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Running Head: STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS STEEL PORTAL FRAMES

Steel Manufacturing Process Steel Portal Frames Name Institution

STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS STEEL PORTAL FRAMES Steel manufacturing process Steel is a term used to describe any carbon alloy and is one of the most important and

useful product in the world. Its manufacturing process is composed of a complex number of steps that turns it from ore into the final product which is steel. Over the years, different methods of steel manufacturing have been developed. There are the methods that involve the use of converters and other methods that involve the use of open hearth furnaces (Bugayev et al, 2001). Iron making is the first step in the manufacturing process. During this step, the raw inputs which consist of iron ore, coke as well as lime are melted inside a blast furnace. The resultant product is referred to as hot metal or molten iron and contains some impurities and carbon which makes it a brittle substance. This brittle substance is also known as pig iron and it requires further refining to ensure that it is free from all impurities. The additional refining is done in a refining furnace where the excess carbon is burned off to a point where only the required elements are left (Bugayev et al, 2001). When the refining process is complete, the process of primary steel making is started. In this process the metal is converted into high quality steel. The methods for performing this process are different as some use the EAF method while others use the BOS method. In the BOS method, hot metal is fed to the furnace in order to remove some elements that are undesired which include sulphur, Phosphorous as well as Silicon. These impurities are removed in form of gases or slag and the end product is molten steel that is in liquid form (Stubbles, n.d). In the EAF method, the steel scrap is melted by using the heat that is generated by graphite electrodes and the result is crude steel which can be fed into the casting cycle. The electricity that these electrodes produce forms an arc that is then used in melting the scrap. As

STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS STEEL PORTAL FRAMES the scrap is being melted, other fera-alloys are added to it to achieve the desired element composition. The molten steel is also cast into vertical cats for the purpose of rolling after the heating in the primary mill and in the finishing mill are all completed (Stubbles, n.d).

Secondary steel making is the step that follows primary steel making. In this process, the molten steel that is produced by either the EAF or the BOS is treated. This is done in order to adjust the composition of steel in the molten steel. The adjustment is done by either removing some elements or manipulating both the temperature and production environments. There are various steel making processes that can be used depending on the types of steels that are required. Processes like stirring, De-gassing, ladle furnace as well as ladle injection can be applied depending on the chemical compositions that are required for the steel (World Bank Group, 1998). Continuous casting: This step involved the casting of molten steel into cooled moulds that cause the steel shells to become solids. The steel shells are then removed by the use of guided rolls and are fully cooled and then solidified in a simultaneous process. The strands are then cut into the lengths and shapes that are desired and then transported to the hot rolling mills which produce the final steel products (Green & Batchelor, n.d). Hot rolling: The hot rolling process involved the final shaping of the semi finished steel and converting them to the final products that are sold to the steel industry. The steel is heated in a furnace till they get to 1200o C. it is taken to the roughing stand, which is the first part of the rolling mill, where a collection of steel rolls squeeze the hot steel that is passing through. These steel rolls squeeze the hot iron due to the pressure that is applied to them. During the squeezing the steel is formed into the required shape and then passed through the stand for a couple of

STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS STEEL PORTAL FRAMES

times .In each passing, the shape and dimension of the steel is gradually adjusted till it gets to the point where it is a finished product (Green & Batchelor, n.d). After passing through the roughing stand, the steel is passed through the finishing stand where the steel is passed through continuously and rolled around in every angle. As it passes through the finishing stand, the process of cooling the steel is also given a lot of attention; the cooling is done either by using cold water sprays or by the use of large fans that performed the cooling process in a moderate manner. On completing the hot rolling, further action can be done on the steel to fit the customer requirements or to fir the manufacturers standards. For instance, processes like fabricating, profiling or coating can be done to the steel depending on the eventual use of the end product (Green & Batchelor, n.d). Steel Portal frames Steel portal frames are common in single storied houses where the buildings are constructed using steel frames for creating the structural forms. They are mainly constructed using hot rolled sections that are used in supporting the buildings roof and side claddings. This support is done by the use of cold formed purlins as well as sheet rails. By using these portal frames, buildings get to economically sound structural solutions for their buildings (Emmitt & Gorse, 2010). In addition to their economic viability, steel portal frames have been found to increase the amount of clear room in buildings and allow for maximum adaptability inside the buildings. It is also possible to extend them at later dates without affecting the structural integrity of the buildings and it makes them effective in constructing buildings that have future expansion prospects. Portal frames made of steel have been found to enhance the strength of buildings. By

STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS STEEL PORTAL FRAMES using steel as the main structural component in the buildings, the strength of the building is assured because they shield buildings from structural fallings that could occur as a result of natural or human disasters (Emmitt and Gorse, 2010). Li & Li (2007) categorizes the steel frames into four categories: Pure frames,

concentrically braced frames, eccentrically braced frames as well as frame tubes. These different categories have been widely applied in various construction projects and are applied based on the design requirements of different buildings. Pure frames have good ductility but fail to possess enough sway and are not effective in multi-storey buildings. As a result, the concentrically braced frames have become more popular in the multi storey structures because they have been enhanced and have lesser stiffness as compared to the pure frames. The eccentrically braced frames are another major improvement on the concentrically braced frames because they have enjoyed major improvements in load capacity and are effective in protecting the building against earthquakes. Frame tube frames are the most recent improvement on the steel frame portals and have been effective in the construction of high rise buildings. The frame tubes are created by the use of steel beams and columns and this makes the frame tubes effective in dealing with sway stiffness and load capacity (Li & Li, 2007). According to Emmitt & Gorse (2010) steel portal frames can be categorized into either medium or long span steel frames. Both of these categories have both their rafters and posts connected and this connection is haunched at the knee level. This is done to ensure that the frames have a stiffer connection and to also ensure that bending is reduced in the frames. Steel portal frames can either be pinned or permanently fixed to the foundations of buildings. While

STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS STEEL PORTAL FRAMES fixing the frames to the roofs of buildings, purlins are attached to the rafters to ensure that there is wall cladding and insulation in the building. Due to the benefits that the steel portal frames offers, their usage in the construction industry is likely to increase. The improvements that have been made on the frames from the pure frames to the frame tubes have ensured that they can now be safety applied to high rise buildings and offer structural stability to these buildings (Emmitt & Gorse, 2010).

STEEL MANUFACTURING PROCESS STEEL PORTAL FRAMES

References Bugayev, K.,. Konovalov, Y ., Bychkov, Y. & E. Tretyakov, E. 2001 . Iron and Steel Production. The Minerva Group: Hong Kong. Emmitt, S. & Gorse, C. 2010. Barry's Advanced Construction of Buildings. John Wiley & Sons: West Sussex. Green, J & Batchelor,J. n.d. THE MANUFACTURE OF STEEL. BHP NZ Steel. Retrieved from: http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/metals/8A.pdf Li, J & Li, G. 2007. Advanced Analysis and Design of Steel Frames. John Wiley & Sons: West Sussex. Stubbles, J. n.d. The Basic Oxygen Steelmaking (BOS) Process. Steel Works. Retrieved from: http://www.steel.org/en/Making%20Steel/How%20Its%20Made/Processes/Processes%20 Info/The%20Basic%20Oxygen%20Steelmaking%20Process.aspx World Bank Group, 1998. Iron and Steel Manufacturing. Retrieved from: http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/7786e08048855c2a8b44db6a6515bb18/ironsteel_P PAH.pdf?MOD=AJPERES