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PSI/SI Broadcast Information Management 5.2 Broadcast Information Management


In each cell, the BCCH and PBCCH, if present, continuously broadcast information on the serving cell and neighbor cells' configuration. The serving cell and neighbor cell parameters are broadcast within messages called SI messages on BCCH and packet system information (PSI) messages on PBCCH. Based on this information the MS is able to decide whether and how it may gain access to the system via the cell it is camping on. The first subsection describes how the network schedules the different SI and PSI messages on BCCH and PBCCH, respectively. The next subsection details the types of parameters that can be found by the mobile within the different instances of these messages. Among them, cell reselection and frequency parameters are broadcast. Some details on the acquisition of cell reselection parameters are given, since their monitoring is dependent on whether they are sent on BCCH or PBCCH. During a TBF establishment, the mobile is allocated frequency channels. It derives its frequency allocation from frequency parameters that are broadcast by the network. The last subsection explains how this is performed.

5.2.1 SI Message Scheduling


All information broadcast on the BCCH or PBCCH is carried in SI messages or PSI messages, respectively. As there are several SI and PSI message types having a different content, it is useful for the MS to know where these types of messages are located in a group of multiframes. A variable TC was introduced in the GSM standard to facilitate the MS operation. Each type of SI or PSI message is associated with a TC value. For SI message types broadcast on the BCCH, TC is defined by the following formula: (5.1) This means that a given SI message type is located on a specific 51-multiframe identified by a 51multiframe number equal to "FN DIV 51" every eight 51-multiframes (DIV means "divided by"). All SI message types are associated with a fixed TC value. For example, all the SI type 1 messages are sent when TC value is equal to 0. This means that all SI message types are scheduled in the same location within a group of 51-multiframes by any network manufacturer irrespective of operator. On the PBCCH, the occurrence of PSI1 message type is defined by the following formula: (5.2)

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A PSI1 message is broadcast by the network every PSI1_REPEAT_PERIOD occurrence of the 52multiframe when TC is equal to 0. Unlike with the SI message type, the other PSI message types are not associated with a defined TC value fixed by the standard. This means there is an acquisition phase for the MS to determine the association between the PSI message type and the TC value when the MS camps on a new cell. The PSI message types other than the PSI1 message are divided into two categories:

High-repetition-rate PSIs. These PSIs are broadcast on the PBCCH occurrence that is not used by the PSI1 in a sequence determined by the network. This sequence is repeated at each TC that is equal to 0 every PSI1_REPEAT_PERIOD of 52-multiframes. The PSI_COUNT_HR parameter broadcast by the network indicates the number of PSIs with high-repetition-rates. Low-repetition-rate PSIs. These PSIs are broadcast on the PBCCH occurrences that are not used by the PSI1 and high-repetition-rate PSIs in a sequence determined by the network, and are repeated continuously. The sequence of these PSIs is repeated at the beginning of the hyperframe when the FN is equal to 0. The PSI_COUNT_LR parameter broadcast by the network indicates the number of PSIs with low-repetition-rates.

Note that as the PSI1_REPEAT_PERIOD, PSI_COUNT_HR, PSI_COUNT_LR parameters are broadcast in a PSI1 message, the MS needs to first read the PSI1 message to understand the mapping of the PSI message structure. Figure 5.1 gives an example of the PSI messages mapping in a given configuration.

Figure 5.1: Mapping of PSI messages.

5.2.2 MS Acquisition of Broadcast Information


5.2.2.1 Monitoring of BCCH Information The BCCH is used to broadcast both GSM and GPRS network parameters. These parameters are the frequencies that are used in the cell, the neighbor cell frequencies, the GSM and GPRS logical channel description, and the access control parameters. The mobile uses the broadcast serving cell frequencies to derive its frequency allocation during resource assignment. It uses the neighbor cell frequencies for measurement and cell reselection purposes. The logical channel description indicates how the different logical channels are multiplexed on the time slots. The network broadcasts access control parameters and puts constraints on the access channels in order to avoid congestion. These parameters are broadcast on the following SI messages:

SI type 1 messages, which contain the serving cell frequency parameters; SI type 2, SI type 2bis, and SI type 2ter messages, which contain neighbor BCCH frequency list and access control parameters;

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SI type 3 messages, which contain control channel descriptions, cell options, and cell selection parameters; SI type 4 messages, which contain cell selection parameters and CBCH configuration; SI type 13 messages, which contains GPRS cell options.

SI type 2, 3, and 4 messages are always broadcast. SI type 1, 2bis, 2ter, and 13 messages are optional. Other SI messages exist but are not directly linked to the GPRS service. Broadcast of the SI type 13 message in the cell indicates the availability of the GPRS service. The position of the SI type 13 message is indicated in either the SI type 3 or SI type 4 message. If PBCCH is not present in the cell, the SI type 13 message gives the GPRS cell parameters such as cell reselection mode, power control parameters, and the AB format to be used on the GPRS channels. If PBCCH is present in the cell, the SI type 13 message indicates the description of the PBCCH (position, radio channel description, training sequence code, and PR of transmission compared to BCCH). The MS attempts to decode the full BCCH data of the serving cell at least every 30 seconds in order to detect any change in the network configuration. It also decodes the neighbor BCCH data block that contains the parameters affecting the cell reselection for each of the six strongest neighbor cells at least every 5 minutes. 5.2.2.2 Monitoring of PBCCH Information The PBCCH broadcasts parameters relevant to both GSM and GPRS. When the PBCCH is present in the cell, it will be monitored by MSs that want to get GPRS attached and access to GPRS services. A GPRS mobile that monitors the PBCCH does not have to monitor the BCCH, since the BCCH information is also broadcast on PBCCH. On PBCCH, the following types of messages are broadcast:

PSI type 1 messages, which contain GPRS cell options, PCCCH description, and PRACH control parameters; PSI type 2 messages, which contain frequency parameters; PSI type 3 and PSI type 3bis messages, which contain the necessary cell reselection parameters of the serving cell and neighbor cells, and neighbor cell BCCH frequency information.

Other PSI messages are sent optionally by the network. The mobile attempts to regularly decode the PSI type 1 messages of the serving cell (at least every 30 seconds). Within the PSI type 1 message, the network indicates whether a change took place within one or more types of broadcast PSI messages with the PBCCH_CHANGE_MARK parameter. The network may indicate which family of PSI messages has changed by using the PSI_CHANGE_FIELD parameter in order to avoid having the mobile rescan the complete PBCCH. Whenever a change in the PBCCH_CHANGE_MARK value is detected, the MS must reread the new PSI messages within the next 10 seconds. Note that the MS may suspend its data transfer in order to decode the above information. However, in order to avoid data transfer interruption during packet transfer mode, the network can broadcast PSI on the PACCH. The mobile thus avoids leaving the data transfer for the monitoring of the PBCCH.

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5.2.2.3 Cell Reselection Parameter Acquisition For cell-reselection purposes, the mobile must acquire special parameters that are used for the evaluation of the cell-reselection criteria. Some are linked to the serving cell and others dedicated to the neighbor cells. When there is no PBCCH in the serving cell, these parameters are broadcast by the network in the SI type 3 or SI type 4 messages. The serving cell parameters used for cell reselection are broadcast on the serving BCCH, whereas the neighbor cell parameters are broadcast on the neighbor BCCHs. The mobile must decode the SI3 and SI4 messages on the six strongest (in terms of RXLEV) neighbors' BCCH in order to acquire these parameters. When the PBCCH is present in the serving cell, the network broadcasts both the neighbor cell and serving cell parameters that are used for cell reselection on this channel. They can be found in the PSI type 3 messages. The network may have to broadcast these parameters in several instances of the PSI3 message depending on the number of neighbor cells. Different encoding mechanisms have been introduced in order to provide a maximum number of parameters with a minimum number of PSI3 message instances. The acquisition time of neighbor cell parameters on PBCCH is much faster, since they are all transmitted on the same channel.

5.2.3 Frequency Parameters


When the network allocates radio resources to the mobile, it provides frequency parameters needed by the mobile to know its frequency channel allocation. The radio channel description used by the mobile consists of:

One frequency in case of a nonhopping radio frequency channel; A list of frequencies, a MAIO, and a HSN (see Section 1.5.6.3) when frequency hopping is used.

The list of frequencies that is used by the mobile for GPRS transfer is called GPRS mobile allocation. The radio channel description is provided to the mobile during radio resource assignment. When frequency hopping is used in the cell, the size of the mobile allocation can be very large. In order to avoid sending the list of frequencies directly during the assignment phase, special mechanisms have been defined. 5.2.3.1 Cell Allocation The operator allocates a set of radio frequency channels to each cell. This set is defined as the cell allocation (CA). The CA defines the list of frequencies that can be assigned to the MS in the cell. In reality it defines the radio frequency channels that can be used during the period immediately following the very first resource assignment. Other radio frequency channels can be assigned to the mobile later, during the assignment phase. The CA is provided in the SI type 1 message or in the PSI type 2 messages when there is a PBCCH in the cell. In the SI type 1 message, the CA is directly defined using special ARFCN encoding that depends on the number of frequencies provided.

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In the PSI type 2 message, the network provides the mobile with reference frequency lists (RFLs). One RFL consists of a list of frequencies that are used in the cell. Up to four RFLs can be stored by the mobile. The CA is then defined in this case as the union of RFLs. 5.2.3.2 GPRS Mobile Allocation The GPRS mobile allocation (GPRS MA) is defined as a subset of either the CA or RFLs. It is deduced from the CA or RFLs using a bitmap as illustrated in Figure 5.2.

Figure 5.2: Example of mobile allocation definition. Different encoding mechanisms have been defined in order to provide frequency lists within RFLs in PSI type 2 messages or CA in SI type 1 messages. For GSM-900, the number of frequencies is limited to 124. The encoding mechanism resides in a bitmap (each bit of the bitmap standing for an ARFCN from 1 to 124) indicating the frequencies of the list. The MS must store up to seven GPRS MAs that can be broadcast in PSI type 2 messages. A GPRS MA within the PSI type 2 message is defined using a bitmap referring to one or more RFLs. During the assignment, the network can provide the radio channel description with either:

One frequency in case of a nonhopping radio frequency channel; One GPRS MA number, one HSN, and one MAIO (referred to as "indirect encoding" in the GSM specifications); A bitmap referring to one or more RFLs (broadcast on PBCCH) of the CA (broadcast on BCCH or PBCCH), one HSN, and one MAIO (referred to as "direct encoding 1" in the GSM specifications); A list of frequencies, one MAIO, and one HSN (referred to as "direct encoding 2" in the GSM specifications).

Note that the drawback of the direct encodings 1 and 2 is the large amount of space required in the assignment message. If many frequencies are sent, it will be necessary to provide the assignment message in two radio blocks. This increases the delay and complexity of the establishment. The drawback of the indirect encoding is that more space is required in the PSI2 messages to broadcast the RFLs, leading to a lower repetition rate of some other PSI messages.

The User Datagram Protocol (UDP)


The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a transport layer protocol defined for use with the IP network layer protocol. It is defined by RFC 768 written by John Postel. It provides a best-effort datagram service to an End System (IP host). The service provided by UDP is an unreliable service that provides no guarantees for delivery and no protection from duplication (e.g. if this arises due to software errors within an Intermediate System (IS)). The simplicity of UDP reduces the overhead from using the protocol and the services may be adequate in many cases.

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UDP provides a minimal, unreliable, best-effort, message-passing transport to applications and upper-layer protocols. Compared to other transport protocols, UDP and its UDP-Lite variant are unique in that they do not establish end-to-end connections between communicating end systems. UDP communication consequently does not incur connection establishment and teardown overheads and there is minimal associated end system state. Because of these characteristics, UDP can offer a very efficient communication transport to some applications, but has no inherent congestion control or reliability. A second unique characteristic of UDP is that it provides no inherent On many platforms, applications can send UDP datagrams at the line rate of the link interface, which is often much greater than the available path capacity, and doing so would contribute to congestion along the path, applications therefore need to be designed responsibly [RFC 4505]. One increasingly popular use of UDP is as a tunneling protocol, where a tunnel endpoint encapsulates the packets of another protocol inside UDP datagrams and transmits them to another tunnel endpoint, which decapsulates the UDP datagrams and forwards the original packets contained in the payload. Tunnels establish virtual links that appear to directly connect locations that are distant in the physical Internet topology, and can be used to create virtual (private) networks. Using UDP as a tunneling protocol is attractive when the payload protocol is not supported by middleboxes that may exist along the path, because many middleboxes support UDP transmissions. UDP does not provide any communications security. Applications that need to protect their communications against eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery therefore need to separately provide security services using additional protocol mechanisms.

Protocol Header
A computer may send UDP packets without first establishing a connection to the recipient. A UDP datagram is carried in a single IP packet and is hence limited to a maximum payload of 65,507 bytes for IPv4 and 65,527 bytes for IPv6. The transmission of large IP packets usually requires IP fragmentation. Fragmentation decreases communication reliability and efficiency and should theerfore be avoided. To transmit a UDP datagram, a computer completes the appropriate fields in the UDP header (PCI) and forwards the data together with the header for transmission by the IP network layer.

The UDP protocol header consists of 8 bytes of Protocol Control Information (PCI) The UDP header consists of four fields each of 2 bytes in length:

Source Port (UDP packets from a client use this as a service access point (SAP) to indicate the session on the local client that originated the packet. UDP packets from a server carry the server SAP in this field) Destination Port (UDP packets from a client use this as a service access point (SAP) to indicate the service required from the remote server. UDP packets from a server carry the client SAP in this field)

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UDP length (The number of bytes comprising the combined UDP header information and payload data) UDP Checksum (A checksum to verify that the end to end data has not been corrupted by routers or bridges in the network or by the processing in an end system. The algorithm to compute the checksum is the Standard Internet Checksum algorithm. This allows the receiver to verify that it was the intended destination of the packet, because it covers the IP addresses, port numbers and protocol number, and it verifies that the packet is not truncated or padded, because it covers the size field. Therefore, this protects an application against receiving corrupted payload data in place of, or in addition to, the data that was sent. In the cases where this check is not required, the value of 0x0000 is placed in this field, in which case the data is not checked by the receiver.

Like for other transport protocols, the UDP header and data are not processed by Intermediate Systems (IS) in the network, and are delivered to the final destination in the same form as originally transmitted. At the final destination, the UDP protocol layer receives packets from the IP network layer. These are checked using the checksum (when >0, this checks correct end-to-end operation of the network service) and all invalid PDUs are discarded. UDP does not make any provision for error reporting if the packets are not delivered. Valid data are passed to the appropriate session layer protocol identified by the source and destination port numbers (i.e. the session service access points). UDP and UDP-Lite also may be used for multicast and broadcast, allowing senders to transmit to multiple receivers.

Using UDP
Application designers are generally aware that UDP does not provide any reliability, e.g., it does not retransmit any lost packets. Often, this is a main reason to consider UDP as a transport. Applications that do require reliable message delivery therefore need to implement appropriate protocol mechanisms in their applications (e.g. tftp). UDP's best effort service does not protect against datagram duplication, i.e., an application may receive multiple copies of the same UDP datagram. Application designers therefore need to verify that their application gracefully handles datagram duplication and may need to implement mechanisms to detect duplicates. The Internet may also significantly delay some packets with respect to others, e.g., due to routing transients, intermittent connectivity, or mobility. This can cause reordering, where UDP datagrams arrive at the receiver in an order different from the transmission order. Applications that require ordered delivery must restore datagram ordering themselves. The burdon of needing to code all these protocol mechanims can be avoided by using TCP!

Ports
Generally, clients set the source port number to a unique number that they choose themselves usually based on the program that started the connection. Since this number is returned by the server in responses, this lets the sender know which "conversation" incoming packets are to be sent to. The destination port of packets sent by the client is usually set to one of a number of well-known ports. These usually correspond to one of a number of different applications, e.g. port 23 is used for telnet, and port 80 is used for web servers.

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A server process (program), listens for UDP packets received with a particular well-known port number and tells its local UDP layer to send packets matching this destination port number to the server program. It determines which client these packets come from by examining the received IP source address and the received unique UDP source port number. Any responses which the server needs to send to back to a client are sent with the source port number of the server (the well-known port number) and the destination port selected by the client. Most people do not memorise the well known ports, instead they look them up in table (e.g. see below).

20 FTP-DATA File Transfer [Default Data] 21 FTP File Transfer [Control] 23 TELNET Telnet 25 SMTP Simple Mail Transfer 37 TIME Time 69 TFTP Trivial File Transfer 79 FINGER Finger 110 POP3 Post Office Protocol v 3 123 NTP Network Time Protocol 143 IMAP2 Interim Mail Access Prot. v2 161 SNMP Simple Network Man. Prot.

Some well-known UDP/IP port numbers (a full list is provided in the link at the bottom of this page). If a client/server application executes on a host with more than one IP interface, the application needs to ensure that it sends any UDP responses with an IP source address that matches the IP destination address of the UDP datagram that carried the request.

UDP-Lite
A special class of applications can derive benefit from having partially damaged payloads delivered, rather than discarded, when using paths that include error-prone links. Such applications can tolerate payload corruption and may choose to use the Lightweight User Datagram Protocol (UDPLite) [RFC3828] variant of UDP instead of basic UDP. The header format closely follows that of UDP. UDP-Lite changes the semantics of the UDP "payload length" field to that of a "checksum coverage length" field. Otherwise, UDP-Lite is identical to UDP. The interface of UDP-Lite differs from that of UDP by the addition of a single (socket) option that communicates a checksum coverage length value: at the sender, this specifies the intended checksum coverage, with the remaining unprotected part of the payload called the "error insensitive part".

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By default, the UDP-Lite checksum coverage extends across the entire datagram. If required, an application may dynamically modify this length value, e.g., to offer greater protection to some messages. UDP-Lite always verifies that a packet was delivered to the intended destination, i.e., always verifies the header fields. Errors in the insensitive part will not cause a UDP datagram to be discarded by the destination. Applications using UDP-Lite therefore must not make assumptions regarding the correctness of the data received in the insensitive part of the UDP-Lite payload (this may have been changed). The sending application therefore needs to specify a minimum checksum coverage that include all sensitive protocol headers. RTP, Real-time Transport Protocol

Protocol suite: TCP/IP. Protocol type: Application layer protocol. Related protocol: RTCP, RTP Control Protocol. Port: 5004 (UDP). MIME subtype: SNMP MIBs: iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.rtpMIB (1.3.6.1.2.1.10.87). iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2.rohcRtpMIB (1.3.6.1.2.1.114). Working groups: avt, Audio/Video Transport. fecframe, FEC Framework. Links: IANA: RTP parameters. RTP at cs.columbia.edu RFC 3550: RTP provides end-to-end network transport functions suitable for applications transmitting realtime data, such as audio, video or simulation data, over multicast or unicast network services. RTP does not address resource reservation and does not guarantee quality-of-service for real-time services. The data transport is augmented by a control protocol (RTCP) to allow monitoring of the data delivery in a manner scalable to large multicast networks, and to provide minimal control and identification functionality. RTP and RTCP are designed to be independent of the underlying transport and network layers. The protocol supports the use of RTP-level translators and mixers.

MAC header IP header UDP header RTP message RTP header, version 2: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 Ver SSRC CSRC [0..15] ::: P X CC M PT Sequence Number Timestamp

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Ver, Version. 2 bits. RTP version number. Always set to 2. P, Padding. 1 bit. If set, this packet contains one or more additional padding bytes at the end which are not part of the payload. The last byte of the padding contains a count of how many padding bytes should be ignored. Padding may be needed by some encryption algorithms with fixed block sizes or for carrying several RTP packets in a lower-layer protocol data unit. X, Extension. 1 bit. If set, the fixed header is followed by exactly one header extension. CC, CSRC count. 4 bits. The number of CSRC identifiers that follow the fixed header. M, Marker. 1 bit. The interpretation of the marker is defined by a profile. It is intended to allow significant events such as frame boundaries to be marked in the packet stream. A profile may define additional marker bits or specify that there is no marker bit by changing the number of bits in the payload type field. PT, Payload Type. 7 bits. Identifies the format of the RTP payload and determines its interpretation by the application. A profile specifies a default static mapping of payload type codes to payload formats. Additional payload type codes may be defined dynamically through non-RTP means. An RTP sender emits a single RTP payload type at any given time; this field is not intended for multiplexing separate media streams.

T9108

Assignment procedure in GSM call flow


The assignment procedure is used to assign the MS to the correct TCH. The selection of the TCH is based on the information received from the MSC. The assignment procedure is presented in the following figure:

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ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message The MSC sends an ASSIGNMENT REQUEST (a) message to the BSC for the assignment of channels on the A interface and the radio interface. The MSC also runs a supervisory timer for the assignment procedure. The BSS responds by sending the MSC the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE, ASSIGNMENT FAILURE or the QUEUEING INDICATION message. If the MSC fails to receive any of the messages within the time limit defined by the timer, it clears the call with a CLEAR COMMAND message. The BSS releases the MS connection with the channel release procedure. The BSC expects to receive the following fields in the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message:

channel type: radio channel required for the call type L3 header info priority (optional) circuit identification code (CIC) indicating the channel to be used on the A interface downlink DTX flag (optional) radio channel identity (optional) interference band to be used (optional).

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The MSC uses the priority element to define whether the request is allowed to be queued and, if so, to define the queueing priority level. If the priority element is not present, it is assumed that the request can be queued if it cannot be served immediately. Furthermore, if the priority is not indicated, the message is queued according to the priority associated with the request type, which is defined internally within the BSS. If the request is queued, a QUEUEING INDICATION message is returned to the MSC. The downlink DTX flag element is also optional: it is present only when the MSC controls the downlink DTX in a speech call. If the BSC identifies any of the following situations on analysing the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message, it rejects the request by sending the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message to the MSC, without taking any action towards the BTS:

1. If the BSC is not able to use the A channel indicated in the CIC, due to it being used for another call, the BSC rejects the request with the cause requested terrestrial circuit already allocated. 2. If the BSC is not able to use the A channel indicated in the CIC, due to it being marked as undefined, the BSC rejects the request with the cause requested terrestrial resource unavailable. 3. If the CIC is blocked, the BSC rejects the request with the cause requested terrestrial resource unavailable and sends a BLOCK message to the MSC. For reasons when a circuit is blocked by the BSC, see 3GPP 48.008. 4. If there is no circuit pool on the A interface that is able to support the requested TCH type, the BSC rejects the request with the cause requested transcoding/rate adaption not available. 5. If there is a circuit pool on the A interface that is able to support the requested TCH type, but the pool implied by the CIC is totally contradictory with the required TCH type, the BSC rejects the request with the cause circuit pool mismatch. 6. If the circuit pool implied by the CIC is at least partially compliant with the requested TCH type, change of the circuit pool may be required. Reasons for the change include the actual TCH resource situation of the cell and the attempt to allocate the resources in the most optimal way. In this case the BSC rejects the request with the cause switch circuit pool. 7. If the requested speech coder versions are not supported, the BSC rejects the request with the cause requested speech version unavailable. 8. If the radio interface data rate requirement is totally contradictory with the requested TCH rate, the BSC rejects the request with the cause invalid message contents. On receiving the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message, the MSC can either issue a CLEAR COMMAND or retry. If the MSC receives the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message with a cause indicating a CIC problem, the MSC may send another ASSIGNMENT REQUEST for the same call using a different circuit. TCH assignment procedure in the BSS After the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST, the BSC proceeds to perform the TCH assignment procedure. The BSC sends the PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST message (b) to the BTS. In this message it requests for the timing advance of mobile transmission. The SDCCH sends the timing advance via the TCH and the BTS to the MS, which requires it when moving onto a new radio channel. If the BSC fails to receive the PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM message (c) within the time limit defined by the GSM timer T9108, the BSC returns an ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message to the MSC with the cause radio interface message failure. This applies also when the PHYSICAL

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CONTEXT CONFIRM message does not contain all the expected information. The MSC either aborts with a CLEAR COMMAND or retries. On receiving the PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM message, the BSC searches for the relevant TCH using the channel reservation procedure described in Channel reservation procedure.

If the request cannot be acted upon, the BSC returns an ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message with the cause no radio resource available. The reason for this is that all radio channels are reserved, the queue is full, the request has been in the queue for too long, or exceptional conditions such as restart or reset. TCH activation After a successful channel reservation, the BSC sends a CHANNEL ACTIVATION message to the BTS. In this message it tells the BTS to activate the required radio channel. The BSC also starts the GSM timer T9103. The CHANNEL ACTIVATION message contains the following data:

message type channel number: Lm/Bm + AGCH activation type: normal assignment channel mode: DTX indication and channel type. The channel type is either a speech or data channel. If it is a speech channel, the speech encoding algorithm is included; if it is a data channel, the transparent or the non-transparent mode is included. The data rate is also given. channel identification (optional) encryption information if received from the MSC (optional) BS power as received in the PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (optional) MS power as received in the PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (optional) timing advance as received in the PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (optional) SACCH information (optional) multirate configuration (optional).

The channel identification information is included only when activating a TCH under DFCA TRX. For more information, see Dynamic Frequency and Channel Allocation.The SACCH information is used in a dual band cell or when IMSI Based Handover is enabled in the BSC. The multirate configuration element is present in calls using multirate speech codec. The BTS returns the CHANNEL ACTIVATION NACK message in the following situations. The BSC indicates the failure to the MSC by sending the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message with the relevant assignment failure cause value, which can be one of the following:

radio interface message failure, due to a message format error requested transcoding/rate adaption not available, due to the requested service not being supported radio resource not available, due to radio channel problems radio channel already activated; the radio channel is already in use equipment failure

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service or option not available not implemented unspecified mandatory IE error general IE error.

If no response is received from the BTS within the time limit defined by the GSM timer T9103, the BSC sends the MSC an ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message with the cause equipment failure. The MSC either aborts or retries. When the BTS has successfully activated the radio traffic channel, it returns the CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE message (containing the current frame number) to the BSC. TCH radio channel assignment in the BSS The BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message (f, g) to the MS and starts the GSM timer T3107. This command is transparent to the BTS and is transferred as the DATA REQUEST message over the Abis interface. The ASSIGNMENT COMMAND gives the MS all the information necessary for it to change over to the TCH. The message consists of:

header channel description power command: max. MS power frequency list (optional) cell channel description (optional) channel mode: speech full rate, half rate or data (optional) mobile allocation (optional) cipher mode setting (optional) multirate configuration (optional).

The cipher mode setting element is present if ciphering is to be applied and ciphering algorithm is changed during TCH assignment. On receiving the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND over the radio interface, the MS changes over from the SDCCH to the TCH it has been assigned to. The MS sends a layer 2 SABM (h) on the TCH. The BTS acknowledges the SABM with a UA frame (j) and sends the ESTABLISH INDICATION (i) message to the BSC. Synchronisation with the transcoder starts at this point and the BSC connects the Abis channel to the A channel and the speech path is switched through. On receiving the UA frame (j), the MS indicates to the BSC with an ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message (k) that it has successfully changed over to the TCH. This message is transparent to the BTS and is transferred over the Abis interface as a DATA INDICATION message (l). The BSC sends the information to the MSC in the DT1 (ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE) message (m) with the RR cause normal release. After a successful assignment procedure, the BSC releases the SDCCH channel.

EMLPP

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18.1 Overview
Enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption service (eMLPP) is a supplementary serviceoffered by the GSM system.

Definition
When the eMLPP is available, the MSs with a high priority have obvious advantages in termsof the call setup rate, call completion capability, and service continuity. When TCHs areinsufficient, for example, in peak working hours, the calls with a higher priority can preemptthe resources of the calls with a lower priority.The eMLPP service consists of the following:
l

Fast Call SetupA call with a certain priority can uses the fast call setup procedure. In the fast call setup procedure, authentication, encryption, and TMSI reassignment are omitted. This can reducethe call setup time.
l

Queuing and preemptionWhen network resources, including trunk circuits, signaling channels, and traffic channels,are insufficient, the calls with a higher priority are not released, but wait in a queue or even preempt the resources of the calls with a lower priority.

Purposes
The eMLPP service is used to classify calls into groups with different priorities. The calls witha higher priority can enjoy better services, such as channel preemption and fast call setup. TheeMLPP service offers a segmentation function for operators. Using this function, operators can provide different levels of services for users with different priorities.

ISDN User Part (ISUP)


The ISDN User Part (ISUP) is responsible for setting up and releasing trunks used for interexchange calls. As its name implies, ISUP was created to provide core network signaling that is compatible with ISDN access signaling. The combination of ISDN access signaling and ISUP network signaling provides an end-to-end transport mechanism for signaling data between subscribers. Today, the use of ISUP in the network has far exceeded the use of ISDN on the access side. ISUP provides signaling for both non-ISDN and ISDN traffic; in fact, the majority of ISUPsignaled traffic currently originates from analog access signaling, like that used by basic telephone service phones. The primary benefits of ISUP are its speed, increased signaling bandwidth, and standardization of message exchange. Providing faster call setup times than Channel Associated Signaling (CAS), it ultimately uses trunk resources more effectively. The difference in post-dial delay for calls using ISUP trunks is quite noticeable to the subscriber who makes a call that traverses several switches. NOTE

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Post-dial delay is the time between when the originator dials the last digit and the originating end receives an indication (or audible ringback). In addition to its speed efficiencies, ISUP enables more call-related information to be exchanged because it uses Common Channel Signaling (CCS). CAS signaling severely limits the amount of information that can be exchanged over trunks because it shares a small amount of space with a call's voice stream. ISUP defines many messages and parameters, therefore, allowing information about a call to be exchanged both within the network and between end-users. Although messages and parameters do vary between different countries, a given variant provides a standard means of exchanging information between vendor equipment within the national network, and to a large degree, at the international level. For the reader who is unfamiliar with the PSTN and how switching exchanges work, Chapter 5, "The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)," explains the PSTN, describes the basic concepts of call processing at an exchange, and introduces the concepts of trunks, trunkgroups, and routing. ISUP consists of call processing, supplementary services, and maintenance functions. This chapter is divided into the following sections, which describe the specific components of ISUP:

Bearers and Signaling ISUP and the SS7 Protocol Stack ISUP Message Flow Message Timers Circuit Identification Codes Enbloc and Overlap Address Signaling Circuit Glare Continuity Test ISUP Message Format Detailed Call Walk-Through Circuit Suspend and Resume ISUP and Local Number Portability ISUPISUP Tandem Calls Interworking with ISDN Supplementary Services Additional Call Processing Messages Maintenance Messages and Procedures

Signalling Connection Control Part


The Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) is a network layer[1] protocol that provides extended routing, flow control, segmentation, connection-orientation, and error correction facilities in Signaling System 7 telecommunications networks. SCCP relies on the services of MTP for basic routing and error detection

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SS7 architecture
The main concepts (functional view) surrounding IN services or architecture are connected with SS7 architecture:

Service Switching Function (SSF) or Service Switching Point (SSP) This is co-located with the telephone exchange itself, and acts as the trigger point for further services to be invoked during a call. The SSP implements the Basic Call State Machine (BCSM) which is a Finite state machine that represents an abstract view of a call from beginning to end (off hook, dialing, answer, no answer, busy, hang up, etc.). As each state is traversed, the exchange encounters Detection Points (DPs) at which the SSP may invoke a query to the SCP to wait for further instructions on how to proceed. This query is usually called a trigger. Trigger criteria are defined by the operator and might include the subscriber calling number or the dialed number. The SSF is responsible for entertaining calls requiring value added services. Service Control Function (SCF) or Service Control Point (SCP) This is a separate set of platforms that receive queries from the SSP. The SCP contains service logic which implements the behaviour desired by the operator, i.e., the services. During service logic processing, additional data required to process the call may be obtained from the SDF. The logic on the SCP is created using the SCE. Service Data Function (SDF) or Service Data Point (SDP) This is a database that contains additional subscriber data, or other data required to process a call. For example, the subscribers prepaid credit which is remaining may be an item stored in the SDF to be queried in real time during the call. The SDF may be a separate platform, or is sometimes co-located with the SCP. Service Management Function (SMF) or Service Management Point (SMP) This is a platform or cluster of platforms that operators use to monitor and manage the IN services. It contains the management database which stores the services configuration, collects the statistics and alarms, and stores the Call Data Reports and Event Data Reports. Service Creation Environment (SCE) This is the development environment used to create the services present on the SCP. Although the standards permit any type of environment, it is fairly rare to see low level languages like C used. Instead, proprietary graphical languages have been used to enable telecom engineers to create services directly. The languages usually belong to 4G languages, the user can use Graphical Interface to manipulate between different functions to formulate a service. Specialized Resource Function (SRF) or Intelligent Peripheral (IP) This is a node which can connect to both the SSP and the SCP and delivers additional special resources into the call, mostly related to voice data, for example play voice announcements or collect DTMF tones from the user.

GSM Terminology
BS_AG_BLKS_RES
BS_AG_BLKS_RES is transmitted over BCCH SI-3 message. It is a 3 bit field and hence range from 0 to 7. This field indicates how many of the CCCH blocks of a 51 frame MF on a TS0 are reserved for AGCHs(access grant channels). The number of PCH channels are reduced accordingly from total CCCH blocks of 8(noncombined mode). In combined mode, CCCH blocks per TS is 4 rather than 8.

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In noncombined mode, BS_AG_BLKS_RES=3 means the first 3 CCCH blocks are used for AGCH and remaining 5 are used for PCH on time slot TS0.

BS_PA_MFRMS
BS_PA_MFRMS is transmitted over BCCH SI-3 message.It is a 3 bit field and hence range from 0 to 7. It indicates to all the mobiles in a cell that after how many MFs the content of the PCH has to be analyzed or sniffed for the information related to them. BS_PA_MFRMS = 3 means after every 3 multiframes MS need to look for information in multiframe structure transmitted by BTS.

BS_CC_CHANS
It indicates how many TSs(time slots) on the BCCH frequency are reserved for CCCHs(common control channels). Value of 0 indicates none are reserved for CCCH. BS_CC_CHANS are not transmitted by BTS but is derived from CCCH_CONF.

BS_CCCH_SDCCH_COMB
It indicates whether the SDCCHs and CCCHs share a given time slot or not. BS_CCCH_SDCCH_COMB are not transmitted by BTS but is derived from CCCH_CONF.

CCCH_CONF
Transmitted over BCCH SI-3 message. It informs the mobile about the actual CCCH configuration in a cell.

Relation Between CCCH_CONF, BS_CC_CHANS and BS_CCCH_SDCCH_COMB


CCCH_CONF BS_CC_CHANS BS_CCCH_SDCCH_COMB 0 1 2 4 6 1 1 2 3 4 NO YES NO NO NO

Mobile Originated call in GSM(MO call)


This tutorial on GSM covers following:

Introduction

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This article covers mobile originated call flow between Mobile(UE) and network. It covers messages exchanged between Layer 3 entities(RR,MM,CC) at both side. It include channels(RACH,AGCH,SDCCH,FACCH,TCH) used at layer 1 to carry these messages over the air. This article assumes that initial frequency and time synchronization is done between UE and Network as described in GSM tutorial in tutorial section.

T3212
Value range: 0~255

Unit: 6 minutes Content: It is Periodic Location Update Timer. It defines the period length of location updating. Recommendation: 30 (for urban area), 20 (for suburban area)
MS will make location update when detecting the change of location, besides, MS will make periodic location update controlled by parameter T3212. Once MS read T3212 from system info., it will store it in SIM card. When the time exceeds T3212 value, the location update process will be triggered. The shorter the period the better the performance, but it will bring more signaling load for system. On setting of this parameter, the processing capabilities of MSC and BSC should be considered, also the flows of A interface, Abis interface, Um interface as well as those of HLR and VLR. Generally larger value for continuous covered urban area while smaller in the suburb, countryside or the place with poor coverage. Large T3212( 16 hours 20 hours) is recommended for the area with much traffic, and small T3212 (3 hours, 2 hours) for the area with a little traffic. For the area where the traffic exceeds the system capacity, it is recommended to set T3212 as 0 (no periodic location update). To set the value of T3212 properly, its necessary to conduct long-term measurement on the processing capability and flow of each entity in the system. If any overload occurs, increase the value T3212. Note that this value should be smaller than the period by which the network queries the IMSI attached subscriber. Otherwise, the following situation occurs: When MS has not done any operation in a certain time, and it is not yet the time for periodic location update, the network will set IMSI flag of MS as detach, because its query result shows that MS has not done any operation. Thus, the network will not process the paging of this MS. So, before MS initiates another round of periodic location update, once there is a call for the MS, the network will voice the calling subscriber that the called MS is out of service area or has been powered off. When MS reselects a different location area, MS will make a non-periodic location update and reset T3212 in the new cell. If it reselects in the same location area, then the timer value will be remainder of the original one divided by the new T3212.

Timers and counters for radio resource management

Timers on the mobile station side T3122: This timer is used during random access, after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message.Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGN REJECT message. In normal case, the location update process is as follow: MS -> BSS: CHANNEL REQUEST BSS -> MS: IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT MS -> BSS: LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST BSS -> MS: LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT In the abnormal case, due to SDCCH congestion, the process will be:

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MS -> BSS: CHANNEL REQUEST BSS -> MS: IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT In this case the location updating is not started. The IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT will indicate the value for the timer T3122. At the MS side, the timer T3122 will start and when this timer expires, the MS will makes another attempt for location updating. However the total number of attempts will be limited by the "Attempt Counter". T3124: This timer is used in the seizure procedure during a hand-over, when the two cells are not synchronized.Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network to the special signal. Its value is set to 675 ms if the channel type of the channel allocated in the HANDOVER COMMAND is an SDCCH (+ SACCH); otherwise its value is set to 320 ms. T3126:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during an immediate assignment procedure. Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message, whichever occurs first. It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message, or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. At its expiry, the immediate assignment procedure is aborted. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S slots of the mobile station's RACH. S and T. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. T3128:This timer is started when the mobile station starts the uplink investigation procedure and the uplink is busy.It is stopped at receipt of the first UPLINK FREE message. At its expiry, the uplink investigation procedure is aborted. The value of this timer is set to 1 second. T3130:This timer is started after sending the first UPLINK ACCESS message during a VGCS uplink access procedure.It is stopped at receipt of a VGCS ACCESS GRANT message.At its expiry, the uplink access procedure is aborted.The value of this timer is set to 5 seconds. T3110:This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after the receipt of a (full) CHANNEL RELEASE. Its purpose is to let some time for disconnection of the main signalling link. Its value is set to such that the DISC frame is sent twice in case of no answer from the network. (It should be chosen to obtain a good probability of normal termination (i.e. no time out of T3109) of the channel release procedure.) T3134:This timer is used in the seizure procedure during an RR network commanded cell change order procedure. Its purpose is to detect the lack of answer from the network or the lack of availability of the target cell. Its value is set to 5 seconds. T3142:The timer is used during packet access on CCCH, after the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. Its value is given by the network in the IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message. T3146:This timer is started either after sending the maximum allowed number of CHANNEL REQUEST messages during a packet access procedure. Or on receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message during a packet access procedure, whichever occurs first. It is stopped at receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message, or an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED message. At its expiry, the packet access procedure is aborted. The minimum value of this timer is equal to the time taken by T+2S

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slots of the mobile station's RACH. S and T are defined in section 3.3.1.2. The maximum value of this timer is 5 seconds. T3164:This timer is used during packet access using CCCH. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. It is stopped at the transmission of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow, see GSM 04.60. At expire, the mobile station returns to the packet idle mode. The value of the timer is 5 seconds. T3190:The timer is used during packet downlink assignment on CCCH. It is started at the receipt of an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message or of an PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message when in dedicated mode.It is stopped at the receipt of a RLC/MAC block on the assigned temporary block flow, see GSM 04.60. At expiry, the mobile station returns to the packet idle mode. The value of the timer is 5 seconds. Timers on the network side T3101:This timer is started when a channel is allocated with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message. It is stopped when the MS has correctly seized the channels. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum time for a L2 establishment attempt. T3103:This timer is started by the sending of a HANDOVER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channel. Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels, and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the HANDOVER COMMAND, plus the value of T3124, plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode.) T3105:This timer is used for the repetition of the PHYSICAL INFORMATION message during the hand-over procedure. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted. T3107:This timer is started by the sending of an ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly seized the new channels. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels, and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus twice the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link multiframe mode. T3109:This timer is started when a lower layer failure is detected by the network, when it is not engaged in a RF procedure. It is also used in the channel release procedure. Its purpose is to release the channels in case of loss of communication. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: Its value should be large enough to ensure that the MS detects a radio link failure. T3111:This timer is used to delay the channel deactivation after disconnection of the main signalling link. Its purpose is to let some time for possible repetition of the disconnection. Its value is equal to the value of T3110. T3113:This timer is started when the network has sent a PAGING REQUEST message and is stopped when the network has received the PAGING RESPONSE message. Its

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value is network dependent. NOTE: The value could allow for repetitions of the Channel Request message and the requirements associated with T3101. T3115:This timer is used for the repetition of the VGCS UPLINK GRANT message during the uplink access procedure. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: This timer may be set to such a low value that the message is in fact continuously transmitted. T3117:This timer is started by the sending of a PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the target TBF. Its purpose is to keep the old channel sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels, and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its value is network dependent. NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the PDCH ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message plus T3132 plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. T3119:This timer is started by the sending of a RR-CELL CHANGE ORDER message and is normally stopped when the MS has correctly accessed the new cell. Its purpose is to keep the old channels sufficiently long for the MS to be able to return to the old channels, and to release the channels if the MS is lost. Its value is network dependent.NOTE: It could be higher than the maximum transmission time of the RR_CELL CHANGE ORDER, plus T3134, plus the maximum duration of an attempt to establish a data link in multiframe mode. T3141:This timer is started when a temporary block flow is allocated with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message during a packet access procedure. It is stopped when the mobile station has correctly seized the temporary block flow. Its value is network dependent.

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As described in the figure, before RACH is sent by mobile(UE) mobile is synchronized with network(BTS) both time and frequency wise. It means it has tuned frequency as per FCCH and time as per SCH burst. It has received and decoded SIs as per BCCH. Once BCCH is decoded mobile station comes to know where it has to transmit CCCH(RACH) and where it has to listen for CCCH(carrying PCH,AGCH). RACH is used in mobile originated call while PCH is used in mobile terminated call at the start. As described in GSM protocol stack, messages flow between both mobile and network at various layers(layer 3,layer 2,layer 1(physical layer). The message flow is self explanatory to establish the circuit switched mobile originated(MO) call in GSM.

Mobile Originated Call Release

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The figure above mentions messages exchanged between mobile and network for call release.

Mobile Terminated call in GSM(MT call)


This tutorial on GSM covers following:

Introduction
This article covers mobile terminated call flow between Mobile(UE) and network. It covers messages exchanged between Layer 3 entities(RR,MM,CC) at both side. It include channels(PCH,RACH,AGCH,SDCCH,FACCH,TCH) used at layer 1 to carry these messages over the air. This article assumes that initial frequency and time synchronization is done between UE and Network as described in GSM tutorial in tutorial section.

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As described in the figure, PCH will be sent by network to alert mobile with ring tone if someone dials. This is called mobile terminated call. After PCH is received, mobile will transmit RACH and obtain SDCCH and other resources for further process. As described in GSM protocol stack, messages flow between both mobile and network at various layers(layer 3,layer 2,layer 1(physical layer). The message flow is self explanatory to establish the circuit switched mobile terminated(MT) call in GSM.

Mobile Terminated Call Release

CLASS MARK3
The figure above mentions messages exchanged between mobile and network for call release.
The mobile station in packet idle mode (only applicable to mobile station supporting GPRS) may initiate packet access in the same cell before T3122 has expired, see GSM 04.60 and section 3.5.2.1.3.4. After T3122 expiry, no CHANNEL REQUEST message shall be sent as a response to a page until a PAGING REQUEST message for the mobile station is received. 3.3.1.1.4 Assignment completion The immediate assignment procedure is terminated on the network side when the main signalling link is established. Timer T3101 is stopped and the MM sublayer on the network side is informed that the RR entity has entered the dedicated mode. On the mobile station side, the procedure is terminated when the establishment of the main signalling link is confirmed. The MM sublayer is informed that the RR entity has entered the dedicated mode. 3.3.1.1.4.1 Early classmark sending Early classmark sending consists in the mobile station sending as early as possible after access a CLASSMARK CHANGE message to provide the network with additional classmark information. A mobile station which implements the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option shall perform the early classmark sending if and only if explicitly accepted by the network, as indicated in the last reception in the accessed cell of the SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 3 message.

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A mobile station which implements one or more of the multiple band support options shall also implement the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option. A mobile station which implements the multislot capability option shall also implement the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option. A mobile station that implements some form of treatment of UCS2 alphabet (see TS GSM 03.38) encoded character string (e.g., in short message, or in USSD string) may indicate so in the classmark. (An example is a Mobile Equipment able to display UCS2 encoded character string.) In such a case, it should also implement the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option. It is the mobile station responsibility to provide the UCS2 support information in due time. If the network needs this information and the mobile station did not provide it, the network may assume that the Mobile Equipment does not support UCS2. A mobile station which implements the R-GSM band (see GSM 05.05) shall also implement the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option. A mobile station which implements the extended measurement function shall also implement the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option. A mobile station which implements the GPRS option shall also implement the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option. A mobile station which implements the SoLSA option shall also implement the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option. A mobile station which implements the Controlled Early Classmark Sending option shall indicate it in the classmark (ES IND bit).

10.5.1.7

Mobile Station Classmark 3

The purpose of the Mobile Station Classmark 3 information element is to provide the network with information concerning aspects of the mobile station. The contents might affect the manner in which the network handles the operation of the mobile station. The Mobile Station Classmark information indicates general mobile station characteristics and it shall therefore, except for fields explicitly indicated, be independent of the frequency band of the channel it is sent on. The MS Classmark 3 is a type 4 information element with a maximum of 14 octets length. The value part of a MS Classmark 3 information element is coded as shown in figure 10.5.7/GSM 04.08 and table 10.5.7/GSM 04.08. NOTE: The 14 octet limit is so that the CLASSMARK CHANGE message will fit in one layer 2 frame.

SEMANTIC RULE : a multiband mobile station shall provide information about all frequency bands it can support. A single band mobile station shall not indicate the band it supports in the Multiband Supported field in the MS Classmark 3. SEMANTIC RULE : a mobile station shall include the MS Measurement Capability field if the Multi Slot Class field contains a value of 19 or greater (see GSM 05.02).

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Typically, the number of spare bits at the end is the minimum to reach an octet boundary. The receiver may add any number of bits set to "0" at the end of the received string if needed for correct decoding.

Early Classmark Sending Control ECSC


Unit: None Content: Early Classmark Sending Control. It informs MS in a cell whether class-mark 3 should be sent in advance actively or not. Recommendation: No.
Upon receiving information classmark change, MS sends the additional classmark information to the network as soon as possible. CM3 (classmark 3) information consists of information about the powers of various bands of multi-band MS. In the handover between various bands, the power level must be described correctly. CM3 message must be known when paging is conducted and BA2 table is sent in different bands. ECSC is valid mainly for dual-band MS only. For dual-band MS, when ECSC is not used, MSC will still send the CLASSMARK REQUEST message after MS reports ESTIND. When MS reports the CLASSMARK UPDATE message, other functions will not be affected.

Value range: Yes, No

4.4 Parameters Affecting Network Functions


4.4.1 Newly Established Cause Indicator (NECI) I. Definition
In a GSM network, the traffic channel (TCH) consists of full-speed TCH and half-speed TCH. When the network supports half-speed TCH, the MS is informed of whether the area supports half-speed TCH by NECI.

II. Format
The value of NECI includes Y and N, with the meaning as follows:

Y means that the area support half-speed TCH. N means that the area cannot support half-speed TCH.

III. Configuration and Influence


Half-speed TCHs enable each carrier to support more traffic channel, but you must confirm whether the system support half-speed TCH.

4.4.2 Power Control Indicator (PWRC) I. Definition

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The PWRC informs MS of whether to take statistics of downlink level of BCCH carrier slot for measuring average value when the BCCH frequency participates in frequency hopping. The causes to configuring PWRC are as follows:

GSM regulations allow frequency hopping channels to use BCCH (frequency hopping not in BCCH slots) . GSM regulations allow downlink power control over frequency hopping channels. The MS needs signal level of the measured neighbor cells, so the power of each slot on BCCH frequency is prohibited to change. The downlink power control does not involve carrier slots for BCCH which includes the frequency hopping.

For previous causes, when the MS measures the average downlink channel level with common methods, the measurement result is inaccurate for power control because the average value includes the downlink received level of BCCH carriers the power of which are not controlled, so the measurement report is inaccurate for power control. To avoid the influence on power control, when the MS calculates average received level during frequency hopping, the received level obtained from BCCH carrier slot must be removed (see GSM regulations 05.08).

II. Format
The value of PWRC includes 0 and 1, with meanings as follows:

When PWRC is 0, the measurement result by MS includes BCCH carrier. When PWRC is 1, the measurement result by MS does not include BCCH carrier.

III. Configuration and Influence


The PWRC is usually configured to 0. Configure it to 1 if all the following conditions are met:

Channels have frequency hopping on two or more frequencies. One of the frequency is BCCH carrier frequency. The system uses downlink power control.

IV. Precautions
The value of PWRC depends actually on the following parameters:

Whether to use frequency hopping. Whether the hopping frequency includes BCCH carrier. Whether the system uses downlink power control.

4.4.3 Discontinuous Transmit of Uplink I. Definition


Discontinuous transmit of uplink (DTXU) refers to the process for MS not to transmit signals during silent period (see description about DTX in Chapter 2).

II. Format
Whether the network allows uplink to use discontinuous transmit (DTX) is set by equipment room operators. DTX ranges from 0 to 2, with the following meanings:

0: MS can use DTXU. 1: MS must use DTXU.

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2: MS cannot use DTXU.

III. Configuration and Influence


Using uplink DTX affects call quality, but it is helpful in the following aspects:

Lower interference to radio channels. Due to this, the average call quality of network is improved. Cut power consumption by MS

For the previous advantages, DTX is recommended to use.

4.4.4 Discontinuous Transmit of Downlink I. Defintion


Discontinuous transmit of downlink (DTXD) means the network does not transmit signals during silent period.

II. Definition
DTXD is in string, and the range is YES and NO. The meanings are as follows:

YES: Downlink uses DTX. NO: Downlink does not use DTX.

III. Configuration and Influence


Using downlink DTX affects call quality in a limit scale, but it is helpful in the following aspects:

Lower interference to radio channels. Due to this, the average call quality of network is improved. Reduce load of base station CPU

Therefore, if possible, you use DTX.

IV. Precautions
According to GSM regulations, downlink DTX is optional. If the base station equipment supports DTXD, then use it. However, you must ensure that voice transcoder is available to support DTXD.

4.4.5 Call Resetup Allowed I. Definition


When coverage voids cause radio link failure, consequently call drop, the MS starts to resetup the call for recovery. Whether resetting up the call is allowed depends on the parameter call resetup allowed (RE).

II. Format
The values of call resetup allowed are 1 and 0, with meanings as follows:

1: Call resetup is allowed in the cell. 0: Call resetup is forbidden in the cell.

III. Configuration and Influence


When a connected MS passes coverage voids, call drop occurs easily. If call resetup is allowed, the average call drop rate (CDR) is lowered. However, call resetup takes longer time, and most

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users disconnects before completion of call resetup. Therefore call resetup is difficult to achieve, and even wastes abundant radio resources. In a word, call resetup is disabled.

4.4.6 Emergency Call Allowed I. Definition


The following MSs cannot enjoy various services:

MS without SIM MS with ACC as one of C0 to C9 and with cell_bar_access

The parameter emergency call allowed (EC) determines whether the MS is allowed for emergency calls, such as police emergency call.

II. Format
EC consists of 1 bit. For the MS with ACC of C0 to C9 or without SIM, the EC is NO, meaning emergency call forbidden. YES means emergency call allowed. For the MS with ACC of C11 to C15, when both the access control bit and EC are configured to forbidden, it is forbidden for emergency calls.

III. Configuration and Influence


According to the GSM regulations, the emergency number is 112, different from that in China. The Chinese emergency call cannot function as prescribed in GSM regulations. For international roaming users, set 112 to answerphone to inform users of various special service numbers. Therefore, setting emergency call must be allowed through configuring radio parameters, namely, configure EC to 1.

4.4.7 Early Classmark Sending Control I. Definition


In a GSM network, the MS classmark marks the following aspects:

Service capacity Supported frequency band Power capacity Encryption capacity

Classmark consists of classmark1, classmark2, and classmark3. A GSM MS. In a GSM network, the MS reports Classmark1 or Classmark2 information immediately after ESTIND<CM SERV REQ> (corresponding to L2-SABM at Um interface) is allocated. Classmark3 (CM3) information includes power information of various frequency band of multi-frequency MS. During handover between different bands, the power class must be correctly described. When the GSM system pages and transmits BA2 in different bands, it must know the CM3 message. In GSM regulation Phase2plus, early classmark sending control (ECSC) is added. ECSC means that by SI the system informs MS of reporting Classmark3 after link setup. This avoids querying process by network.

II. Format
The values of ECSC are Y and N, with the following meanings:

Y: The MS reports Classmark3 to the network immediately after link setup.

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N: The MS is forbidden to report its Classmark3 to network initiatively.

III. Configuration and Influence


The major information of Classmark3 is for dualband network, so do as follows:

Configure ECSC to N in single frequency GSM application areas. Configure ECSC to Y in dualband GSM application areas.

IV. Precautions
In a dualband network, configure the parameter of all cell to the same value. Configuring the parameter to different values in one or more cells is forbidden; otherwise, the network quality declines.

GSM 04.08 version 7.0.1 Release 1998

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