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Flow (psychology



Flow (psychology)
Flow is the mental state of operation in which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity. In essence, flow is characterized by complete absorption in what one does. Proposed by Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, this positive psychology concept has been widely referenced across a variety of fields.[1] According to Csikszentmihalyi, flow is completely focused motivation. It is a single-minded immersion and represents perhaps the ultimate experience in harnessing the emotions in the service of performing and learning. In flow, the emotions are not just contained and channeled, but positive, energized, and aligned with the task at hand. To be caught Concentrating upon a task is one aspect of flow. in the ennui of depression or the agitation of anxiety is to be barred from flow. The hallmark of flow is a feeling of spontaneous joy, even rapture, while performing a task although flow is also described (below) as a deep focus on nothing but the activity – not even oneself or one's emotions. Flow has many of the same characteristics as (the positive aspects of) hyperfocus. However, hyperfocus is not always described in such universally glowing terms. For examples, some cases of spending "too much" time playing video games, or of getting side-tracked and pleasurably absorbed by one aspect of an assignment or task to the detriment of the assignment in general. In some cases, hyperfocus can "grab" a person, perhaps causing him to appear unfocused or to start several projects, but complete few. Colloquial terms for this or similar mental states include: to be in the moment, present, in the zone, on a roll, wired in, in the groove, on fire, in tune, centered, or singularly focused.

Components of flow
Nakamura and Csíkszentmihályi identify the following six factors as encompassing an experience of flow. [2] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. intense and focused concentration on the present moment merging of action and awareness a loss of reflective self-consciousness a sense of personal control or agency over the situation or activity a distortion of temporal experience, one's subjective experience of time is altered experience of the activity as intrinsically rewarding, also referred to as autotelic experience

Those aspects can appear independently of each other, but only in combination do they constitute a so-called flow experience.

You put water into a bottle and it becomes the bottle. there is no more attention to be allocated. it becomes the teapot. and even basic bodily needs. he would wake up refreshed and. In his book. Psychologists have found that one's mind can attend to only a certain amount of information at a time. The teachings of Buddhism and Taoism speak of a state of mind known as the "action of inaction" or "doing without doing" that greatly resembles the idea of flow. For the most part (except for basic bodily feelings like hunger and pain. Thus. “Be like water . upon starting to paint again. that number is about 126 bits of information per second. Artists. History/background Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and his fellow researchers began researching flow after Csikszentmihalyi became fascinated by artists who would essentially get lost in their work.Empty your mind. Bruce Lee either spoke of a psychological state similar to flow or spoke about the importance of adaptability and shedding preconceptions in his book the Tao of Jeet Kune Do. If you put water into a cup. water and even sleep. You put it in a teapot. especially painters. According to Mihaly's 1956 study. which are innate). Shapeless.. Historical sources hint that Michelangelo may have painted the ceiling of the Vatican's Sistine Chapel while in a flow state. got so immersed in their work that they would disregard their need for food. That is why when having a conversation one cannot focus as much attention on other things. but simple daily tasks take quite a lot of information. people are able to decide what they want to focus their attention on. water can flow or it can crash. Be water. Hindu texts on Advaita philosophy such as Ashtavakra Gita and the Yoga of Knowledge such as Bhagavad-Gita refer to a similar state. without making the conscious decision to do so. Also. be formless. people. This occurs because all of the attention of the person in the flow state is on the task at hand. he or she is completely engrossed with the one task at hand and. It is reported that he painted for days at a time. Now. That may seem like a large number (and a lot of information). Flow research became prevalent in the 1980s and 1990s. when one is in the flow state. Just having a conversation takes about 40 bits of information per second. After this. However. it becomes the cup. there is a great deal of information made available to each individual.. re-enter a state of complete absorption. . distractions. he compares the state of flow to water where he so famously says. The theory of flow was greatly used in the theories of Maslow and Rogers in their development of the humanistic tradition of psychology. the origin of research on the theory of flow came about when Csikszentmihalyi tried to understand this phenomenon experienced by these artists. like water. Researchers interested in optimal experiences and emphasizing positive experiences. and he was so absorbed in his work that he did not even stop for food or sleep until he reached the point of passing out. also began studying the theory of flow at this time. my friend." Mechanism of flow In every given moment. loses awareness of all other things: time. The psychological concept of flow as becoming absorbed in an activity is thus unrelated to the older phrase go with the flow. Flow has been experienced throughout history and across cultures. with Csikszentmihalyi and his colleagues in Italy still at the forefront. that's 1/3 of one's capacity. especially in places such as schools and the business world.Flow (psychology) 2 Etymology Flow is so named because during Csíkszentmihályi's 1975 interviews several people described their "flow" experiences using the metaphor of a water current carrying them along.

[6] One is. and happiness. Knowing what to do 2. the greater the intensity of that state of being (whether it is flow or anxiety or boredom or relaxation). This graph depicts the relationship between the perceived challenges of a task and one's perceived skills. However. This adds direction and structure to the task. a perceived fit of skills and task demands can be identified as the central precondition of flow experiences. Finding Flow. Csíkszentmihályi published the graph to the right. Several problems of this model have been discussed in literature. according to performance to maintain the flow state. which. The further from the center an experience is. M.[5] In 1997.[7] In addition. Thus.Flow (psychology) 3 Conditions for flow A flow state can be entered while performing any activity.<ref name="Finding Flow">Csikszentmihalyi. that it does not ensure a perceived balance between challenges and skills which is supposed to be the central precondition of flow experiences. This helps the person negotiate any changing demands and allows him or her to adjust his or her Mental state in terms of challenge level and skill level. is contrary to flow theory. Knowing how well you are doing . Passive activities like taking a bath or even watching TV usually don’t elicit flow experiences as individuals have to actively do something to enter a flow state. Knowing how to do it 3. The task at hand must have clear and immediate feedback. Schaffer (2013) proposed 7 flow conditions: 1. as a perceived balance between challenges and skills requires that one knows what he or she has to do (clear goals) and how successful he or she is in doing it (immediate feedback).</ref> (Click on a fragment of the image to go to the 3. One must have confidence that he or she is capable to do the task at hand. relaxation. The center of this graph (where the sectors meet) represents one's average levels of challenge and skill across all activities an individual performs during his or her daily life. 2. Individuals with a low average level of skills and a high average level of challenges (or the other way round) do not necessarily experience a fit between skills and challenges when both are above his or her individual average. they claim. This graph illustrates one further aspect of flow: it is more likely to occur when the activity at hand is a higher-than-average challenge (above the center point) and the individual has above-average skills (to the right of the center point). it was argued that the antecedent factors of flow are interrelated. 1997. Csikszentmihalyi's flow model.. One must be involved in an activity with a clear set of goals and progress.[3][4] Flow theory postulates three conditions that have to be met to achieve a flow state: 1. although it is most likely to occur when one is wholeheartedly performing a task or activity for intrinsic purposes. one study found that low challenge situations which were surpassed by skill were associated with enjoyment. One must have a good balance between appropriate article) the perceived challenges of the task at hand and his or her own perceived skills.

there is not much research on the autotelic personality. Knowing where to go (if navigation is involved) High perceived challenges High perceived skills Freedom from distractions[8] 4 Schaffer also published a measure. The characteristics of such a group include: • Creative spatial arrangements: Chairs. The autotelic personality Csíkszentmihályi hypothesized that people with several very specific personality traits may be better able to achieve flow more often than the average person. and anxiety. Being in a state of apathy is characterized when challenges are low and one’s skill level is low producing a general lack of interest in the task at hand. open topics • Parallel. result wall. rather than an obstacle . flow graphs. high-skills situations that stimulate them and encourage growth" compared to those without an autotelic personality. These states in general differ from being in a state of flow. pin walls. Experimental evidence shows that a balance between skills of the individual and demands of the task (compared to boredom and overload) only elicits flow experiences in individuals characterized by an internal locus of control[10] or a habitual action orientation. 5.[9] Challenges to staying in flow Some of the challenges to staying in flow include states of apathy. safe place (here all may say what is otherwise only thought). project summary. 2000) found that people with an autotelic personality have a greater preference for "high-action-opportunity. to measure each of these 7 flow conditions for any given task or activity. 7.[11] Several correlational studies found need for achievement to be a personal characteristic that fosters flow experiences. low self-centeredness. Boredom is a slightly different state in that it occurs when challenges are low. Lastly. organized working • Target group focus • Advancement of existing one (prototyping) • Increase in efficiency through visualization • Using differences among participants as an opportunity. It is in such high-challenge. thus work primarily standing and moving • Playground design: Charts for information inputs. a state of anxiety occurs when challenges are so high that they exceed one’s perceived skill level causing one great distress and uneasiness. persistence.[12][13][14] Group flow Csíkszentmihályi suggests several ways a group can work together so that each individual member achieves flow. but one’s skill level exceeds those challenges causing one to seek higher challenges. craziness (here also craziness has a place). and a high rate of performing activities for intrinsic reasons only. charts. These personality traits include curiosity. the Flow Condition Questionnaire (FCQ). One researcher (Abuhamdeh. boredom. People with most of these personality traits are said to have an autotelic personality.Flow (psychology) 4. Up to now. in that flow occurs when challenges match one’s skill level. 6. high-skills situations that people are most likely to enter the flow state. but no tables. but results of the few studies that have been conducted suggest that indeed some people are more prone to experience flow than others.

computer programming. such as design methods for playgrounds to elicit the flow experience. Groups of drummers experience a state of flow when they sense a collective energy that drives the beat. Csíkszentmihályi and psychologist Kevin Rathunde embarked on a multi-year study of student experiences in Montessori settings and traditional educational settings. something they refer to as getting into the groove. In a study performed with professional classical pianists who played piano pieces several times to induce a flow state. performance improvement. Research has shown that performers in a flow state have a heightened quality of performance as opposed to when they are not in a flow state. such as spirituality. Other practitioners of Csíkszentmihályi's flow concept focus on intrinsic applications. in that Csíkszentmihályi states that overlearning enables the mind to concentrate on visualizing the desired performance as a singular.[citation needed] His work has also informed the measurement of donor momentum by The New Science of Philanthropy Education In education. Challenging assignments that (slightly) stretch one's skills lead to flow. In spite of the effortless attention and overall relaxation of the body. or self-help. The research supported observations that students achieved flow experiences more frequently in Montessori settings. it came to the attention of Csíkszentmihályi that the principles and practices of the Montessori Method of education seemed to purposefully set up continuous flow opportunities and Young boy. a significant relationship was found between the flow state of the pianist and the pianist’s heart rate. which seems to be an important factor in this technique. Around 2000.[citation needed] Bass guitarists often describe a state of flow when properly playing between the percussion and melody as being in the pocket. This study further emphasized that flow is a state of effortless attention. piano improvisation. integrated action instead of a set of actions. painting a model experiences for students. and major facial muscles.Flow (psychology) 5 Applications Applications suggested by Csíkszentmihályi versus other practitioners Only Csíkszentmihályi seems to have published suggestions for extrinsic applications of the flow concept.[citation needed] . heart rate and blood pressure decreased and the major facial muscles relaxed. blood pressure. the performance of the pianist during the flow state improved. Reinterpretations of Csíkszentmihályi's flow process exist to improve performance in areas as diverse as business. sport psychology. especially improvisational soloists may experience a similar state of mind while playing their instrument. and standup comedy. As the pianist entered the flow state. Music Musicians. there is the concept of overlearning.

but as he himself readily acknowledges[citation needed] he was most certainly not the first to quantify the concept of flow or develop applications based on the concept. including. Kendo and Ikebana. Buddhism and Taoism have honed the discipline of overcoming the duality of self and object as a central feature of spiritual development. one body. The phrase being at one with things is a metaphor of Csíkszentmihályi's flow concept. Many athletes describe the effortless nature of their performance while achieving personal bests – see references. and that a sense of self detracts from a sense of the Divine. one may experience a profound state of Oneness or flow whereby the phenomena of nature. a concept that. In Islam the first mental state that precedes human action is known as al-khatir. practitioners of Eastern religions such as Hinduism. one family. is in all respects equal to flow.] and I just kept going. tested and refined through spiritual practice instead of the systematic rigor and controls of modern science. In this state an image or thought is born in the mind. the macrocosmic world and the souls of people are understood as a sign of God.Flow (psychology) 6 Sports The concept of being in the zone during an athletic performance fits within Csíkszentmihályi's description of the flow experience. the teaching in the Qu'ran of different nations of people existing so that they may come to know each other is an example of Oneness. a psychological absorption in the object of meditation. in the case of Japanese Zen Buddhism. Chabad-Hasidic Jewish philosophy also encourages that "the action is the main thing" and that a person must have a strong sense of Divine mission to elevate the world that transcends all other needs. In yogic traditions such as Raja Yoga reference is made to a state of flow in the practice of Samyama. by his description.[citation needed] Practitioners of the varied schools of Zen Buddhism apply concepts similar to flow to aid their mastery of art forms. And suddenly I realised that I was no longer driving the car consciously. It was like I was in a tunnel. All members of society and the world are considered to be in flow of Oneness. Cheng Hsin. When in this mental state and contemplating upon an ayat or an imprint of God. Theravada Buddhism refers to "access concentration. Suddenly I was nearly two seconds faster than anybody else. who during qualifying for the 1988 Monaco Grand Prix explained: "I was already on pole.[citation needed] . and theories and applications of being in the zone and its relationship with athletic competitive advantage are topics studied in the field of sport psychology." Flow may occur in challenging sports such as Eventing. Religion and spirituality Csíkszentmihályi may have been the first to describe this concept in Western psychology." which is a state of flow achieved through meditation and used to further strengthen concentration into jhana. including my team mate with the same car. For millennia. Also. The Formula One driver Ayrton Senna. Eastern spiritual practitioners have developed a very thorough and holistic set of theories around overcoming duality of self and object. Roy Palmer suggests that "being in the zone" may also influence movement patterns as better integration of the conscious and subconscious reflex functions improves coordination. Judo. only I was in a different dimension. and/or to develop insight. Honkyoku. Aikido. Timothy Gallwey's influential works on the "inner game" of sports such as golf and tennis described the mental coaching and attitudes required to "get in the zone" and fully internalize mastery of the sport. [. MMA champion and Karate master Lyoto Machida uses meditation techniques before fights to attain mushin. It emphasizes the tension between the Divine soul and the animal soul in accomplishing this flow.. I was driving it by a kind of instinct..

Flow in games has been linked to the Laws of Learning as part of the explanation for why learning games (the use of games to introduce material. and the Making of Meaning. Thus. Overall. or operating on software time when developing in an undistracted state." Flow in the workplace Conditions of flow. Professions and work Developers of computer software reference getting into a flow state as "wired in". Feedback is immediate 3. or increase retention) have the potential to be effective. Csikszentmihalyi lays out the following three conditions: 1. the experience of play is fluid and is intrinsically psychologically rewarding independent of scores or in-game successes in the flow state. This is exhibited in well designed games. Flow. which is part of the Law of Readiness. Professional poker players use the term "playing the A-game" when referring to the state of highest concentration and strategical awareness. improve understanding. in which a task requires full involvement. believe that certain interventions may be performed to enhance and increase flow in the workplace. The positive emotions associated with flow are associated with the Law of Effect. which are inextricably connected to creating flow. where players perform at the edge of their competency as they are guided by clear goals and feedback. Through the balance of skill and challenge the player’s brain is aroused. such as Csikszentmihalyi. In particular. including “good work” in which one “enjoys doing your best while at the same time contributing to something beyond yourself. and the challenge of a task matches one’s ability. in particular.Flow (psychology) 7 Gaming Flow is one of the main reasons that people play video games. In addition. while pool players often call the state being in "dead stroke. or sometimes as The Zone. and then identifying and developing personal characteristics to increase experiences of flow. In his consultation work. which is related to flow. and in correlated to increased performance. can improve morale by fostering a sense of greater happiness and accomplishment. flow is intrinsically motivating. Because flow is associated with achievement. game designers. Flow researchers. such as Csikszentmihalyi did with Swedish police officers. with attention engaged and motivation high. First. in particular. the use of flow in games helps foster an enjoyable experience which in turn increases motivation and draws players to continue playing. Csikszentmihalyi explains that experiencing flow. Stock market operators often use the term "in the pipe" to describe the psychological state of flow when trading during high volume days and market corrections. This is especially true since the primary goal of games is to create entertainment through intrinsic motivation. required for flow. defined as a state in which challenges and skills are equally matched.” Coert Vissar introduces the ideas presented by Csikszentmihalyi.” He then provides tools by which managers and employees can create an atmosphere that encourages good work. In his review of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s book “Good Business: Leadership. through which people would gain ‘intrinsic rewards that encourage persistence” and provide benefits. play an extremely important role in the workplace. its development could have concrete implications in increasing workplace satisfaction and accomplishment. hack mode. benefit from the integration of flow principles into their game designs. Goals are clear 2. The condition of feedback. In order to achieve flow. The intense experiences of being in a state of flow are directly associated with the Law of Intensity. the experience of gaming can be so engaging and motivating as it meets many of the Laws of Learning. Csikszentmihalyi emphasizes finding activities and environments that are conducive to flow. A balance between opportunity and capacity . Applying these methods in the workplace. Thus. is associated with the feedback aspects of the Law of Exercise.

organization plan. She writes. Creating a workplace atmosphere that allows for flow and growth. In her article in Positive Psychology News Daily.Flow (psychology) Csikszentmihalyi argues that with increased experiences of flow. An experience that is so enjoyable should lead to positive affect and happiness in the long run. limited feedback about one’s work can reduce motivation and leaves the employee unaware of whether or not they did a good job. Several studies found that flow experiences and positive affect go hand in hand. problem solving. and cognitive demands). frequent experiences of flow at work lead to higher productivity. an employee may not be assigned tasks that challenge them or seem important. Kathryn Britton examines the importance of experiencing flow in the workplace beyond the individual benefits it creates. and employee development (Csikszentmihalyi.” 8 Consequences of flow Positive consequences of flow experiences International bestsellers by Csikszentmihalyi suggest that enhancing the time spent in flow makes our lives more happy and successful. So finding ways to increase the frequency of flow experiences can be one way for people to work together to increase the effectiveness of their workplaces. and evaluation) and at a more stable level (such as role clarity.[18][19][20] However. Csikszentmihalyi argues. They found that activities such as planning. the individual worker may not see where their individual task fits it.” in which people flourish as their achievements grow and with that comes development of increasing “emotional. further empirical evidence is required to substantiate these preliminary indications. barriers to achieving flow in the workplace. 2004). which could potentially prevent an opportunity for flow.” Csikszentmihalyi argues the first reason that flow does not occur is that the goals of one’s job are not clear. Second.[16] Positive effect and life satisfaction Flow is an innately positive experience.item flow scale to examine predictors of flow at two levels: activity level (such as brainstorming. Flow experiences are predicated to lead to positive affect as well as to better performance. problem solving. “Flow isn’t just valuable to individuals. .[15] However. and evaluation predicted transient flow states. When there is little communication of feedback. as flow researchers continue to explore the problem of how to directly investigate causal consequences of flow experiences using modern scientific instrumentation to observe the neuro-physiological correlates of the flow state. it is known to "produce intense feelings of enjoyment". For example. This study can help us identify which task at work can be cultivated and emphasized in order to help employees experience flow on the job. influence. In the study “Predicting flow at work: Investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work” Karina Nielsen and Bryan Cleal (2010) used a 9. Csikszentmihalyi stated that happiness is derived from personal development and growth – and flow situations permit the experience of personal development. the causal processes underlying those relationships remains unclear at present. There are. however. cognitive. Also. and social complexity” (Vissar). innovation. it also contributes to organizational goals.[17] and that challenges and skills above the individual’s average foster positive affect. but that more stable job characteristics were not found to predict flow at work. people experience “growth towards complexity. can increase the happiness and achievement of employees. In his chapter “Why Flow Doesn’t Happen on the Job. He explains that while some tasks at work may fit into a larger. 1991.

J. com/ scholar?hl=en& lr=& cites=12334528761431366038) about flow on Google Scholar. [6] Moneta. difficult challenges stretches one's skills. 34.. [4] Delle Fave. Advances in flow research (pp. J.65-86). Kimiecik. 22. Engeser (Ed. That is. and sports (Jackson. When one is in a flow state. Lopez (Eds. Advances in flow research (pp. New York: Springer. & Bassi. (2000). A. (2012). Stinglhamber. An experimental analysis. [7] Ellis. F. & Landhäußer. In S.. 6. In S. (1997). 32. L.). Stein. In S. H. (1977). 347-367. R. The flow model revisited. The quality of experience in adolescents’ daily lives: Developmental perspectives. Thomas. Snyder & S. 23-50). Measurement and analysis issues with explanation of variance in daily experience using the flow model. One emerges from such a flow experience with a bit of personal growth and great "feelings of competence and efficacy".. The ecology of adolescent activity and experience. and General Psychology Monographs. 281-294. Marsh. Shanock. & Bless. learning (Csíkszentmihályi et al. 126. In C. [8] http:/ / humanfactors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. (2012).. com/ funexperiences. Flow experiences at work: for high need achievers alone? Journal of Organizational Behavior. New York: Basic Books. (2008). 195-206). 51-64). performance and moderators of challenge-skill balance. A. Flow theory and research. good performance makes flow experiences more likely. 9 Tools to Measure Flow List of tools to measure flow states similar to Csikszentmihalyi's experiments: • Happiness At Work [21] . [12] Engeser. G. google. J. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. & Randall. 1996). M. Advances in flow research (pp. cognitive. (2007). C. Results of a longitudinal study in the academic context indicate that the causal effect of flow on performance is only of small magnitude and the strong relationship between both is driven by an effect of performance on flow. A. J.. T. Social.. A.. com/ funexperiences.. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie. and performance-related consequences. 337. [14] Eisenberger. (2005). J.. M. & Morris. (1994). Oxford: Oxford University Press. F.Flow (psychology) Performance Flow experiences imply a growth principle. he or she is working to master the activity at hand. 755-775. 1999. Motivation and Emotion. 1992). 589-607. [2] Nakamura. For sure. R. Arousal of flow experience in a learning setting and its effects on exam performance and affect. J. [11] Keller. [16] Landhäußer. [13] Schüler. J. M. B. In the long run.. On the measurement and conceptualization of flow. J. & Jackson. F. asp [9] http:/ / humanfactors. & Keller. 26. S. the association between both is a reciprocal one. Voelkl. 1995).). European Journal of Personality. New York: Springer. To maintain that flow state. Handbook of positive psychology (pp. Locus of control and the flow experience. (2008). & Csikszentmihalyi. 1993). teaching (Csíkszentmihályi. [15] Csikszentmihalyi.tool to measure happiness at work based on Csikszentmihalyi's research References Footnotes [1] Citations of Csíkszentmihályi's 1990 book (http:/ / scholar. one must seek increasingly greater challenges. evidence regarding better performance in flow situations is mixed. 21. on the other hand. [5] Keller. 2002.. R. & Blomann. asp [10] Keller.. & Rheinberg. The psychology of engagement with everyday life. flow experiences in a specific activity may lead to higher performance in that activity as flow is positively correlated with a higher subsequent motivation to perform and to perform well.). Attempting these new. However. D. New York: Springer. Larson. Jones. Sawyer. Journal of Leisure Research. Flow. Daniels.. M. & Smethurst.. Engeser (Ed.. . Flow and its affective. Finding flow. Engeser (Ed. J. flow experiences may foster better performance but. 217-227. Genetic. Flow has a documented correlation with high performance in the fields of artistic and scientific creativity (Perry. G. R. 158-172. (2009). 26. (2008). E. [3] Csikszentmihalyi. & Prescott. S.. (2012).). 196-209. Flow and regulatory compatibility: An experimental approach to flow model of intrinsic motivation.

. Schneider.htm) by Tracy Steen. on YouTube.00204 (http://dx. Csikszentmihalyi. 2004 TED conference • Finding Flow in Educational Leadership (https://www. Mihály (1999). The systematic assessment of flow in daily experience. Joy (2003).meaningandhappiness. R. School Psychology Quarterly. [18] zone-enjoyment-creativity-elements-flow/26/) • Finding Flow in Writing (http://www. F.. Susan A. Basic Books. & Carli. doi: 10. & Shernoff. G. 105-115. 511-523.archetypewriting.1111/1540-4781. & Vollmeyer.abdsurvivalguide. Csikszentmihalyi & I. Engeser. [21] http:/ / www. Good Business: Leadership.doi. (2007). Optimal experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness (pp.. M. Ph.htm) The Right-Brain/Left-Brain Myth and Flow looks at the neurology behind flow • Flow (http://www.2307/3560241 ( creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kliegl. Mihály (2003). ISBN 0-465-02411-4 (a popular exposition emphasizing technique) • Csíkszentmihályi. doi: 10. • Archetype Writing (http://www.).Flow (psychology) [17] Rheinberg. 26. Zeitschrift für Arbeitsund Organisationspsychologie. com 10 Notations • Csíkszentmihályi. "When the Muse Takes It All: A Model for the Experience of Timelessness in Organizations". fulfillment and flow ( (2010) – A short film made by Halcyon Nights in which flow theory is explored through a new exhilarating activity that takes place on the streets of London . J. Y. and the nine elements of "flow" (http://www. Flow bei der Arbeit. JSTOR  3560241 (http://www. & Haworth. doch Glück in der Freizeit. M.1111/1540-4781. “Flow” experience in the daily lives of sixth-form college students. Csikszentmihalyi (Eds. Mihály (1996). and happiness]. html?res=950DE0DD1E3FF93AA35757C0A96F948260&scp=1&sq=pele+"felt+a+strange+calmness"& st=nyt).com/watch?v=S7HVfxq4l-8) • "In the zone": enjoyment. Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life. S. & Csíkszentmihályi.00204) • Jackson. T. British Journal of Psychology. • Shainberg. Zielausrichtung. Charalampos (2001).doi. (2003). Flow in Sports: The Keys to Optimal Experiences and Performances. (1988). J.html) – A commentary on Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's classic work by Tom Butler-Bowdon • The Principle of Relevance (http://www. 4) 26 (4): 548–565. happinessatworksurvey. ISBN 0-88011-876-8 Unknown parameter |unused_data= ignored (help) • Mainemelis. In M.stefanialucchetti. ISBN 0-06-092820-4 • Csíkszentmihályi. Hong Kong 2010. 51.. Student engagement in High School classrooms from the perspective of flow theory. 288-306). D. 18. Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. Mihály (1996). (1994). RT Publishing. B. which discusses the concept of "Flow" and the importance of attention in the context of digital information overload • "Flow" ( ISBN 0-14-200409-X • Egbert. The Academy of Management Review (The Academy of Management Review. "FINDING 'THE ZONE'" (http://query.. S. The Modern Language Journal 87 (4): 499–518. Flow und Glücksgefühle [Flow during work but happiness during leisure time: goals. [20] Shernoff. Stefania Lucchetti. Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers. R. New York: Harper E. 158-176. No. Vol. Champaign..2307/3560241). presentation at the February.nytimes. Flow. [19] Massimini. New York Times Magazine Wikipedia:Link rot External links • Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: Creativity. Lawrence (1989-04-09). jstor.D. "A Study of Flow Theory in the Foreign Language Classroom"..butler-bowdon. New York: Penguin Books. and the Making of Meaning.

com/sites/bruceupbin/2011/12/13/ five-new-management-metrics-you-need-to-know) .An article about Flow concept application 11 .forbes.Flow (psychology) • Management Metrics (http://www.

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