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TRAINER: Nick Everard

Service Management
Awareness Training
SERVICE MANAGEMENT
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INTRODUCTION
This course provides delegates with a high-level appreciation of ITIL Service
Management best practice principles. Each of the 11 core ITIL Service
Management disciplines is introduced and the primary relationships between them
explained and understood. Then the Vodafone Workflow and Problem
Management (WPM) suite of processes (Service Desk, Incident, Problem, Change,
Release, Configuration and Service Level Management) are examined in greater
detail with an explanation of a proposed process flow and the benefits that can be
expected.
This document covers the course content in greater detail and will be a useful
reference source in the future.

OBJECTIVES OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT
The key objectives of Service Management are:
1. To align Technology services with the current and future needs of the
business and its customers
2. To improve the quality of Technology services delivered
3. To reduce the long term cost of service provision.
These objectives can be achieved by addressing the following business
requirements:
Does Technology understand the business strategy?
How does Technology currently support the business?
What does Technology need to do that its not currently doing?
Provide tangible business benefit business justification
Adding real value to the business and its customers
Utilise the best combination of People, Process & Technology.

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SERVICE MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION
The IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) books of best practice were developed in 1989
by the UK Governments Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency
(CCTA).
ITIL best practice aims to help organisations improve the way in which they deliver
IT services to their customers. It is the only industry standard model for IT service
provision and provides guidelines, criteria, questions and answers and standard
implementation plans for delivering Service Management. It is supported by a
qualification and training structure to recognise professional competence in IT
Service Management.
ITIL adopts a process driven approach, which is scalable to fit both large and small
IT organisations through deployment of closely related and highly integrated
processes.
When implemented, Service Management will provide the following business
benefits:
Supports a sound IT investment strategy
IT services are managed to meet specified availability targets
Achieves a specific, consistent, measurable level of service
Higher user productivity, from a decrease in downtime
Fewer quality problems caused by changes
Less risk of problems caused by lack of capacity
Being able to recover IT systems in a controlled way
Better control of IT assets.

Vodafones Service Management model (over the page) shows how the ITIL
modules link together to form a complete Service Management solution. These
modules are explored in more detail later in this document.


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It is now being realised that it is only through a combination of people, processes
and technology that a true quality IT service can be delivered to the customer. It
has also become clear that it is vitally important to get the people and the processes
working smoothly for any Service Management tool to be effective.







Processes
People
Tools
Processes
People
Tools
80%
20%
80%
20%
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Whilst a Service Management tool can greatly enhance efficiency and reduce costs,
the tool can only be as good as the process that it supports. It is recommended that
80% of Service Management introduction should be spent developing the people
and processes within the organisation to optimise possible output and benefits of
introducing a supporting toolset.

ITIL DISCIPLINES
The ITIL best practice books of Service Support and Service Delivery describe in
detail the eleven disciplines that relate to Service Management. Each of these
disciplines are summarised briefly on the following pages of this document to give
an overview of ITIL Service Support and Service Delivery best practice.

Service Support
Service Support is concerned with ensuring that the user has access to the
appropriate services to support the business functions.
Service Support covers the following topics:
Service Desk
Incident Management
Problem Management
Configuration Management
Change Management
Release Management.

Service Delivery
Service Delivery looks at what service the business requires of IT in order to
provide adequate support to the business customers.

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Service Delivery covers the following topics:
Service Level Management
Availability Management
Capacity Management
IT Service Continuity Management
Financial Management for IT Services.

Other Related Vodafone Processes (not part of the ITIL model)
Monitoring Management enables early reporting of failures
Service Reporting delivers agreed service reporting
Customer Satisfaction Management monitors, reports, analyses
and improves customer satisfaction
Service Request Management enables pre-approved low impact
changes
Quality Management ensures compliance with quality standards
Continuous Improvement enables continuous review and
improvement
Supplier Management controls third party relationships to ensure
seamless service provision
Test and Assurance Management enables the controlled testing of
Changes and Releases.

ISO20000 / BS15000
In 2005 ISO20000 was published as an international standard for IT Service
Management. ISO20000 was based on the British standard BS15000 which was
first published in 2002. The standard is aligned with ITIL and forms part of a much
bigger picture.

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Implementation of ISO20000 brings with it many benefits and advantages:
Creation of a formal framework for current service improvement
projects
Provides a benchmark type comparison with best practices
Creates competitive advantage via promotion of consistent and cost-
effective services
By requiring ownership and responsibility at all levels, it creates a
progressive ethos and culture
Through the creation of a standard consistent approach, aids major
organisational changes
Enhanced reputation and perception
Fundamental shift to pro-active rather than re-active processes.

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PROCESS OWNERSHIP
Each process is assigned a Process Owner whose responsibility it is to:
Input into the design of the process
Identify a team of people (Business Improvement Authorities or
Specialist) who will manage the process on a daily basis
Define the targets by which the process will be measured
Regularly review and update the process to ensure continuous
improvement.
Any queries or suggestions regarding a process should be addressed to the
Process Owner or Business Improvements Authorities / Specialists (refer to the
WPM Project team for further details of the individuals who will be filling these
roles).

COMMUNICATION
Communication suffers as a result of time and resource constraints. Service
Management relies on effective communication between the business and different
Technology departments and also between the business and its customers. In
particular, Service Level Management, Change Management and the Service Desk
rely on effective communication for success.
Everyone within the Technology organisation is responsible for developing good
communication although the prime responsibility lies at the management level to
ensure that effective and efficient communication is built in to deployed Service
Management processes and reviewed on a regular basis.




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PROCESS IMPROVEMENT LIFECYCLE
The Process Improvement Lifecycle model below shows how Diagonal
recommends a sequence of continuous improvement to ensure that developed
processes remain relevant and beneficial to the organisation.
The process owner should carry out regular reviews as part of normal document
control. This should invite feedback and input from all who are affected by the
process.


















Change Process
Liaise with
interdependent
process owners
Process Owner
Monitor process
and assess user
perception
Process Owner
Review
effectiveness &
efficiency
Process Owner
Update docs &
communicate to
users
Change Process
Define New
Process / process
changes
Change Process
Test complete new
process and
interdependencies
Process
Improvement
Lifecycle

Implementation
Process
Implementation
Implementation
Process Planning
Implementation
Awareness
Raising
Implementation
Process Definition
Need for
change?
No
Yes
Process
works?
Yes
No
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SERVICE DESK
Diagram: Vodafone WPM Case Capture and Management Process Level 2
Tom Shave 2005
INC.10.10
Case
Assessment
Tom Shave 2005
INC.10.50
Customer
Assessment
Tom Shave 2004 Start
Tom Shave 2005 Customer
Contacts Desk
SDM.10.10
Tom Shave 2004
New Case
Required?
No
Yes
Tom Shave 2005 Record Case
Details
SDM.10.20
Tom Shave 2005
Analyse, Impact
and Prioritise
Case
SDM.10.30
Tom Shave 2004
First Time
Fix?
Yes
No
Tom Shave 2004 Configuration
Data
Tom Shave 2004 Interfacing Tools
& Support Teams
Tom Shave 2004 Start
Tom Shave 2005
Monitor Queue
SDM.20.10
Tom Shave 2004
Incident
Resolved?
Yes
No
Tom Shave 2005 Update and
Escalate Incident
SDM.20.20
Tom Shave 2005
INC.10.50
Customer
Assessment
Tom Shave 2004 Finish
Tom Shave 2004 Start
Tom Shave 2005
Update and
Escalate Major
Incident
SDM.30.10
Tom Shave 2004 Finish

The Service Desk acts as the central point of contact between users and
Technology. The Service Desk handles incidents and requests and provides
interface into other Service Management disciplines, providing the primary window
for user contact with the service organisation on a day-to-day basis. The Service
Desk may be responsible for a number of functions within the support organisation
including:
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Provision of a single point of contact for users
The Service Desk provides a single day-to-day contact point between
users, Technology services and third party support organisations. It
provides advice and guidance and aids user retention and
satisfaction.
Incident assessment
The Service Desk will provide an initial assessment of all Incidents
and may also be involved in providing restoration of normal services
to its users following an Incident where appropriate. If the Service
Desk cannot resolve an Incident, it will refer to second line support
based on agreed service levels.
Incident control and customer update
The Service Desk should own the Incident control process and will
monitor progress and escalate all Incidents according to defined
service levels. The Service Desk will be responsible for ensuring that
users are kept informed and up to date on Incident status, progress
and escalations.
Management reporting
The Service Desk provides a contact point for enquiries on general
service issues and service availability and will provide management
information and reports as defined in Service Level Agreements to
both customers and management.

Benefits of implementing a Service Desk include:
Improved user service, perception and satisfaction
Improved quality and faster response to users
Improved teamwork and communication
Better management information enabling better decision support
More effective and efficient use of support resources.
SERVICE MANAGEMENT
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Terminology changes moving forward:
Term New Definition
Previous
Term
Case A record logged either by a Service Desk,
automated tool, user or customer to record
events and items that need to be managed
through a defined lifecycle. Cases can be
triggered by planned or unplanned events.
Cases will be one of the following types:
Incidents, Requests and How Do Is.
Case, Ticket,
Call, Record
Incident Any event which is not part of the standard
operation of a service and which causes, or
may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in,
the quality of that service. An Incident might
give rise to the identification and investigation of
a Problem, but doesnt itself become a Problem.
Fault
Major
Incident
An Incident where the impact to the business is
extreme. An Incident which needs to be
carefully managed, communicated and
escalated where appropriate to ensure service
levels are met and ensure appropriate
resources are allocated. An Incident that poses
a risk of disruption to Vodafone business, i.e.
revenue or brand could be adversely affected.
Incident






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INCIDENT MANAGEMENT
Diagram: Vodafone WPM Incident Management Process Level 2






















Tom Shave 2004 Start
Tom Shave 2005 Case
Assessment
INC.10.10
Tom Shave 2004
Is this a Major
Incident?
Yes
No
Tom Shave 2005 Raise Resolution
Tasks if Required
INC.10.20
Tom Shave 2005 Implement
Resolution
INC.10.30
Tom Shave 2005 Assess
Resolution
INC.10.40
Tom Shave 2005 Customer
Assessment
INC.10.50
Tom Shave 2004 Resolved?
No
Yes
Tom Shave 2004
Resolution
OK?
No
Yes
Tom Shave 2005
Send CSQ
INC.10.60
Tom Shave 2004
Review
Required?
Yes
No
Tom Shave 2005 Update and
Close Case
INC.10.80
Tom Shave 2004 Finish
Tom Shave 2005
Review Case
INC.10.70
Tom Shave 2005 Major Incident
Process
INC.20.10
Tom Shave 2004 Start
Tom Shave 2004 Finish
Tom Shave 2004
Alarm Point
Tom Shave 2004 Knowledge
Base
Tom Shave 2005
SDM.10.30
Case Capture
Customer
Click Tool
Analyse, Impact,
Prioritise Case
Tom Shave 2005
CHG.10.10
Change
Management
Tom Shave 2005
CHG.10.60
Change
Management
Tom Shave 2005
CHG.10.100
Change
Management
Raise RFC
Reviewed
Change
Rescheduled
Change
Tom Shave 2005
SDM.30.10
Major Incident
Monitoring
Tom Shave 2004 Knowledge
Base
Escalate Major Incident
Customer
Support Team
Tom Shave 2004
Alarm Point
Tom Shave 2005
SDM.10.30
Case Capture
Tom Shave 2005
SDM.20.10
Case Monitoring
& Escalation
Tom Shave 2005
SDM.20.20
Case Monitoring
& Escalation
Customer
Support Team
Analyse, Impact,
Prioritise Case
Monitor
Queue
Update
Escalate
Incident
Tom Shave 2004 CSAT
Datasource
Major Incident
Manager
Customer
Support Team
Tom Shave 2005
PRB.10.10
Problem
Management
Tom Shave 2004
Alarm Point
Raise Problem
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An Incident is defined as any event which is not part of the normal operation of a
service and which causes, or may cause, an interruption or a reduction in quality of
that service.
Incident Management focuses on restoration of normal service operation as quickly
as possible with minimum disruption to the business. The Service Desk is
responsible for the monitoring the resolution of Incidents. Incidents that cannot be
resolved immediately by the Service Desk may be assigned to specialist groups or
teams. An Incident follows the following basic lifecycle:
Incident detecting and recording
All incidents should be recorded in terms of symptoms, Configuration
Items (CIs) and services affected.
Incident classification and support
Incidents should be analysed to discover the reason for the incident.
Incidents are classified and initial support given where available.
Investigation and diagnosis
Minimise the impact of the Incident on the business, diagnose
Incident and investigate and devise a resolution.
Resolution and recovery
Implement the resolution or circumvention activity. Update user and
confirm success, then close the call.

Benefits of implementing Incident Management include:
Reduced business impact of Incidents by timely resolution
Improved monitoring of performance against Service Level
Agreements
Improved communication to customers
Provision of a consistent approach to Incident resolution
Less disruption to support staff and users. Better staff utilisation and
efficiency.
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Terminology changes moving forward:
Term New Definition
Previous
Term
Incident Any event which is not part of the standard
operation of a service and which causes, or
may cause, an interruption to, or a reduction in,
the quality of that service. An Incident might
give rise to the identification and investigation of
a Problem, but doesnt itself become a Problem.
Fault
Major
Incident
An Incident where the impact to the business is
extreme. An Incident which needs to be
carefully managed, communicated and
escalated where appropriate to ensure service
levels are met and ensure appropriate
resources are allocated. An Incident that poses
a risk of disruption to Vodafone business, i.e.
revenue or brand could be adversely affected.
Incident
Task A sub-unit of work related to an Incident,
Problem or Change which will have an
individual assignment, details and progression.
Task, Sub
Case









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PROBLEM MANAGEMENT
Diagram: Vodafone WPM Problem Management Process Level 2





















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A Problem is defined as the unknown underlying cause of one or more Incidents. A
Problem becomes a Known Error when the root cause is known and a workaround
or alternative has been found.
Problem Management minimises the effects on the business of Incidents and
Problems caused by errors in the infrastructure.
Problem Management differs from Incident Management in that its main goal is the
detection of the underlying causes of an Incident and their subsequent resolution
and prevention. This goal can be in direct conflict with Incident Management where
the goal is to restore service to the customer as quickly as possible rather than
search for a permanent solution. The scope of Problem Management includes:
Problem control
Identifies, records, classifies and investigates Problems to identify the
underlying root cause of Incidents.
Error control
Assesses errors, identifies potential solutions and monitors resolution
progress. A Known Error is a Problem with an identified root cause
and workaround.
Proactive Problem prevention
Proactive measures to improve service quality. This includes the
identification of potential risk Configuration Items, highlighting errors
in one system, which could occur in other systems and identification
of any trends.
Management information
Provides overall management information related to Problem
Management, including completion of major Problem reviews, and is
integrated with Incident control management information produced by
the Service Desk.



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Benefits of implementing Problem Management include:
Improved Technology services through reduced Incident volume due
to fixed root cause
Improved Service Desk 1
st
time fix rate
Good reputation for the Technology department
Permanent solutions to repeat Incidents and Problems.

Terminology changes moving forward:
Term New Definition
Previous
Term
Problem The unknown root cause of one or more
existing or potential Incidents. Problems may
sometimes be identified because of multiple
Incidents that exhibit common symptoms.
Problems can also be identified from a single
significant Incident for which the cause is
unknown. Problems can also be identified
proactively, well before any related Incidents
occur.
Corrective
Actions after
PIR.
Task A sub-unit of work related to an Incident,
Problem or Change which will have an
individual assignment, details and progression.
Task, Sub
Case






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CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Diagram: Vodafone WPM Change Management Process Level 2






















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Changes arise as a proactive result of Problems, external requirements or
proactively from seeking improved efficiency and effectiveness or in order to resolve
Incidents.
Change Management ensures that standard methods and procedures are used for
efficient and prompt handling of all Changes. Potential Changes to Technology
service components are reviewed in terms of their efficiency to meet business
requirements, and that their impact on service quality is minimised.
Change Management is best implemented concurrently with Configuration
Management, as the two processes are heavily dependant.

Change Management responsibilities include:
Facilitating the introduction of all types of Change via simple, clear
and effective procedures and tools across the environment
Progressing Changes on the basis of sound business and
technological cases
Assessing all Changes for impact on the business and technology
assets
Providing a framework within which those initiating Changes may
retain accountability for the actual work content
Supporting project management and co-ordination and ensuring the
feasibility of all proposed Changes
Preventing the introduction of Changes which represent an
unacceptable risk to the reliable delivery of services
Preventing the introduction of unauthorised Changes.

Benefits of implementing Change Management include:
Increased visibility and communication of Changes
Reduced adverse impact of Change from improved assessment
Better alignment of services to actual business needs
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Better assessment of costs relating to proposed Changes
Improved Problem, Supplier and Availability Management through
management information
Greater ability to absorb large volumes of Change
Improved productivity of users through less disruption and higher
quality
Improved productivity of Technology staff through less repairing of
faulty Change.

Terminology changes moving forward:
Term New Definition
Previous
Term
Change
Request
The form used to capture Change requirements
and information and progress through the
lifecycle of a Change.
CPF
Task A sub-unit of work related to an Incident,
Problem or Change which will have an
individual assignment, details and progression.
Task, Sub
Case









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RELEASE MANAGEMENT
Diagram: Generic Release Management Process Level 2






















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Release Management undertakes the planning, design, build, configuration and
testing of hardware and software to create a set of release components for a live
environment. Release Management ensures that all aspects of a Release, both
technical and non-technical are considered together.
Release Management covers the planning, preparation and scheduling of a
Release and works closely with Change Management, as a Release is a collection
of authorised Changes into the live environment.

Release Management responsibilities include:
Release policy planning, creation and maintenance
Release design, build and configuration
Release acceptance
Rollout planning
Extensive testing to predefined criteria
Sign off of the Release for implementation
Audits of hardware and software prior to and following the
implementation of Changes
Installation of new or upgraded hardware
Storage of controlled software in both centralised and distributed
systems known as the Definitive Software Library (DSL)
Secure storage of approved hardware configurations known as the
Definitive Hardware Store (DHS).

Benefits of implementing Release Management include:
Improved service quality resulting from a greater success rate for
Releases with minimal disruption
Assurance that H/W and S/W in live use is of known quality
Better use of resources users, testing and development
Greater ability to cope with high levels of Change
Better expectation setting for business and service support staff.
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CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
Diagram: Vodafone WPM Configuration Management Process Level 2
Tom Shave 2004 Start Tom Shave 2004 Start Tom Shave 2004 Start
Tom Shave 2005
CI Control
CFG.10.20
Tom Shave 2004
Is Current State
as Expected?
No
Yes
Tom Shave 2004 Finish
Tom Shave 2005
CI Identification
CFG.10.10
Tom Shave 2004
Is it a
new CI?
Yes
No
Tom Shave 2004 Finish
Tom Shave 2005 CI Verficiation /
Audit
CFG.10.30
Tom Shave 2004 Finish
Tom Shave 2005
CHG.10.50
Change
Management
Configuration Task
Tom Shave 2004 Initiator of
Change
Educate
Tom Shave 2005
CHG.10.30
Change
Management
Tom Shave 2004
Remedy CMDB
Tom Shave 2004
Cramer CMDB
Tom Shave 2004
HPSD CMDB
Close
RFC
Update
Update
Update
Tom Shave 2004 Initiator of
Change
Tom Shave 2005
CHG.10.30
Change
Management
Tom Shave 2004
Remedy CMDB
Tom Shave 2004
Cramer CMDB
Tom Shave 2004
HPSD CMDB
Educate
Close
RFC
Update
Update
Update
Tom Shave 2005
CHG.10.10
Change
Management
Tom Shave 2004
Tom Shave 2005
Difference Report
Raise RFC
Compares Master
to Remedy CMDB

Configuration Management provides a logical model of the Technology
infrastructure by identifying, controlling, maintaining and verifying all versions of
Configuration Items in existence.
Configuration Management accounts for all technology assets in the environment
and provides accurate information to support other Service Management
processes.
The scope of Configuration Management is assumed to include all Configuration
Items (CIs) used in the provision of live, operational services.
Configuration Management provides direct control over technology assets and
improves the ability of the service provider to deliver quality IT services in an
economic and effective manner. Configuration Management should be
implemented with Change Management as both processes are heavily reliant on
each other.
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All components of the Technology infrastructure should be registered in the
Configuration Management Database (CMDB) including Software, Hardware,
Operating Systems, Networks, Documentation, Processes etc. The responsibilities
of Configuration Management with regard to the CMDB are:
Planning
Including strategy, scope, policy, relationships with other processes,
tools used etc.
Identification
The selection, identification and labelling of all CIs including
ownership and relationships at an appropriate level.
Control
No CI should be added, modified, replaced or removed without
proper Change control and an updated specification.
Status Accounting
The reporting of all data for each CI throughout its lifecycle. Typical
statuses would include: Ordered, Received, Test, Live, Repair,
Withdrawn etc.
Verification and Audit
Reviews that verify the physical existence of CIs.

Benefits of implementing Configuration Management include:
Provides accurate CI information to support other processes
Helps financial planning through identification of assets
Makes Changes visible. Supports and improves Releases
Improves security by controlling CIs in use. Reduces unauthorised
software
Facilitates impact and trend analysis for Changes and Problems.

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SERVICE LEVEL MANAGEMENT
Diagram: Generic Service Level Management Process Level 2






















Tom Shave 2004 Start
Tom Shave 2005 Define New
Service Offering
SLM.10.10
Tom Shave 2005
Requirements
Gathering and IT
Capability
SLM.10.20
Tom Shave 2005 Document and
Approve SLA
SLM.10.30
Tom Shave 2004
SLA
Approved?
No
Yes
Tom Shave 2005 Monitor Service
Levels
SLM.10.40
Tom Shave 2004 Review SLA?
No
Yes
Tom Shave 2005
SLA Review
SLM.10.50
Tom Shave 2004
SLA
Amendment
Required?
Yes No
Tom Shave 2004
Retire Service
Offering?
Yes
No
Tom Shave 2004 Finish
Project
Existing Undefined
Service
Business Owner
Tom Shave 2005 Change
Management
CHG.10.20
Business requires use of an
existing service offering
Tom Shave 2004 Configuration
Data
Project
Supplier
Tom Shave 2005 Financial
Management
FIN. Financial restrictions
and requirements
Tom Shave 2005 Operational Level
Management
SLM.20.10 New OLA /
Contract required
Tom Shave 2005 Operational Level
Management
SLM.20.30 Amended OLA /
Contract required
Tom Shave 2004
Change Data
Tom Shave 2004
Problem Data
Tom Shave 2004
Incident Data
Tom Shave 2004
Case Data
Existing records used to measure service
Monitoring Tools
Business Owner
Business Owner
Supplier
Tom Shave 2005 Change
Management
CHG.10.90
Changes impacting
service delivery
Tom Shave 2005 Operational Level
Process
SLM.20.30
Retired service
Supplier
Business Owner
Tom Shave 2005 Availability
Management
AVL.
Tom Shave 2005 Capacity
Management
CAP.
Tom Shave 2005 IT Service Continuity
Management
SCM.
Planning and
preparation details
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Service Level Management maintains and improves business aligned Technology
service quality through a constant cycle of agreement, monitoring, reporting and
reviewing.
Service Level Management will document and maintain a catalogue of services
provided to the customers detailing key features. This Service Catalogue will list all
the services offered, their components, features, charges etc.
Service Level Agreements (SLAs) contain specific targets against which
performance can be evaluated. SLAs exist between customers and the service
providers and define the responsibilities placed on all parties in a formal business-
like agreement.
Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) define internal support requirements and are
required to ensure that SLA targets agreed between the customer and the service
provider can be delivered in practice. Contracts exist between the service provider
and external suppliers.

Service Level Management responsibilities include:
The definition of new service requirements
Creating and reviewing the underpinning Operational Level
Agreements with both internal and external service providers
A documented, understood and maintained Service Catalogue with
clearly identified products, services, availability, performance and
costs
Documented and approved Service Level Agreements
Measuring and reporting of: service levels actually being achieved
against target, resources required, cost of service provision etc
Management reporting.

Benefits of implementing Service Level Management include:
Clear responsibilities are defined between customers, service
providers and support departments with specific targets to aim for
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SLAs can be used for charging purposes and demonstrate what
customers receive for their money
Service monitoring allows weak areas to be identified
Misunderstandings between customers and service providers are
avoided.

AVAILABILITY MANAGEMENT
Availability Management optimises the capability and reliability of Technology
services and the supporting Technology infrastructure and organisation to deliver
the cost effective and sustained levels of service availability demanded by
customers.
Availability Management ensures that services are available when the customer
needs them by undertaking preventative and corrective maintenance of Technology
services, within justifiable cost.
Availability Management key considerations:
Reliability
The capability of a technology component to perform a required
function under stated conditions for a stated period of time. Metrics
are used such as Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF).
Maintainability
The capability of a technology component or Technology service to
be retained in, or restored to, a state in which it can perform its
required functions. Metrics are used such as Mean Time To Repair
(MTTR).
Serviceability
A contractual term which is used to define the availability of
technology components as agreed with external organisations
supplying and maintaining these components.

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Security
Providing access to technology components or Technology services
under secure conditions. Takes into account confidentiality, integrity
and availability.

Benefits of implementing Availability Management include:
Service availability levels are measured to support Service Level
Management requirements
Shortfalls in availability are identified and corrected
The frequency and duration of IT failures are reduced
Provides a single point of accountability for service availability
Levels of availability are cost justified.

CAPACITY MANAGEMENT
Capacity Management will match the supply of Technology resources to customer
demands for them. The process will understand the future business requirements,
the organisations operation and the Technology infrastructure to ensure that all
current and future capacity and performance aspects of the business requirements
are provided cost effectively and make the best use of Technology resources
available.
The customer's needs are assessed by forecasting the likely growth in demand for
current services and by sizing new service elements. The desired service levels
required can then be agreed with service users, based on business needs.
Capacity Management also looks at forecasting workload, sizing applications, and
maintaining a Capacity Plan in order to meet existing and future needs. The
Capacity Plan is beneficial to both Systems Management and Purchasing in order
to gain visibility of the schedule and likely infrastructure changes necessary to
maintain service at the required levels.

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Capacity Management responsibilities include:
Identifying requirements early to take account of procurement lead
times
Documenting the need for increase / reduction in H/W or S/W
Produce management reports including resource usage, trends and
forecasts
Size all proposed new systems
Assess new technology and its relevance in terms of performance
and cost
Carry out performance testing of new systems
Report on performance against targets contained in SLAs
Predict future demand for Technology services and the effects of
current SLAs
Recommend resolutions to performance related Incidents and
Problems.

Benefits of implementing Capacity Management include:
Elimination of expensive panic buying to resolve lack of capacity
issues
More confident and improved forecasting
Elimination of unnecessary spare capacity and optimisation of
equipment
Less need for reactive support
Early awareness of capacity issues within the development lifecycle
Reduced risk of performance problems and failure.



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IT SERVICE CONTINUITY MANAGEMENT
IT Service Continuity Management (ITSCM) deals with the organisations ability to
continue to provide a pre-determined and agreed level of Technology services to
support the minimum business requirements following a business service
interruption or disaster.
ITSCM is a vital subset of, and provides support to the overall business continuity
management (BCM) process by ensuring that the required Technology services /
facilities (including computer systems, networks, applications, telecommunications,
technical support and Service Desk) can be recovered within required and agreed
business time-scales.
The ITSCM process is based on the identification of the minimum levels of business
operation that are required following an Incident, and the necessary systems,
facilities and service requirements. It is driven by these business needs, not by the
perceived needs of the Technology community, and requires senior management
commitment. The ITSCM process includes:

Business impact analysis
Assesses potential losses from a disaster or disruption and allows
informed decisions on how and when to recover services.
Risk assessment and management
Assesses potential risks such as fire, flood etc and the likelihood of
such risks occurring. It covers the active management of identified
risks with particular emphasis on prevention or reduction of risk.
Recovery plan
Considers people, accommodation, Technology networks etc and
adopts specific recovery approaches such as manual workarounds,
reciprocal arrangements, immediate recovery etc.


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Benefits of implementing ITSCM include:
Management of risk and reduction of impact in the event of failure
Potentially lower insurance premiums
Reduced business disruption with the ability to recover services
efficiently in business priority order
Increased customer confidence and organisational credibility.

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT FOR IT SERVICES
Financial Management for IT Services (FMITS) helps the business to assess
whether its Technology service provider is doing the best it can with the money it
has. It enables the organisation to fully account for the spend on Technology
services and attribute these costs where required.
The business has to understand the true costs of providing a service and manage
these costs professionally. FMITS implements Technology accounting and
budgeting processes, and often charging processes for these Technology services,
allocating expenditure to services and recovering the costs of those services from
the business customers to whom they are provided.

Budgeting
Predict the money required to run Technology services for a given
period
Ensure that actual spend can be compared with predicted spend at
any point
Reduce the risk of overspending
Ensure that revenues are available to cover predicted spend (where
charging is in place).


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IT Accounting
Account for the money spent in providing Technology services
Calculate the cost of providing Technology services to internal and
external customers
Perform cost-benefit or return-on-investment analyses
Identify the cost of Changes.

Charging
Recover the costs of the Technology services from the customer
Operate the Technology organisation as a business unit if required
Influence user and customer behaviours.

Benefits of implementing FMITS include:
Reduced long term costs
Accurate cost information to support investment
Influencing customer and user behaviour where appropriate
Increased confidence in setting and managing budgets.




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