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Journal. Geographical


APRILS 1895.



By BASIL Emeritus Professor of Japanese and HALL CHAMBERLAIN, Philology in the Imperial University of Japan.

REMARES. I. INTRODUCTORY eelucated persons ;lre aware that the Pacific Ocean holds someMOST where or other an island or islailds called Luchu, and the more eIderly may perhaps lemember to have heard bomething of a British exploling expedition sent there eally in the centurtr. But being a place which to men-ofthe globe-trotter cannot reach with comfort, and which ofEers receives it llarbours, good or coal of way the in war no induceluents no to-day probably is there and Europeans, scarcely any visits frotll completely, So known. little so is that civili2ed equally world part of the indeed, does Luehu lie out of the ways not only of travellers, but of that after the lapse of three-quarters of a century Captain book-nzakers, Basil Hall's work, entitled, i Actount of a Voyage of Discovery to tlle West of Coreaand tlle Great Loo-cilooIsland,' and published byMurray in 1818, still remains the chief authority on the subject. At the time of my own visit in the spring of last year, the only European in the whole archipelago was the Abbe Ferries,a French Catholic missionary, who, however, lived in the northern island of C)shiina,which does not form part of Luchu in the narrower sense of the word; and the ouly occasional visitor (also to Oshima) was Mr. Alfred Unger, of the firln of Boehmer & Co., florists, of Yokohama. My own opportunities, though llnfortunately not permitting of a visit to the smaller outling isles, were excellent for seeint both land and people in Great Luchu, as the time of year favoured travel in that warm region, and letters of introduction
* Paper read at the Royal Geot,raphical Society, January 7, 189o. AIap, p. 4()8. U NO.1V.-APRIL, 1895.]

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from the JapaneseForeign Office threw open all official sources of information, wllile nothing could exceed the hospitalityof the native aristocracy as soonas they learnt that their strangevisitor was neither missionarynor merchant, and that he could speak Japanese,which is the Frenchof those parts. Thesecircumstances may perhaps justify aB somewhat minuteaccount of what I saw and heard. lany items have never been described before for European readers the marriage customs, for instance,and the two systenlsof ideographs. The present paperwill fulfil its objectif it succeeds in showingthat the Luchusare no mere barbarous is]ands,but that, on the contrary, they possess a complexcivilization,an ancient and checkeredhistory,and a language capableof throwing welcomelight on iE5ar-Eastern philology; that, in fact, these minute specks on the map expand when properlystudied, and becolneas full of varied illterest as a drop of water or an ant's brainwhen placedunderthe naturalist's microscope. My specialthanksare due to Mr.Narabara, GolTernor of the archipelago; to hir. Takeshita,late Chief Inspectorof Police there; to Mr. Nishi, Mayorof Shuri; to the learned botanist,Mr. Tashiro,who has devotedyears to a scientificexplorationof the Ezurther Isles; to Mr. Tamura, a Japaneseplanter residentin the islandof Ishigaki; and to Mr. Alfred Unger, who has faa7oured me with several photographs. Mr. H. C. Litchfield,barrister, of Yokohama, placed in my hands the manuscriptof an account of a visit to Luchu by the late Mr. E. Pryer; but unfortunatelyit was in too fragmentarya condition to make much use of, and containedscarcely anything on Mr. Pryer's special subject-lepidoptera-beyond an e2cpression of disappointment with the specimens ol3tained. II. GEOGRAPHY ASD NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS. Taken in its widest acceptation,LUCHU is the name of the whole chainof islands stretchingfrom the south-western extremityof Japan to nearthe llorth-eastern extremity of iF'ormosa. Takenin its narrowest sense, it denotesonly the centralisland, Great Luchu, or this island with its smallestimmediate neighbours, while otller names are appliedt to the other sub-groups of the archipelago. Historicalconsiderations partly explain this ill-defined usage of the term, the limits of the recentlyextinguished Luchuan killDdom and the natureof the Japanese claimsto someof the islands having varied from time ti) time, as will be seenin SectionIII. A furthercauseof confusion has been the habit ommon to European navigators of namina and re-namingislands and groupsof islandsmoreor less at pleasure, and of mising up their own nomenclature with the native names imperfectly understood. If we are to take early historyas our standard, the Luchu islands begin at the very mouth of the Gulf of Kagoshima, ill southernJapan. Are popular customs and ph)sical featuresto be our guides? Then Luchu

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begins onl) at Amami-Oshima. Shall we follow modern Japanese adlxlinistrative parlance? Then the northern half of the archipelago rnust be omitted altogether, because incor?orated centuries ago with Japan proper, and there remain only Great Luchu and the Further [sles. So arbitrar- a question can never be satisfactorily settled, for it depends on a definition of terms whieh every one is free to define as he *3ees fit. Another nloot point is, which of the islands shall be enumerated by nalne and which omitted as too insignificant? Thirty-sis is the nulnber always given by Luchuans and Japanese alike, and it corlesponds vely fairly well with fact if the entire archipe]ago be included. A\Then,however,the northern part of the archipelago is omitted, the orthodox number has to be made up by addint, some of the very sl-nall islands to the list. Waking the name ;'Luchu" in its widest sense for the purposes of this paper, and adopting the subdivisions familiar to Japanese geo2,raphers,we find that there are altogether thirty-sis principal islands, which fall into six groups, as follows:1. TheNorth-Eastern Group, accounted as beloncing to the Japanese province of Osumi. It includes1. TANE-GA-SHIMA (Tanega sima of British AdllliraltyChart, No. 2,412), long in shape-sorne 32 miles by a-colYlparatively low (highest point 1,200 feet), and admirably cultivated with rice and other crops. This island is noted in history as the first point of Japanese, or quasiJapanese, soil trodden by Europeans, the Portuguese adventurer tIendez Pinto having landed here in the year 1542 and astonihed the natives so greatly by his firearms,that a pistol is still sornetimescalled a tane{y-shtmcs in colloquial Japanese. The population numbers over 23)000 (census of 1890). 2. MA1{E-JIMA (Maye no Sinla of the chart) a luere islet, used for raising a few cattle, alld also resorted to by fishermell. 3. YAEU-NO-SEIIMA (Yaknosima of the chart), a cir(;ular island of some 15 miles diameter, covered with luxuriant forests, where grow the celebrated yaku-smgi, the variety of cryptotneria most prized for its tilnber. The knot of mountains forming this fine island attains a height of over 6000 feet, thus surpassing;any peak on the leainland of southern Japan. Whether its origin be volcanic or not, like its mainland neighbours, has not Jet been determined. The inhabitants, who nurubersome 8,800, enjoy the reputation of an alrnost idyllic simplicity Doors need neither locks nor bolts in this happy island where theft is ullknown; and a man hangint up his coat on a bush will be sure to find it untouched when next he passes by that way. 4. KUCHI-NO-ERABU-SHI.MA (Nagarobe or Yerabu of the chart), 6 miles long by 5 broad, is an active volcano over 2,200 feet high. II. TheNorth-Western Group.This group, whi;h is accounted part of the Japanese province of Satsurna,consists of three small islands, calledu '

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5. 1'AKE-SHIZIA (Ta7ce Si7ela of the chart), 740 feet higll. 6. I\VO-GA-SHINIA (IWOSa Sima of the chart), lit. " Sulphur Island." * The burnt red and yellow aspect of this island cone, rising ovel 9,300 feet sheer out of the sea, is most desolate; but the sulphur, which gives it its name, forms a valuable SOUICC of income. 7. KURO-SH[MA (Kuro Sima of thc chart), 3 miles long by 2l- wide, and over 2,000 feet hir,h. III. Thc Shichi-to, lit. " Seven Isles " t (" Linschoten Island.s" of thc chart). These too are all very small, though mostly high, and some are active volcanoes. A few poor families manage to pick up a living even under circumstances so ullfavourable; but this grour), like thc last, lacks all practical importance. Its chief ipterest is tlle danger it oSers to navigation. The names of the islands are 8. KUCHI-NO-SHIMA (ltutaino-sima or Yerabout: of the chart), 2,23CI feet high. 9. GAJA-SHIMA or HEBI-SHIATA (Ilebi-sima01 I)undasIslandof the chart), 1,687 feet. 10. NAIVA-NO-SHIZIA (Naka-simaor Pialnacleof the chart), 3,400 feet. 11. HIRA-SHIAMIA (Fira-siqna or Disaster of the chart), 812 feet. 12. SU\v.X-NO-S.E-.T1MA (Sutva-sima or Archimedes of the chart), an active zolcano, 0,706 feet lligh. 13. AEUIS1II-JIMA (Akuisi-simaor Samarangof the chart), 1,978 feet. 14. 1'OIVARA-SL{IZIA (Tokara-sima or Pennell of the chart), 860 feet. 10. YOWO-SH1MA (YOkO SSIRa or Ogle of the chart), 1,700 feet. IV. The Oshiqna Group, originally stlbject to the Kings of Luchu, but conqueled and incorporated with his doulains by the Prince of Satsuma in lfilO, and now under the jurisdiction of the Japanese Pre{ecture of Kagoshima. This group, sometillles alsc) called Sho-Ryzkyu, that is, Small Luchu, consists of 16. Os11iqsla, or lllore iully Amami-Osllima (Anami Oo Sima t)r Ilaxbous Island of the chart 11) This, the wecolldlargest lllembel of the
* Tle ' China Sea Directory' gives it the alXernative name of "Volcano Island," re3erving the name of " Sulphur Island " for olle further to the south. T There are leally ei^,ht, but ' Seven Isles " is a favourite nurnberwith tlle J:paillese; take, for instance, the ]zu S1^c7li-to, or " Seven Isles of Izu," to the south of Yokohama. Witll regard to the terln " Linschotell Islands," the ' Chilla Sea l)irectory ' includes under it T;ne-g;z-shima, Make-jiIla, and Yttku-no-shima; but the cllart wlites the nanle so as to cover the?Sevell Isles (S7zic71i-to) only. $ Evidently by confusion vith Erabu- (also mritten Yerabu-) s7zima. But whellce the :8nal t ? Perhaps from some French mariner, who might naturally write the sound a7)2l as about. Oshima, lit. " Bio Island," is a llame of perplexingly flequellt recurrellce off the Japanese coast. Hellce tlle plan of prefixing some luore de3fillite appellatiol), to distillguish each particular Oshima from its llomonyms. Thus mre have Iztz no 0 7zima (Vries lsland), off the coast of the prourince of Izu, etc. il Chart No. 873 spells Amctmai properly, and so does tlae ' Chilla Sea Directory.' But a11have Oo Stma for Oslwinla.

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enti1e Luehuan arehipelago, is some 30 miles lont by 17 wide at the south-western end, which is the broadesS part. It is a maze of hills, whieh rise in the south to over 2,000 feet; but none of them are voleanoes, antl Oshima is said to be entirely free fronl earthquake shoeks. Lyin=,, as the island does, direetly in the way of the Kuroshttro, or Japanese Gulf Stleam, the elimate is excessively huinid Few dat s pass entirely without rain; and even when it is not aetually raining, elouds and mist often obseure the sun. This state of things, disastrous insueha latitude(2820')to European health,favours,as a hothouse might do, the growth of a lusuriant segetation, arnongst whieh eyeads and tree-fetns Inost strike the eye. It likewise fasours the propagation of many lower forins of animal life, espeeially the dreaded Trimeresllrus snake, of nvhiehnlore later on. Naze, the ehief port of Oshima, lies on the north-western side of the island. It is a xery dull little place, built in Japanese stale and boasting a Japanese inn. The native clialect, essentially Luehuan in eharaeter, has been overlaid by the Satsuma dialect of Japanese, and forms a patois in xarious stages of degradation and hybridism aeeording as the speaker belongs to town or country. The ?opulation is 51,000. narrow Stmaof the chart) is a aTerJ(Kageroma 17. WAKEROMA-SHIZIA island solne 12 miles lontr, plastered up, if one may so say, against the southern coast of Oshinla, from whieh it is separated by a nalrow known to English mdriners as Oo-sima,or Porpoise Strait. It channeT boasts several small ports of export, and its coasts are much resorted to by fishermen froul Great Luehu. To its south lie the sluall but high islands of (IoroSiXa of the ehart), 1,000 feet; and 18. YORO-SHIMA (UkeStmaof the ehart), 1,353 feet. SHIZIA 19. U1E Islazd or Bunyalow (Kikat-ga-sima or KIKAI-JIMA 20. KISAI-GA-SHIMA of the ehart) is nearly 7 miles long by 2.l)wide, and 864 feet high. It is almost timberless, so that the inhabitants, who number over 1S,000, are driven to the use of horse and eow-dung for fuel. It is noted as producing the best sugar and the best mats (known as Ryukyu-omote) in the whole archipelago. Popular su}?erstitionrepresents it as having anciently been the abode of demons, whence its name, which means literally " Demon Wolld.'' leland of the or Crown Tok-stmba, (Kakirouma,$ 21. TOEU-NO-SHIMA chart), lS miles long by 9 broad, and 2,200 feet high. This island and the two to be next mentioned are well-wooded, and produce considerable quantities of suaar. t f the chart), 9.X Sima or Oukttz ( Ye2-abu 22. OKI-NO-ERABU-SHIMA -mileslong, from 2 to 5 uliles wide, and 687 feet high.
* Apparently by confusion with Kakeroma-.silima. Apparently a corruptioll of the first three syllables of the real llame.

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23. YORON-JIMA (Yori-sima or YuquIsland of the chart) is a roundish island about 3 miles in diailleter, and over 4()0 feet high. It has already been stated that Group I. forms part of the Japanese province of Osumi, and Group IL of the province of Satsuma. These ancient provinces are now united for administrative purposes in the single prefecture of KaCoshima,irl which Grotlps III. and IAT. are also included. The Central and Southern Groups (V. and VI ) about to be enumerated, that iB, Luchu Proper and the Further Isles, have been erected into a separate prefecture called the Okinawa Ken. V. The Central Group, or Luchu Proper,tlle chief memberof which is24. ()KINAWA or GREAT LUCHU.This, the largest and by far the -nost important island in the whole alellipelago, has a length of 56 miles, with a breadth valying from 2 to 14 miles. It has, from the most ancient tilnes, been divided into three parts called Kunchan, Nakagami: and Shimajiri. The first or northernlnost of these (also popularly known by the name of Yambara) is rough and mountainous, rising to a height of some 1,5(30 feet, wooded in parts, in parts barren, and everywhere but sparsely inhabited, such inhabitants as there are being despised or their poveltJr and rough speech and manners by the natives of the central and southern provinces. These provinces Nakagalni and Shimajiri consist of open rolling country with loxr hills in the centre, are admirably cultixated, and tllickly populated. The streams here, as on the other islands, though nulnerous, are necessarily very short, the longest attaining to a length of only about 6 miles. There is a curious stalactitic cave at Futemma, 10 miles from Nafa. The three provinces of Great Luchu are subdivided into districts termed mayiz, of which there are nine in Kunchan, eleven in Nakaganli, and fifteen in Shimajiri, the highly cisrilized central and southern provinces bein(r thus muth more minutely subdivided than the barlen northerll moor and forest land. A like division into mayiz i obtains in all the islands formerly subjeet to the Lllehuan liings. The term, though noxv unknown in Japan, is said to have been eurrent irL Satsuma in aneient dat7s The best harbour in Great Luchu is IJntell (Port 7h[elvtlle of the British eharts), on the north-west eoast; but it is, so to say, wasted, beeause situated in a hilly distriet retnote froln the eentres of population and trade. For this reason the Japanese steamers and tnost junks repair to Nafa (or Naha or Naba, as the Japanese sometimes pronounee it), in Shilnajiri, near the southern extremity of the island, which is much less good, the inner harbour being only aeeessible at high tide. Close to Nafa, and indeed practieally forming one with itXare the towns of Toreari and :@ume-mura. Shuri, the eapital (called Shui by the leodern Luehuans, who habitually drop the * in the lniddle of words), crowns a hill sorole400 feet lligh standing a little over three miles inland from Nafa. No other plaee in the arehipelago approaehes Shuri or Wafa in size, and the two folm a

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strikillg contrast, Nafa being a busy port, the seat of the Japanese administration, and altogether mueh Japonized in appearanee and in the manners of its inhabitants, whereas Shuri remains quite old-world. The eastle of Shuri is a delightfully pieturesque relic of early days. The othet members of the Central Group, exeept Eumejilna, are small and quite unimportant. They are as follows:25. TORI-SHIMA or Iwo-zax : (Ileno simaor Sulphu) Islandof the ehart). This is a volcanie eone sotne a40 feet high, and still aetive. It is the southernmost xoleanie member of the Luehuan arehipelago. 26. IHIYA-JIMA (Yebeyasima of the ehart), 7 miles long by nearly 2 wide, and 963 feet high. 27. IZENA-SHIMA (Isezla sireta of the chart), a mere islet 403 feet high. The British naval authorities unite these last two islands under the commonnalne of Montgome} y Grou?. 28. IE-SHIMA (Iye Islc;6rld or Sugarloaf of the ehart), 43 miles long by 14 broad, and 57a feet high. 29. AEUNI-JISIA (Agurlyeh of the chart), 3 miles long by 2 broad, and 30Gfeet high. 30. TONAKI-JIAIA (T?snashee of the chart), a mere islet 603 feet hig;h. 31. KERAWIA-JIMA is a group, whose small detaehed eastern members are called Mae-jinla (Mai7cixirna of the chart) and Kuro-shima (Eorusimaor SaddleIsland of the chart). The white cliSs of Mae-jiinaform a striking feature in the view seaward from Nafa and south-eastern Luehu generally. The large central island is ealled Tokashikijima, while the smaller western members are eollectively known by the name of Nishi-Reranla, their individual names being respeetively Zamamijima, Yagahi-jima, Aka-shima, Kuba-shima, and lierumajima. The chart writes Yagahi as Yakany, Kuba as Eupa, and does not name Keruma at all. The island between Keruma on the south and Aka on the north seems to have no name even in Japanese, the three islands being in solne mysterious way eonsidered as only two. The ' China Sea Direetory ' ineludes all three under the general name of Aka sima. The prineipal village and anehorat,e of the lierama Group is Ago-no-ura, in the island of Zamami. 32. KUME-JIMA (B:omisany of the ehart) is some 6 miles long, also 6 miles wide in the widest part, and has two peaks a southern one 1,028 feet high, and a northern 1,108 feet high. It has a fine waterfall visible froln the sea. This outlying but thiekly populated little island is one of the most noted in the arehipelago, owing to the Ryukytb-ts?sm?4gt, a silk fabrie whieh is exported to Japan and mueh prized in that eountry. The principal village, called Kana-g;usukuhama, is situated on the south-western eoast.
* Though lying so far nortll as to seem more naturally included in thf3 Oshima tXroup,this island is always accounted as forming one of the Central Group, because it belonged politically to Great Luchu.

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Sakt-shXBa Grot6p, or " Further Isles." In the British Admiralty Charts 2,412 and 2,10o it is staled Meiaco-sXszGs or Yayeyaiza Goup; but both these designations are founded in misapprehension, Miyakojima being really the individual naIIleof the easternmost large island (TaipinsanIsland of chart 2,412 $) with its tiny satellites, while YayeFama (or Yaeyama) is a general name for the two large western islands of Ishit,akijima atld Iri-omotejima (Pa-chztny-san and Kz-kiensanor Nishioznote Sirna of the chart), with their satellites. Tonakunijima (@umi of the chartt) stands alone. It matr be added that Taipin-san, Pa-chung-san, and Ku-kiensan are Chinese names for the islands. The Saki-shima or Further Isles are enumerated as follows 33. MIYAKO-JINIA, 17 miles long br 5-l)wide. It and its neighbouring islets are comparatively low, nowhere much exceeding 300 feet. They lack tiruber,but are thickly populated. Water is often scarce, and in the hollows whele it is kept it goes up and down with the tide. The names of the isTets are Ogamijima (EumsockIsland of the chart), Ikemajima (Coq^uma of the chart), (Oku-no-) Erabu-shima (Yerrabu of the chart), Sbimoji-shima, Euruma-jima (Kurixnah of the chal t), andsomeway further to the west-Minna-jima (Mitsuna of the chart), and Tarama-jima (Tararaof the chart). The British Admiralty chart names, aswill be noticed, are nlore than llsually faulty in the case of this sub-group. It will be observed, also, that the chart gives no name at a11 to Shimoji-shima, but makes the latter form one with Erabu-shirna by omitting the extremely narlow channel between these twin islands, and that it thus callses what are reall.y two to appear as one. The Japanese Admiralty chart, on the eontrary, which dates from 1888, is very carefully executed. Miyakojima was the first point of Luchuan land with which British mariners became acquainted,H.M.S. Pqovidence, Captain Broughton, having been wrecked about a century ago on the great Bayebise, or I'rovidence Reel2,which stretches to the north of it. In 1863, the German ship R. J. Robertson also was wrecked on Miyakojima; and a monument, raised on the spot by order of the Emperor William, commemoratesthe kindness xvith mrhichthe Germanluariners were rescued and then entertained for a whole month by the inhabitants.The name of the chief village is Karimata-Minato. 34. ISHIGAKI-JIMA.-AS alread) stated, this island and the next, Iriolaote-jima, are together known under the collective designation of Yayegama. Ishigaki, a vely irregularly shaped island, might be defined asclump a from 6 to 7 miles in diameter, plus two narrow peninsulas, one 11 miles long running north-east, and another 4 miles long to the west. It has many hills and mountains, of which the highest is 1,680 feet high. The chief village, also called Ishigaki, stands on the south* This and some of the other names are diSerently spelt ill the cther chart. t Probably a mutilation of the second half of the naule (k/,wli), i' which sigllifies country.'

Vl. The

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west coast. The south in general, which is colaparativelylevel, is highly cultivatedwith sugar,indigo,and othercrops. 35. IRI-OMOTE-JISIA, 521 miles long by 12 xvide, is very mountainous, solue points close to the coast reachinga height of 1000 and even 1,300feet, while the interior,for the most part coveredwith a dense growth of tangled forest, is still imperfectly explored. The chief village is called Sonai; but Iri-omoteis less well peopled than its neighbours. 'Theodious climate-with its constant downpoursand violent alternatiorlsof temperature-and the rotting of timber in sluggish streamsand morassesdoubtlesscontributeto this lesult by producing dreadful malarialfevers,whichthe Luchuans callfuchi. The mountainrecessesare for this reasonviewedwith well-founded dread, few that have spent a night in them escapingthe scourge. The working, of coal, which, though of poorquality,promisedto becomea pro-fitableindustryin Japanese hands,and was for a shorttime exportedto Hongkong, has had to be practicallyabaradoned in consequence of the alarming mortality among the miners. The difficult nature of the interior causes communication between the various villages to take place chiefly by boat along the coast. Horses,however,are a]so in constant use. Wild boarsexist in great numbers, also pigeons,foxvls, and pigs; and what with rice and fish of variouskinds,tlle bill of fare in these Further Isles leaves even less to be desired than in Great Luchu. Besides the large islands of Ishigaki-jimaard Iri-omote-jilua, the Yayeyamasubgroupincludes the islets of Taketomijima(Robe-ton of the thart), Kobamajima (Koubah of the chart), Kuro-slaima (Raughof the chart,Baugh of the sChina Sea Directory'),K;3mi-banare-jirna, or Kami-jimafor short (Inglefeld of the chart), Shimo-banare jima or Shimo-jima (loney of the chart),Haderuma-jima (Sandy Islandor Easyokan of the chart),which is the most southernof all the Luchus,and Hatomajima(Isaac of the chart). None of these islets attain to any height. All are inhabited. 36. Separate and westernmost of all the Luchu islands is YONAKUNIJ[ArA (Xumiof the chart),6 miles long by 2 broad,about 700 feet high, anclwell populated. The chief village is called Sonai(same name as that of the principalvillage on Iri-omote-jima).This island produces sandal-wood, mulberry, persimmon, aild othervaluabletimber-trees. It is said that fromhere,on a clear night, lights are sometimes visible on the Forrnosan coast. Perhaps,holvevel,only lights ogthe coast,such as tbose of fishing-boats that have colue unusuallyfar out from shore, are meant. Noneof the FurtherIsles have any decentharbours. Such,in its widest extent,is the LuchuanArchipela^,o. The following is the official censusof the VAliOUS islands,*taken on December 31, 1891:* l.e. of such as are includetl iTl theOkina^X-a Plefectule.

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Division6. Number of lsouses. Population

{Nafa and neighbourllood ... ... Shuri ...... ... ... Shimajili ; ... ... c3 Nakagami ... ... B;unchan t ... stlme-Jlma ... ... Miyakojima ... alld Yonakulli Yaeyamaejima
= =
. .

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... 9,872 ... ... 5,206 ... ... 18,825 ... ... 21,(;33 ... ... 15,189 ... ... 1,275 ... ... 7,157 ... ... 3,320 ...

... 39,627 ... 25,880 ... 93,968 ... 115,695 ... 80,271 5,453 ... ... 34,926 ... 15,061


... 410,881 ... 82,477 ... ... Total ..... 26,896. of population a with contains7,726houses, proper OFCLASSES. STATISTICS Deceteber31, 1891.


Princes. Family.

Nobility and gentry. Householders. J Fami]y.l

Common people. Householders. Family.

Total. Family.

IIousellolders. 2




95,082 1 57,981 235,213



includedin any class. these,there vas one foundlinglsOt NOTE.-Be3ides

The lalge proportionof the nobility and gentry as comparedwith the lower classes forms a curious feature in these statistics; but there is, I believe, no doubt of the exactness of the calculation. With regard to the geological formation of the various islands of the chain, it has already been stated incidentalltJthat many are of wolcanic origin-some, indeed, still active volcanoes belching forth smoke alld producing sulphur. Tllese may be legarded as outlying membersof the Eytlshu lins of volcalloes ill southern Japan. Tane-ga-shima is not of volcanic origin, and Yaku-no-shima not certainly so. Oshima is stated by Mr. Eada Tei-ichi, who examined its geology, to bs composedchieflr of metamorphicrock; but in the smaller islets to the south of Oshima, volcanic at,encies still displa) theluselves sporadically. Great Luchu and its satellites show us a totally diSerent formation-coral reefs everywhere on the seaboard, and coralline limestc)rte together with metalnorphicrocks. Marble is found irt the neighbourhoodof Untens. The Further Isles to the south-west are diSerent again, the coral along the coasts beinb succeeded in the interior by granite and other rocks not yst determined,except so far as that some of them have been found to be of volcanic origin. Coal likewise, as already stated, occur in Iri-omote-jima a thing uttelly unknown in the northern members of the group. The coral leefs round the Further Isles, especially to the north of Miyakojima, and again between Ishigaki and Iri-omote, are of great extent, and luake Ilaxigation in those waters unusually perilous. Turning now to the animal life of the alchipelago, we find horses, cows, pigs, goats, dot,s, and cats everywhere in a state of domestication,

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and small wild boarand small rild cleeron the principalislands. The cattle too are small,and the horses-or ratller ponies remarkably so, the leajoritybeing only from102 to 11 handshigh, and someas little as 10 llands; but they are wiry and extraordinarily sure-footed. Two speciesof rats exist-the house rat and another smelling stronglyof musk and tmro or three speciesof bat, including the larg;ofruit-bat, Pterop?l,s dasymaZl?l,s, which has been ascertained to be peculialto these islands. The malumal most conspicuous in Luchuby its absenceis the monkey. This fact strikesone the moreon accountof the wi(le distribution of the monkeyin Japan,where it ranges as far north as the extreme north of the leain island, despite months of snow and ice. Luchualso has no foxes or badgers a lucky deliverance in the opinion of lfar-Eastern Asiatics,by whomtheseanimalsare universallycredited +^rith supernatural powersfol evil. Of birdssomefifty speciesare known,including the Ertthacus komadorz(calledaka-htge by the Japanese),ascertainedby Mr.Pryer to be peculiarto these islands.t The reptilia include at least three species of frogs,one of which is a vely large greentree-frog, and a salamander resemblingthe commonJapanesespecies,except that it is yellow on thebellyinsteadof red. A prettygreenlacertula is common onOkinawa, as is also a chameleon. There are some harmlesssnakes,besides the poisonous Trimeresurus. The latter, calledhabuby the natives,is 4 or 5 feet long by 2 inches in dialneter, and is an object of universal fear and hatred. In Okinawa,indeed,one rarely meets with it except in the forestsof the north,and the islandsof iEZeralna, Oki-no-Erabu-shima, and Kikai-ga-shima arosaid to be quite free of it; but in Oshima and Toku-no-shima it is ubiquitous. Not only does this dreadedreptile spring out at passers-b5J frolnthe hedges,where its hahits lead it to lie in wait for birds; it actually enters houses, lnaking it perilous duringthe warmseasonto walk about the houseat night exceptwith a lantern. A letter from the AlobeFerrie dated June 1, 1893,informs
., . . _

* The late Mr. Pryer, in the mamlscript reterred to on page 290, says, " Wallace, in his ' Island Life,' gives this bat as olle of the animals peculiar to Japan; but it must be erased florn the list, as it cannot be said to be found llorth of Luchu." (Mr. Wallace gives it as a native of Kyushu, the southernmost of the large islands fortning Japan

t He says, in the manuscript already quoted, " This bird was origina]ly described from Japan upon specimens obtained by Von Hiebold, lYho unfortunately tra.nsposed the native,which should be akahige, givin,: this na.meto the Zzoqnadf)q , a.ndcalling the komadorzaka71igi.... It is a. ground bird, and its song very sweet. I have often seen specinlens in the shops of Yokohalna and Tokio, and, in ansxver to my inquiries, been told that they came from Korea, lYhich is vcry improba.ble,as a long price was always asked for them, and they a.revery susceptible to cold, (tnd very unsuited to stand such an inclement climate as Itorea. It is now definitely ascertained that they are natives of Luchu, where they are most probably residents, and do not extend further llorth, as Ml. Namie, of the Educational Mllselsrn,found them in March."

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me that since nly visit to him at the end of Marchfive persons ha(l alreadybeenbitten that season,of whom three had died. No antidoteis known. The general resultof such cases as do not end in deathis lifelong crippling. Pecuniaryreu7ards a.reoSered by the authoritiesfor the bodiesof these snakes,dead or alive, and the villagers go out into the woodsto securetheln. Even so the numberof the hab7b does not seemto diminisllperceptibly, and there is at least one casewithin recent years of a village llaving been abandoned by its inhabitants becausethey couldnot copewith their dire reptilian foes. The species has beennamed Trtmeresurus q4yu7ryzanus by M1 . Pryer,andis, I believey peculiar to the Luchuanarchipelago. Several of the Luchu islands also produce sea-snakes,locally known as Erabu-unayi, lit. "Erabu eels," and which, thouDhall lumped togetherby the natives, really belongto at least tllreedistinctspecies. Mostare harmless, but of one species the bite is poisonous. Of the comrnonest species the femalesb are about4 feet long and 9 or 10 inches rounc., the males about22 feet long; the femalee3 having a white bellyand ringson the back,while the maleshave reddishbellies. A secondalld less cornmon sortis somewhat larger, sometimesas much as 5 feet long; the belly reddish, with white, greerl,and black bands. All these can be easily caught in a depthof about7 fatlloms. The poisonous speeiesis still larger,running to as lYluch as 8 feet. Like vipers in some of the rural districts of Japan, these Luchuansea-snakesare highly prized, being consumed as food by the rich, and in smaller quantities as medicine by thepoor. They are smokedative by being tied round and round a stick and placedat a suitable distanceabove a fire. They becomenearly black in the process of smoking,and at first sight look like short black stieks to one viewing them in the Nafa market,where they are commonly exposed for sale. Land-shells are abundant, and the waves cast up on the sea-beach a varied and beautiful assortmentof marine shells. The coast watels swarmwith fish, most of which, however,nlake but poor eatillg atleast, to one freshfromJapan. The late Mr.Pryer,who visited Okinawachieflyin quest of Lepi-doptera,expressesdisappointment at the results obtained,as all the specimens were eitherof world-wide distril)ution, or at least common in. Japanor in Malaysia. He seems, however,to have examined only the butterflies, and eventhese but duringa shortvisit in the monthof May The moths,I believe,haveneverbeen workedat all, thoughI was told of a monster bombyxpeculiarto the furthermost isle of Yonakuni jilna. Thepaucityof insect life duringmy own visit earlyin the springwas emarkable. No mosquitoeshad yet venturedout. Perhapsthe open nature of the countryin Southern Okinawa and the constant seabreezesprove as adverse to insect life as they are beneficial to human beings.

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that of sIJnlike the fallua, the flora diverges very widely from of eent. per thirty About half the speeies being diSerent. ourer Japan, Fuehau the and Formosa whole are subtropiealspecies,reealling -the and about twenty per eent. are tropieal, ineluding waifs provinee; live of kinds Several Australia. as from sueh tlistant zegions strays but Lllehll; Gleat of north the of forests and pine grow in the oak diSer. speeies thoughthese trees are also eommon in Japan, the are ehiefly oeeur as sueh and Japan, in than are mueh rarel Bamboc)s (Ficus A banJ,tan ofa dierent speeies - probablyBambusatnulyaris. the and a peculiarly Indian eharaeteron the seene, irn,uresse.s -retusa) dimenlarge whieh attain aryentea, and Touqnefortia 7ittoqalis EIeritiera aspeet. Onefeature southern equally an lend eoast, all along the sions of eyeads whichat once strikes the eye, is the enormousquantity pressed are They plaees. on the hills and in waste everywhere growing of food,on aeeountof the sort of 6ago to be artiele an as intoserviee eaetus (called got from the tree's pith. The pandanusand a large planteelon being latter the by the natives) are used as hedges, bora ferns,and tnany palms, several the walls roundthe houses. There are on the both size large a to -tree-ferns.The bird's-nestfern grows The orehids. of kinds several are groundand in the trees,and there yellow fine with ginger A wild. um)bl'OWS longigoq white lily (lili7Xon as ale ataves, bothof the striped atld;lain forlus, flowersis eommon, grow on the and an immensespeciesof arum. Two speeies of banana )-the edible-speeies-being eomparatively Chtnensis islands, one (Mt6sa whieh is used to weave eloth out of, is tewtilis, searee,while the Musa other eultivated plants may be mentioned very abundant. AlllonO sweet potatoes, whieh is the greatislandstapleof eommeree, sutar-eane, others of the many indit,o of es:cellentquality, pumpkinsand tobacco, cereals. various and radishes, gourd family, Indian corn,beans,monster ricein ollt lay them makes industryof the inhabitants The marvellous the to down even irrigation, tiniest nook of land capableof fieldsevelny evely harvested generally are vely brink of the sea. Three rice-crops lie fallow duringthe fourth two years,the plan being to let the grourld many as five crops are as potato, period. Of the sweet half-trearly the staple foodof the now plant, aisedin two years. This invaluable China in the year Southern from here people, was on]y introduced is, "the Chinese that Eara-mmu, called 1605, for which reasottit is province Japanese the to north carried was potato." iEromLuchu it " potato; Luchuan " the as known accordingly wllere it is of Satsuma, people the and thence it spreadto Centraland Eastern Japan,where indigenous of its bf3ing from a mistakenimpression call it Satsuma-tmo,
came to me fromMr. Y. colltainedhl this paragraph * Much of the information but intelldsvisiting the plants, Luchu of catalogue a compiled has who Tashilo, Professor the celebrated of pupil a was He it. publishing before oncemore archipelaDcs

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Mean Total point) maxima rainfall .. i19-635-2 ............ 169-3

_ _ _ _

195-6 1948 516-120 454-8 2 23-5 113-7 26-3 217-3 27-4

__ _ _ __ _ __,

31 421-8 z 31-4 280-9 30 31-0 4 29-0 98-5 24-0 64-3.215 2598-5 25-4
_ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ .



informus that it was acclimatized to that province. Native historians in Luchu and passedinto commonuse within the short periodof four yearsafterits first introduction. are quite a recentinstitutionin Luchu observations Meteorological having been started by the Japaneseauthoritiesat Nafain the latter to that single station. I insert an and being still confined half of 189Q, abstractof the statisticsfol 1891,the last publishedat the time of my countfor much,even if visit. Statisticsfora single year do not perhaps and the following table is given no doubtexists as to theil accuracy, in only for what it may be worth. It will be seen that the maximum in January, (92 66 Fahr.); andthe minimum Augustis 337' Centiorade (45 32 Fahr.). 7 4' (:entigrade
127 41' E. N., LONG. 1891,LAT.26 1.OS NAFAOBSERVATORY,
(Centzgrade cmd mtllinsetres.)
_ . . . ..

Jan. Mteurnetempera-} 15.7

Feb. 16.8

March.! April. 17-2 1443 25a3 94 21 19 9 16-8 27a9 9-6 17

May. 22-7 ]9 9 29-4 15-9 24

Julle. 24-2 21-9 31-4 18-1 16

July. 27-8 24-9 33 0 2280 16

Atlg. t Sept. 27-5 24-7 33-7 23-0 16 26-9 24-1 32-7 21-3 26

Oct. 24 6 21-1 30-6 18 9 9

Nov. 20-5 17 5 28 8 13-8 16

Dee;. 17-9 15,;0 26-1 10-4 17

Year. 21-8 18 9 33-7 7-4 214

Mean minima 12-2 ............ 14-0 25a8 25-1 Absolutemaxima, 8-7 7-4 Absolute minima' of t Sumber rainy days... 5 l Mean barome- s f 15 21

' 765-0 tOr i(,reeedzuinegdl





755 4


757 0


760 2




39 E N 20 E N 42 E N 73 E S 48 E S 46 E,S 17 E S 43 E S 56 E N 451 N 49 E N 51 F;N 81 E Ctin } ID;t MteXafnwdiird t Mefnwiinntdn8ity 42% 26% 47% 26% 33% 35Ot \ 61'i' 50% 37% 044,t 78% 63% 33%

As in Eastern Asia generally,so here also, speaking broadly,the winteris the dry season,while the late spring and summerformthe wettest season; but the distinctionis less markedthan on the mainland or even in Japan. Speakingbroadly,too, the climateof Greait of C)hina its moistness, Luchu is a pleasantand salubriousone notwithstanding; of the placesoftening downall extremesof heat the insulat character and cold. Duling March,1893,the daily variationof the therraometer at Nafa was sirlgularlysmall, never more than 7 Fahr., sometimes barely 1; and the differencesfrom day to day were likewise slight, varyingin a whole month only between 56 and 72. Also there was almost always an invigoratingbreeze. Gaptain Basil Ea]l and Dr. and Gommodore who were there in Septemberand October, McsLeod, Perry, who was there off and oniduring the; summer,speak equally climateand air of this fortunateisle. highly of the ,uleasant menSome of the other membersof the archipelago,as alreadJr in this respect,notably Oshima tioned incidentally,are less favoured prevalentthroughoutthe year. with their dampness and Triomote-jima,

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Things are so baflin Iri-omotein this respectas to have given rise to local proverbto the effect that it rains thirty-fire days a month ! The deplorable unhealthiness of this island, an unhealthiness which partly extendsto its easternneighbourIshigaki-jima, has been alreadydwelt on. Jannartt and Februaryare the rainiestmonthsin all the Further Isles; October, November, and December the driestandleast unhealthy; June and July those in which malarialfever is most prevalent. All the Luchus sufferseverelyfrom those typhoonswhich,brewing in the neighbourhood of Formosaor the Philippines,sweep up with such destructive fury towardsthe south-eastern coastof Japan. My rides about the southernhalf of Great Luchuwere estremely pleasant. The opennessof the country,which in manyplaces allows the oceanto be seen on either side, with coloursdeliciouslyvarying accordingto the depth of the water abovethe coral reefs; the fresh sea-breezes; the alternation of hill anddale; the marvellous cultivation; the picturesque blocksof coral,standingup like ruined castlesscarcely distinguishablefronl the real ruined castles that bear witness to a former less settled state of society; the happy-lookinggrollps of labourersin the fields, all diligent and all most courteous when addressed;-these things madeup a scene which it wonld be hard to matchfor quiet charm. It is a curionsfact, whichI do nof remenlber to have seen anywhere noted, that in the Japanesearchipelagothe vegetation diminishes, instead of increasing,in ranknessas one travels south. Ride about Yezoduringthe summermonths,and the t,rassesand tall coarseweeds are higher than your head as you sit on horseback. CentralJapan does not carry thint,s to such an estreme, the grass on the hills in sammerbeing rarely muchtaller than a manon foot. In GreatLucllu everything is much lower still. There are no tall grasses, comparatively few bamboos, few thickets of any sort. The countryis parklike; and the hills, too,being lowerthan those of Japanand comprising no volcanic coness but being ather gentle slopes carpetedwith turf, the generaleSect is something closely approaching to typicalEnglish scenery. The early naval visitors to Luchu all remarked this, and went into rapturesover it. lfor my own part, while glanting the tranquil and, so to say, civilized charmof the sceneryof Luchu,I do not thinli that it will bear compatison for a moment with the grander, more sotll-stirringbeauty of Japan-Japan volcano-guarded, snowcrowned, and flower-strewn,where cones, as graceful as they are treacherolls,alternate with rich smiling plains and rut,ged granite peaksnevertroddenbut hy the foot of the hardyhunter in pursuitof the antelope or the wild boar. Luchu has none of these strong contrasts. It is all dimpledand pretty and on a snlall scale; there is no excitement in it. When I had left NTafa and was stealning up the Gulf of Ragoshima,at wlloseentrancethe magnificentcone called

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the Fuji of Satsllmakeeps ^,uard, while anothervolcano smokeslazily ahead,I felt as if I had said good-byeto soule pretty dairymaid,and nvere now re-entering the presence of an enlpress.

Luchuanhistorians, nothingdaunted, carrybackthe annalsof their countryovera periodof mose than eighteenthousand years; but as thfe bookscontaining; this so-calledancient historyare barelytwo cerlturies old, Chineseand Japanesewriters still remainour earliest sourcesof information regardin^, the little archipelat,o. As soon as the obviously an;srthological perio.lis left behind,all three sourcesagreepretty well together, thollgh allowallcezllust be made for the tendency of both Chineseand Japanese so to interpret ancient events as to justify their later claims to over-lordship.Even the Japaneseinvestit,atorsof the present day, though Itloreor less scientificallJr trained in Western methods, have not succeededin shakingthemselvesfree from patriotic bias. Aecordinffl, then, to the orthodoxaccount, heaven, earth,and maxl were aIl originallyin a state of chaos and confusioll. At iength, however. Luchuemerged,and throughthe beneficent activity of a god and goddessnamed respectively Shiniriku and Amamiku,the rocks and soil were formed, treesand herbsplanted,and bounds set to the ocean, so that mankind, who had hitherto lurked in caves or forestsand had herdedwith wild beasts,were able to come forthand multipl+. This god and goddesshad three sons and two daughters. The eldest son, Tinsunshi, that is literally, the "Eeavenly Grandson,'became the first king of Luchu; the second, calledAnshi,becamethe firstnobleman, his liet,e; while the third was the firsthusbandman. Thus these three celestial brothersoriginatedthe three classes of society. Of the two daughters, one is the patron goddessof all femalesof noble birth,the other of all peasant-women. At this time there were no books for writing had not -et been invented. Days were counted only by observing the phases of the moon, and seasons detelmined by the budding and wTitherin(r of the leaves. Rice even had hitherto been llnknown, the peoplefeedingon berriesand the fleshof birdsandbeasts But Tinsunshitaught them both how to growrice and how to cookit. Ee likewisedividedthe islandinto three parts,called Eunchan,Naka gami, and Shimajiri, and these three parts each into distriets(magiri), which divisionshaveremained ever since unaltered. MoreoveI, he built the royal castle at Shuri. His dynastylasted 17,809 years,cominO to an end at last in the twelfth century of the Christianela, as we shall see later on. The earliestforeignmentionof Luchu(the historiandoesnot state whichof the islandshe means)is contained in the Chineseannalsof the year 60o of the Christianera,wherewe readof an attemptto findout

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something aboutthe land andits inhabitants, whichfailedthroughwant of interpreters. But soon after, an interpreterhaving been obtained by courtesyof the Japanese,an embassywas despatclled to demand peremptorily the submission of the king to the Chinese emperor. Suh submissionbeing refused,an army was next sent in 611, the king's castle was burnt,and rnanythousands of menandwomenwere carried away captive. This Cllineseaccount,as lvill be noticed, is both circuinstantial and plausible, and is probably a true one of some attackon some island in the Eastern sea. But which island? That is the question. A thousand years later,when Ltlchuan historywas filst put into writing,when Great Luchu had risen into paramount importance, and the name" Luchu"hadbecomemore or less confined to it, people

',,'..'.''.. _ 111 1


1 l 1

E !_

E =l


seem to have assumed without further inquiry that Great Luchuwas the placemeant. In my opinionthis assumption shouldnotbe so easily accepted withoutclearproofw Japanknewnothingof GreatLuchuin the seventh century; yet we hear of the JapaneseCourt sllpplying interpreters. It is, therefore, at least possiblethat one of the nolthern islands,whichwere then calledLuchuby the Japanese, wasintended, or (if we giveup the Japaneseinterpreter detail)that Formosaisintended; for a portionof that island,muchnearerto Chinaand far morelikely to be attackedbaT the ChineseS was also anciently known to the latter underthe nameof Luchu. The formerhypothesisdoes least violence to the text of the Chinesehistorian. Indeed,it does it no violence at all; but in the absenceof further evidence,the questionremainsan
NO. IV. APRIL,1895.]

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Luchu one. In any case,be the incidentof the Chineseraid on obscure interbefore passed centuries or false,it led to nothing; for many true dlplomaticor xvarlike whether at least officialintercourse, course seemsto have been renewed,thoughsomeslight mutualknoxvledge was to a trade which thanks Ages, AIiddle developedduring the slowly of the neighbourChinese the and Luchu sprang1lpbetween gradually venturedfurther and bolder becalne sailors as the junk of Foochow, hood afield. altogether Intercoursebetween Luchu and Japan followed an from the annals, Japanese early the through course. All difforent little century onwalds, we find scattered mentions of the seventh of gradually islands, and then first of the northernmost archipelago given, is island the precisenameof the furthersouth. Sometimes those is used rathervaguely,leaving us (Luchu) Ryukyu term the sometimes up of interdoubtas to whichisland is intended. The first opening in Yaku-no-shima of men we are told, was in A.D. 617, when three course, Suikv. This was a few years empress with gifts to the Japanese calne on Chinese afterJapan had begun to civilize and centralize herself 678; and A.D. in suit followed models. lhe people of Tane-ga-shima the visit, andconferred returned envoy Japanese a year following the 'n with a rank on the native chieftain,reachinghome in 680 Japanese wonderful the of account all mapof this " Luchuan Island," and only Yaku-nobiennialrice-cropsfor which it is still famous. Not fiefs of Japan became Amami-Oshima, but shimaand Tane-ga-shima, tribute from of heal we and century; bythe beginningof the eighth islancls,a southerIl the of any mean w-hichluay vaguely Kumejima, appearstill the year 1001, little later. Aionotice of Kikai-ga-shima " (?), barbarians whenwe are told that there was war with "AVestern repel. to officialsreceivedordersfrom the Japanese whomtlle :lVikai of Sllimazu, also learn during the next century(aboutA.D. 1179) XVe with the government by the AIikado's being charged Princeof Satsuma, Tane-gaof of Luchuanaffairs that is, the affirs superintendence and Oslaima. This, being interpreted,means shima,Yaku-no-shima, for his own that he had managedto obtain a hold on these islands sanction, Imperial and, in order to legalize it, sought the advantage, also There thing. whichwas then a purelynominaland ornamental the of warriors by Oshima of exist notices of a Japanesere-conquest the of end the at propel Japan Tairaclan after their expulsionfrom twelfth century. acrossthe long and stormy And now we makea jump southwards Oshimafrom Great Luchu. The Japanese stretchof waterseparating descended hero, Tametomo,a scion of the great house of Minamoto,the bow, with and farnedfor his personal prowess from emperors, by his enemiesof the rival Taira clan, passeddown exiled been having each islancl the northernmembersof the Luchuangroup,conqueting

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0S'!.', |

, | _ ....D.-: x i -.0 ',| ,.- ,.,-00S,: <_ tt.- i iELdut;tLi.EEV0 | l ,I6L . .. ,,.02.i0.S,.E, -i-ElS | .. . i -0i i Wt f. ;
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as he went. Ilaving encountereda great storm, his salilorswere sorely alffrighted. But Talmetomo said, " Our fate is in the hands of Ileaven; fear not for your lives ! " wherefore the port alt which they soon after lalnded wals named Un-ten, that is, ''falte healven"-the Port Melville of our English chalrts. Talmetomo wals hospitalbly entertained by the local chieftalin,whose sister maldehim falther of a boy nalmed Shunten; but als he was ever ansious to return home to Japaln, he, with his Luchuan wife, twice essalyedthe voyalge,being on ealch occasion driven back by drealdfultempests. The sailors suggested thalt the seal-gods disalpprovfed of a woman being in the same ship with men. So Tame-. .



_ | _


* | | | -



_-I * _-I



l I I l l *_

; l|l ! !S1|1

tomo bade his wife remain behind and bring up their boy, whereupon he sailed back to Japan, and was seen no lnore in Great Luchu. Shunten, the son of Tametornoand of his noble Luchuan wife, is represented as the Napoleon of Luchu. Seventeen thousand eight hundred years had elapsed since the tirne of Tinsunshi, son of the god Shiniriku and the goddess Amarniku,during which period twenty-five immensely long-lived monarchshad successively filled the throne. This ver- ancien regime had at last become eSete; the goarernmentof the twenty-fifth king was as weak in efEect as it was tyrannical in intention; rebellion, confusion, and usurpation were rife on every side. Shunten found himself compelled gradually to assume the direction of aairs if only to restore order-first as chisf of Urazoe (which, by the w-ay, is rather suspiciously far from Unten) afterwards of all Central Luchu, and lastly of the whole island (A.D. 1187), which he ruled in such x 2

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fashion that peace and plosperity prevailed. AmonOthe other civilizing agencies which he introduced, the Japanese szJllabary is s?ecially mentioned. :E5roza hirn,accordin to the received account,the dynasty which has ever since claimed the throne of Lucllu as its heritage is lineallv descended?though I cannot make out from the hist;ory-booksthat this dynasty actually governed the islalld in undisputed and continuous succession. On the contrary, thele seem to have been frequent troubles sometirnes accompanied by the election of a monarch from among the people. These troubles began alreadyin the time of Shunten's grandson? -falaines, pestilence, and otller calamities showing; clearly the +rrath of the gods, and producing popular discontent which callsed him tc) abdicate; and as this abdication was in favour of a nobl<3 of the ancient royal family, we may presume it to llave been less voluntary than the native annalists would have us believe. In other w-ords,the intruding Japanese kings were set aside, and the legitimate Luchuan dynasty was lestored. But again, in the third generation, rebellion broke out, and the Luchuall realm, with which Oshima had been formally incorporated about A.D. 1270 was rent in pieces. This period, which is known as the Period of the Three Wingdozns, lasted fiola A.D. 1314 to 1429 from which latter time forward Luchu forlued one realm, enlarged by the annexation of the Further Isles, wllose loss of independence seems attributable to internfll feuds arnongthe various local chieftains. Till then the very existence of these islands had been unknown, or at least unheededX by the Luchuans p20perX though the population would seem to have been formed of waifs and stra.5ns frolll Luchu and from Japan. Gra.ves ale still pointed out on Islligaki-jima of warriors whom local tradition lepresents as clad in what we know to have been medinval Japanese costulue. Yonakuni-jima is said to have had living on itX previous to its annes:ation by Luchtl, seventeen families who traced their deseent to tlle great but unfortunate Japanese Taira. clan, and ,raves on several of the Further Isles have yielded finds of mctgcttctmc^, the comma-shapedornament characteristic of proto-llistoric Japan. Thus by the beginning of the fifteenth century the Luchuan kingdom had attained its videst estent, and ranked as an ireperial power, at least in its own eyes. Governors were charged witll th>3 adlninistration of each conquered islandS Luchuan institutions and customs were established thel e, heavy tribute was levied and the conqueredwere not allowed to resort to tlle metropolis, the only e:ception to this rule being that, if a Luchuan official had no other male heir than one born to him by a native lvoman during his telm of service beyond seas, sllch child-but not its brothers and sisters, and never in any case the mother-migllt accompany him back to Luchu. Even under this restriction several of the proudest Luclluan families are said to owe their origin to despised colonials. Nevertheless, discontents continued to arise both in the nozXth anclin the south; llor vas the rea]

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social a,ndpolitical unification of the whole a,rchipelagounder Luchua,n rule esta,blishedtill a,boutthe year 1520, under King Shoshin. Mea,ntime foreign troubles were brewing. China, which under Kublai :@ha,nha,d recently failed in a,n attelnpt to conquer Japan, determinedto a,dda,tleast Luchu to her empire. Accordingly, in A.D. 1372 a,nenvoy lvas sent to detnandthei submission of the legitima,te Luchua,n king, which was granted an exa,mple followed a,lmostimmedia,telyby the two smaller rebel sta,tes,with the result that Chinese ideas, hitherto spa,ringlyreceived, poured into the country wholesa,le. NobleS Luchuan youths were sent to study in China, a,nd numbers of Chinese fa,xnilies were tra,nspla,ntedto Luchu. To Chinese diploma,tic pressure ma,y perhaps be traced the reiunion of the three Luchuan kingdoms under one hea,d, the great king Sho Hasshi. This monarch's tolerance of Chinese dicta,tionwa,s rewa,rdedby ma,nyfa,vours,pecunia,rya,ndother, includin,:,the gra,ntof the sulna,meSho ('4 ), .e. " Venera,ble," which his roya,l line still bears. The ca,stleiof Oluono-Gusuku, on an isla,nd in Na,fa harbour, was set apart as a " concession" or " factory " for Chinese traders, just as the Japanese set Deshima apart at Nagasaki for the Dutch at a later date; and in the wake of trade, there followed a notableb development of theb resources of the archipeblago. The building of tenlples, fortresses, and royal pleasure-houses,the coming and going of ambassadors with numerous retinues, negotiations rebgardingcommercial facilities, voyages as far as Canton and even Malacca such, together with an occasional rebellion in onebor other of the smaller subject islands, are the matters which thebnative anna]s now record. The good ofEcesof the Luchuan kings were souletimes ebvein called in to negotiate between China and Japan-a somewhat perilolls honour, Meanwhile Japan had not been blind to theb growing prosperity of Luchu, and mor6 than onebprominent Japaneseb clan had endeavoured to acquire a share in that monopoly of Luchuan trade which old custom and Imperial sanction had vested in the Prince of Satsuma. But the latter was determined not only to keep what he had, but to get rnore. 'l'he refusal of thebLuchuan king to help in the Japanese conquest of IVoreaby Hideyoshi (A.D. 1592-8) was made the excuse for picking a quarrel. It smou]dered for some years; but at last in 1609, Shimazu, 1'rinceof Satsuma,sent his general, KabayamaHisataka, with a hundred warships and over three thousand soldiers, who first subdued Oshima, Toku-no-Shima,and Erabu-shima, and then landed at Unten, as Tametomo had done four and a half centuries before. Great Luchu was conquered after a resistance of forty days, the pallace sacked, alnd the king carried oS to Kagoshimal, where, however, he wals trealted with grealt respect ralther as alnunwilling guest, to almusewhom alll sorts of entertainments were provided, than as a prisoner of war. Thence he was conducted to Yedo to do homage to the Shogun, who trealted him right royalll,y,as did the Daimyos of all the provinces through

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whieh he passed on his way baek. But the interval of two years whiehthus elapsedwas eunningly availedof by the Prineeof to reorganize the adlainistration Satsuma of the northern the southernones b) means of emissaries, islands and to explore who assessed the tribute there at rateswhieh have lasted to our own day. finally agreedon, after mueh The talk and muehjudieious arrangement eaptivemonareh, flattery of the was that Oshima and the other northern the arehipelago melabersof skould remainthe exelusive propertyof Satsama, thatthe rest should be but given hack to the Luchuanking of his paying a suitable yearly tribute and admitting on eondition at his eollrt a Japanese politieal agent, who was to esereise supevrvision foreign affairsof the kingdom. over the This Japanese nates, oieial or his subordidisguisedin Luehuan dress,took part,unknown to the foreigners themselves, in all the interviews sentatives of westernnationshad whieh,at a later period,the repreless, the paymentof tributeto with tlle rulersof Luellu. NevertheChinawas not vetoed,though and all goings eomingsbetweenChina and Luehu were jealously even findit reeorded watehed. XVe that in A.D. 1631the Prinee of Satsurna, to need rnoney,eauseda happening retainerof his, nameclIjiehi, Fooehow to travel to with the Luehuan traders,disguisedas one of the profitthus earnedhaving them,and that, been very eonsiderable, the praetiee afterwards repeated was evera year. By this time the Luehuanpolity had erystallizedinto the form whieh it ever after eontinued to wear. Next to the title king, who borethe of Usu-yanashz-me, eame the Ojzor royal kindred, the Anzu,and Sanzuktran,-these togetherforming the highernobilitJ,g;old entitledto wear hair-pins in theirtopknot. To themsueeeeded in the We7kata the Japanese (Oyakata pronunciation), wearing silver hair-pinsornamented with gold flowers,and ranking as a lesser nobility. The gentry, were distinguished by the use of silver who hair-pins, were dividedinto three elasses, ealledPechin,Satunushi, and Chikuduny. The eommoners, Nya, wore hair-pinsof brass. ealled Hereditar;y titles and oicial rankwere kept distinet, though, as was but natura],the nobility and formed the governingelass, the gentry prime lainister beillg always seleeted from amongthe king'snear relatives. In somelaost the important eountry really deservedthe title respeets emperor in 1579,and still proudly bestolvedupon it by a Chinese inscribedon the gate of its city, the title of " The Land eapital of Propriety." There wele no lethal weapons in Luchu, no feudal factions, few if any erilues of Order was strictlypreserved, violenee. andauthority duly reverenced. severe (beingbasedon Chi1lese Nonlinally the penallaws werelaild practiee. Classandfanwily precedent), in considerations entered, their however, esecutiotl. For instance, largely into an assaulton an heavily punished than one on a younger; and elderrelative was lllole of similarlynThen assaulter the rank and assaulteddiffered. Not only were offences punished,



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but conspicuous virtue and successflll eflGolts for the public weal were rewalded. Confucius' ideal was ealried out a govelnment purely civil, at once absolute and patriarehal,resting not on any arrnedforee, but on the theory that subjects owe unqualified obedienee to their rulers, the monarchy surroundedby a large cultured class of men of birth, and the whole supported by an industrious peasantry. Trade occupied a very subordinate plaee; inde?ed, it scarcely rose above barter. 'rOEuropean eyes, accustomedas they are to seeing things done on a large scale, Luchuan political arrangeillentswould doubtless have seemed to partake of an opera comique character. The numberof the nobles was out of all proportionlarge, and the list of public officesand officersfairly takes axvay one's breath. A Council of State, Departments Financial, Foreign, and (Serelaonial,Emergency Departments, Boards of Agriculture, of Tribute, of XVoodsand iForests,Offices for the Control of the Royal PantrT and the Ro) al Stables, a Censor's Office,a Eerald's Office, Offices fol the Control of Tribute to China and Japan, an Office for Famine Prevention by the Planting of Cyeads, an Officefor the Control of the l\Ianufactureof Tiles for the Roofs of Houses, Offices for the Control of Lacquer, of Vegetable Wax, of Sugar, in fact of every inlportant article of export, all these existed, and crowds of others, besides governors and suboldinate officials of various minutelatgraded ranks for tlle outlying islands. In leading of it and thinking of the nember of offieials necessary for the manning of departments, boards, and offices so nulllerous, one almost begins to wonder xvhether there eou]d have been any population left to govern. On the contra side, too, it must be rememberedthat the agricultural elass had nothing of what xve call liberty, and few rights save that to live and orork for their xuperiors. Still, ta.king all in all, the land was prosperous, and the items mentioned by the annalists shoxvthat even prog;ress, though slow, xvasreal; for the genezal assertion Tnaysafely be hazardedthat Oriental stagnation exists on]y in Occidental faney. AVeread of nemr plants, new ananufactures(e.g. tllat of poreelain fronl Japan), and new medical luethods being introduced as time xvent on. Some slight knowledge was likeBise ,ained of the existence of foreign countries other than China and Japan, by the visits of European vessels which began at the end of the eighteenth century. Father Gaubil, a French Jesuit resident in China, had translated and published in vol. xxiii. of the Lettres Edifiantes (A.D. 1781), a Chinese account of Great Luchu and its inhabitants; anel soon afterwards British ships began to appear in these xvaters. The shipwreck of Provtdence, Captain Broughton, on the large leef to the north of lAIiJrakojima, and the kind treatment which the shipnvrecked mariners experiencedboth on ALiyakojirna itself and at Nafa, whither they luanaged to make their way, drew the attention of the British naxal authorities to this renlote cornels of the world. Accordin^,ly, at the conclusion of the Napoleonic wars, it nas deterlllined to fit

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S | R L2l t |i__;d1l lrA _ti I | I | |IIhis 00 ||il I | 1 |I British sense |'fabout S |1 E ; Br sjE qIa of hcommander two-thirds was on seamen ths Luchu the first by favours having an rf3corded European of eye-witness a died, mile rebook



out an expeditionto exploreand roughlysurveythis and otherlittleknownportions of the East Asiaticseaboard. II.M.S.Lyra, comlnandetl by Captain Murray Maxwell, andH.M.S.Alceste,commanded by Captain Basil Hall, reached Nafain September, 1816,andremained thereandin the neighbourhood for six weeks. The British navigatorsestablished the mostfriondlypersonal relationswith the natives,and wolkedaway to right goodpurpose, not only in surveying and chart-making, but in questioning,observing,and investigating generally. CaptainBasil Hall's accountof this visit


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seeit, and foundstill legible the inscription in whichthe ceived from "the king fand inhabitants of this mosthosirony of fate,the only part of the inscription no longer

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poor fellow whose memory it was intended to perpet_ uate. Since then, several otherEuropean seamen have lBlG. 3.-COMMQN PEOPLE OF NAFA. beenlaid to lest in the same spot. From that time forward the archipelago was visited occasionally by ships of variousnations; for instance,in 1826 by CaptainBeechey commanding H.M.S.Blossom, in 1844 by a Frenchvesselwhichvainly endeavoured to open up a trade,and in 1845 by the British captain, Sir EdwardBelcher,s.N., who surveyed some of the Further Isles. No diplomatic intercourse, homrever, was established, as the Luchuans, followingtheirmodelChina, alwayswishedto avoidpermanent relations with foreigners, though willing to treat with humanityand courtesy those whom accident brought as occasional visitors to their shores. They disapproved altogetherof certain persons who came to stay.

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These unwelcomeguests were some French Catholicmissionaries, of whom the earliest landed at Nafa in 1844, and a convertedAnglo(;ermanJew namedBettelheim,who arrivedas Protestantmissionary in 1846. The Luchuanshousedthe foreign intluders, who persisted in retnainingdespite frequententreatiesto depart, but heeded their preacIlirlg so little that at last, agfter .several years, both Catholicsand Protestant,having convincedthemselvesof the uselessnessof further persistence,left the islagnd of their own accord. Meantime,far more redoubtable intrudersthan agfew unprotected preachers of the gospel hagdagrrived. One fine dagyin 1853 the Americagn squadronunder Commodore Perry, which was on its way to force open Japan,arrived at 2fafawith the objectof first forcingopenLuchu. The weagker party of coursewent to the wall, the Arrlericans established ag coaling-station at Nafa,paradedthe island, insisted on being received by the king, and terrifiedthe inhabitantsgerlerally. The gain to knowledgewas, however, considerable, and the Jousnal of the expedition is highly entertainingreading. Though a treaty was concluded, providing for the good treatmentof American ships-ag treaty which the Enrench copiedin 185a, and the Dutch in 1859 no perinaner,t politicalresult followedon Perry'sexpeditionso far as Luchuwas concerned, and the little island kingdomrelapsedinto its formerseclusion. The interest of the place, to missionariesand diplomatsalike, had centred in its position as agstepping-stone to Japagn. With Japan itself open, all raisond'etrefor troubling agbout Luchucameto an end. Leaving Luchu'srelationswith Suropeand America, we mustnow go back a little to take up the more importantthreadof her relations with her nearer Asiatic neighbouls. Politically speaking,Luchuan historyfor severalcenturiesconsistedin an attenapt to sit on both sides of the fence,and fromthis attelept has arisen irl our own day the socalled "LuchuanQuestion," which has caused lllanyheart-burninge to iE5ar-Eastern diplomats. With Chinaon the one handand JapanOI1 the other,the kinglet of Luchuwas driveninto being a sort of Mr.FacingBoth-XYays; an(l the whole nation more or less, or at antrrate the higher officialclass,cameto have ag doubleset of manners one for use vis-a-visthe first of its inconveniently big neighbours, the othervis-a-vis the second. Thus the Japanesecopper "cash," with whicll of late someof the commercial transactions of life had been calried on in the absencecsfany nativemoney, were always carefullyLeptout of sight when the Chineseofficialswere by to see. On the other hand, the Chineseyear-names commoulycurrentin Luchu were ignored as far as possible in diplomaticintercourse with Japan. Even in mattersof food,the poorlittle Luchuans tried to rnake theluselvesall things to all rnen. It is, however,easy to see tllat of the two patronsChina was
* The LuchuanGovernment morethan once movecl for the establishment ot a native coillage,but the JapaIlesewouldnot consslltto thi3.

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their favourite, notwithstanding the faet that Japan was mole nearly allied by raee. Their system of government, as has already been notieed, followed the Chinese eivil, not the Japanese military type; and they always, among themselves, employed the CIlinese ealendar, whieh to Far-Easterns is a matter of the deepest import. Humiliating memories of the Japanese eonquest in 1609, and the unweleome presenee sirlee then of Japanese political agents doubtle.sseontributed to this result. The Chinese over-lordship,3n the other lland, was rathel nominal than real, and the so-called tribute-ships despatehed annualltr to Fuehau did sueh good strokes of business undet the rose, that the Luehuans aetually requestedto be allowed to send mosxe tribute to China than the amount originally stipulated ! Thus, for over two eenturies and a half, did Luehu eontinue to own a double allegianee an arrangement whieh, in the therl state of things, xvithseanty eolumuniaationand hazy notions of international law, worked fairly to the satisfaction of all three parties eoneerned. A sudden ehange was brought about by the opening of Japan in 1853. Japan, foreed by the WYestern powers frole her lont seelusion, adopted, with singularly elever foresight, the Darwinian taeties of " protection by laimiery " She herself becalne a Western power, or at any zate an exeellent imitation of one; azld, as we all know, one of the mrays in whieh Western powers display their superior eivilization is by annexing territory and tolerating notlling but eomplete, undivided submission on the part of the annesed. Aeeordingly, in 1872, the Luehuan ambassadorswho had eome to eongratulate the Mikado on his resumption of the funetions of government, found ehanges more far-reaehing than they had expeeted. They were infolnmecl that Luehu should henceforth be eared for by the Japanese Foreign Offiee, and that the Luehuan king was to aceount hiinself a meraber of the Japanese nobility. XVhen,a few months later, it was further announeed that the Impelial Government took over the responsibility of the treaties previously concluded by Lllehu with the United States, Franee, and Holland; xvhen, in 1874, Luehu was plaeed under the control of the JalpalneseEome Office; when finallly, in aldditionto these more or less sentimental grievalnces,the Luchualnslearnt thalt aln edict issued at Tokio strictly folbade their sending any Inore tribute ships in other words, trading-ships to Fuchalu, it is llO rrnaltter for surprise that the little court of Shuri was thrown into palroxysmsof fealr alndimpotent ralge. A llew eTnbassy,which hald taken up its residence at 'Yokioin 1873, exhalusteditself in etforts to obtalin Jalpanesesalrletion to the double suzerainty theretofore existing. Jalpaln, so they ple3aded, walstheil falther,but Chinalwas their mother; alndhow could so tender alninfant as Luchu survive without the fostering calreof both palrents ? I believe thaltthey even endeavoured to pelsuade the representaltivesof sorne of the foreign powers resident in Tokio to take up their cause. Btlt De diploqrwatba; Luchu was too insignificalnt to be
nlinimis ?on CU?at

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worth listenint, to. The end of it all was that the es-king; was brought as a guest, or in other wolds >, sta,te prisoner, to Tokio, where he still resides at the Ryukyzz Yashtki, or " Luchu Mansion," no longer as a -najestyor royal highness, but as a Japanese duke. His formerdomains have been annexed to the Japanese ernpire-annexed politically, and a]so partially assilailated bureaucratically under the name of the Prefectule of Okinawa, which is administered by Japanese officials,the provisions of Japanese law being carried out subject to rarious prudel)t exceptions which local needs and the circulastances attending a state of transition dictate. fEnor instance, the Lllchnans are exempted fIole the conscription. They are also exempted from the franchise, which should perhaps be to them a still livelier cause for gratitude, seeing the discord which that gift has fomented in Japan proper. Be this abs it may, one thing -is certain no other nation to whola the Luchuans could possibly be subject would have granted the franchise to them, and equally certain that they lvould never have granted it to themselves. Taking all things into considerationX more especially the gentle7 yielding disposition of the islanders, it is probablethat a few generations will sufEce to o?literate all salient distinction between annesers and annexed. For my own part and without pretending to any skill in political science, I view such a consummation as most desirable. Not that I would adopt that shallow argument for annexation which is reiterated a,s commonly in Japan as it is in Europe the argument based on kinship of race and languat,e. According to such a lllethod of reasoning, England ought to be annexed to the United States, which (as the geollleters say) is absurd. Indeed, does not all history teacll us-to say nothing of plivate experience that the bitterest quarrels are those between people of the sams kith and kin ? and is not the chief advantage of a columon language the facility which it af3Sords for wounding and exasperating each other's feelint,s ? Nationality consists in the possession of a coznmonpast, and the desire for a common future. It is, therefore, not on any such doctrinaixe grounds as that of racial and linguistic kinship that the hope to see Luchu form an integral and contented part of the Japanese empire can be follnded. This llope is founded simply on the gradual recognition of expediency on the part of the islanders. At present there is still a conservative or nationalist party, which looks back fondly to the old days of independence. I believe, hovever, that, as its members die oW,they will not be replaced by younger eIles holding the sanze views, but that, on the contrary, all classes in Luchu will realize for their future guidance a fact whicll the Luthtlan rulers themselves constantly harped on in their dealings with breig;ll powers -the helplessness and itlsignificance of their country. Luchu is very small and very weak. In these days of ubiquitous men-of-war, it is impossible for a very small and weak state to continue independent. The sole cheice lies between masters. Now, Japatl is surely a better mistress than China,

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and mustbe a more syrnpathetic one than any Ellropean possiblybe. She gives roads, powercould schools, a convenient currency, tion to life and property, The aspeet of the streets of sureprotecNafa to-day, compared with Mr. Gubbins's ago,$ shows that Japanese descriptionwritten but thirteen years infLuence has greatly increased verypoint concelningwhich trade-the th<3 Luchuans were most fearful. Japan enforces no religiousor social crotchets,and permits no foreign mercial comintercourse, so that the peopleof Luchuneed fear neithel any violentattenjptto sul)vert their habits unequal contestwith a race strongerand of life and thout,ht,nor any craftierthan themselves. On theother hand, such Luchuansas care to enter the lists, to learn Japanese and dress like the Japanese, may obtain official on equal terins with the employment Japanese, there being no prejudice colour of race or to relegate them pelinanently to a subordinate short, fronlevery point of view, position. In frank of incorporation Japan appearsto be the method by acceptance with which the Luchuans may best secure comfort andrelativeimportaIlce in the future. To turn back a moment before quitting the subjectof history, it may be useful to Luchuan remarkthat from the fourteenthcentury onwards, the Luchllan annalsareevidentlyautllentic All beforethateven the conquestby 1'ametomo-I hesitate to accept without better confirmation than seellls to be forthcoming;but interestingevidence genuineness of anotherkind colnes of beforeus in the general of spirit that subsists between similarity the that early historyand of Japan. The legend of Lllchuanfabulous the immensely and the long (livine dynastythat Creatorand Creatress, precededthe rule of pureliy kings, have quite a Japanese human ring. My own eonjeetural restorationof the illeg;iblepages of the early history of this remote region would be somewhatto the effeet: thattheeomlnon following ancestors of tlle presentJapanese nations andLuehuan entered Japan from the south-west, erossiIlg the Korean Ghannel with the islaxld of Tsushimaas a in stepping-stone, and landing Syushu, the southernmost greati:3land of Japan. This is probable alike by geography,by the rendered trend of legend, and by the grammatieal affinitieseonneetingJapanese and Luehuanwith Eorean and DIollgol. We know fromhistoryand fiom the testimony names t that tlais race gradually spreacleastward and of plaeeapparently northward, arllalgamating with soine eolllparatively eivilized native
*Seean excelIellt p:per, eIltitled ;; Notes J. Re;,ardirlg the Principality of H. Gubbins? of H.B.tI. Legatioll, Luchu," by Tokio, prillted in the Arts, June3, 1881. Jour)lal of t1be Society of tSeea mollograph by tlle present xvriter on "Tlle Lallguage, Geographic11 Nomenclature of Japan viexYedin Mythology, and the :Xs No. I. of the Zemotrs of the Literattlre College Light of Aino Studies," pul)lished of the llnperial University 'rokio? 1887. of Japtlo,




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but drivint, llothingean llow be aseertained, tribesas to whoseafEnities beforeit and killing off an earlier savage raee, of whom the modern Ainos are the last rfemnant.A glanee at a map will show why, as Eyushu filled up, the bulk of the invaderspressedeast and north:therewas lnostland in that direetion. Therewas also, however,some little land to the south,namelt,the LuchuIslands,dottedlike steppingstones, visible one froln the other, the whole way from the Gulf of subsistWagoshirea to Great Luehu. The extrelnelyelose relationship both as regardslanguageand ing betweenthe Japaneseand Luehuans, as regardsraeial type, foreesone to the eonelusionthat a fraetionof the intrudingraeetook the southernroute,perhapsfiom ehoiee, more plobal)ly as a refuge from defeat in internecine strife. I should ima^,ine furtherthat there was not originallyany thoughtof the subarehipelago as a whole to the Japaneseempire, jeetion of the Luehuan the very idea of sueh extendedunits being impossiblebeforethe days and there being no traeeof such a elaimin the ofEeial of eentralization, Japaneseannals xvheninterpretedin their obvioussense; that walre sueeeededwave at varying intervals, eaeh sueeessivewave of southward-bound emigrantssubduing and partlAincorpolatingthose that had preeeded it, beeausethe lnen from the larger and moreturbulent land to the north,where lesoureesand all the elemelltsof eivilization overeomethe weak, isolated were more abundant,would naturall;y preservesfor us islandels; that the legendaryconquestby Ta]netomo nder a single name the vague native reeolleetionsof many sueh of part oceulrenees in the distantpast; and that the historiealeonquest century,and of the groupby the Princeof Satsumain the seventeenth by the 11nperial of the whole arehipelago the reeentformal annexation of tllis southward show us the modusoperandi JapaneseGoveruluent, movemelltunder modern conditions, s hen improved communiUation thus aUnd greaterpo]iticatpowerfacilitateactionon a largerscale. NVe see, too, why it is difficultto defineLuthu exactly: the reasonis that has varied frorntirne " of the archipelago the degreeof s; Japonization to time, and that it we are to take languat,eand customsas our guides, similaritybetween easy to say in each case xvhether it is by no naeans or LuchuaUnd Japan arisesfrom original identity or from borrowing, should l)e ascribedto origirlal whether,on the other hand,differellces unlikeness,or to the fact of one or other countrt having preserved past which the otherhas let drop. intact featuresof the columon racein Luchuwere of the Japarlo-Luchuan Whether the predecessors have been Ainos or not, it is impossibleto say. Two place-names Tei-ichi,in supportof such a adducedby a Japanesesavant,Mr. ICada theory; but that seemsvery little to build on-* Far moreimportant Nat, and Hizlai on the fal-tlistant island of Wronakllni. * The nallle.sare So7Ra? in of numerous place-names " in Aino, entersinto the formation nvhicil naeans " streal)l

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is the discovery by Dr. Doederlein in Oshirnaof numerous hairtrindividuals among the smoothgerleralmass of the populatiorl. I noticednone such myself, even among the fishelmen. But Dr. Doederlein e2cpressly says that he saw many quite as hirsute on the body and limbs as the hairiest Europeans; and his stay on that island having been lorlger than mine, and at a time of year (August) when a greater proportion of the labouring men would go naked, he is probably correct. Should the fact be really established, it would lend some countenance to the idea that a little Aino blood


as a matter of fact, a very = _ I_ i

FIG. 4.-A

* !l I_

ing the inferiority of othel Asiatics to themsel-es. Myself and my highly intelligent Japanese travelling com-

panionwere impressed in the same way, and I would venture to suggest that the peculiarities noticed by Dr. Guillemard e arose principally from diCerencesof dress, coifFure, and shaving. The Japanese type having been described once for all in Dr. E. Baelz's admirablemonograph,entitled " Die Korperlichert Eigenschaften der Japaner," printed in Patts 28 and 32 of the Mtttheiltbnyen der Deutschen Gesellechaft fur N44tbrund Volkerkunde Ostasiens, nothing more need be said about it here. The most prominent race-characteristicof the Luchuans is not a phtrsical,but a moral one It is their gentleness
Yezo, where the Aino3 still flourish, and also in northerIl Japan, whence they were driven less than a thousand years age. There is also a Sonaton Iri-omote jima. * See p. 27 of his deli*,htful ' Gruise of the Malohesa.'

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of spirit and manner, their yielding and submissive disposition, their hospitality and kindness, their aversion to violenee and erinle. Every visitor has come awar with the same favourable ilupression Captain Broughton, whom they treated so hospitably on the oeeasion of his shipwreek in 1797; CaptJain Basil Hall, Dr. MeLeod, Dr. Guillemard--even the missionaries, poor as was theiz sueeess, and all the Japallese. For myself, I met with nothing but kindness frornhigh and low alike. The solitary exeeption to this ehorus of praise is Commodore Perry; but then the aeeount he himself gives of his haughty and masterful eonduet, of his violent threats, and eontemptuolls disregard of all international law and eollrtesy, renders it seant mattel for surprise that even Luehuan patience should have been exhausted, and that the islanders should have resortedto deeeit,whieh is the only weapon the weak ha e at their disposal against the strong. The blustering Commodole'svirtuous indignation at the employment of this wea)on against no less august a pelsonage tha himself, makes most alnusing reading by reason of its uneonscious satire. Though the Luchuans do not ilepress one as a vigorous raee, I noticed no cripples among them, nor yet any blind people. The only deformity that seemed somewllat common was hare-lip Obesity was extreinely rare. (To be continued.)
The map of the Luchu Islands is a reduction from Japanese Admiralty Chart. The names have been translatedfrom the Japaneseby Mr. Basil t[all Chambellain.
. . ,


ONWednesday, November 1, 1893, I left MoroecoCity with a small band of Moors, myself in native elothing, although my identity was known to the five men who aeeompaniedme. We eamped for the night about 4 miles from the eity, to the south-east, at one of the small " nza]as," merely a few thateh huts enelosed in a " zareba" of thorn hedge, whieh give seeurity from horse-stealers, ete., at nig,ht. These " nzalas " are ereeted at intervals all along the roads of Moroeco,or rather the traeks, for roads, properly speaking, do not exist. The natives in eharge are responsible for ally theft that may take place, and in retuln for this responsibility are permitted by the native government to levy a small tax on any who may use the " zareba." The following morning, November 2, we were off before daylight, our road proceeding in an east by south direction over the plain of Misfiwa, one of the large Bashaliks of Southern Moroeeo. During the morning two rivers were forded, the WVad Urika and the AVad el-Melha
* Paper read at the Rofal GeographicalSociety, I\Iollday,Decernbel10, 1894. Map,p. 408.

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_J Ima



GREAT LUCHU. 8calel:1,000,000(1575Ro1 =).

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The figures indicate the elevation abovc seaon each island.





GREAT LUCHU. 8calel:1,000,000(1575Ro1 =).

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The figures indicate the elevation abovc sealevel in feet of thc highest points on each island.

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betweerl the European an(l the native races has resulted in sollle good to the latter, in Central Africa, on the contrary,nothing but harnl has come of it; and the indigenous blowth of civilization, witnessed by the various handicraftsof the people-specimens of which luay be seen in the llest room- is being stamped out I must again expressregret that the wide and enlightenedviesvs of his Majesty the King of the Belgians, who initiated international concert in dealinc with Celltral Africa,have not been developed,and that the aims alld views of Livingstone, the best and greatest of Africanexplorers,have not been realized. The PRESIDENT: Captain Hinde has taken part in an event which will probably be found to be the most importantsince the discoveryof the courseof the Congoby Ml. Stanley. The Arab slave-traders seem to have been entirely cleared out of the country. Captaill Hinde's independent exl)loration is also of great geographicalinterest, in havin;, ascended the Lualabaand completedits exploration as far as the Lukuga. I am sure the uleetin{r will desire ule to rettlln him our vely hearty thanks for the interestiljg papel he has Oivenus this evenin. THE MAP OF PARTOFTHE SOUTEI-EASTERN CONGO Bj8ISr NViththe work of the older explorers,whose routes are laid down on the map, has been incorporatedmaterial suppliedby CaptainHinde, ill the shape of sketch-mapsmade by himself and other officialsof the CongoState. The routes covered by these maps are the following: Lupungu Mulenda N'Gandu; Kolomolli Goi MuyassaPiani Solomoni Lussuna; N'Gandu Lussuna; Funda Fuanka Molenda; Lussuna-Piano Chiaba-Luliuna; routes north alld south-west of Lusalubo. The courses of the Lukuga and Lualaba from Mbuli's to Lukuna are from Captain Hinde's compass-survey,with additions from the survey made by Mr. Mohun ('Mouvement Geographique,'1894, p. 84). The course of the Lualaba below Ltlkuna is from Dr. Lenz's survey (' htitteilullgen der 1R.1R. Geogl. Gesellsch. NVien7' 1886, hIap viii., scale 1: 1,130,000).


By BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN, Emeritus Professor of Japanese and Philology in the Imperial University of Japan.


The manners and custouls of a people oSel so illimitably widei a geld, that it will be best in this instance to pass lightly ovel points made known by earlier traellers, and to dxvell at greater length onlon such as are new. Both Basil Hall and PerrJr,for illstance, have described the Luchuan costunle and illustrated it pictorially in their works. Their descriptions still llold, except tllat the elaborate robes and caps of office are Bo n.ore, now tllat Luclluan independence itself is at an end, atld that officialsfrom ToktZo in E:ur(l)eantrousers and fiockcoats rule the land. In essentials the evelyday Luchuan costume resembles the Japanese, beint a loose robe {ol the men as well as for the WO1Uell. The xvearint of two large ll.lirpins by the men gold,
* Paper read at tlle Royal Geographical Society, Jalluary 7, lX9o. Iap, ). 408 Continued from the April nlllllLer.

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silver,orpewter, according to the wearer's rank stuckthrough a topknot into whichthe llairis gathered, formsa characteristic difference.Young men of all classes shave clean till the age of five andtwenty. Aftx3r that, they let their beardsand moustaches grow,though they mostly continueto shavethe cheeks. Theirgait is dignifiesd, the expression of the faceserious,oftensad,and sometimes singularlysweet in the older men,whose appearance is most venerable. Their voices,too, are soft andlow. All Luchuanwomen tattoo their hands. The patterns adoptedire Great Luchu are respresented in the accompanying ellgravirlg. The


women of Oshimagive free rein to individual fancy. Those of Miyakollma llkewlse have a great sariety of patterns,and continue the tattooing a long way up the arm. In Yaeyama,on the contrary,it is restricted to the hands. The women of the lower classes roll their hair round and round in a tmr;St on the top of the head, and then stick hairpins through it gold, silver, or pewter (sometilnes wood), much less often tortoiseshell s on specially auspicious occasions. The silver-hairpinned ones
.. ... . .

* The tortoise-shell hairpills seetn not to have been noticed by ally traveller, JEuropean or apanese.

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also wear silver rings, the pewter dames wear pewter rings. There being :llothingto keep the roll of hair with its hairpins in place, it is apt to lop over on one side, making the urearerlook as if she had taken a drop too much. Altogether the appearanceof the Luchuan women of the people is little prepossessing, especially to one fresh from Japan, the land of graceful feluininity. They fasten their dress over frotn the right side as often as fiom the left, which is a. dreadful slip of manners in Far-Eastern eyes; and in cool weather they don an over-dress held together by no sash, so that it bulges out and swa.,Ts backwards and forwards in the wind. Their gait, too, is luasculine and striding,-a. peculiarity which probably arises frolYl the national custom of carrying all loads on the head. A coolie woman will carry as much as 200 lbs. in this way. The drollest sight is that of the wolnen bringing suckint,pigs to n:larketon their heads. A disk of straw serves as a. couch to

_^ tIhNsd COIli'FURE.


which the animal is firinly tied, with its legs sticking out fore and aft, so that it looks as if it were taking a swimluing lesson. I was looking, on one day, mrhen an intending purchaser came up. So one little pig was taken down and his points were shown ofFby his mistress, who held him up by the tail and hind legs, for a11 t;lle world as if llis swimming lesson bad progressed as far as the art of taking headers. The woman asked 812 for him. The buyer would not give more than a dollar. So Master Pig, as I departed,was being mountedagain on his straw pad, screaming loud enough to raise the town. Did fashion, in her wildest flights, ever go further than in thus adding a sucking-pig to the attractions of a lady's coiff8ure ? Curiously enough, there seems to be a general prejudice in Luchu against allowing animals the nse of their legs. P;gs, when too big to be carried on the head, are slung on a pole between two lnen. Goats I saw similarly carried, and never on any occasion did I see pigs or goats driven, as we should drive them in Europe. The market-place,which is the centre of life at Nafa.,is entirely in the hallds of the womell, who show no timidity +shatever, exposing not onl) their faces, but their arm.sand even their legs. This makes {;he seelusion of their social superiol*.s all the more remarkable by

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contrast. The ladies of Luchu spend their lives ill a retireluentso absolute that I never saw one during the whole period of my stay, though the rustling behind screens when I visited my male acquaiIltancesseemedto indicatethat the femalesof the housellold werepeeping at the foreignelfrolll invisible coitns of vantage. Japanese who have spent long periodsof time on the islands have recordecl the fact that they too never caught a glimpse of a Tjuchuan lady. To ask a Luchuangentletnanafter the health of his wife and daughters, or to alludeto their existencein anywafr, lrouldbe the heiglltof illlpropriety. Rarelydoes a ]ady leave the housewhichis her lifeCong home. Should sonze extraordinary occasion cotnpel her to do so, she retires from view mJithin a closelyshut palanquin. How diSelent frola the genial JapanesePrefect of Okinawa, whose very first act, on my first visit, was to call in his charming xvife,^rhoshowedme her latest pulchases of local curiosjust as a European lady might have done! The Luclluangentlementake refuge from the virtuous dulness of their llomes by seekin, the society of ladiesof laorefacile habits,the numberof whomis very considerahle. These live in special quarters, and practisethe arts of sillting, dancing,and conversation. Here is what a recent Japaneseautlwor' says about them, and his assertions xvereborne out, point b5Jpoint, by my own inquiries made on the spot" The Luchuanhetairaediffergleatly in their ways froln those of the mainlandof Japan. They are frank and no fiatterers. Es-ery Japanesetrader arrinring in Luchu engages one, to whom he entrusts everything, even to tlle managementof his mercantileaffairs; and when he departs,the girl sells to best advantat,ethe articlesi confided to her charge,so tllat when her master collles backat,ain she is able to renderhim a satisfactoryaccount,in wllich there is never any error or prevarication to the amountof a single penny. hIoreover, this good concluct is the result of natural inclination, not of self-seekingor of vainglorT." IIe adds that, " though generally unversed either in writing or ciphelin^,, they tie knots in cords to assist theil meinory, andthus managewitllouterrorcalculations involvingtells of thousands ofcash." These women on certainsstated occasions dancethrougllthe streets for the benefit of the public generally. One of these festilralstook placeduring my stay at Nafa. It was on AIarch 8, which llappened to coincidewith the twentieth day of the first llloon, the day whicll, accor( lillt, to the old lunar c.alendar, closes the New Year festisities. I rrenture to extlact the followingfiom my journalfor tllat day:" Being told in the morning that a CUl'iOUS procession anddancewere -to take place,I got up early and llurried of to see it. The crowdswere
* S. Ijiclli, ill the Byx7cytc EnDaDuC7li1t.

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dense numbers of peopleon the roofsof the houses,and a few even on the roofs of the funeralvaults! These crowds were colllposed alluost exclusivelyof the lower classes,dirty and perspiring. I twice saxvthe3 procession pass onceas a common individual,standingin the slln and joltedby the crowd; onceas an aristocrat, for whorilspacewas cleared throughthe intervention of that ever-(lelightful individual, the Japanese policeman. The policetreatedthe peo)le pretty roughly,pulling and throwing thern about like bundles; but the tortuousnarrownessof these coral-wall-lined streetsluadedrasticmeasures necessary. All the actors in the procession were women,someg quite elderly the owners or duennas of ' establishments' some little girls, but most young women,all smilingandhappy; not delicatelyfragilelike the Japanese, but buxomandhealthy-looking, and evidentlyenjoying to the {ull the amusementwhich their bright dressesand their dancing, or rather posturing,causedto the spectators. FiIst came a figure armedwith a long stick to clear, or pretendto clear, the way; for in this the Japanesepolice were the real agents. Then a flat with a picture of a Cal'p swimming up-stream,the well-known symbol of successf endeavour;and immediatelyafter this strutted a g;orgeous lion witl flowingmaneand hair of red,black,green,and lilac, and a bright green face,attendedby severaldancing-girls in redand a woman with a gong, while behind came two woznendressedup like men, and playing on hornswhich produced a soundratherlike that of Scotchbagpipes. " This closed the firstpartof the procession. The secondpart consisted of women pretendingto ride toy horses. The third includeda numberof imitation Chinamenitl figured silks, some perhapsallrepresenting historical orlegendary characters;but the onlytwo I could identify wele King Buns (,> iE) on foot,leadinOthe sage Tai-ko-bo (i; oR t,) in a jinrikisha ! This was the sole vehiclein the wholeprocession. But the nlost comicalspectacle of all was a frail nymphof some fifty-five or sixty winters,who had got herself up like a high Japaneseofficial of the olden time, and dancedlike mad. To her succeededa long train of girls and childreu,eachwith a scarletor purple fillet bound round the temples and hanging down behind, anclthis closedthe procession." It did not, however, close the semi-publicdoings of the season. The firstmoon not the seventh moon,as in Japall-is the time of year when the granes of ancestorsare visited, and when takes placewhat Europeans residentin the East term the Feast of Lanterns, which corresponds to ourAl1Saints'and All Souls'DaysX Paperlantelns foruse in these lueInorial serviceswere amongthe most prominent articlesfol sale in tlze Nafa marketwhen I reachedthe islancllate in February.
* Here and throughout tllis paper I hase emploacd the Japanese pyonunciation of the Chinese characters. The Pekillgese prollunciation of tllis llame is 'e?l.

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Probably hygienicreasorls have dictatedso violent a departure fromthe orthodow Buddhist calendar. At any rate,it is now officially prohibited to openfuneralraults andwash the bonesof the deadduringthe hotter half of the year. These remarks bring us to a descriptionof the Luchuan method of disposingof the dead, who occupy a much greater portion of the thoughtsof the living than is the case in light-hearted Europe. So largeandubiquitous are the Luchuangraves,so imposinganddazzling; is their plasteredwhiteness,that they attract the traveller's eye even


before he lands, remain with him constantly during his sojourn, and are the last thing to fade from his view when the ship carries him away. Luchu, proud in old days of its strict observance of Chinese etiquette? loves to style itself ;;the Land of Proprlety." But the "Land of Picturesque Graves " would be a more appropriatecognoznen. Not only physically, but morally also, these graves-funeral vaults one should perhaps rather call them, for each holds the remains of many generations form the central feature of Luchuan life. They anaycome into play even commercially; for if a Luchuan in pecuniary straits wishes to raise money, the best th;ng he can pawn is his family vault. He can

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laise a good roulld sum on that? for every one knows that he mustpay it back. A7ault-burialWAB introduced into Great Luchu from China at least five centuries ago. ()n the other islands lllay occasionally lae seen speciluens of the earlier-fashioned natiare graves, consisting of a circle of stones around the body, and two long stone slabs as a corer. Old ones are to be met witll in secluded districts of Oshima, nenrones sometimes in the Further Isles with the bones of the deceased sticking out. The people of Oshima now bury their dead, Japanese fashion, in small graves with tombstones not very different in appearance from our own. In Great Luchu the vault is of universal and exclusive use. Most are horseshoe-shaped,while'a fenr are rectant,ular. Perhaps, on second thoughts, a bishop's mitre describes the appearancebetter than a horseshoe, the mitre proper being tlle actual vault, while the ribbands are a wall on either side. The ault is sunk, so as to make it equal with the surrounding ;round, generally coral rock; but the space in front being lower still (for vaults are mostly built on hillsides), the whole height of the front walls is seen. There is a metal door in front, and in the cOUlst there sometilues stands a stone screen. The brilliant white colour comes from the plaster used. lSormerly the dinlensions of a vault were -fixedby law, according to the rank of the family ownin; it. I could not discover, however, that any such regulation had been adhered to in practice, and I prefer to give the actual dimensioils ot' two average specimens, vhich I measuredmyselfTotal lleight of front ....................... ... Total breadth .............. ... ... Length of court ellelosed by valls ... Height of opening in front ....................... ... Breadth of opening ill frollt ....................... ... Thickness of all stolles used ....................... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 9 feet 8 inches. 22 ,, 2 , 24 ,, 8 ,, 3 ,, 8 ,, 2 ,, S ,, 16 to ]8 in.

The Luchuans have llo cemeteries, such as we see in England or Japan; neither are there in Great Luchu any glaastly sights of half-open ,raves, as in China. Each family builds its vault on its oxvn;round; and, though the very greatest reverence is paid to the departed, there seems to be no superstitious dread of their near presence. As you ride through the country, you will see the peasant digU,inghis field right up to the wall of the vault where lie his ancestors, and where he knows that he himself will lie sorneday. WAThen a Luchuan dies, a mosquito-net is hun over tlle body, and curtains are drawll all around, so that none may see in. The weeping relatives relieve guard, one by one, in the chamber of death. The funeral is attended not onl- by the family, but by other mourners, who, said to have been originally the servants of allied families, have in lnodern times developed into a professional class that earns a livelihood bfT simlllating transports of grief. I had heard much about these funelals both from Japanese and natives; and one splint, afternoon,

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while on my way to visit that little gem of beauty, the royal pleasuregrounds at Shikina, I suddenly eame on sueh a proeessionhurrying alont a country lane-the Buddhist priest in front, then the eoffin,then a train of sollle thirty persons, of wholll five O1 six were hirecl mournels, apparently females, though iluluense straw hats hid their faees from view. They were attired in coarse eloth made of banana fibre; they uttered the most disnlal groans, and tottered so that they had to be supported on either side by assistants, who, as it were, bore thern up and at the same time pulled them rapiclly along. The portion of the professional mourner's art most difficult of aequilement and lllost highly prized, is weeping copiously throatyh the nose. In the produetion of these unpleasant tears-for so by courtesy let us call them the professional mourners are said to attain extraordinary proficiency. The eoffin,having been brought to the vault, is left shut up for two yeals. In the third year the relations assemble again, and the 1learest of kin oTashthe bones with the strong spirit called alvamori, and then deposit them in earthenware urns called by the natives jishi-kami,the priee of whieh varies from 16 cents for the poorest eoolies up to S1 20c. (say 28. 3d. of English money) * for tlle tentry. A specilnen of each has been sent to the Pitt Rivers ZIuseum,and described in the Jov^nalof t71e Anthropological Instit8te. Speaking briefly, tlle urns are telaple-shapedy and decorated with such Buddhist embletns as lotus-flowers and horned desnons' heads (intended to scare away real demons). The colourscreamy n7hite, blue-green, and yellowish brown are harmonious and reposeful to the eye. As a rule, the bones of a husband and wife are placecl together in the same urn. For children, as also for adult baellelors and spinsters but Oriental cominunities harbour few suchthere are urns half-size. All tlle urns of a family are ranged round the interior of the valllt on shelves, tier above tier, in order of precedence. The graves of the Luchuan kings are at the Buddhist telaple of Sogenji in Shuri. Their funeral ulns are said to be luagnificent, each costing ten times as much as that of an ordinaly gentleman. Unfortunately, I llad leserved a nisit to this place 1lntil the end of my stay, and then illness prevented me from carrying out the intention. So far as the temple itself is concerned,the loss xvasprobahly slight -Lucllu, like Norea, having passed out of the stage during which Buddhislll +^Jas powerful and its religious edifices splendid. Speaking generally, too, the whole Far-East is very little devotiollal, very little given to speculating on divine mystelieS; and Luchu fortns no exception to the rule. Not only the upper classes, as is the case in Japan, but even the lower clasFses, are indiffelentists in religious matters, and almost the sole retnaining function of the Buddhist priesthood seelns to be to officiate at funerals. NafS has a sluall ancl griiny Confucian
* The Japanese silver dollar beint, on]y svorth atout half

American gold dollar.

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teluple conllected with the college in which a srnall nurnberof young mell were forlllerly trained as Chinese interpleters, and where instruction is still given in the Chinese classics. There are no others in the arhipelag;o. The Buddhist temples are few in numbers small, and mostly deserted. Of Shinto temples ploperly so-called, I saw none excepting a shrine on the Namlllin Point at Nafa, ereated by the Japanese, and a similar one at Naze in Oshima. Certain secluded and mostly abandoned holy places standing in groves correspond, however, lo tne Shinto temples of Japan-that is to say, that they are neither Buddhist nor Confucian,but dedicated to native ancestral spirits, and marked of b a straw lope symbolical of worship. There is generally a stone in such sacred spots, llnder which sozneancient worthy's bones are said to rest. AVehave here, in fact, a very primitiere sc)rt of hero or ancestor worship, wllich has remained undeveloped on account of the anspirituality of the race and the intrusion of Confucianisin. Nor, because a nation is practically without religion, need it be without numerous minor sllperstitions to which a se3ni-credenceis attached. To this the crematoria for scraps of paper at many street corners bear witness. The idea, borrowedfrom China, is that a certain sanctity attaches to the written word, and that scraps of leaperbearing any writing must not be lightly thrown away, but should be decently cremated. The Luchuan crematoriafor papel are, however, quite small things, abollt 4 feet high not large elaborate structures such as Mr. Archibald Little describes in his ' Gorges of the Yang Tse.' I also came in contact with a superstitious idea relating to the washing of deadmen's bones accordingto the custotndescribedabove. Happening one day to ride past a vault lvllere this ceremony was going on, I distnounted and made tonards the spot. The people betan to scatter, and my two grooms implored nle not to l3roceed,because, said they, if I did, the dead luan's spirit, once scared away by a stranger, would never come to rest again. Of course I gave up the idea of witnessing the ceremony; for what was the satisfaction of mere curiosity comparedwith the distress of a fanlilJ, alleady in mourning? On some of the Further Isles (Yaeyatna), the natives laave a practice of going out into the .woodsto pray against the ravages of wild boars and of rats. Also they neither fish nor collect edible seaweed for a xvholelalonthbeforeharvest-time, for fear of causing a tf phoon. A superstitious feeling everywhere displayed is the fear of bad results likely to follow from being phototraphedl No doubt the Luehuan laind, plolerly exploled during years of eontinuous residenee and familiar inteleourse, Brould furnish a quantity of similar items to the student of superstitions and of folk-lore. I found, too, that even the edueated still ente]tained notions, boIrowed froul Ghina, of dragons and other unre;l monsters, wlliell, however, belong rather to imperfectly developed seienee than to supelstition propelly so called. Quainter still than the funeral eustoms of the Luehuans, is their

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" the marriage usagewith regardto weddings. After the " middleman and broker as lle might be termed has negotiatedtlle preliminalies, to the bride'sfamilJr, properpresentshave been sent by the bridegroom the proeeedintsare as folloxvs: Tho bride is eseortedto the man's house at one or two o'eloek in the morning, under guard of her tlle objeetof these pleeautionsof titne and eseort being that relations, and exeite impertinenteuriosityin the aSairmaynot be bruitedabroad, exehange eups of sake the neighbourhood. She and the bridegroonz (riee beer), after whieh she is at onee led honle again. This brief eeremonyis repeatedthree nights running, after whieh she remains is earriedofl:by his three days with her parents,while the bridegrootn step, so far as the of this The objeet revel. friends to hold high man is eoneerned,is that he may, on the very thresholdof matrimony, prove his independeneeof vifely leading-strings,while to the woman it gives an opportunityto display freedomfromjealousy, the worst of all femininevices. After three days which is eonsidered spent in this manner,the bridegroomgoes home, being joined by the blide, who keeps house with him for another period of three days,at the expilation of whieh the bride goes to her parents'home, follows her. Her relationsawait his arrival whither the bridegroom to representa horse,on wllieh xvitha pestle, painted and ornamented greet his advent lle rides in, while all the boys of the neighbourhood with drums and tomtollls, and anything that will make a noise. A grand fatnily feast then takes plaee, after which the happy eouple are at last eoneluded. returnhome,and the long wedding eerernonies 'the lllalried life begun in so original a fashion is said to be laostly as the wives yield to their husbandsin all things. Should harmoniolls, almostalwaysremainstrue to his rtlemory, die, the vvTidow the husband lands, muehprizedin Far-Eastern whiehis an item of femininedevotion again where,thougha widowerluarriesand makeshimself eomfortable as a matter of eourse, widows are eneouragedby publie opinion to remaindesolate. S^veetpotatoesforlll the staple food of the Luchuanpeople. The rich eat rice,and pork,and beef,and fish, and other things many,the ,eneral eharaeterof their cutsinebeing moulded on that of China. The poor,espeeiallyin years of seantiness,eke out their sweet-potato by soakingand poundingthe heartof diet with a kind of sago obtained a small tree wllich reselablesthe sago palm,*and tlle Cyeasrevoluta, which, as alteadymentioned,is allowed to grow evelywherewhere no stolies are current better tIse can be made of the soil. Numberless of tllis sago that it gives badbreath, concerningthe unwholesomelless that it distendsthe stomachntithoutfeeding the system, that people
* The Luchuan name is sotztsi, the Japanese sotetsu, both being corruptions of the (:lwinese & 23Jtwhich sneans " reviving iron," in reference to a lzopular idea that this tree is benefited by sprinkling iron near its roots,

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sometimesfall down dead after eating it, etc. Tllese tales doubtless require careful sifting and considerable discounting. The foundation of truth in them maybe sought in faulty prepa,raUtion of the sagoby ma,ny of the peasants each householdmanufacturing its own supplya,nd in bad cookiny,the usual Luchuanplan being to makeit into dllmplings, sometimespure, sometimes mixed with pounded sweet pota,toes a dish which may well lie heavy on any but the stoutest stoma,ch. Preparedin the Europeanfa,shion, Luchuan sat,o is quite palatableand perfectlyinnocuous. The Luchtlans eat their foodwith chopsticks after the Chinesemethod; but as they call tllem by the JaUpanese nameof 71as7li, it is at least possiblethat theseusefulimplements reachedthem via Japan. There is an aUlcoholie drink called awamoqi, which resembles Chinesescxm-shu, aUnd is madeof rice and millet. Tea; is in generaluse, as elsewherein the Far-East,but will not growon the islaUnds despite attempts to aUcclimatize it. The poormake their Tery inferior tea go furtherby boiling mut,wortwith it, which is supposed to strengthenthe digestion. The Luchuanssit cross-lebged a la turque, not with their knee3 underthem like the Japanese, nor are a,nybut the best housesma,tted in Japanese fashion. Rather aUre their aUrchitectura,l a,nd household arraUngernents Chinese in style, the walls being of stone, the rooms srnall,low, and rarely rising to more than one storey, and the tlool being dirty. Each house is surloundedby a stone waUll-generally cozal-which ensures privacy, but sadly obstructsventilatioIl; and througha mazeof these little low dwellingsthe narrowstreet,or rather lane, winds its tortuousway, sometimes muddy,sometimespavedwith ilregularstonesmoreor less flat. Thereis less filth in the streetsthan in China,Ltlchuin this respect,as in so many others,staUnding halfway betweenChinaand Japan. In the middleof the town is a marketplace. There are no vehic,lesof any kind, nor any public lighting. XE'rom time to time packhorses come a,long, and then pedestriaUlls must be on the look-out; for the absellceof a sidewa,lkancl the extreme na,rrowness of the streets may eause eollisions. Such is the generaUl aspeetof a Luchuantowtn improved, however,at Nafa by the greatel eomfort and cleanlinesswhieh the residenceof numerousJapanese offieials andmerchants has introdueed;and madepicturesque at Shuri? the eapital, by the splendid position of the city on a rocky lleight, erownedby the antient eastle of the Luehuankings, now the headquartersof a Japanesegarrisonof 137 men. The royal apartments llave,it is true, fallen a saerificeto praeticalmilitary needs; but the massive stone walls remain intaet. In olden days, far back in the MiddleAges, when GreatLucllu was torn into three petty kingdozns, and the art of svar+rasstill remembeled, many eastles (g?szk?, as the Luehuans eall thelll) studdedtlle lalld, beint,mostlyrealed on natural eminenees of colal rock by the petty lords and chieftains of each

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iNafa, Shtlri Tota1

..... .....


... ... 101 ...

... 75,289 10 2 6,775 3,909 11,361 1,2.56 710

63)928 3,19!) .S,519


distt iet. Buills of several such castles still remain, lendint, ,reat picturesqueness to the landscape. The peasants' huts ill tlle countrf are mostly put toCether of reetls, lvith a straw thatch, and are very poor-looking, tllou^,ll tlleir meanness strikes olle as less unendurable nder so mild a slSy and amid scenery so tranquilly charllling tllan lvould be the case lvere tlley transportedto a t,re- er clime. I no+shele sas any actual be(rars. A fexv pigs form an indispensable adjunct to every rural abode. of piCs and ,oats Under the olcl natisre,overnment, indeed, tlle rearill;,r oras enforced l)y la+s on every llousehold. The pitrs are kept in a dis,ustintr,ly dirty fashioll, and are fed partl) on es-crements,so that it seems a mockerAto add xvhatis nevertlleless true so far as mana plaees are eoneerned tllat tlleir styes are made of coral. Large open grassy spaees, often appearint, as ,lades in the forest, form a characteristic a(ljunet to Luchuan >7illagesX llich pelplexed the early foreigll visitors. a variety of other purposes. Callecl" race-colllses,"these spaees also serxre Here lbiceib laicl out to dry, and the villa(re eouncil meets-or nlet in resvardsand old days-goods were bartered,justice ras adminiastered, punishments meted out, festivals eelebrated. Nothil, cxaetly sinlilar to this institution exists either in Cl-linaor Japan. Ill piquant contrast to sotlle of the natie ways, ale those ovidences of AVesterncisilization whicll modern Japanese offieialdolll everywhere callies with it-the pillar post-box, for example, and the telephone from Nafa to Shuri. Aloat the entrance of each ^ illate there is noxvxvritten 1lp the nulllber of inhabitants and the numberof cllildren of school agea del ice not used in Japan itself, but resorted to llere mriththe object of get the girls sllaming parents into sendint, their cllildrell to scllool. Cl'o sent there has been found vely difficlllt in tlle Furthel Isles almost illalsossible. 'l'he following table may interest sortlereaders:U3IBI.R OF rE-l<LIt' SCIlOOLS AN-D CHILI)BlSOF SCHOOL -&GE.

(Deceml)eq31, 1891.)
Oissisions. Xllmber of Eclsools.

unll)er of clli'dren of scllool atr,e.

NuTnber of cllildrerl v}ho attended.

5'unlber of children xvho did not attend.

Sllilmajiri Nakavami

... ...

... ...




26 ]5 32 4

jilila Miylkoanlajilil::l Wr<aef

.. ...

!1 l3

]6,747 2],505 15,646 1.314 6,298

3,7')2 ],60()

13,02.t 1!},90,

464 1,087

850 5,211



2,o1 1

alJo e statistics do not includc tlle Middle Scllool or tlle Norlsz.ll NOTI',-'the Scllool. The ^{uu llacll in t]lc lattcr arc a11ol)lic,c(lto dr(ss Japatnese (i.e. European)


ME-, 189o.]

2 Ir

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Tlle Japanese laugusgeis taught as a subject cltlrin; the first tear of schooling. Aftel tllat, it is used as the vehicle for instruction in othel subjects. I heard, howeser, many complaints as to the illlpelfect acquisition of the ruling tongue, and follnelby personal experience tllat fexvas yet understand it away fronl :N'afa, ancl tllat even in Wafaitself, and among men holdint official posts, tlle linowledge of Japanese is still lvofullJ ilnperfect and supelficial. Here?as in otller countlies, a ieav hours' schooling;cannot at once outweigh llollle influence, xvhich is perpetually pulling in the opposite directioIl. The Lechuan accent in Japanese, though very Inarlied,is not llnpleasing. It remillcled llle of the Korean accent. No olle xvalksin Lucllu, exceptiIl,gtllose +ho cannot aSord s()meless fatiglling method of locomotion. WAitell-to-clo folks al^raystalte a Acag --a closed chair borne on a pole by twro coolies, anel resembling the Chinese palanquin ratller than the A.ayo of Japan-or else tlley go oll horseback. I generally preferred the latter alternative, as the kagu -shakes one and hides tlle vie^r. Tlle dilllinlltive Luchuan ponies llase alreadybeen melltioned. Thetrale invaluable little beasts, their endurance and docility making llp for theil Lilliputian size. TheJ are not shod ill any way, the llletal horseslloes of Europe and the stralv horeshoes of Japan being llere eqtlally unknown; yet they find theil +vayno less nimbly thansul-ely up and dolvnthe wretched tracks slhicll in Luchu slo duty folzroacls,ancl in wllich, at evelAr luoment, coral crags stick up tllloull the soil like pins and needles. No wonder nobody xvalkslvho -is not forced to it ! In some distriets of Japan, especially in the islancl ef Yezo, wlaere the horses are drisen intrains of tsxenty or thirty-, all are either leaders or followers, one Qeader to lllany io]lowels; and shoulel you get (as. of course, yoll generally do get) a followea, llothing will induce the obstinate animal to move unless he sees anotherhorse immedixatelyin front of hin. This disagreeable state of things does not exist in Lllchu, where the;pollies are accustomeclto going ,singltr. Travellers rould, 11owever, do well to take theil o55 n saddles,as the native woode fisaddle is extremely uncomfortable. I have said that communication is bacl in Luchu There is incleed one broad and eseellent road joining; the port of Nafa to Shuri, the capital, distant-so the official mile-post states, fol modeln Japanese officialdom is nothing if not precise-1 ri 11 cho 26 ken 2 feet anel 1 inch (!), say 3 miles Enblish. A road a few miles long is also now being made from Shuri to a village on the east coast called Yonabara. With these exceptions, there exist in Great Luchu only the patl<s above described, and in the hilly northern portion of the island eve these are absent. European accommodationof coure esists nowhere, and there are Japanese inns only at the ports of Nafa and Naze. There is not even any accommodation for strangers at the capital, llone of

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alld neat tlaysful alld snailillg tea-house girls, batlls, llot clelic;iol:ls tllose figure so largely in Lilliputian morsels, tllat food of pretty-looking queel, of The wayfaler in the interiol es of Japanese tlarel. alltl llarlatiz in llim oll horse or coolie-baclc, must carry everything with go tlleir Luchu officials lvhen ol)litecl to or are the troans of tlle Japanece office 2nany village tlaey sleep at tlle the rouncls. NVhen possible, On country tent. a to carry but in the nortll it is necessary steamer or eRse at the school-house; the board on Islancls," one sleeps "Further and Japanese travel The only point where Lllelluan office. steamer ility, the kinclnesscil than the rnore each other is tlle cisility resemlule country folL. llluch the of loaclless countly lvith so llalre thought tllat, in a not does It Olle +sTould haxe tecome conllllon. travellillg by boat would village (a coast-line, thougll fishermenfrom Itoman to be so ill Great Luchu, coast of seem ply their trade on tlle sotne sis hundred inllabitailts) periods of see eral montll, retulnin^, of ancl stay a+rayfor Iiakeronua-shila so earned. 1'llree men and July xvith the money January ancl ill only home a Tllesa are sort of du^,-outs, boat. eacll to alloxvance colupany's tlle usual is often lasllecl to^,ether for or follr sucll dug-outs are upset, are thlee easily tlloull by paddles; propelled are They sake. are tvvo-lllastecS, knowrl as ycomZ*axa-seel, easily ri^,ilted. The junlis, 90 feet in also exceecl thelll of None in build. junks Chinese the resenlble Japan, and from for boat-building comes length. AIuch of the timlJer the most wooded district of tlle luain (Itunchan), lestfrom Wralubara and cllarcoalused in the produced all tlle firewood is wllere too Jalean island, the boats are ilupolted fronl of tlle island. Not infiequently boarcA. on soutll three to Wafain l<ad is made. Elle steamer I travelled reacly Oshima, and Great Luchu Japan, Coznparjy Steanl colllmtlnication tetween S(e3lz1sllip the -ear by the Japan ow maintained throu^,hout esery eighteen days which rulls toats once in Xaisha), Yesen (Nippon the same way. Naze, Nafa, and back again lia^,oshima, to but ,ood Itobe fiorn tlle food of course Japanese, The accolumodationis Eul-opean; and one Luchtlan smaller Japanese companies of its kind. T\NTO su^,ar is by far the carryinb trade, of which busy sugar company conlpete in the boats are run during tlle on the istlportantiteln, sc) that extra luost experienced is vIsually Bad ^Teather ^,et ouly can season-February to June. Nafa is so bad that the steamers shore at all passage; and the port of the to and have to be moored in and out at hit,h xvater, offers Yetter Unten (Port Melville), which frolll distance times. It is a pity tlaat its by practically useless rendeled be is should Isles anchorage, Further Comlnunication lvith the towns. zia Luchuan afa, A chief the from runlling twice monthly by a small steamer only, days, at least, o tF in to Ishigakijima is no ret,vllar Karimata-llinato in Miyakojima, Beyond Ishigaki-jima there tllat is the schedule tilne. delivery. communicationor postal 9 lI 9


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As3ault Anoidance of ... ,nunisllrnetlt ... ...

... ................. ...




... f; ... - 1 t; 1



I stated at thc beninning of this paper that the Goverllor and the es-ChiefInspeetorof Police in Luellu mere alllont, thtse svho laboured nwost kindlJT for my enlightenluent. Questions of praetieal administration naturally eropped up from tinze to time in eon+ersation?and it was interesting to find eonfirllled by their long experienee and b- the nanimous testimony of e-veryJapanese offieial I talked with, and every Japanese book on Luehu that I read, Captain Basil Hall's assertion as to the traetableness of the natives and their *eedoo from erimes of violenee-more especially as CrnmoSore Perry llad put this praise to^,ethernvitllmuch else down to tlle .seore of " romanciny" on the part of tlle early English explorers. Petty lareeny, every one agreed, was the onlv decidel Luehuan failin(r?and, for the rest, the land had been ruled in old days "bJT the lwlere wavint, of a fan." Even now there is but olle gElUl ill the whole arehipelato. One day the good-naturedold Governor said to me, " We will take to-day at random, and see holv many people thele are in ,aol, a.nd what they are in gaol for." The result of the inquiry aras as follows :PrWISOD;ERS 1N NAF.\ G /-)IJMAl.CH12, 1SS2.
Offences. Alale. Female. Total.

Breakint prisonnndcalloealnlent of crilllinils Forgeryof privateseals and (loculllellts ... Murderous intellt ... ... ... ...
Iansllullter ............... ... ... ... ...

... ... ...


... ... ...




1 1

2 1

2 2

Murder ...
TJibel ..







... -


Theft . ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 117 Frautlall(lreceininrof stolengootls ... ... ... 20 OWence3 conllecte(l Vit]lstolengoo(ls ... ... ... 4 ViolatioIl of srious lules alld reSul.ltiolls ................................. ... ... 5 Illceneliarisnl (illtentionalatldaceidental)................................. ... ... S Totfll . ... ... ... ... ... ... 1t;2

11 1 3 4 23

128 21 7 5 7 1S5

The cause of the solitary mulderess's clime xvas jealousy. Two +omen had quarrelled about a man---the reverbe, perhaps, of what trenerally llappens in Europe. Thecause and this is lllore important of Luclluan lawt-abi(lingness may be sou^,htpartly in mild ,overnlIlent for many centuries; partly ill tlle custom of wearing no weapons, such as those ssvordswhich the Japanese, till quite recent tears, could not resist the temptation c>E *lrawingat the slighte3tpron0cation; partlyand chieSyinanaturally good-telllperel, quiet, even timid disposition. 1 llis speaks scarcely less clearly than does the nature of the Luchuan langllage to the probable abeence of any admis:tureof MalazT blood in tlle lace. Alopos of the gtols, it luay tAe lllentionel that tl-le Japalaese autllorifies cause the

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queues of elilllinals to be eut of and their faces shave3, Japane*;e {'dShiOn, in hole3 of bringing about the abandonlllent of tlle national Luehuan eoiffure for men. Tlle eSeet, lloweeer, has teen just the3 zeverse, as no one likes to be mistalien fol a gaol-loird. In tllis instanee there was eertainly an excess of zeal. The plineipal industly of Luchu is suz,ar-planting. In fact, the oslandsmay be aid to live by their sugar, as do tlle three steamer eompanies X-hoexport it to Japan. Gre(tt Luchu far exeeeds all the other slands in its produee of sugar. In 1891,)40,000 easks, eaeh eontaining 130 "catties," e wele exported; in 1899, 200,000. In 1893, only 70 of the previous tear's erop was expected. But as priees fllletuate greatly fiom 2T9,, eents Ol 3 eents pel eatty in 1892, to a-l-2o or O-13y eents per catts at the beginnintr of 1893 a redueed erop need not alwa) s entail deele.lsed profits. The proeess of manufactule is as priluitive as ean +^rell be imat,ined. A lont pole, often a mere roughly-trimmed treetrunk, fastened to the top of arl iroll or ^roodenroller whicll turns two other lollers by lllean3of eot,s, is pulled round and round l)y a horse Ol bulloeli, ulp;ed to this wolk by one or two men with stieks, while txvo other luen feed the mill with sugar-eane. The juice thus expressed is boiled on the spot, aladthen pouled into tubs to solidif. 'the Luchuan sugal is of a xely dark colour and coarse quality. ZIost of it goes to Osaka, in Japan. The manufacture of sugar in Luchu dates froln tlle seventeenth century, having;therl been learnt from the Chinese. Besides sugar and a very strong spilit called ctloamori alreadt nentioned, as re.embling tlle Chinese sam-s7luLuclzu also produces voven fabrics of several kinds, whicll are lliOhly prized in Japa1s, lllostly for sllmmer xveal. Each islalld llas its speciality-tlle tsumugi from IVume-jima, a silk fabric llaving light spots or stripes on a very dark ground (an inferior kind is macle in C)sllima); tlle cotton kasuri blue from Great Luchu, brown from Yaetama; fhe llempen 7losojofu, in a blue and a white rarietA, fIom Miyakojinla; the bas1lofu from iOshillla,made of banana fibre. It is not likely that any of these vsrould suit tlle European taste, nor do the primitive lllethods emplot ed permit of any bllt small quantities of these various stuSs beinO produced. ;trerage prices are1 ters (abotlt 2S feet) R9tl7;8/t-tSIt7n?lf 1 ,, ,, ,, blue 7cA8tt?-i 1 ,, ,, ,, bro^tll ,,
I ,, ,, ,, X-llite As(,jofu b ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...






1-50 1z25

1 ,,









l5 00

In Tokio one llas to pay about clouble; and choice pieces, even in Luchu itself, lange llluch higller, especialltr tEle 7-Lcsc}jcofu, this fine Zlenlpen falvric lDeislba special favoutite. So esquitite +\-tts tlle care
* Tlle Japallesecatt\ is approsimately cflui^alelst to 1?. lb. as-oirlltlpois.

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bqstoevedill former days on the manufacture of 7losojofu, that a sin(rle liece of 98 feet long sometimes occupied tllree years in tlle weavingt as tlle best wolk could only be done in dry oreatller. Sucll pieces would be sant as tribute to the Government of Great Lucllu. It shotlld be added tllat lllucla of tlle cotton used in the IJUChUan 111anUfaCtUre of ;6tSU?^i iS imported fi om Japan. The scarlet lacquel of Lucllu is celebrated in tlle lleiR,hbouring colllltries, and may be reco(rnizedbJ, the ricll brilliarlee of its colour, also often by its raised decorationin otller and duller hues, tlle subjects beillg mostly flowers, especial]p the chrJrsantllemlln. Hogs' blo()d ellters as one ingredieIlt into the basis of tlle less good sort. Purple is a colour very frequently elllployed for tlle decolation. Formelly scenery alld firures rvere also illtroduced, and large llandsollle pieces thus adolned could be obtained; but tllis is now ralely tlle case. Indeed, the +srllole art llas deteriolated owing to tllat dollble curse of our times estiibitions, alld the demand for quantity and cheaplless. The best sllop in Nafa, +rllen I visitecl it, xvas filled with abortions in the shape of llideous large red lacquel breakfast cups, saucers, and even spoonsN all of Europeall shapes, perpetlated for expolt to Anaericain connection +vitlltlae Cllicat,oExhibition. How llumi]iatinr (is it not?) to see that in art, as in manners and in morals, the AVestcanllot touch the East it]lollt corrupting and depravin(rit ! Howexer, tllat iKs not our present >;abject. Take tllem all in all, the prodlletions of Luchu, whether atural or lllanufactured,are not very illlportant. Some of tlle articles oSt needful to civilized life slle llas to import xvood, for instance, lllllell of xYhicll fol boat-building pllrposes colnes from Japan, as alreadAr

(To becontix2ued.)


By Sir FREDERIC J. GOLDSMID, K.C.S.I.. C.B. A ttANIFESTI,Y superior intelligence and sin^,ularly attlactive manner +rouldllave lllade Sir Bartle Frere a welcome conlpanionin the choicest of social circles, llad lle never been called upon to take part in affairs of state as a ruler or adsiser of llis felloor-men. AYhenhe became a ecot,nized statesnlan, entrusted witll the dischart,e of high official duties, his illtellectllal and social powers coukl not fail to strengthen ancl illlpart lustle to his position; xvhile at no tillle of llis career could it l)e alleged that leadership in any way atfected the Christian charity and consideration inherent in his nature. Such a lllan is emineIltly a

;3 ' Tlle Lifc and C*(rresl)ondellec of Sir Ba1tle Frere, Bart., ..c.U., Jolln AIartilleau(Joll1l tItlrray: l89o).


etc.' Br

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workedout from barometricalreadings taken in conjunction with station barometers at Northwest river and on the island of Anticosti. The elevations already determined are marked in blue on the accompanying map. A more detailed report on the country and its resourcesis being prepared for the Geological Survey of Canada,along with a map of the LabradorPeninsula, on a scale of 25 miles to an inch, which will allow the geographical features to be shown with greater completeness than is possible on the maE) to accompany this paErer.

THE LUCHUISLANDSAND THEIRINHABITANTS.aBy BASIL HALL CHAMBERLAIN, Emeritus Professor of Japanese and Philology i:n the Imperial University of Japan.

The Luchuan theatre is among the things which apparently no previous traveller had seen, and yet it has an interest of its own for the student of Far-Eastern culture, showing as it does something similar to what the Japanese stage vras at an earlier period of its development. In fact, the present Ltlchuan dralnatic performancesstand in the position of a rustic first cousin to those medieval Japanese lyrical dramas,called N no Utat and No Kyogerz, which I described and translated specimens of some thirteen years ago, in a little work entitled ' The Classical Poetry of the Japanese.' The inner form of the "house" is sometimes the same-a square stage with seats for the audience round three sides of it while to the left, at the back, a sort of gallery or bridge leads to the green-room. The chief difference is that the front of the stage has an upper storey with a windovv. Whereas the Japanese No theatre is patronized chiefly by the aristocracy, who alone can understand the obsolete poetic dialect in which the pieces are written, its Luchuan poor relation attracts the lower classes. The spectatorssquat on rather dirty matting, which is stretched anyhow on the uneven woodell boards, the back part being raised a little to enable those behind to see. People eat and smoke and come and go, and children play and cry, unmindful of the actors. Tickets for the whole day cost ollly three or four cents at the lower-class theatres, except in certain reserved places. The first time I went I could not gatller any very definite impression from the mixture of much singing and dancing and little dialogue, except that the play was taken fronl the ancient native history, for the title was stuck up on a placard on the stage. But later on, a better oocasion offered-a party to a theatre of higher standing, joined in by one of the young Luchuan princes and by the leaders of Nafa society, both native and Japanese. The thoug;htful kindness of ollr host had supplied us
* Paper read at the Royal Gcographical Society, January 7,1895. Coneluded from the May ntlmber. Map, p. 40Ss

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foreigners (that is, the Japallese and me) with a Japanese version of the libretto, so that we could easily follow what went on. There were twenty pieces in all during the day. As before said, they reminded me of thfo Japanese lyric dralnas and their comic interludes. In all the plot was simple, founded in the former class on some pretty little legend, and partaking in the latter of the nature of burlesque and practical joke. Some of the stories were familiar Japanese friends; for instance, that of ' The Elves and the Envious Neighbour,' so charmingly translated by Mitford in his 'Tales of Old Japan.' Others were original. Palt of each play was sung by an invisible chorus, and invariably there was dancing. Sometimes the dancing was itself the piece de resistance, and was very rhythmical and pretty, much of it posturing, none of it so rapid and violent as the ballet-dancing of Europe. As a rule, the dancersnumberedfour, or somernultiple of four. The musical instruments used were the banjo, the flute, and the drum. These were really played, not deafeningly banged, as is the case on the Chinese stage; and the music seemed a deglee nearer to that of Europe than either Chinese or Japanese music is. It was, however, monotonous enough, certain short phrases being repeated to satiet. Wllat I have here called a " banjo ? iS known in Luchu as the jansising, and is covered with the skin of a large snake. From this Luchuanjansisingthe betterknown Japanese shamisetz was derived in the seventeenth century; but it is not impossible that the Luchuan instrument itself may be comparatively modern, and have been influenced vid Fu(;hau by a Spanish or Portuguese oritinal. The music played on the jamisenand shamisen is decidedly less Oriental in character than that performed on other Lllchuan and Japanese instruments. With the Luchuans of the higher class, the composition of Chinese and Japanese verses is a favourite pastime, and as Japanese versifiers some of them attain to high excellence. Poetry in the native tongue is mostly left to the rustics, each Luchuan village chelishing certain stanzas that have been handed down in praise of the limpid stream, the monumental tree, the pure air, tr whatever other special perfectionmay, in the patliotic conviction of the inhabitants, justify the claims of their particular home to be the fairest spot on earth. Besides these local patriotic poenls, there are also, of course, love-songs in the vernacular for what language could long exist without such ? The favourite Luchuan stanza consists of four lines, whereof tlle first three have eight syllables, and the fourth has sis syllables, an alrangement differing fiom any adopted by the poets of China or Japan. Picnics form anotller favourite amusement of the upper and middle classes, as noticed long ago both by Basil Hall and by Perry. Horseraces of a primitive type are also in voOue. Besides these, tllere would seem to be those games of chequers,chess, and others, wllich are common to the whole Far-Eastern region, and, indeed, to the civilized world at

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large; but such speeially Europeangames as billiards and cards, though now firmly domiciled in Japan (indeed, the Japanese soon learn to play billiards better than Englishtnen do), have not yet innradedthe little southern archipolago. Of children's sports, the ouly one I took much hotice of was kite-flying. Enery spare moment of my stay at Nafa was devoted to an earnest study of tlle language, and this it was which kept me so much tied to that city; for one of the two interpreterswhola the Governor'skindness lent me for part of each day proved a most intelligent guide in this matter, and as such was not lightly to be parteR from by one the chief object of whose visit was philological inquiry. The language had never been graralnatically studied before. The only so-called helps were a very stilted Japanese-Luclluan conversation book published for use in the Government schools, and a short vocabulary by Lieut. Clifford appendedto Captain Basil Hall's work; * the latter a fearful and wonderful production mere "pidjin," in fact, and of no practical assistance. This is not the place to enter into details. Such will be published later on in a more appropriateplace. Sufficeit here to state that the Luchuan language proves to be related to Japanese in about the same degree as Italian is related to French. Thouah mutually quite unintelligible, and though there arse considerable divergences both in the phonetic system and in the details of the grammar, the structure of the sentx3nce is practically identical, as is the case with French and Italiall, and a study of each languafflethrows vivid light on the other. The verb, which is tlze most important part of speech in all languages of the Mongol type, retains archaic characteristics in Luchuan which had already disappearedfrom the earliest Japanese known to us that of the eighth centuly after Christ. An unfoltunate result of the political overshadowing of Luchu by its two great neighbours, China and Japall, has been the habit of using the Chinese and Japanese languages for literary pulposes, almost to the exclusion of the native tongue, wilich neither the Chinese ideographs nor the Japanese syllabazy are well fitted to express. The Luchllans halre no perfect written system of their own. There existed, however, till recently, and perhaps still linger in the Further Isles, two rough methods of recording thought for certain practical purposes, of which no notice has hitllerto reached Europe. One of these is the ideographic writing of the islands of Yonakuni. The following signs for common objects of b-arterare in use: t
form. * Dr. McLeod's volumeon Luchu gives the sameill an abridged and the English translation t The small charactersbetween the picture-writing are a translation into Japanese.

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whlch served as local financlal



The interest of these sylnbols to the student would be greatly enhanced if he felt himselfjustirled in deemingthel:n the result of really original thought. 'l'hatthe inhabitantsof so remotean islet should, withoutassistance fromthe great world,have solvedfor thenlselves the problem of reptesentingideas to the eye, would be astonishing indeedv But we cannot withsafetyjumpat sucha conclusion. It is morenatural to supposethat the islanders, thoughunable to readChinese, had heard of the existenceof the Chineseideographs, and had even perhapsseen specimensof them,and that, the idea being thus suggested,they began to work it out practicallyfor themselves. This is lellderedprobable bothby what has happened in other parts of the world,wllerea vaguet knowledge of the European alphabethas produced native scriptssomewhat resembling it, and by the formof one or two of the Yonakuni ideographs tllemselves,especially that for person 7, which recalls the Chinese JV. Numberswere indicated in an original manner. For instance, whereasa roughcirclemeant" one egg " or 4'eggs " in gelleral, as figuredabolre, " ten eggs" was written(), and " twenty eggs " 5. The otherkind of writing peculiarto Luchu,and knownas Sho-chu;!1lllllllllllllllllAll ma, had a wider importance. It. 2@1 lllsAillllill,llljlll was currentin the rulal distlicts. IO,OOO 11e1S' l 1!l ll ly| 1ln i l1 N ofGreatLuchllandin the Furthel H e Hi X r Isles, especially Miyako- jima Thousand '

11ll 1\175; ilil l

ilill\ Yill,


Hundred: <0 !1'6 +nt1l





amongthoseincapable of writing Chinese character. Ther w i [jt figures composingit used to be illscribedwith charcoal or any 1 t1 119 111; li otheravailable materialon sticks

ilil2; 11 1 the
1s! l1> {1\tPll


;1 1




Ten iJ t 80 ;it !i:;] and assessment of taxes and z ther (liilllllilllill'elll : L ; * kindredmatters. Thus most of 1 i L^l l them representednumbers. I One 6K7Uan + ;19. li reserve for the Jourrlal oJ he kl iT ' Anthropologzeal Instttute a detailed Hundred 1) \M| l !tAkl 7 ilj: 1qlF "11 ! d]scusslonof slx speclmens of I Sho-cht6-ma preservedin the AnFifty !5 v 50Affion tJi 11 91 thropological Instituie of the Mon = j !+ | Science Collegeot the Imperial rjtinill!t al f1t1ti111 V!lflil lI: Unierersity of Japan,but am en\il;l ivl li.lllllli lillll;lilllil 1l abled lueanwhile, through theF 1!:l1lilt eKjl 1l(ll n kindnessofthecurator,Plofessor \ 1; 1l lX l1II 1!1 1lll Illl pllll 1 }1t Tsuboi Shogoro, to submit to facthe ii11Ef 1 Iltilljil!ilbil; V Pcoyal Geographical Soeietya \ .1 llllS;llls simile of one of theIll. The largerfiguresto the right are aloneoriginal,the sIllaller onesto the left. being a Japanese (Chinese)interpretation addedafterwards.




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The system possesses,as will be observed,different forms for the numerals,accordingto the article counted. Thus " a hundred,"as app]iedto the smallermoneyvalue calleeR non, is represented by a dot; but when a hundred of the largerdenomination kwan has to be written, we find the dot surrounded by a circle. The most noticeablefeatures however, is the mutilation of +, "ten" (the current Ghinese and Japaneseideograph for that number),to denote 4'five,"which latter appearssometimes as X (i.e. half ten), sometimes as Y or P (i.e. ten with one limb missing). The numbersbetween" five" and " ten " are formedby the additionof dots or lines to " five." The ideographfor "eight thousandkwan"esemplifiesboth these characteristics of thesystem,it being a compound of the ideograph for " myriad cut in two, and of that for " thousand " increased by the changeof one transvelse line to three,that is, 8000 is represented by half ten thousand (i.e. a000) + 3000. Similarly 700 is half a thousand(i.e. aOG) + 200* lVIost of the specimensof Sho-ch?i-ma are larger than the one herewith presented,and are more fully inscribed. Some of the larger sticks havew their four sides apportioned as follows: -onefor the money account, one for the rice account,one for the firewoodaccount, and the fourth for the natne of the villat,e, which ltltter is inscribed in Chinese characters. In these the nameof eachhousellold liable to contributeis indicatedby a penuliar markof llis own. To end this part of the subject, it shouldbe stated that the Luchuans are also credited with having used kllottedcords (quipos) for keeping accountsin very ancientdays. It is, of course,well known that their eighbours the Chinesedid so.

While GreatLuchuhas beenbroughtinto closerelations with Japan for nearlythree centuriespast, the Further Isles hase remained much more isolated. The first titne any of the natives reachedTokio was in December, 1893,when sozneof them came to presenta petition to the Diet on sozne matteronnected with tasation. AIr.KadaTe;-ihi's and Mr. TashiroYasusada's printedaccountsof these islandsshowthc manners of their inhabitants to be sufficientlysimilar to those of Great Luchuto warrantapplying the samedescriptionto both,unle;s one were to go into sery minutedetails-same food,samehouses,same religion,axne territorialdivisions. A like reinarkapplies to Oshima on the north,mJhere the tattooillg and peculiarcoifure of the w-oznen is as Luchuanin characteras is the vegetationthat stamps its cachet on the physical aspect of things. Note, however,the following pectlliaritiescommunicated to meby officials of long experience in theFurther Isles. Owing to the lu2zuriant forests on sozneof these islands, the peoplethere burn nvood to cook their food with. Aniinalfood,too, is more abundant,especially chickens. hIuch tobaccois gronvnthere, Yaeyamaalonehaving earported 40,000 lbs. in 1893. The woznen wea}^

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a dress called kakam, somewhat resembling the hakama, ol divided skirt of the Jal?anese,secured at the waist by a string which runs round it as in pyjama trousers. Above this they wear a sleeveless tunic. The females of the lower class ale intrepid riders, sitting sideways on the saddle after the Fjuropean fashion, a whip in one hand, and their rnarketings slung over the back in a basket. When a w oman is plegnant, she occasionally eats doC's flesh. Iminediately after delivery a fire is lighted in the room, however hot Inay be the weather, and both nother and infant ale placed as close as possible to it for the space of a week. Also the friends and relations assemble, and luake loud music all night and every night with drums and other instrurnents, so that the poor creatures cannot get a wink of sleep till dayliCht coznes. It would seem that this barbarous custom was also forluerly observed in Great Luchu, though it has now there fallen into de3uetude. According to a Inost circumstantial account which I received from the Japanese Mayor of Shuri, infants on Yonakuni are carried on the mother's back in a sort of sling called tstkumyic,, which is hung round the mother's eck as in the accompanying figure. My somewhat long-winded informant wa2ed quite eloquent over the advantages of this arrangement, which, according to him, deserved to be known and imitated not only in Japan, where women inappropriately carry their babies on their back andthus cannot suckle them, but all c)ver theworld. Strange to say, another friend, Mr. Tatnura Kumaji, who has lived on the Further Isles for seven rears, declares that no sueh custom has any existence ! This is, however, the only Luchuan itelll as to which I have found authorities differ. The above few particulars concerning the Further Isles must nsuffice fol the present. I only note them in case of my being prevented from carrying out a therished plan of again visiting Luchu, and making a lengthened stay in each of the principal islands. I found social life at Nafa and Shuri very pleasant. The upper classes there have not much to do; they read little, and mOlte about little, dso that they have plenty of time for entertaining each other. It so happened, also, that the Governor and the Chief Inspector of P.)lice, who are the two principal officials of the archipelago, were leaving, and I shared -in some of the entertainments that were given in. their honour. I was sitting alone at Iny inn on the evening of March 11, when a message caxne from Prince Shojun (or Matsuyama,as the Japanese commonly style him), thild son of the ex-king, to say that he wished to see me. I went, accompaniedby the Inspector of Police, to the place indicated a tea-house in Nafa and found the prince attended by two of his nobles naxned Ie and Tama-Gusiku. There was no formality about the conversation, which was carried on in Japanese, of which language the prince, who was paltly educatedat Tokio, is a perfect mastel. One of his attendants, too, spoke Japanese fluentlr; the other could only say afew

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words. A good deal of the talk had reference to the visit of my grandfather, Captain Basil Hall, in 1816, of which a local record is still preserlted. A day or two later I paid visits at the houses of my host and his attendants. The exterior of such Luchuan mansions is not striking, and the gate remains always inhospitably shut. Once within, however, the ViSitOl' finds himself in an atmosphereof courtesynowise inferior to that of Japan. The disposition, too, of the apartments, with their mats and ornamental hanting scrolls, recalls Japan, and every one sits on the floor,more japontco. But a curious Eeculiarity is the presence in the court just outside the reception-roorns, which are of course open to the outer air in this delicious climate, of cages containing fighting cocks that keep up an unpleasant crowing. The charming female servants of Japan are absent their place being taken by men, who, with deep obeisancesn bring in tea and somewhat dubious cakes. Nowhere was a wornanto be seen, though many were the heads of men and boys peering round colners and over screens as we passed in and out. After this there were many corningsand goings, days spent together at the theatre, and so on. Our grandest field-day was one Sllnday, when, after military games by the soldiers of the Japanese tarrison svho are quartered in the castle of Shuri, we-that is, tlle Prefect, the Chief Inspector of Police, the military Commandant,another officer,and I -werebidden to a grand feast in Japanese style by Prince Shoten (also called Naka-Gusiku from the narne of his estate), the ex-king's eldest son, whom we found attended by his brother Shojun and two or three of the principal nobles. Unfortunately our delicate, amiable-lookint, host, whom I took to be about thilty years of aga, could speak no language but his own. So, as our Luchuan was neithel copious nor fluent-indeed, the ouly word some of the party knew was chur-ka,, which means " a pretty girl," and is generally among the first expressions new-comers to Luchu learn-all we could do was to smile and pledge each other in innumelable cups of sake(a Japaneee liquor made from rice, and tastillg rather like weak sherry). The younger prince, however, and some of the others were ready to chat away in the most unconventional manner; and the party went off right merrily, an tsthetic diversion in the middle of the proceedings being caused by the entrance of an artist, who drew in sepia whatever subject was proposed to him by the guests. There was also some composing of verses and writing of scrolls by the assembled company. The perfactly Japanese character of this whole entertainnlent-food, collversationsmanners, everything--might have led one to suppose that our Luchuan hosts knew of no other way of living. The only ullJapanese faature was that aach of us was invitad to partake of a thimbleful of a serfr strong Luchuan liquor out of a tiny cup of pure gold. Quite another vista, however, was opened out a few days later, when a charming old nobleman, narned Yonabara, bade ns to a feast in the Chinese style. No more squatting on the mats this time, but

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stiff-backed chairsa la chtnoise. No mole of the familiar3apanese fisl andrice and seaweedsoup,but richer and morecomplicated Celestia] dishesservedin twelvecourses with an elaborate menuin Chinese. This bast was intende,d to be an exatt counterpart of that whieh it was the custom to offer to the Chinese alnbassadors who used to come,and present the congratulaticns of the court of Peking on the accession of each new Luchuan sovereign. Some of the robes then worn were brotlghtollt golgeous red and green silks. But as it was only play this time and not reality,our hosts did not don these lobes themselves. Some e2atremely bewitchingsinging-girlswere presentto help on the feast with native music, and these the son of tile house playfully dressedup in the gorgeousChineserobes,producing a charming eSect. Two or thre3e days afterthis dinnerin Ghineseambassadorial style, the day of partingcame,when the Prefect,the ChiefInspector of Police, several oflicersof the garrison,and myself elubarkedon board the steamerMutsu Maru, that was to carry us home to Japan. Our late host presented us each with an ode in faultlessclassicalJapanese. The lines addressed to myselfran as follows:Onozukaq a
Kami ya qnamoq an Watatsumi no Nami-ji mo kaze no Kimi no nxaninzan i.

Which,beinginterpreted, meansSurelymust The Godsprotectthee, Incliningto thy behest Both the breezesandthe Bave-path Acrossthe ocean. The deck was crowdedwith friends corne to say farewell; and as we roundedNaulminl'oint, this castle-like coral rockwas seen to be alive with peoplewaving adieux to us with their green parasols, after the peculiarLuchuanfashion. The last impression I receivedof Great Luchu was frore its white, glistening grave-vaults on the green hillsides. Then night fell, and in the brilliant snoonlightisland after island rose up in clear-cutolltline as nzesped rapidlynolthwardove a sea of glass. APPENDIX.
OX THENAMELUCHU. l'he etymology of the word L?lchu is obscure,and so far as orthographyis concerned,both native * and Euro)ean spelling exhibits a remarkable variety of usage. * The Chineseare responsiblefor the native spellings, their system of writing being authoritative in Luchu as in Japan.

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3iach of the combinations JS R R Mt which give the same Chinese sound Ltu-K'tu, or Ltu Ch'tu,and even tX g which sounds rather differently, has the authority of ancient and respectable authors. l'he eawrliest of these various forms, iR ll, which occurs in the Chinese annals of the seventh century, lneans literally " a floating hornless draCon," and is explained by reference to the likeness in shape of Luchu to a young dragon floatingon the surfaceof the waves. The Chinese were quite capableof bestowing such a name on the archipelagoor one of the islands composinffl it; and the identification of Luchu by the Japanese with the Rya6-gu" , that is, "Drat,on Palace," or palace of the sea-god of their mythology, which is supposed to lie somewherebelow the waves, points to a cognate idea. I incline to think, however, that all the combinationsof characters employed to write the sound Ltu-rtu, or Ltu-c7b'tu, are but attempts to represent phonetically syllables whose original significationhad been forCotten before the introductionof the art of writin. The name may possibly be a survival from days when a race different fromthat now dominant there tenanted the archipelago. One thing alone is clear, namely, that the word L?ches is not Luchuan. Neither is it Japanese; for the use of the letter Z (with its equivalents zrand d) at the beginning of a word i8 contrary to the phoneticrules of both these kindredtongues. rl'hecharacters now generallyadopted are C,&ig, which the Luchuans pronounce LDuchu, while the Japanese call them Ryuky . The staIldard English spellings, Luchu,Lewchew, or Loochoo come to us from the prollunciation currentin North China Liu-ch'itb, accordinC to Sir Thomas NVade'ssystem of transcription while the French Liou-@iou representsthe pronunciationof South China (Lit6-k'iu). Early Spanish and other voyagers wrote the word in an astounding variety of ways Leqt6eos, LeguWo, Liquejo,Loqueo, Liu-BSiu,Lieou-ECieou, to which later compilers have added Lieuchieuz;, Lieakieu,Lewkew,L7ltschz6, Liow-tcheow, Lwe-kioe, etc., until the student feels perfectlybewildered. All these spellinvs,however,widely as they may differ to the eye, can be traced to the fairly uniformpronunciation of Chineseinterpreters. Here in Japan, durinC recentyears,someEuropeans of strong pro-Japanese leanings have adopted the Japanese pronunciation,and spell Ryukyuor Ri?4ktu. They have not even shrunk from the perpetrationof such EnClish and Latin (?) adjectives as Ri?4ktuan and Ryukyvanus! For my own part, I fail to see the advantage of mising; up politics in such matters, and I adhere to the spellings lioochoo or Luchu, not as beinC the best imaainableif we now had to write of the place for the first time, but becausethey are those which hase been most generally employed by English writels and cartographers for nearly a century past. l'he Royal GeoCraphical Society prefers Luchu,the British Admiralty charts varr between Lachuand Lz?4 Eiu, the Japanese Admiraltychart No. 34, probablyout of sdeference to English usaCe,has Liu lTiu. Curiouslyenough, the Luchuans themselves make but scant use of the name b) which their country is known to the world at large. They have, as alreadyexplained, separatedesignationsfor each island, the chief island beinCalmost irlvariably spoken of as Uchina, a name of which the Japanese Okinawa, used officiall to denote the whole archipelago exclusive of the northern sub-groups,preservesa more archaic form. The charactersemployed to write it are i , the meaninffl of which is "sea-rope,"given so tradition asserts --on account of the likeness in shape o this islalld to a bit of ropefloatinC on the waves; but whether this popular etymoloCyhas any serious claims to attention may be doubted. Another ancient Japanese,and perhapsalso native, name for the archipelaCo is Uruma,which seems to be preservedin Baderuma (that is, " Estreme Uruma "), the southernmostand

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nearly the furthest of the group. Of this name Uruma, no etymology is forthcoming.

In spelling the other Luchuan place-namesthat occur in this paper,I have consistently followed the Japanese pronunciation, chiefly because that is now the dominantone likely to survive in charts and in postal and telegraphic usaCe,partly also because the Shuri (Great Luchuan) pronunciationis widely departedfroul in the Further Isles, and one u-ould,therefore,be involved in a maze of difficultiesif one endeavoured to give the local pronullciationin each case. The Japanesepronunciation, on the other hand, is uniform and easily ascertained,and the orthography, now a]most universallyemployed by residentEuropeansfor transliterating it, agreesalmost exactly sith the system recommendedoy the Royal Geographical Society. The sole difference is in the use of a line over certainvowels (e.g. o, tb),to mark, not tontc accent, but long quantity, the distinction between long and short quantity being absolutelyessentialboth in the Japaneseand the Luchuanlanguages. Beforethe readingof the paper,the PRESIDENT said: The paperwe are assembled to hear this eveninC, on the Luchu Islands, is by one well able to give us valuable and good geotraphical infornlation. Mr. Basil Hall Chamberlainis a most eminent linguist and philolofflist, especially as regards the languages of the far East; he is also a sound geographer. I regret we shall not be able to welcome him here this eveninffl, but l am glad to say MajorDarwin has kindly undertaken to read the paperfor Mr. Chamberlain. After the readingof the paper,the followingdiscussion took place:Mr. SEEBOHM: MYonly claim to speak UpOll the Luchu islands is that durincr the last ten years I have been in correspondence with collectors of birds in Japan, and I have receivedseveralcollectionsfrom these islands, and have nvrittenseveral papersupon the birds of this group of islands. There are one or two very interesting factsconnectednviththem. The main islands whichhave been visited have been the northern and the central groups; the southerngroup is practically unknown ornitholoCically, and I must say that the visits have beell very cursory,and I don't think we know anything like the full numbersof birdswhich are to be found there. Up to the presenttime there are no fewer than twelve species of birds which have alreadybeen discovered, andwhich are peculiarto the Luchu Islands. One of these, perhapsthe most interestinffl, is a very handsome woodpecker, and this has been consideredso extremely distinct from every other species that our great authority UpOll the woodpeckers has createda genus for its reception. Now, the geographical interest of these facts lies in this, that although the islandt have beerl described this evening as having been partlyof coral formationand partly volcanic,it is quite evident, from the bird-life upon them, that they must be extremely old. On the British Islailds we have ouly one species of bird which is peculiarto them, and this is so extrenlelyclosely allied to a species in the north of Europethat it is very little evidence in favourof the separationfor any long time of the British Islands fros the Continent. Now, the existence of a bird generically distinct on the Luchu Islands shows that they have beenfor a very long time separatedfrom the nlainland. I am sure that we have listened with very great interest to the most valuable and importantpaperwhich has been read to us this eveninC,and we must all express our great thanks to MajorDarwin for the excellent way in which he has read it. Admiral Sir JOHN HAX-:AS a visitor to the Luchu Islands fifty years ago, I should like to expressmy great gratitude to Mr.Chamberlain for this most valuable paper. I do not wish to detain the Society, but I should like to point out how little change has takerl place in the Luchu Islands since CaptainBasil lIall, the grandfatherof the presentwriter, visited thelll to the present time; and, looking to

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he wonderftll changesin Japan,one is surprisedthat the changehas not spreadover the subsidiarygroup,to which Japan will shortl-, if it does not now, elaim entire bsuzerainty. I had very little opportunityxvhilethere of examininCor seeing much of the country; I travelleda little way, but llot far. The admirable roadsstruck us all as marks of civilization. One would hardly have expected such a massive building as that in which the Prince of Luchu was concealed,like the Shogun of Japan, always invisible; it was a building of such massive structure that it would have requiredvery heavy artillery to take it. However,that was not necessary,as they showed us the greatest possible civility, and were more than kind; but I must confess that that kindness was not extended by the ladies, who, although they may have seen us, did not take the opportunityof allowing us to see their charms. I thought, as one who had visited Luchu, it would be unfhir if I did not thanl Mr. Chamberlain for his paper. The PRESIDEXT: I am much obliged to Admiral Sir John Hay for havinCtold us he has been to Luchu, for very few naval officers have the opportunity of sisiting these islands. I am sure we have all listened to Mr. Chamberlain's paper with great interest; it is comprehensive, and when you have the opportunity of readingit you will find it exhaustive -such a paperas one would expect from the grandsonof our old associate, who first gave us in our boyhoodan account of these islands. Mr. Chamberlain'sgrandfather, Captain Basil Hall, the first modern writer on the Luchu Islands, was one of the earliest members of the Raleigh tClub, which was the forerunnerof this Society, and one of its luost active members. He was also a memberof the first Councilof our Society, and I think that the occasionof this paperby his grandsonbeing read beforethe Society should be taken as an opportunityfor commemorating the great debt which geoCraphical literatureowes to CaptainBasil Hall. That gallant officer and scientific seaman obtained for his books a place in the classics of British literature, through his admirable accounts of many distant lands, and throut,h the thoroughness,elegance, and finish of his style. When I was a midshipman,and it was my all night in, I uzed to take Captain Hall's 'Fragments' into my hammock with me and read rthem by the light of the zentry's lantern. I think you will all feel it is an interestingcoincidencethat we should find his grandsonfollowing in his footsteps, -in writing so graphie and lucid an account of the very islands the account of nvhichserved to build up the literary fame of his grandfather,Captain Basil Hall. NlVe all, of course,rerret that Mr. Chamberlainshould not have been with us this -evening,and I am sure that you will all join with me in a cordial vote of thanks for his valuable paper,and also a vote of thanks to MajorDarwiu for his kindness in taking so mueh troublein preparingit and readingit to us.


By C. w. HOBLEY.

WHAT followsis a short accountof a journeyto Tsavoand the mountain district of Taita,in the latter part of the year 1892. The start was made from Mombasa on September21, with a small caravanof about 2o men all told. The ordinary route to the interiorwas taken by way of Mazera,Mwachi,and Taro. As there was at this saason no water betweenTaro and Ndara,a distanceof about50 lniles,a halt of one day was madeat Taroin orderto send Qnwater ahead into tlle NO.TI. - JUSE, 1895. 2o

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