mi trng truyn dn phi c c|c th tc truy
nhp kh|c nhau thch hp. i vi mng ATM, gi| tr GFC khng |p dng cho giao
tip NNI nn n ch c ngha logic i vi im cui ATM, ngha l{ thc hin vic
kim so|t u cui kt ni v{o mng.
Gi| tr nhn dng ng o knh o VPI v{ VCI.
Hai gi| tr n{y quan trng v{ c ngha nht trong phn m{o u ca t
bo. C hai gi| tr n{y gip x|c nh ng truyn cho chng k tip ca t b{o.
C|c gi| tr n{y c th b thay i. C s kh|c bit v gi| tr nhn dng ng o
VPI ca t b{o ti 2 giao tip NNI v{ UNI. Ti giao tip NNI, gi| tr VPI c chiu d{i
tng cng l{ 12 bit cn ti giao tip UNI, gi| tr VPI c chiu d{i 8bit (4bit trc
dnh cho GFC).
- VCI: L{ knh o v knh ch tn ti vy l trong thi gian thc s truyn c|c
t b{o ATM.
- VPI: M phng chm knh o.
- PT: Loi ti tin, gm 3 bit dng ph}n bit c|c t b{o ATM cng truyn
trn mt knh o, ph}n bit c|c loi thng tin kh|c nhau.
- CLP: u tin tn tht t b{o (CLP =1 u tin thp, CLP =0 u tin
cao).
- HEC: iu khin li m{o u. Sa sai cho phn m{o u ca t b{o ATM
theo phng ph|p CRC.
2.7.2 Cu trc khung GEM.
ng xung, c|c khung c truyn t OLT ti ONU s dng c|c ph}n
vng GEM. ng ln, c|c khung c truyn t ONU ti OLT s dng thi gian
ph}n b GEM ~ c cu hnh. Giao thc GEM c hai chc nng: H tr to c|c
khung d liu ngi dng v{ cung cp s hiu cng ghp knh.
Ch rng thut ng khung d liu ngi dng biu th c|c khung n t
v{ i ti c|c ngi dng. C|c chc nng n{y c h tr bi phn tiu GEM
nh trn. Hnh 2.16 cu trc khung v{ m{o u ca GEM. Tiu GEM cha c|c
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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

trng ch th d{i ti tin, Port ID, trng ch th loi ti tin v{ 13bit trng iu
khin li tiu .

Hnh 2.16: Cu trc khung v mo u GEM


PLI ch th d{i L, tnh theo byte ca phn ti tin theo sau tiu . PLI
c s dng tm tiu k tip trong dng d liu. Kch thc 12 bit ca
trng n{y cho php c|c ph}n mnh c d{i ti 4095 byte. Nu c|c khung d
liu ngi s dng ln hn gi| tr n{y, c|c khung s c ph}n mnh nh hn
4095 byte.
Gi| tr Port ID cung cp 4096 gi| tr ch s lu lng duy nht trong GPON
thc hin ghp knh.
Trng PTI ch th ni dung ca ti tin c ph}n mnh v{ c|ch thc x l
thch hp. M~ ho| ca 3 bit n{y ging vi tiu ATM. Ch rng v truyn ti
GEM ch din ra trn c|c ph}n on GPON, ch khng s dng cho mc ch OAM
t u cui n u cui. c im n{y c th thay i trong tng lai.
2.8 Bo v i vi phn mng quang th ng
2.8.1 Chuyn mch bo v
i vi ngi qun tr mng truy nhp, kin trc bo v ca mng GPON
cn thit trong vic tng cng tin cy cho mng truy nhp. Tuy nhin, vic
trin khai mng bo v cn c xem xt nh mt c ch ty chn v vic n{y ph
thuc v{o iu kin kinh t ca tng nh{ khai th|c mng. Mc n{y a ra mt s
cu hnh mng bo v kp c th s dng cho h thng GPON.

C|c dng chuyn mch bo v.


C hai loi chuyn mch bo v tng t vi chuyn mch bo v trong h
thng SDH:

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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

- Chuyn mch t ng c kch thch khi ph|t hin ra c|c li nh mt tn


hiu, mt khung, gim tn hiu (t l li bit BER thp hn mc ngng quy
nh) ...
- Chuyn mch bt buc c kch hot trong qu| trnh qun tr mng nh
nh tuyn li tuyn quang, thay th si quang...
C hai loi chuyn mch n{y u c th thc hin trong mng GPON nu
c yu cu, tuy }y l{ c|c chc nng ty chn. C ch chuyn mch thng
c thc hin bi chc nng OAM, do trng thng tin OAM cn c t
ch trong khung OAM.
C|c yu cu i vi chuyn mch bo v:
- Chc nng chuyn mch bo v nn l{ chc nng ty chn.
- C chuyn mch t ng v{ chuyn mch bt buc c th trong h thng
GPON nu cu thit mc d }y l{ c|c chc nng ty chn.
- Mi cu hnh ~ nu trn u c th trin khai mc d }y l{ c|c chc
nng ty chn.
- C ch chuyn mch thng c thc hin bi chc nng OAM, v vy
trng thng tin OAM phi c d tr trong khung OAM.
- Mi kt ni gia nt dch v v{ thit b u cui phi c gi sau khi chuyn
mch.
Ty theo yu cu cui cng vic trin khai nt dch v POTS yu cu qu|
trnh mt khung phi nh hn 120ms. Nu thi gian mt khung d{i hn khong
thi gian n{y, nt dch v s ct kt ni v{ yu cu thit lp li sau khi chuyn
mch bo v. Do GPON h tr ph|t trin c|c dch v hin ti nh POTS v{ ISDN,
cn phi xem xt thi gian ngt kt ni n{y.
2.8.2 Bo mt trong GPON
Trong h thng PON th ng xung, d liu c truyn broadcast n
tt c ONU. Mi ONU ch c th truy nhp d liu ca mnh, nhng nu ngi
dng n{o c nh ph| hoi th c th gi ONU ca ngi dng kh|c truy nhp
d liu, h thng bo mt PON s ngn chn vic n{y. Ging nh c|c mng kh|c,
GPON s dng th tc mt m~ ngn nga vic ly trm c|c tn hiu khng
mong mun. Khng ging nh truy nhp wireless hay modem, trong mng PON,
bt k ONU n{o cng khng th thy c lu lng ng ln ca ONU kh|c.
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Chng 2: Mng quang th ng vi chun GPON

iu n{y cho php l{m n gin ha th tc mt m~. u tin l{ ch cn mt m~


ng truyn xung ca d liu. Th 2 l{ d liu ng ln c th truyn kha
mt m~.
Mng GPON l{ loi mng im - a im nn d liu ng xung c th
c a n tt c c|c ONU (ty thuc v{o b Splitter: L{ loi Splitter chia cng
sut hay l{ loi chia bc sng). Cng ngh GPON s dng chun mt m~ tin tin
AES. l{ mt khi mt m~ m{ n hot ng trn mt khi d liu 16 byte (128
bit). c bit ch m c s dng. Khi mt m~ gi ngu nhin 16 byte c
ph|t ra v{ XOR vi d liu ng v{o to ra d liu mt m~ OLT. ONU, d liu
c mt m~ n{y th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin 16 byte tng t nh OLT
to li d liu ban u. Vi ATM ch c 48 byte c mt m~, vi GEM ch c
phn ti GEM c mt m~. OLT khi to vic trao i kha bng vic gi bn tin
n ONU thng qua knh PLOAM. Sau ONU s chu tr|ch nhim to ra kha v{
ph|t ngc tr v OLT.
2.9 Kt lun chng
Trong chng 2 n{y ~ tm hiu v kin trc mng quang th ng PON v{ i
s}u v c|c c tnh k thut, kin trc ca mng truy nhp quang th ng theo chun
GPON.

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

CHNG 3: KHO ST MNG TRUY NHP GPON DA


TRN PHN MM OPTISYSTEM
3.1 Gii thiu phn mm OptiSystem
3.1.1 Gii thiu chung
Cng vi s bng n v nhu cu thng tin, c|c h thng thng tin quang
ng{y c{ng tr nn phc tp. ph}n tch, thit k c|c h thng n{y bt buc phi
s dng c|c cng c m phng nh OptiSystem, optisystem l{ phn mm m
phng h thng thng tin quang. Phn mm n{y c kh nng thit k, o kim tra
v{ thc hin ti u ha rt nhiu loi tuyn thng tin quang, da trn kh nng
m hnh ha c|c h thng thng tin quang trong thc t. Bn cnh , phn mm
n{y cng c th d d{ng m rng do ngi s dng c th a thm c|c phn t
t nh ngha v{o. Phn mm c giao din th}n thin, kh nng hin th trc quan.

Hnh 3.1: Giao din ngi s dng ca OptiSystem


3.1.2 Cc ng dng ca phn mm OptiSystem
Phn mm OptiSystem cho php thit k t ng hu ht c|c loi tuyn
thng tin quang lp vt l, t h thng ng trc cho n c|c mng LAN, MAN
quang.
C|c ng dng c th bao gm:
- Thit k h thng thng tin quang t mc phn t n mc h thng lp
vt l.
- Thit k mng TDM/WDM v{ CATV
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- Thit k mng FTTx da trn mng quang th ng (PON).


- Thit k h thng ROF (radio over fiber).
- Thit k b thu, b ph|t, b khuch i quang.
- Thit k s t|n sc.
- |nh gi| BER v{ penalty ca h thng vi c|c m hnh b thu kh|c nhau.
- Tnh to|n BER v{ qu cng sut tuyn ca c|c h thng c s dng khuch
i quang.
3.1.3 Cc c im chnh ca phn mm OptiSystem
3.1.3.1 Th vin cc phn t
Optisystem c mt th vin c|c phn t phong ph vi h{ng trm phn t
c m hnh ha c |p ng ging nh c|c thit b trong thc t. C th bao
gm:
- Th vin ngun quang.
- Th vin c|c b thu quang.
- Th vin si quang.
- Th vin c|c b khuch i (quang, in).
- Th vin c|c b MUX, DEMUX.
- Th vin c|c b lc (quang, in).
- Th vin c|c phn t FSO.
- Th vin c|c phn t truy nhp.
- Th vin c|c phn t th ng (quang, in).
- Th vin c|c phn t x l tn hiu (quang, in).
- Th vin c|c phn t mng quang.
- Th vin c|c thit b o quang, o in.
Ngo{i c|c phn t ~ c nh ngha sn, OptiSystem cn c:
- C|c phn t Measured components. Vi c|c phn t n{y, Optisystem cho
php nhp c|c tham s c o t c|c thit b thc ca c|c nh{ cung cp
khc nhau.
- C|c phn t do ngi s dng t nh ngha (User-defined Components).
3.1.3.2 Cc cng c hin th
Optisystem c y c|c thit b o quang, o in. Cho php hin th tham
s, dng, cht lng tn hiu ti mi im trn h thng.
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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Thit b o quang:
- Ph}n tch ph (Spectrum Analyzer).
- Thit b o cng sut (Optical Power Meter).
- Thit b o min thi gian quang (Optical Time Domain Visualizer).
- Thit b ph}n tch WDM (WDM Analyzer).
- Thit b ph}n tch ph}n cc (Polarization Analyzer).
- Thit b o ph}n cc (Polarization Meter).
Thit b o in:
- Oscilloscope.
- Thit b ph}n tch ph RF (RF Spectrum Analyzer).
- Thit b ph}n tch biu hnh mt (Eye Diagram Analyzer).
- Thit b ph}n tch li bit (BER Analyzer).
- Thit b o cng sut (Electrical Power Meter).
- Thit b ph}n tch sng mang in (Electrical Carrier Analyzer).
3.1.3.3 Kh nng kt hp vi cc cng c phn mm khc
Optisystem cho php ngi dng s dng kt hp vi c|c cng c phn
mm kh|c ca Optiwave nh OptiAmplifier, OptiBPM, OptiGrating, WDM_Phasar
v{ OptiFiber thit k mc phn t.
3.1.3.4 M phng phn cp vi cc h thng con
vic m phng ph}n cp vi c|c h thng con (SubSystem) c thc
hin mt c|ch linh hot v{ hiu qu, Optisystem cung cp m hnh m phng ti
c|c mc kh|c nhau, bao gm mc h thng, mc h thng con v{ mc phn t.
3.1.3.5 Ngn ng SCIPT mnh
Ngi s dng c th nhp c|c biu din s hc ca tham s v{ to ra c|c
tham s to{n cc. C|c tham s to{n cc n{y s c dng chung cho t}t c c|c
phn t v{ h thng con ca h thng nh s dng chung ngn ng VB Script.
3.1.3.6 Thit k nhiu lp
Trong mt file d |n, Optisystem cho php to ra nhiu thit k, nh
ngi s dng c th to ra v{ sa i c|c thit k mt c|ch nhanh chng v{ hiu
qu. Mi file d |n thit k ca Optisystem c th cha nhiu phin bn thit k.
Mi phin bn c tnh to|n v{ thay i mt c|ch c lp nhng kt qu tnh
to|n ca c|c phin bn kh|c nhau c th c kt hp li, cho php so snh cc
phin bn thit k mt c|ch d d{ng.
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3.1.3.7 Trang bo co
Trang b|o c|o ca Optisystem cho php hin th tt c hoc mt phn c|c
tham s cng nh c|c kt qu tnh to|n c ca thit k ty theo yu cu ca
ngi s dng. C|c b|o c|o to ra c t chc di dng text, dng bng tinh,
th 2D v{ 3D. Cng c th kt xut b|o c|o di dng file HTML hoc di dng
cc file template ~ c nh dng trc.
3.1.3.8 Qut tham s v ti u ha
Qu| trnh m phng c th thc hin lp li mt c|ch t ng vi c|c gi| tr
kh|c nhau ca tham s a ra c|c phng |n kh|c nhau ca thit k. Ngi s
dng cng c th s dng phn ti uu ha ca Optisystem thay i gi| tr ca
mt tham s n{o t c kt qu tt nht, xu nh}t hoc mt gi| mc tiu
n{o ca thit k.
3.2S h thng mng theo chun GPON
3.2.1 Cc thng s thit lp mng GPON
Kch bn 1: Thit lp c|c thng s cho mng GPON vi h s t l chia ca b
splitter l{ 1:8 nh sau:
ng xung:
- Phng thc m~ ha: NRZ
- Cng sut pht Ppht =2 dBm
- Tc bit: 1244,16Mbps
- Bc sng ng xung: 1490 nm
- rng mi knh: 10 MHz
Knh truyn:
- Si n mode c chiu d{i L = 20km
- Suy hao: 0,4 dB/km
- t|n sc: 16,75 ps/nm/km
ng ln:
- Phng thc m~ ha: NRZ
- Tc bit: 1244,16Mbps
- Bc sng ng ln: 1310 nm
- rng mi knh: 10 MHz
- Cng sut ph|t Ppht =-1 dBm
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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

C|c tham s to{n cc bao gm:


- Tc bit (Bit rate): 1224.16 Mbps
- Chiu d{i chui bit (Sequence length): 256 bit
- S lng mu trn mi bit (Number of samples per bit): 32
- Ca s thi gian (Time windown) = chiu d{i chui bit s mu trn mt
bit
= 256

1
1244160000

= 2.057613107 (s)
- S lng mu (Number of samples)

= chiu d{i chui bt s mu trn

mt bit
= 256 32
= 8912 (mu)
- Tc ly mu (Samples rate) = S lng mu / ca s thi gian
=

8912
2.057613 10 7

= 39813120000 (Hz)

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Hnh 3.2: Thit lp cc thng s cho ng xung

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Hnh 3.3: Thit lp cc thng s cho ng ln

Hnh 3.4: Thit lp cc thng s ton mng


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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

3.2.2 S h thng mng GPON

Hnh 3.5: S kt ni mng theo chun GPON


M hnh kt ni mng theo chun GPON c m t hnh 3.5. Trong s
trn ta thy h thng mng GPON c c|c th{nh phn chnh l{:
Thit b u cui pha nh{ sn xut OLT. chnh l{ b ghp knh ph}n
chia theo bc sng. }y c|c d liu ~ c iu ch ln c|c bc sng
thuc ca s quang 1490 nm. Sau khi iu ch c|c tn hiu s c a vo
b ghp knh theo bc sng WDM.

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Thit b Circulator dng t|ch mt bc sng ra ph}n tch tn hiu


trn ng truyn quang.
S dng si quang n mode c chiu d{i l{ 20 km tnh t pha OLT n
ONU.
Splitter quang: V bn cht, splitter quang l{ mt b chia cng sut. C
nhiu loi splitter quang, c loi th cng sut c|c ng u ra bng nhau
nhng cng c loi th cng sut u ra theo c|c t l 1:2, 1:3 Hn th na,
n cng l{ b chia bng thng. Gi s, tc ng xung l{ 1,244 Gbps, h
s chia ca splitter l{ 1:8 th bng thng ti a d{nh cho c|c user ng
xung s l{ 1,244 : 8 = 0.1555 Gbps hay l{ 155.5 Mbps.
ONU l{ thit b u cui pha ngi s dng. N c chc nng l{ bin i tn
hiu quang th{nh tn hiu in. S lng ONU l{ 8. Cu trc bn trong ca
ONU c c th nh hnh 3.6. Ta c th thy trong s , ONU s gm 2
phn thu v{ ph|t.

Hnh 3.6: Cu trc khi ONU


- Phn thu gm c mt b t|ch quang, mt b lc Bessel. Tn hiu khi n
u v{o ca ONU tn hiu quang c chuyn sang tn hiu in nh
Photodiode, b lc Besel thu li tn hiu c tn s thp ri qua b khi phc
tn hiu v{ cui cng a v{o b ph}n tch t l li bit BER.

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

- Phn ph|t gm mt b ph|t quang c c|c tham s ~ c thit lp nh


hnh v. Tn hiu quang c truyn qua c|c b Dynamic Select v{ i theo
ng ln.

3.3 Kho st mng truy nhp GPON da trn phm mm OptiSystem


3.3.1 Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng mng quang
3.3.1.1T s li Bit Ber
nh ngha: L t l bit b li trn tng s bit truyn i. Trong , xc sut li
bit l mt trong nhng cch hiu qu nh gi hiu nng h thng mt cch nh
lng.
Tn hiu quang i n ONU s c chuyn sang min in. Tn hiu in c
a qua mch khi phc d liu. Da vo mc ngng xc nh bit 1 v bit 0.
T l li bit trong h thng thng tin quang thng l 10-9. Cch tnh BER vi nhiu
bin tun theo hm phn b Gaussian.

Hnh 3.7: Mi lin quan gi tn hiu nhn c v hm phn b xc sut.


Hnh 3.7(a) ch ra dng tn hiu nhn c. Gi tr dng in I dao ng t I0
ti I1 v ID l dng ngng. Nu I > ID th l bit 1 cn ngc li l bit 0.
BER c th c tnh theo xc xut li bit:
BER = P(1)P(0/1) + P(0)P(1/0)
Trong :
- P(1) v P(0) l xc sut nhn c bit 1 v 0.
- P(0/1) l xc sut la chn bit 0 khi bit 1 c nhn.
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- P(1/0) l xc sut la chn bit 1 khi bit 0 c nhn.


Do c th xy ra trng hp: P(1) = P(0) = 1/2.
Khi :BER=[P(0/1) +P(1/0)]
Hnh

3 . 7 ( b)chraxcsutP(0/1)vP(1/0)phthucvohmmtxcxut

P(I).DnghmP(I)phthucvothngkngunnhiu.Vinhiubintun
theohmphnbGaussian,tac:
P(0/1)=

12

P(1/0)=

1
02

Mi mt hm Gaussian c mt gi tr

(
(

)
12

)
02

khc nhau. Trong erfc l hm b li

c nh ngha nh sau:
erfc(x)=

Phng trnh ny ch ra rng BER ph thuc vo dng ngng ID. Trn thc t
ID c nh gi da trn gi tr BER nh nht. Trng hp nh nht khi ID c
chn theo cng thc:
(

( )

Tnh xp x ta c :
(

Suy ra:

Ta c:

Khi , BER min. Khi P(1/0) = P(0/1). iu ny c th nhn thy r trong


hnh 3.7(b). Thay cc gi tr tm c vo cng thc tnh BER ta c:
(
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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Vi

Phng trnh trn ch ra mi quan h gia BER v h s Q: Q gim th BER


tng v ngc li. Ta c th thy r iu thng qua th di y:

Hnh 3.8: Mi quan h gia h s phm cht Q v t l li bit BER


3.3.1.2 H s phm cht Q.
nh ngha: H s cht lng tn hiu l t s tng ng vi t l tn hiu trn
nhiu (SNR) ca tn hiu in b thu sau khi c khuch i. H s ny c tnh
da theo cng thc.

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Hnh 3.9: H s Q tnh theo bin

3.3.1.3 th mt
nh ngha: Biu mt hay mu mt l mt hnh nh cho thy rt r mc
mo ca tn hiu s. u ra phn bng gc ca h thng (sau khi lc bng gc, trc
khi ly mu quyt nh bit truyn l 1 hay 0), cc h thng lun c mt im o, t
dn tn hiu vo mt oscilloscope. Nu tn s qut ca oscilloscope bng vi tc bit
ca tn hiu th trn mn hnh hin th ca oscilloscope, cc tn hiu s dng li trng
ln nhau. Nu xem mc tn hiu dng l m mt bn trn, tn hiu m l m mt bn
di, ta s c mt hnh nh nh mt mt ngi m. chnh l mu mt. Mu mt
vi v s tn hiu i vo oscillocscope th chng ln nhau. Nhng hnh nh cho
thy mc mo ca tn hiu v d tr tp m.
Gi gi tr nh dng ca tn hiu khng mo l tng l 1 cn gi tr nh m
ca tn hiu khng mo l tng l -1 th m ca mu mt l tng s l
(2/2)x100% = 100%, trong thc t th m mu mt s l khong trng ln nht gia
cc ng cong tn hiu m v dng, chia 2 v tn theo phn trm. Mu mt cng m
(s % cng ln ) th cht lng tn hiu cng tt. Ngc li vi m mu mt l
ng mu mt
Mu mt c gi l m nu m mu mt ln hn 0. Mu mt c gi l
ng nu m bng 0. Mu mt thng l t 20% 30%, ty theo h thng c m
chng nhiu hay khng. Mu mt c xem l bnh thng nu khong ln hn
50%. Thc t th yu cu ln hn, khong 75%.
3.3.1.4 Mi quan h gia t l li bit vi th mt
th mt th hin mt cch trc quan cc chui bit 0 v 1 nhng b qua
mt s thng s khc. Thng thng, th mt l s kt hp ca cc mu in p
hoc thi gian ca cc tn hiu gc. Mt oscilloscope, c th c tc ly mu l 10
Gbps. iu c ngha l phn ln cc mu mt c to ra t mt s t cc mu tn
hiu. Nhng mt vn d gp phi l khi s mu t khi xut hin. Nhng kt qu
ny c th c lin quan n nhau, nhiu lin quan n hoc xut pht t cc hiu ng
khc nh hiu ng crosstalk v cc hiu ng giao thoa. N c th khng xut hin

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

trong th mt nhng n li ngn cn vic lin kt cc mc tn hiu (c th hiu


y l cc mc in p c trng cho cc bit 0 v 1).

3.3.2 Kho st cc yu t nh hng n mng quang


3.3.2.1 o kim cc thng s c bn ca mng
Vi cc thng s c thit lp trong kch bn 1, chng ta tin hnh o v c
nhng kt qu sau y:
Cng sut.
S dng thit b Optical Power Meter o cng sut ti cc im cn o.
- Cng sut o ti u ra ca OLT khi cng sut ng xung l Ppht =2 dBm.

Hnh 3.10: Cng sut o ti u ra ca OLT khi Ppht =2 dBm


- Cng sut o ti u vo ca ONU1 cng sut ng xung l Ppht =2 dBm.

Hnh 3.11: Cng sut o ti u vo ca ONU 1 khi Ppht = 2dBm


S dng thit b Ber Analyzer o BER, h s phm cht Q v th mt ti
pha ngi s dng 1 ta c kt qu nh hnh 3.12.

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Hnh 3.12: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1

Hnh 3.13: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1

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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Hnh 3.14: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1

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Hnh 3.15: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 1


3.3.2.2 nh hng ca khong cch
Kch bn 2: Gi nguyn cc tham s ca mng trong kch bn 1 ch thay i
khong cch truyn dn l L = 10km. Tin hnh kho st li cc thng s c bn ti
pha ngi s dng 1 thy cht lng truyn dn trong mng thay i nh th no.
Trong kch bn 1 nu trn vi khong cch truyn dn l L = 20km, cng sut
pht ti ng xung l Pp = 2 dBm ta thu c cc kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1
nh hnh 3.12.
Trong kch bn 2, vi khong cch truyn dn l L = 10km, Ppht = 2 dBm ta c
kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 nh hnh 3.16.

Hnh 3.16: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2 vi L = 10km

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Hnh 3.17: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2

Hnh 3.18: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2


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Hnh 3.19: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 2


nh gi: Qua cc kt qu o trn ta thy rng, khong cch cng ngn th
t l li bit cng gim. Vi khong cch truyn dn l L = 10km th o c Min BER
ti pha ngi s dng 1 l 6.33418e-55 cn khong cch L = 20km th Min BER l
1.48707e-10. R rng s chnh lch gia hai khong cch ny l rt ln.V m mt
ca th mt to hn, chng ttn hiu c truyn trong mng tt hn, v
khong cch truyn ngn hn nn t ln li bt cng nh cc nh hng ca mi trng
truyn dn nh: suy hao, nhiu,tn sc.. t hn.Mng truyn tt hn.
3.3.2.3 nh hng ca h s t l chia SPLITTER
Kch bn 3: Gi nguyn cc tham s ca mng trong kch bn 1 ch thay i h
s t l chia ca b splitter l 1:16. Tin hnh kho st li cc thng s c bn ti pha
ngi s dng 1.
Trong kch bn 3, vi khong h s t l chia ca b splitter l 1:16,
Ppht = 2 dBm, L = 20km ta c kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 nh hnh 3.20.

Hnh 3.20: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3 vi b chia 1:16


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Hnh 3.21: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3

Hnh 3.22: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3


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Hnh 3.23: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 3

Hnh 3.24: Cng sut o c ti u vo ca b ONU1 vi b chia 1:16


nh gi: Khi h s chia cng ln th cng sut u ra ca b chia cng nh
cng sut u vo ca ONU cng gim dn ti m ca th mt ti ngi s dng
cng nh, t l li bit cng ln. Vi b chia 1:16 trong kch bn 3 ny th Min BER o
c ti pha ngi s dng l 0,000813539tng ln rt nhiu so vi Min BER =
1.48707e-10 trong kch bn 1.T l chia cng tng th t l li bt cng ln v ngc li.

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3.3.2.4 nh hng ca cng sut pht


Kch bn 4: Gi nguyn cc tham s ca mng trong kch bn 1 ch tng cng
sut pht ca ng xung ln 5dBm, Ppht = 5dBm. Tin hnh kho st li cc thng
s c bn ti pha ngi s dng 1.

Hnh 3.25: Cng sut o c ti u ra ca b OLT khi Ppht = 5dBm

Hnh 3.26: Cng sut o c ti u vo ca b ONU1 khi Ppht = 5dBm

Nhn thy khi tng cng sut pht Ppht = 5dBm ti ng xung th cng sut
ti u vo ONU cng tng ln theo t l thun.
Kt qu kho st ti ngi s dng 1 l:

Hnh 3.27: Kt qu o ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4 vi Ppht = 5dBm

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Hnh 3.28: th Min BER ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4

Hnh 3.29: th mt ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4


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Chng 3: Kho st mng truy nhp GPON

Hnh 3.30: th h s phm cht Q ti ngi s dng 1 trong kch bn 4


nh gi: Qua nhng kt qu o trn, ta thy khi tng cng sut pht ln Ppht
= 5dBm th t l li bit ti pha ngi s dng gim. th mt thu c gn hn
v m ca mt cng ln hn. Cht lng mng tng ln.

3.4 Kt lun chng


T nhng kt qu kho st trn chng ta thy rng c nhiu yu t nh hng
ti cht lng truyn ti ca mng GPON nh l khong cch truyn dn, t l b chia
splitter hay cng sut pht tng cht lng mng chng ta cn phi xem xt tng
th h thng v ty iu kin thc t m la chn nhm cc phng php ph hp
tng cht lng mng truy nhp GPON. Vic o kim cc tham s trn mng truy
nhp nh cng sut pht, t l li bit, h s phm cht c ngha rt quan trng
trong qu trnh lp t v bo dng p ng c cc yu cu v cht lng dch
v cung cp.

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Kt lun

KT LUN
Qua nhng kt qu trn y, chng ta c th a ra kt lun, GPON c rt nhiu
u im. Mt trong nhng u im ni bt nht ca GPON l tc cao, ngoi ra kh
nng tch hp nhiu dch v trn mt ng dy cng l u im ln GPON dn
thay th ADSL trong nhng nm ti. Ti Vit Nam, nhng nh cung cp dch v nh
Viettel, FPT, SPT, CMC TI cng ang y mnh pht trin GPON da trn nhiu
chun khc nhau. Trong n tt nghip ca mnh, em trnh by chi tit v mng
truy nhp quang vi cng ngh GPON. a ra m phng h thng mng quang theo
chun GPON trn phm mm Optisystem v nhng nh hng ca mt vi yu t ti
cht lng mng quang nh khong cch ng truyn, h s t l chia Splitter v
cng sut pht. Thng thng trong h thng thc t, ngi ta t quan tm n cc ch
tiu v t l li bit BER hay l th mt m ch yu l quan tm n cht lng h
thng da trn Budget ca ng truyn. Tuy nhin nhng kt qu kho st phn no
phn nh c cht lng ca mng GPON. Hng pht trin tip theo ca em l
nghin cu m phng mng quang theo chun mi hn nh l GEPON.

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Kt lun

TI LIU THAM KHO


Ting Vit:
[1] Nguyn Vit Hng, Hc Vin CNBCVT, Cng ngh truy nhp trong mng
NGN, 2009.
[2] Ths. L Duy Khnh, Hc Vin CNBCVT, Gio trnh mng truy nhp, 2007.
[3] Cng ngh v chun ha mng quang th ng- Quang Minh.
[4] Hng ng Ngc n, ATN 2009, Hc Vin CNBCVT, Thit k mng FTTH
da trn cng ngh mng quang th ng.
[5] Mng v cc cng ngh truy nhp. Hc Vin CNBCVT- Ths. Dng Th Thanh
T.
Ting Anh:
[1] ITU T Rec G.984 Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Network (G-PON), 2003.
[2] Cedric F.Lam, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice, 2007.
Danh mc cc Website, din n tham kho:
[1] http://vntelecom.org/diendan/forum.php
[2] http://vnpro.org/forum
[3] http://www.pcworld.com.vn
[4] http://www.dientuvienthong.net/diendan/index.php
[5] http://www.optiwave.com/
[6] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_optical_network
[7] http://www.ddth.com/forum.php

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