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An Introduction to Teaching English to Young Learners: Lesson 2

Annie Hughes

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Chapter 1

Low Speed Internet High Speed Internet Watching the video requires Quicktime. Download the newest version for free. Click here. Difficulties watching the video? Visit the FAQs under Resources. Annie Hughes talking about implications for teaching English to young learners. (videoscript) "In this lesson, we shall consider the implications of what we know about how children learn in the young learner language classroom. We will look at the young learners' different outlooks at different ages and what topics of interest they prefer at different stages of their development. We will list criteria we need to keep in mind when teaching language to young learners and link this to a checklist that we can use when setting up our language classroom. Finally, we will look at what is involved in teaching three different age groups of language learners: the 3-6 year olds, the 6-9 year olds and the 9-12 year olds."

Considering the Needs of Young Learners In reviewing how children learn and learn languages from the previous lesson, we must always remember that teaching children is not just a case of passing on knowledge. Teaching young learners is not like filling containers with information, or allowing them to soak things up like

sponges. Neither of these descriptions support what we know about how children learn and think and how they learn language.

We know that we need to create a rich language teaching environment in which children are interacting with each other and using the target language as much as possible. They need to be involved in language learning activities that are stimulating, relevant to them and varied enough to cater to all learner types. Above all, the language class should offer a supportive learning environment in which the teacher scaffolds the children's learning and emerging thinking in the target language. We also know that learning and acquiring language is not linear, especially for young language learners. Rather, it involves the input of meaningful language recycled in a variety of activities, so that children are able to acquire and use the new language themselves at their own pace. Understanding our students' levels Additionally, we recognize that young learners are still developing cognitively. As teachers, we need to understand where our students are in their cognitive development when determining what they can be taught and what and how they are able to learn. We need to provide lots of opportunities for them to progress in their social and academic use of English. In planning our lessons, it is important that the target language we use is suitable for our young learners' age group and language level and that it involves lots of basic interpersonal communicative language and links to things that interest and motivate them. In helping them progress in their overall learning as well as their language learning, we also need to help our students learn the academic language that allows them to learn about and discuss topics they might be studying in other subject areas at school. As an example the, TESOL PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards outlines the language (by grade and proficiency level) that students should be learning so that they can interact with each other socially and also move ahead in their discussion of such subject areas as language arts, mathematics, science and social studies. See the Supplementary Materials section at the end of this lesson for a reference. Changing views of the world In Figure 2.1, we can view the sort of interests children tend to have at different times in their lives. We can see that they start off by being most interested in themselves, their family and home surroundings. As they get older, their sphere of interest grows to include friends and school, and gradually, to include their town, country, world and beyond. As we look at the concentric circles (representing approximate ages) in the figure below, we can get a view of this move in their interests to include a wider world.

Figure 2.1 - Children's interests and views of the world, according to their age groups

Reflecting our students' interests Depending on our specific teaching situation, we will have varying degrees of control over what we present students in our classrooms. The content we teach will often be determined by our school system (local, regional or national). A lot of care and attention is generally given to planning material that is appropriate for our students based on their age and language level and also their interests. As teachers, we can help bring that content to life for our students by planning lessons that reflect their interests. If we look through a curriculum for teaching language learners, we may find that similar themes are touched upon again and again, but that the planned outcomes differ based on the ages and language levels of the students. For example, in Figure 2.2, take a look at how the topics of Animals or Food might be presented to language learners in various age groups. You can see how their interests as well as their cognitive levels are addressed, within the focus of these different headings. 3-5 year olds Pets Food 5-7 year olds Creepy crawlies Food and shopping 7-9 year olds Animals 9-11 year olds Zoos and animals 11-16 year olds Ecology and the environment Keeping fit

Being sick A balanced and going to diet

the hospital
Figure 2.2 - A list of possible topics of interest for young language learners

We need to remember that at different ages our learners will be interested in very different things. This will be important when planning our lessons for the language class as it is vital that our language activities reflect these interests of the learners.

Chapter 2
Setting Up Criteria for Language Teaching When looking at how and what we teach our young learners in a language classroom, we could consider the following criteria based on our understanding of how children learn. (We will continue to elaborate on these criteria throughout the course.) We should make language activities for our young learners concrete. It is difficult for our young learners to think abstractly about learning a language. So if we put children in a situation in which they have to use the language in a concrete way, we can reach them more successfully. For example, there is a need for them to use the language when they play a game, sing a song, or carry out a survey. Language will make more sense to children and will be more easily acquired when they are encouraged to communicate while involved in activities that are real and in the here and now. Social interaction between children should be at the core of language learning and teaching. Again, we need to try and create meaningful activities that are real to the learners and allow them to exchange ideas or information. They may be required to get or give information, share a game, sing a song or listen to a story. For example, when planning an activity we need to have children involved in asking each other questions about things that interest them, such as, When do you go to bed? rather than Do you go to bed every night? The second question is what I call empty. It has been created by the teacher and is not a natural question for children to ask. Because it has no relevance to them, they will not be motivated to ask it or listen for the answer. However, the first question is a question they will naturally want to ask each other. Subsequently, they will be highly motivated to ask and answer this sort of question and will be able to interact meaningfully in the target language. Activities should be meaningful and purposeful. Young learners should be encouraged to use the language in a way that is actually very meaningful to them rather than just to do what the teacher has asked them to do. For example, if learners are asked to use the question, What's your name? with friends in class, this exercise will be meaningless as they already know their friends' names. However, if the children create simple puppets, they can (as the puppet characters) ask each other, What's your name? and then answer with the puppets' names. This makes the language in use really meaningful to them and they will be motivated to want to ask the question andanswer it. Language teaching should be appropriate to the cognitive, linguistic and interest levels of

young learners. We must constantly check what the children in our classes are capable of doing, cognitively as well as linguistically. Then we can make sure we are not expecting them to do more than is appropriate for their level in our language classroom. For example, if children are nine years old when they enter our language classroom, we can assume that they understand the concept of time and are capable of learning how to tell time in English. Only the target language will be different because the overall concept (learned in their first language) will already be understood. However, if children are four years old when they enter our language classroom, they will not be prepared to look at a clock and tell the time. This concept is too advanced for them. However, with the use of illustrations and gestures, they will be prepared to learn the greetings, Good morning and Good night. Building on what students already know, and are capable of learning, will help them in the acquisition of the target language. We should be teaching learners both verbal and non-verbal language. For sighted people, it is very difficult to understand what people are saying when you cannot see the whole of them. This is because we use lots of different non-verbal cues to hear others such as hand gestures, facial expression, eye contact and body language. These cues are all read and interpreted by listeners and they add to the understanding of any actual words that are spoken. Also verbal cues,such as the use of expression and intonation, contribute a great deal to the listeners' understanding. As language teachers we need to overemphasize and model these aspects of the target language for our learners to help support their understanding of the target language. For example, we can gesture to textbooks on the desk and, in the target language, ask a student to pick them up and distribute them to the students in the class. Learners' listening skills and confidence in understanding the target language will develop more successfully through such interactions. We must support all target language teaching and learning activities with pictures, resources and realia. We need to support the understanding of language in other ways, too, such as using realia to quickly show learners what we are talking about. We can also use support materials such as worksheets, books, posters, and examples of the things we are discussing to help make the new language clear for our learners. For example, when we are introducing the word car, we can bring in a flashcard of a car, a toy car, a photo of our own car, a car magazine, and so on. Reaching our students through different support materials can be motivational and can also help children use and acquire language through different learning styles. The target language must be recycled regularly in different situations so that learners can see how and when it can be used and trial this use themselves.

If we remember how we all learned our native language, we can understand that it was through lots of repetition of the language and using it in real situations in which we, the language learners, were central. For example, our parents, or carers, may have used the word breakfast over and over again in a lot of different situations and settings until we had acquired the word and our understanding of it. The word breakfast was linked to real situations and made meaningful because of this. Thus, in introducing language in our classrooms, we need to think about continually recycling the target language in meaningful situations that relate directly to the learners. Young learners must be given thinking time, choice and an opportunity to use the target language. If you reflect on how you learn something new you might find, as most of us do, that we need a little time to think it through before we can understand it or can take it in. Sometimes we also need some time to move from saying a statement out loud to moving it inside our heads (internalization). So, if we are asking our young language learners to take on new things in the target language we must allow them some thinking time in which they can process this new information for themselves. Also, it is worth remembering that input needs processing constantly and we need to regularly allow our learners time to carry out this processing. For example, when we tell them a story we need to give them pauses, in between telling each part of it, so that they can process what they are hearing and, perhaps, visualize what is in the story and what may be coming next. Additionally, our young learners need to be given language activities in which they have to choose what language they need to use, for example answering questions with their own answers, rather than saying what the teacher has directed them to say. They also need to use the target language themselves in each activity in the language classroom. As mentioned earlier, this may involve guiding students through a variety of activities (songs, games or role-plays) that encourage successful outcomes via the target language and are challenging and motivating for young learners. We should try to create a stress-free environment in the language classroom. As we have probably all found out, learning a new language is not always very easy, especially at first, and so, for optimum success, our young learners need to feel comfortable in the classroom. They need to trust their teacher and classmates not to make fun of them if they get things wrong when they try to use the language. They also need to be encouraged to share ideas

and laugh together in the new language with the shared understanding that it is difficult to say things right when first using a new language. Young learners need a patient and supportive environment. To help encourage this environment, teachers could work with each class to create a set of rules. These rules could be posted in the classroom in both the native language and the target language(s), if the children are old enough to read (or in pictorial form if they are not) to support their full understanding and to serve as a constant reminder of them. The rules could include such statements as: Wait for everyone to finish what they are saying. Do not laugh at someone who gets things wrong. Help each other in the language classroom.

You, as the teacher, must make sure that your students are adhering to these rules. We have looked at a long list of criteria teachers can try to adhere to in planning lessons for their language classroom. As teachers, we need to be constantly checking what we are doing in class to ensure we are meeting the needs of our students in the best possible way.

Chapter 3
Creating the Right Environment in the Classroom Now that we have looked at the various criteria for teaching young learners, we will consider how to create the right environment in our language classroom. Consider the following checklist when trying to establish the right environment in your language classroom for young learners. The key points in the checklist link back to our understanding of how young learners learn. Try to create everyday, real situations for language use within the classroom so that the language itself is one of the only new aspects of the interaction. If the young learners are relatively familiar with the situation in the class activities, they can concentrate mainly on using the new language as the tool of communication. (Tough 1976) This can be as simple as setting up a routine at the start of each class that involves checking the date on the calendar, charting the weather, and doing the roll-call in the target language. Have a continued exchange of meaning in the classroom through communicative activities that encourage young learners to get involved and interact with each other. (Wells 1986) By exchanging ideas (with the teacher and also with each other), young learners will use the target language more and more as a form of communication and will recognize their ability to share their ideas in English. By using more and more target language in a clear and understandable way in the classroom, our learners will be satisfied with and motivated by exchanging meaning in that target language. Create activities through topics that are relevant to our learners' everyday situations and routines and reflect their interests and views of the world. (Donaldson 1978; Tough 1976; Bruner 1983,

1990) As noted earlier, children relate to different topics depending on their stage of development and age. By planning lessons that are appropriate (based on the students' age, level and outside interests), we can encourage them to discuss ideas and topics that hold meaning for them and will motivate them to use the target language more. For example, talking about their favorite things (food, color, and so on) brings their interests from outside the classroom and school into the English class. Support and extend children's language learning as 'caretakers' or 'carers'. (Bruner & Haste 1987; Bruner 1983, 1990; Vygotsky 1978) Teachers can provide the guidance and support (cognitively and emotionally) that allow students to develop and succeed. They can use praise to encourage children and also extend any target language utterances so that children hear more detailed models. For example, if the child says, It's a car in the target language, the teacher can then try to encourage and extend the child's use of the target language by saying, Yes. Good. It's a big blue car. Create a stress-free, interesting and supportive environment for our learners in which they will feel encouraged to try out new things. (Donaldson 1978; Tough 1976) Keep the classroom positive by encouraging students to listen to each other, learn from each other and take risks. At the same time, allow for fun and interesting activities that make the children want to take part because the activities focus on their interests, needs and abilities. Recycle input in a variety of different contexts that will create a highly meaningful, purposeful and motivating learning environment. (Hughes 2006) Challenge students to build up their confidence and their enthusiasm by participating in activities that allow them to review and recycle the language they have learned in new ways. This can be done by using the language in a variety of activities (such as songs, games, surveys and listening to stories) to show that it can be used in many situations. Creating a positive environment in our classroom can help our students build their confidence, feel motivated to learn, enjoy themselves and experience success as language learners.

Chapter 4
Implications for Materials and Resources in the Classroom When looking at a young learner classroom, we should look beyond the learner and the teacher to also take note of the role played by materials and resources. Materials should also match the cognitive stages of the learners, reflect their interests and environment, and build on their established knowledge. A syllabus needs to meet these needs and also provide new and suitable challenges for the learners, so that more than language is developed and acquired. Activities and materials should develop the learners' further knowledge in other areas of the curriculum, too, by way of a cross-curricular approach to the activities. As mentioned earlier, activities also need to encourage real language use, as opposed to providing empty language activities. For example, children can be given a worksheet that allows them to carry out a survey of their favorite fruit and their friends' favorite fruit (in the target language). They will have the chance to repeatedly say and hear the names of the target language within the context of a meaningful

activity. Such an activity not only encourages real interaction, but also gives the learners a wonderful activity in which they can talk about themselves, which is always a great motivator for learning. As noted in Chapter 1, the materials and resources teachers use will often be provided by their school system (at the local, regional or national level). While teachers may have a prescribed syllabus or textbook to follow, it is often possible for teachers to adapt or expand lessons to help make every activity meaningful and appropriate for their particular group of students. Planning the syllabus Often the language syllabus will be topic-centered and activity-based, with activities linking the topic with the age and interest levels of the learners. A topic-centered and activity-based approach can be particularly appropriate for young language learners because it allows the teacher to: create a more natural language environment that the learners can relate to; cater for different ability levels; provide a wide variety of activities that can recycle the focus language; provide activities that use different intelligences to allow for different types of learners in the class; create an opportunity for lots of practice and repetition without boredom; promote group, pair and individual work; make the language learning process more meaningful and purposeful for learners; encourage learners to develop natural language skills, alongside learning in general; increase the relevance of the target language for learners.

Today, many school systems also emphasize instruction that encourages students to learn language and content together, so that the students can progress in their overall learning as well as their language learning. Sometimes this is known as Content-Based Learning and in some parts of the world is now often being referred as Content and Language Integrated Learning or CLIL'. Content-based learning is often used (see Supplementary Materials at the end of this lesson for a reference to an article on CLIL) in ESL situations where students need to prepare for their entry into mainstream academic classes. As noted earlier, bringing together language and content is central to TESOL's PreK-12 English Language Proficiency Standards. (See the section Supplementary Materials at the end of this lesson for a reference.) Research into this type of content-based instruction looks at the types of learning strategies that can be used to help language learners move ahead in their academic studies and the approaches teachers can take in scaffolding their students' learning in the various content areas. See FollowUp Reading at the end of this lesson for references relating to content-based instruction and learning strategies. Meaningful and purposeful activities In planning activities and deciding if they are meaningful, purposeful and suitable for the learners, the teacher should be able to answer Yes to the following questions: Is the activity relevant for the age of the learners and interesting? Is the activity suitably challenging? (Is it neither too hard nor too easy?) Is the activity purposeful? (Can the learners understand why they are doing it? Are they motivated? Do they want to do it and complete it, and has the teacher helped them understand why they are doing this activity?)

Is there real language in the activity? (Would these learners use this type of language naturally in their first language outside of the classroom?) Is there a real product at the end of the activity? (Is a song sung, a survey finished, a quiz completed, a story listened to, a game played, or a role-play engaged in?)

If the answer to some of these questions is No, then perhaps the teacher needs to adapt the activity to make it more meaningful, purposeful and therefore more valuable for the language class. We will look at meaningful and purposeful activities later on in this course.

Chapter 5
Implications for Teaching Different Groups of Young Learners We started to think about the different interests we can find in our young learners at different ages in Chapter 1 of this lesson. In this chapter, we are going to look more closely at their needs and skills so that we can think about how to adapt our language teaching approach, depending on the age group of learners. We will consider three groups of young learners (3-6 year olds, 6-9 year olds and 9-12 year olds). Aspects of learning for 3-6 year olds Children are learning a lot at this age. A new language is just another thing for them to take on, seemingly with little effort, as long as we make it relevant to their age and interest level. We need to remember that children at this age are still acquiring the final aspects of their native language. However, they are good language users who understand how people interact and are getting more and more able to do this themselves. We also need to remember that a lot of concept development is still going on for young learners (such as the concept of time), so we need to know what concepts they are able to deal with before we use them in the language class. Most children at this stage are not able to read and write in their native language or target language, but they are beginning to 'read' labels and things around them, like street names and shop signs. Although we may not ask them to read and write in the target language at this point, we should support them in their development by labeling as many things as possible in the classroom, in the target language, and prepare them for reading in English with left right activities, using surveys involving pictures, and so on. The younger children in this age group may not find it easy to work in social groups and doing so in the language class will require careful management by the teacher. The teacher can encourage this social development by asking children to share classroom items, having them talk about things that have gone on in their lives to the class, and asking them to work together in groups. We know children at this age will mainly be focused on their own world and family and that attending school is the beginning of their arrival into the wider local world and, as teachers, we need to help this transition. Aspects of learning for 6-9 year olds Children at this stage are developing reading and writing skills in their native language and so this can be used to aid them with their learning of the target language. They are also starting to understand a lot about the concrete world around them and should be able to work together in social groups.

Children in this age group are beginning to take responsibility as learners. We can help them develop this by showing them how to learn and reflect on their learning and by giving them different responsibilities in group activities by assigning such group roles as note taker, timekeeper, activity manager, and so on. They are starting to understand and learn more about the world around them, beyond their family and school, and the topics and type of activities introduced in class can help reflect and develop this knowledge. Aspects of learning for 9-12 year olds Reading and writing is very well-developed for most children by this age, and they can use these skills to aid and focus their learning in the language class. Some of these children are starting to develop a more mature approach to learning and thinking by starting to think in abstract terms. They are also becoming more connected with the world at large through links with such things as music, films, hobbies and travel. The topics introduced in class can reflect their expanding interests and the activities can encourage their exchange of ideas. Increasingly, they may also be more aware of the benefits of learning the target language. Concluding thoughts about learning stages In considering how learners learn at different ages, and in deciding how we can best meet their needs as teachers, we need to consider numerous factors involving the students' development (social, emotional, physical, cognitive) as well their circumstances (individually and on a larger scale) and interests. We need to recognize that while the motivation and interest level for our young learners tends to be high, they will not yet take full responsibility for their own learning. This could suggest that in planning activities that capture the young learners' interests, teachers need to ensure they are monitoring their learning and guiding students to reflect on this learning process so that they will develop a positive attitude to learning to learn. Summary In this lesson, we have recognized that our young language learners are still developing (cognitively, socially, emotionally and physically) and that their stage of development will also influence their interests and ways of viewing the world. As language teachers, we need to be aware of what is meaningful, interesting and appropriate for our students and thus plan activities that will motivate them to learn and interact with others in the target language. Next Steps After you have finished this lesson, test your knowledge by taking a short, multiple-choice quiz. To access the quiz, click quizzes at the top or bottom of any page in this classroom. Select the quiz that corresponds to the lesson you have just completed. Then click submit. Good luck! After the quiz, please complete the short assignment that follows. This will allow you to practice what you have just learned. To access it, click assignments at the top or bottom of any page. Choose the appropriate lesson and follow the directions listed there. Also, visit the discussion area to converse with your colleagues about the topics covered in this lesson. To access it, click discussion at the top or bottom of any page. Choose the appropriate lesson and follow the directions. You will be able to post on the discussion board until the 'close date' listed. After that date, you can read the discussions but not post.


acquisition is the term that refers to the knowledge or understanding that you gain or come to know through using and experiencing it, rather than being taught it. activity-based is where the focus for learning in the language lesson is embedded in activities such as carrying out surveys, making crafts, singing songs, listening to stories, and playing games, all through the medium of English. cross-curricular approach involves linking activities to other subjects through English. For example, counting games in English involve math, but by using English to play these counting games, we take a cross-curricular approach. curriculum (in British English) refers to the overall view of what is being taught to all children at a particular age including all subjects and activities within a school, district, and/or country. *Note: This is not to be confused with the use of the word curriculum (in American English), which is more similar in meaning to the word syllabus (in British English). input is anything you are providing the children in your class by way of teaching activities and classroom instructions. materials and resources are anything we may use in the classroom to help us teach, including whiteboards, blackboards, books, posters, overhead projectors, interactive whiteboards, computers, pens, papers, dictionaries, and so on. non-verbal cues are those aspects of communication we all use that are not verbal. These include shrugs of the shoulder, facial expressions and our general body language. realia includes things that are real and that can be brought into the classroom as illustrations of language. For example, when teaching about the things we use to eat our food, we may bring a knife, fork, spoon, plate, cup, saucer, and cereal dish into class. syllabus (in British English) refers to the course of work that is covered in the lessons in a particular subject (such as geography) over a period of time. *Note: This is not to be confused with the use of the word syllabus (in American English), which is more similar in meaning to the word curriculum (in British English). topic-centered is where the focus of the lessons or activity is linked to a particular topic such as The Weather, Our Body, or Food. verbal cues are words we use to communicate, as well as the tone, intonation and expression used in our voices as we interact with each other.

Bibliography Aitchison, J. 1994. A real live talking machine. In Jet. Vol. 4. London: Mary Glasgow Publishing. Bruner, J. & Haste, H. 1987. Making sense. London: Routledge. Bruner, J. 1983. Child's talk: Learning to use language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bruner, J. 1990. Acts of meaning. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Cameron, L. 2001. Teaching languages to young learners . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Donaldson, M. 1978. Children's minds. London: Routledge. Ellis, G. & Brewster, J. with Girard, D. 2002. The primary English teacher's guide. London: Pearson Education Limited. Halliwell, S. 1992. Teaching English in the primary classroom. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Hughes, A. 1993. English across the curriculum: Theme-based learning in the primary classroom. In New Tendencies in Curriculum Development. Hughes, A. 2001. Effective foreign language teaching at the primary level. In Language Teaching in Europe. Raya, Faber, Gewehr and Peck (Eds). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. Hughes, A. 2002. Supporting independence: Teaching English to Young Learners within a three stage journey. In CATS, IATEFL SIG newsletter. 1:2. Hughes, A. 2006. How we think young learners learn languages? Paper given at the APPI Conference, Portugal. April 2006-04-24. (Adapted from a paper first given at the Amazing Young Minds Conference, Cambridge, 2003.)

Krashen, S. 1981. Second language acquisition and second language learning . Oxford: Pergamon. Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and practices in second language acquisition . Oxford: Pergamon. Krashen, S. & Terrell, T. 1983. The natural approach. Oxford: Pergamon. Moon, J. 2000. Children learning English. Oxford: Macmillan Heinemann. Tough, J. 1976. Listening to children talking. London: Wardlock. Vygotsky, L. S. 1978. Mind in society. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Wells, G. 1986. The meaning makers. London: Hodder & Stoughton. Williams, M. & Burden, R. 1997. Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Supplementary Material
LearnEnglish Kids

This site has a wide variety of activities and ideas for use when teaching English to young learners. There are also materials and resources available to download.


This site is linked to the programs that the BBC has for children. The activities are stand-alone and do not need the learners or teacher to have seen the programs to use the activities. There is a wide range of activities for young learners to use on this site, though be aware it was not created for ESL and EFL students but for those children using English as a first language and therefore some activities may need to be adapted.

Schools: Learning resources for home and school

This site is a link to a huge variety of activities linked to topic-based programs the BBC has developed and recorded for use in schools. Remember that this was designed for first language English speakers, so care needs to be taken when choosing activities for ESL and EFL students as activities may need to be adapted.

TESOL PreK-12 Language Proficiency Standards

This website from TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) outlines details of the K-12 language proficiency standards.

Think about any language teaching for children you have experienced yourself or have seen taught and consider for a few moments what approach the teacher was using in this teaching. Was the teacher clearly thinking about the learners and an approach that would match their cognitive stage

of development or was the teacher thinking more about the language being taught? Which approach do you think most suits young learners? Make two lists outlining some of the aspects of the teaching of a new language to children that you have seen or experienced. Make one list positive and the other list negative and record all the things you have noticed. Share your findings with your colleagues on the Discussion Board. As you work through this course you may want to revisit these lists to check if you still agree with them and perhaps what you might do now if you were to improve in any way the teaching that you have seen or experienced. Back to top