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Connections of structural steel members are of critical

importance. An inadequate connection, which can be the

weak link in a structure has been the cause of numerous weak link in a structure, has been the cause of numerous

failures.

F il f l b i l Failure of structural members is rare; most structural

failures are the result of poorly designed or detailed

connections.

Modern steel structures are connected by welding or

bolting (either high-strength or common bolts) or by

combination of both. combination of both.

Welding has several advantages over bolting. A welded

connection is often simpler in concept and requires few if connection is often simpler in concept and requires few, if

any, holes. Connection that are extremely complex with

fasteners can become very simple when welds are used.

Riveted

Welded

Riveted

Welding can be done in the shop and bolting in the field.

Example : in the single-plate beam-to-column connection below,

the plate is shop welded to the column flange and field bolted

to the beam web.

h

Tension member connection

and splice. It subjects the

b lt t f th t t d t bolts to forces that tend to

shear the shank.

Beam end simple connection.

It subjects the bolts to forces

that tend to shear the shank that tend to shear the shank.

Hanger connection. The Hanger connection. The

hanger connection puts the

bolts in tension

The bolts are subjected to shear or tension loading.

In most bolted connection, the bolts are subjected to , j

shear.

Bolts can fail in shear or in tension.

Simple connection: If the line of action of the force

acting on the connection passes through the center of

i f h i h h b l b gravity of the connection, then each bolt can be

assumed to resist an equal share of the load.

The strength of the simple connection will be equal to g p q

the sum of the strengths of the individual bolts in the

connection.

Design Concept : | R

n

> Pu

where : | R

n

= Factored design strength

Pu = factored load.

We need to examine the various possible failure

modes and calculate the corresponding design

strengths (| R

n

)

Possible failure modes are:

1. Shear failure of the bolts

2. Failure of connected member (failure mode of tension member)

3. Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate (gusset plate)

4. Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt hole (bearing

failure of bolts) failure of bolts)

Shearing stress in the bolt : f

v

= P/A = P/(t d

b

2

/4)

St th f th b lt P f ( d

2

/4) Strength of the bolt : P = f

v

x (t d

b

2

/4)

Where :

P =load acting on an individual bolt P = load acting on an individual bolt

A = area of the bolt and d

b

is its diameter

f

v

= shear yield stress = 0.6F

y

Bolts can be in single shear or double shear as shown

below.

When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are effective in

resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will have the twice the

shear strength of a bolt in single shear.

When the bolt is in double shear, two cross-sections are

effective in resisting the load. The bolt in double shear will

have the twice the shear strength of a bolt in single shear have the twice the shear strength of a bolt in single shear.

Common bolts, also known as unfinished bolts, are designated as ASTM A307,

which differ from high-strength bolts not only in material properties, but also

in that we do not account for the clamping force fromthe tightening of the bolt in that we do not account for the clamping force from the tightening of the bolt.

The nominal shear strength:

b v n

A F R . =

Where

F

v

= ultimate shearing stress

A cross sectional area of the unthreaded part of the bolt A

b

= cross-sectional area of the unthreaded part of the bolt

The design strength:

) . ( 75 . 0

b v n

A F R = |

For ASTM A307, F

v

=24 ksi

Two type of grades:

1. A325

Fy=81- 92 ksi or Fy=566- 643 MPa measured at 0 2% offset Fy=81 92 ksi or Fy= 566 643 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

2. A490

Fy= 115 - 130 ksi Fy = 803- 908 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

In certain cases, A325 and A490 bolts are installed to such degree of tightness

that the are subjected to extremely large tensile force. The purpose of such a

large tensile force is to achieve the clamping force.

The total compressive force acting on the connected part is numerically equal

to the tension in the bolt. A list of minimum tension values, for those connection

in which a minimum tension is required, is given in AISC Table J 3.1.

If an external load P is applied, a friction force will develop between the

connected parts.

The maximum possible value of this force is N F . = p

The design shear strength of HTB is: ) . (

b v n

A F R | | =

where | = 0.75 |

The nominal shear strength of HTB is given by ultimate shearing stress times

the nominal bolt area.

The shear strength of HTB depends on whether the threads are in plane of The shear strength of HTB depends on whether the threads are in plane of

shear rather than use a reduced cross-sectional area.

Approximately, the threaded area = 0.75 x unthreaded area.

Fastener Nominal Shear Strength

R

n

= F

v

A

b

A325N threadsinplaneof shear 48A

b

A325N, threads in plane of shear

A325X, threads not in plane of shear

A490N, threads in plane of shear

A490X, threads not in plane of shear

48A

b

60A

b

60A

b

75A

b

Hole is slightly larger than

the fastener and the the fastener and the

fastener is loosely placed

in hole

The stress will be highest

t th di l t t i t at the radial contact point

(A).

The average stress can be The average stress can be

calculated as : the applied

force divided by the

projected area of contact

f

p

= P/(d

b

t)

where P = force applied to the

fastener fastener.

The bearing stress state can be

complicated at the nearby/edge bolt.

The bolt spacing and edge distance will

have an effect on the bearing stress.

Bearing stress effects are independent Bearing stress effects are independent

of the bolt type because the bearing

stress acts on the connected plate not

the bolt the bolt.

A possible failure mode resulting from

excessive bearing close to the edge of g g

the connected element is shear tear-

out. It can also occur between two

holes in the direction of the bearing holes in the direction of the bearing

load.

Upper limit : to prevent excessive deformation of the hole

R

n

= C x F

u

x bearing area

= C. F

u

.d

b

.t

u b

Where :

C = 3 (If deformation is not a concern > 0.25in)

C = 2.4 (If deformation is a concern <0.25 in.

| =075 | 0.75

THEN :

If deformation is a concern <0.25 in.

R

n

= 1.2 L

c

t F

u

2.4 d

b

t F

u n c u b u

If deformation is not a concern > 0.25in

R

n

= 1.5 L

c

t F

u

3.0 d

b

t F

u n c u b u

L

c

= the clear distance in the load direction, from the edge of the bolt hole

to the edge of the adjacent hole or to the edge of the material

F

u

= specified tensile strength of the connected material

u

p g

t = thickness of connected material

The upper limit will become effective

when 1.2 L

c

t F

u

= 2.4 d

b

t F

u c u b u

then L

c

= 2 d

b

If L

c

< 2 d

b

, R

n

= 1.2 L

c

t F

u

If L

c

> 2 d

b

, R

n

= 1.4 d

b

t F

u

In a simple connection,

all bolts share the load

equally.

T/n

T/n

T/n

T/n

The shear strength of all

bolts = shear strength of

one bolt x number of

bolts

T

T

T/n T/n

T/n T/n

T

T

T/n T/n

T/n T/n

bolts

The bolts are subjected to

shear and the connecting

/ connected plates are

T

T

T

T

/ connected plates are

subjected to bearing

stresses.

h b

Bearing stresses in plate

T

Bearing stresses in plate Bearing stresses in plate

T

The bearing resistance

shall be taken as the sum

of the bearing resistances

of the individual bolts.

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

T

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

Bolt in shear

Bearing stresses in plate

T

AISC AISC Specification SNI

The minimum spacing (s) 2 2/3 d

b

or 3d

b

is preferred 3 x diameter baut p g( )

b b

p

The maximum spacing 24times thickness of connected

part but not more than 12

15 tp atau 200mm

The minimum edge

distance (L

e

)

See AISC Table J 3.4 1.5 x dimeter baut

The maximum edge

distance (L

e

)

12 times the thickness of the

connected part (but not more

4 tp+100 atau

200mm

than 6 in.).

tp =tebal pelat baja tertipis antara connected part tp tebal pelat baja tertipis antara connected part

AISC Specification

Spasi minimum (s) 3 * d

b

p ( )

b

Spasi maksimum 24 times the thickness of the thinner

part (but not more than 12 in.).

The minimum edge distance (L

e

) See AISC Table J 3.4

The maximum edge distance (L

e

) 12 times the thickness of the

connected part (but not more than 6

in.).

Le s

s

Le

(a)

(b)

Bolt

Hole Dimensions

Bolt

Diameter

Standard

(Dia.)

Oversize

(Dia.)

Short-slot

(Width x Length)

Long-slot

(Width x Length)

9/16 5/8 9/16 x 11/16 9/16 x 1

5/8

7/8

1

11/16

13/16

15/16

1 1/16

13/16

15/16

1 1/16

1

11/16 x 7/8

13/16 x 1

15/16 x 1 1/8

1 1/16 1 5/16

11/16 x 1 9/16

13/16 x 1 7/8

15/16 x 2 3/16

1 1/16 2 1

> 1 1/8

1 1/16

d+1/16

1

d+5/16

1 1/16 x 1 5/16

(d+1/16)x(d+3/8)

1 1/16 x 2

(d+1/16)x(2.5xd)

l l ll d f l h Nominal Rivet or Bolt

Diameter (in)

At Sheared Edges

At Rolled of Plates, Shapes or

Bars, or Gas Cut Edges [c]

7/8

5/8

7/8

/

1 1/8

1 1/4

1 1/2 [d]

7/8

1

1 1/8

1

1 1/8

1 1/4

Over 1 1/4

1 3/4 [d]

2

2 1/4

1 3/4 x Diameter

1 1/4

1 1/2

1 5/8

1 1/4 x Diameter Over 1 1/4 1 3/4 x Diameter 1 1/4 x Diameter

[a] Lesser edge distance are permitted to be used provided Equation from J3.10, as

appropriate, are satisfied. appropriate, are satisfied.

[b] For oversized or slotted holes, see Table J3.8.

[c] All edge distance in this column are permitted to be reduced 1/8-in. when the

holes at a point where stress does not exceed 25 percent of the maximum design

strength in the element strength in the element.

[d] These are permitted to be 11/4-in. at the ends of beam connection angles and

shear end plates.

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

1/2

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

60 k

1.25

2.50

1.25

_ in. bolts

1.25

2.50

1.25

_ in. bolts 3/4

A325N

I. The design shear strength of bolt in shear :

| Rn= | F

n

A

b

= 0.75 x 48 x t x 0.75

2

/4 = 15.9 kips per bolt

Shear strength of connection = 4 x 15.9 = 63.6 kips g p

II. Check bolts spacing :

minimum edge distance = 1 in. for rolled edges of plates (see Table J.3.4)

edge distances (1.25 in.) > 1 in OK

min.spacing = 2.67 d

b

= 2.67 x 0.75 = 2.0 in.

preferred spacing = 3.0 d

b

= 3.0 x 0.75 = 2.25 in.

given spacing (2.5 in.) > 2.25 in. OK

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

1/2

hole diameter

d

h

= 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

60 k

A36 : F

u

= 58 ksi

1.25

2.50

1.25

_ in. bolts

1.25

2.50

1.25

_ in. bolts 3/4

III. Bearing strength at bolt holes (plate 1/2in thickness)

edges : L

c

= 1.25 d

h

/2 = 1.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.844 in.

|R

n

= 0.75 (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75(1.2 x 0.844 x 0.5 x 58) = 22.02 kips

upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 0.75(2.4 x 0.75 x 0.5 x 58)= 39.15 kips

other holes, s = 2.5 in, L

c

= 2.5 d

h

= 1.688 in.

|R

n

= 0.75 x (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 1.688 x 0.5 x 58) = 44.05 kips

Upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 39.15 kips.

Bearing strength at holes = 2 x 22.02 + 2 x 39.15

= 122.34 kips

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

A36

5 x _

3/8 in.

1/2

hole diameter

d

h

= 3/4 + 1/16 = 13/16 in

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

1.25

2.50

1.25

65 k

A36

60 k

A36 : F

u

= 58 ksi

1.25

2.50

1.25

_ in. bolts

1.25

2.50

1.25

_ in. bolts 3/4

IV. Bearing strength at Gusset Plates (3/8 in)

edges : L

c

= 1.25 d

h

/2 = 1.25 (13/16)/2 = 0.844 in.

|R

n

= 0.75 (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75(1.2 x 0.844 x 0.375 x 58) = 16.52 kips

upper limit : 0 75 (2 4 d t F ) =0 75(2 4 x 0 75 x 0 375 x 58)=29 36 kips upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) = 0.75(2.4 x 0.75 x 0.375 x 58)= 29.36 kips

other holes, s = 2.5 in, L

c

= 2.5 d

h

= 1.688 in.

|R

n

= 0.75 x (1.2 L

c

t F

u

) = 0.75 x (1.2 x 1.688 x 0.375 x 58) = 33.04 kips |

n

(

c u

) ( ) p

Upper limit : 0.75 (2.4 d

b

t F

u

) =29.36 kips.

Bearing strength at gusset = 2 x 16.52 + 2 x 29.36 = 91.76 kips

Bearing strength of the connection is the smaller = 91.76 kips

C ti St th Connection Strength

Shear strength = 63.3 kips

Bearing strength (plate) = 122.34 kips

Bearing strength (gusset) = 91.76 kips

|Rn = 63.3 kips > 60 kips (factored load) | p p ( )

Connection strength (|Rn) > applied factored loads (Pu). OK.

Step I. Select 2L 3 x 2 x 3/8 with |P

n

= 112 kips (yielding) and 113 kips

(fracture)

Step II. Select size and number of bolts

The bolts are in double shear for this design (may not be so for other designs)

Use four 3/4 in. A325 bolts in double shear ; |R

n

= 31.8 x 4 =127 kips

Step III. Design edge distance and bolt spacing

Le min = 1 in. for 3/4 in. diameter bolts in rolled edges.

Select Le = 1.25 in.

Minimum spacing = 2.67 d

b

= 2.0 in.

Preferred spacing = 3.0 d

b

= 2.25 in.

S l t i 3 0 i ( t th f d i i i ) Select spacing = 3.0 in., (greater than preferred or minimum spacing)

Step IV. Check the bearing strength at bolt holes in angles

Angle thickness = 3/8 in.

BS at the edge holes (L 1 25 in) BS at the edge holes (L

e

= 1.25 in.)

|R

n

= 44.0 x 3/8 = 16.5 k

BS at non-edge holes (s = 3 in.) = |R

n

= 78.3 x 3/8 = 29.4 k g ( ) |

n

/

Bearing strength at bolt holes in each angle = 16.5 + 3 x 29.4 = 104.7 kips

Bearing strength of double angles = 2 x 104.7 kips = 209.4 kips

Step V. Check the fracture and block shear strength of the tension member

Step VI. Design the gusset plate

The plates must be designed for the limit states of yielding and rupture

Limit state of yielding

|R

n

= 0.9 A

g

F

y

> 100 kips - A

g

= L x t > 3.09 in

2

Assume t = in - L > 6.18 in.

Design gusset plate = 6.5 x in.

Limit state for fracture

A

n

= A

g

(d

b

+1/8) x t

A

n

= 6.5 x 0.5 (3/4 + 1/8) x 0.5 = 2.81 in

2

But, A

n

0.85 A

g

= 0.85 x 3.25 = 2.76 in

2

|R

n

= 0.75 x A

n

x F

u

= 0.75 x 2.76 x 58 = 120 kips

l Design gusset plate = 6.5 x 0.5 in.

Step VII. Bearing strength at bolt holes in gusset plates

Assume L =1 25 in (same as double angles) Assume L

e

= 1.25 in. (same as double angles)

Plate thickness = 1/2 in.

BS at the edge holes = |R

n

= 44.0 x 1/2 = 22.0 k

BS at non-edge holes =|R =78 3 x 1/2 =39 15 k BS at non edge holes |R

n

78.3 x 1/2 39.15 k

BS at bolt holes in gusset plate = 22.0 + 3 x 39.15 = 139.5 kips

Summary of Member and Connection Strength Summary of Member and Connection Strength

Connection Member Gusset Plate

Shear strength = 127 kips Yielding = 113 kips Yielding = 105.3 kips

BS = 209.4 kips (angles) Fracture = ? Fracture = 120 kips

BS = 139.5 (gusset) Block Shear = ?

Overall Strength is the smallest = 105.3 kips

Gusset plate yielding controls

Nominal Strength > Factored Load (100 kips).

Design is acceptable

The classification of a connection with high-strength bolts:

1. Slip-critical connections: no slippage is permitted

2. Bearing type connections: slip is acceptable

Theoretically, SCC are not subject the shear and bearing, but they must

have sufficient shear and bearing strength in the event of an overload that

may cause slip to occur may cause slip to occur.

To prevent slip, the service load shear on the fastener, must not exceed:

) . (

b v n

A F R

where = 1.0 for standard, oversized, short-slotted, and long-slotted holes

the long slot is perpendicular to the line of force

= 0.85 for long-slotted holes the long slot is parallel to the line of

force

Fv =nominal slip critical shear resistance ksi Fv = nominal slip critical shear resistance, ksi

High strength (A325 and A490) bolts can be installed with such a

degree of tightness that they are subject to large tensile forces.

These large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected plates

together. The shear force applied to such a tightened connection

will be resisted by friction as shown in the Figure below. will be resisted by friction as shown in the Figure below.

P

P

P

P

P

P

Tightened Tightened Tightened

There are currently four authorized procedure for installation of

high-strength bolts:

1. The turn-of-the-nut method

2 Calibrated wrench tightening 2. Calibrated wrench tightening

3. Alternate design bolts

4. Direct tension indicator

N T N T N T

N =T

b

N =T

b

P

N =T

b

N =T

b

N =T

b

P

N =T

b

P

T

b

N =T

b

F=N

F=N

T

b

T

b

N =T

b

F=N

N =T

b

F=N

F=N F=N

T

b

N = T

b

F N

N =T

b

P

T

b

N = T

b

T

b

N = T

b

F N

N =T

b

P

F N

N =T

b

N =T

b

P

Slip-critical bolted connections can be designed to resist the applied

N = T

b

N = T

b

N = T

b

N = T

b

shear forces using friction.

If the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops

between the two surfaces, then no slip will occur between them.

Slip will occur when the friction force is less than the applied shear

force. After slip occurs, the connection will behave similar to the

bearing type bolted connections designed earlier bearing-type bolted connections designed earlier.

Table J 3.1 summarizes the minimum bolt tension that must be

applied to develop a slip critical connection applied to develop a slip-critical connection.

High strength bolts in slip-critical connections can be designed to

t li ith i bilit li it t t t th i d prevent slip either as a serviceability limit state or at the required

strength limit state.

However, the connection must also be checked for shear strength

and bearing strength.

A325

Fy=81- 92 ksi or Fy= 566- 643 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

2 A490 2. A490

Fy= 115 - 130 ksi Fy = 803- 908 MPa measured at 0.2% offset.

In certain cases, A325 and A490 bolts are installed to such degree of tightness

that the are subjected to extremely large tensile force. The purpose of such a

large tensile force is to achieve the clamping force.

The total compressive force acting on the connected part is numerically equal

to the tension in the bolt. A list of minimum tension values, for those connection

in which a minimum tension is required, is given in AISC Table J 3.1.

If an external load P is applied, a friction force will develop between the

connected parts.

The maximum possible value of this force is N F . p

=mean slip coefficient

Where :

= coefficient of static friction between connected parts,

N = the normal compressive force acting on the inner surfaces.

: depend on the surface condition of the steel: Painted or Rusted

(a) For Class A surface (unpainted clean mill scale steel surface or ( ) ( p

surface with Class A coating on blast-cleaned steel), = 0.33

(b) For Class B (unpainted blast-cleaned steel surface or surface

with Class B coating on blast-cleaned steel), = 0.50

(c) For Class Csurface (hot dip galvanized and roughened surface) (c) For Class C surface (hot-dip galvanized and roughened surface),

= 0.40

Thus, each bolt in the connection is capable of resisting a load of P=F, even if

the bolt shank does not bear on the connected part. As long as this frictional

force does not exceeded, there is no bearing or shear. If P is greater than F and

slippage occurs, shear and bearing will then exist and will affect the capacity of

the connection the connection.

Slip resistance = R

n

= m * D

u

* h

sc

* T

b

* N

s

h where,

= 1.0 for connections at serviceability limit

0.85 for connections at the required strength level.

m = mean slip coefficient for Class A or B surfaces

= 0.35 for Class A surfaces (upainted clean mill scale)

= 0.50 for Class B surfaces (unpainted blast cleaned surfaces

D

u

= 1.13 reflects the ratio of the mean installed bolt pretension

to the specified minimum bolt pretension.

h

sc

= hole factor

= 1.00 for STD, 0.85 for OVS and SSLT, 0.70 for LSLT)

T

b

= minimum bolt tension given in Table J3.1

N

s

= number of slip planes

Splice plate Splice plate

W8 x 28

W8 x 28

W8 x 28

W8 x 28

Splice plate Splice plate

Step I. Service loads = D + L = 200 kips.

Step II. Slip-critical splice connection, assume class A surface, Standard holes (STD)

R

n

of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = 0.35x1.13x 1 x T

b

N

s

f d bl b k If d

b

= 7/8 in. From Table J.3.1 -- Tb=39kips

R

n

of one bolt = 1.0 x 0.35 x 1.13 x 1.00 x 39 x 1 = 15.4 kips

R

n

of n bolts = 15.4 x n > 200 kips (splice must be slip-critical at service)

Therefore n > 13 Therefore, n > 13

Choose 16 fully tensioned 7/8 in. A325 bolts on each side of the splice

3 3 3 1.25

Step III. Layout of splice connection

C.L.

Minimum edge distance (L

e

) = 1-1/8in. from Table J 3.4

Design edge distance L

e

= 1.25 in.

Minimum spacing = s = 2-2/3 d

b

= 2.67 x 7/8 = 2.336 in. (Spec. J 3.3)

Preferred spacing =s =3 0 d =3 0 x 7/8 =2 625 in (Spec J 3 3) Preferred spacing = s = 3.0 d

b

= 3.0 x 7/8 = 2.625 in. (Spec. J 3.3)

Design spacing = 3 inch

Step IV. Connection strength at factored loads =300kips p g p

The splice connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing connection

Beam flange thickness : t

f

= 0.465 in and flange width b

f

= 6.535 in.

The shear strength of bolts = (0.75x48xA

b

) /bolt x 16 = 345.6 kips

Bearing strength at edge holes (L

e

= 1.25 in.) = 40.8 kips/in. thickness

Bearing strength at non edge holes (s 3 0) 91 4 kips/in thickness Bearing strength at non-edge holes (s = 3.0) = 91.4 kips/in. thickness

Bearing strength = 4 x 40.8 x 0.465 +12 x 91.3 x 0.465 = 673 kips

Step V. Design the splice plate

Tension yielding: 0.9 A

g

F

y

> 300 kips; A

g

> 6.66 in

2

Tension fracture: 0.75 A

n

F

u

>300 kips Tension fracture: 0.75 A

n

F

u

300 kips

A

n

=A

g

- 4 x (7/8 +1/8) x t > 6.15 in.

Beam flange width = 6.535 in.

A 6 5 i id li l t ith thi k 075 i Assume 6.5 in. wide splice plates with thickness = 0.75 in.

The strength of the splice plate

Yielding =438.75 kips Yielding 438.75 kips

Fracture = 329 kips

Check Block shear (Homework)

Step VI. Check member strength (yield, fracture and block shear)

K k t G Kekuatan Geser :

Rn = 0.75 * m * r

t

* Fu * A

b

dimana :

m = jumlah bidang geser

Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) dari baut

(Lihat tabel tipe-tipe baut)

rt = 0.5 untuk baut tanpa ulir pada bidang geser

= 0.4 untuk baut dengan ulir pada bidang geser

Ab = luas area baut

Kekuatan Tumpu

Untuk Le > 1.5 d

b

dan s > 3d

b b b

Rn = 0.75 * 2.4 * db * t * Fu

Fu = Tegangan tarik ultimate (putus) terkecil antara baut dan pelat

Untuk baut dengan ukuran lobang besar :

Rn = 0.75 * 2 * db * t * Fu

TIPETIPEBAUT

TipeBaut

DiameterBaut

(mm)

ClampingForces/

ProofStress(Mpa)

TeganganLeleh

(Mpa)(Fy)

KuatTarikMin

(Fu)(MPa)

Material

A307 6.3510.4 NA 60 Kadarkarbonrendah

A325 12.725.4 585 560630 825 Bajakartbon

A490 12.738.1 825 790900 1035 BajaAlloy

Gayayangdibutuhkan

untuk mengencangkan

baut baut

3@70mm

2L 120x120x8

50

40

2L120x120x8

Gussett=12mm

D22A308 308

DuaprofilsikuL120.120.8disambungdengan4bautberdiameter22mm

/ (7/8in)jenisA308(Fv=168Mpa).

a.Cekapakahlayoutsambungantersebutmemenuhipersyaratanjarak

yangdiaturAISC

b Hitung kekuatan sambungan b.Hitungkekuatansambungan

c.JikabautditukardengantypeA490N(Fv=420Mpa);hitungpersentase

peningkatankekuatanGESERsambungan.

Pelatpenyambung6mm

125

WF250x125

250

TampakSamping

Potongan

125

Disainlah sambungan pada sayap (flange)

profil WF250x125(t

f

=9mmdan t

w

=6mm)

pada kondisi service, jika gaya dalam akibat

TampakAtas

pada kondisi service,jika gaya dalam akibat

beban mati adalah 100kN,beban hidup

70kNdan beban angin 50kN,dengan

menggunakan baut berdiameter 16mm

(5/8i ) A325N di li id k diiji k (5/8in)A325Ndimana sliptidak diijinkan

terjadi.Sket hasil disain dalam gambar kerja

yanglengkap (tampak samping,tampak

atas dan potongan)! atas dan potongan)!

Structural welding is a process wherein

the parts to be connected are heated

and fused together, with supplementary and fused together, with supplementary

molten metal added to the joint

(a) (b)

(SMAW) is usually done

manually and is the process

universally used for field

welds.

For shop welding, an

automatic or semi automatic

process is usually used.

Foremost among these is the

submerged arc welding

(SAW) hi ld d t l (SAW), gas shielded metal

arc, flux cored arc, and

electro-slag welding

(1) Fillet weld, which are defined as those placed in a corner formed by two

parts in contact. Example a lap joint & a tee joint.

(2) G oo e eld e tho e depo ited in g p o g oo e bet een t o p t (2) Groove weld, are those deposited in a gap, or groove, between two parts

to be connected. They are most frequently used for butt, tee, and corner

joints. In most cases, one or both of the connected parts will have beveled

edges, called prepared edges, although relatively thin materials can be g , p p g , g y

groove welded with no edge preparation.

Type: Complete penetration groove welds

Partial penetration groove welds Partial penetration groove welds.

(3) Plug or slot weld

Fillet welds are most common and used in all structures.

Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. increments

A fillet weld can be loaded in any direction in shear, compression, or y , p ,

tension. However, it always fails in shear.

Fillet weld Fillet weld Fillet weld

F ll ld F ll ld F ll ld Fillet weld Fillet weld Fillet weld

Assumption the cross section (A) =

Effective throat thickness 0.707 a x length L

Throat =axcos45

o

Throat =axcos45

o

a

a

Throat a x cos45

=0.707 a

a

a

Throat a x cos45

=0.707 a

L

The shear failure of

the fillet weld occurs

along a plane

f through the throat of

the weld

Failure Plane

Critical Shear Strength:

P

f

Critical Shear Strength:

The nominal load capacity:

w

L a

P

fv

707 . 0

L f R 707 0

The nominal load capacity:

The nominal Design Strength:

w w n

L a f R 707 . 0

w w

L a f 707 . 0 75 . 0 R

n

where Fw= the weld ultimate shear strength

= 0.75 = 0.75

Fw depends on the weld metal used that is, it is a function of the type

electrode.

Ultimate tensile strength of Electrode: 60, 70, 80, 90, and 110ksi.

E60XX / E60 = an electrode with an ultimate tensile strength of 60 ksi.

This is the standard terminology for weld electrodes

Electrodes should be selected to match the base metal:

E70xx electrodes : for steels with Fy <60 - 65 ksi

E80xx electrodes : for steels with Fy >60 - 65 ksi E80xx electrodes : for steels with Fy > 60 65 ksi.

E70XX is the most popular electrode used for fillet welds made by the SMAW

method.

Fw in a fillet weld = 0.60 times the tensile strength of the weld metal,

denoted by F

EXX

.

The design stress: Fw= 0.60 F

EXX

---- =0.75. The design stress: Fw 0.60 F

EXX

0.75.

E70XX: Fw = 0.75 [0.60 (70)] = 31.5 ksi

E80XX: Fw = 0.75 [0.60 (80)] = 36 ksi

axisofweld

Fillet weld strength that account for load direction :

Fw = 0.6F

Exx

(1.0 + 0.50 sin

1.5

)

Fw = 0.6 F

Exx

is valid only if = 0

For weld with load perpendicular ( 90

o

) the For weld with load perpendicular ( = 90

o

), the

strength is 50% higher

LLLLL

AISCJ2.4cspecifiesthatthelargernominalstrengthfrom

thefollowingtwooptions:

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

1.Usethebasicstrengthforboth:R

n

=R

wl

+R

wt

R

wl

=R

wt

=0.6F

Exx

2.Usethe50%higheroftransverseweldsbutreduce

h b i h f l i di l ld thebasicstrengthoflongitudinalwelds

R

n

=R

wl

+R

wt

R 0 85 (0 6 F ) + 1 5 (0 6 F ) R

n

=0.85(0.6F

Exx

)+1.5(0.6F

Exx

)

The design shear strength of base metal:

shear to subject metal base of area x F Rn

BM

Ag F Rn

BM

where

= 0.90

F

BM

= Fv=0.60 Fy

Ag = the area subject to shear

AISC specification J 4.2

Base metal area can fail by shear yielding or rupture. The smaller of the

two strengths will govern two strengths will govern.

Shear yielding;

R =1 0 x 0 6 F x gross area of base metal subjected to shear R

n

= 1.0 x 0.6 F

y

x gross area of base metal subjected to shear

Shear rupture;

R

n

= 0.75 x 0.6 F

u

x net area of base metal subjected to shear

where F and F are the yield and tensile strength of the base metal where, F

y

and F

u

are the yield and tensile strength of the base metal.

Example :

TT

Elevation

Plan

Elevation

Plan

Strength of weld in shear Strength of base metal g g

= 0.75 x 0.707 x a x L

w

x f

w

= min {1.0 x 0.6 x F

y

x t x L

w

0.75 x 0.6 x F

u

x t x L

w

}

Smaller governs the strength of the weld Smaller governs the strength of the weld

1. Always check weld metal and base metal strength. Smaller value

governs. In most cases, the weld metal strength will govern.

2. In weld design problems, it is advantageous to work with strength

per unit length of the weld or base metal.

Example:

t

The design strength of weld per inch of length:

W n

F xsizex R 707 . 0

The capacity of the bracket plate in shear per inch of length:

t F Rn

BM

a. Berdasarkan Kekuatan Las

B d k K k t b h D / B M t l

W n

F ax x R 707 75 . 0

b. Berdasarkan Kekuatan bahan Dasar /BaseMetal

(Pelat yangdisambung)

Fu ax x R

n

6 . 0 707 75 . 0

Minimum Size of Fillet Welds a

min

:

Material Thickness of Thicker Minimum Size of Fillet

Part J oined (in.) Welds[a] (in.)

To inclusive

Over to

1/8

3/16

Over to

Over 3/4

5/16

[a] Leg dimension of fillet welds. Single pass welds must be used.

[b] See Section J 2 2b for maximumsize of fillet welds [b] See Section J 2.2b for maximum size of fillet welds.

Teballasminimum(t,mm) Ukuranlassudutminimum

palingtebal (amin)

t<7 3

7<t<10 4

10<t<15 5

SNI Baja

15<t 6

Maximum Size of fillet welds a

max

:

- function of the thickness of the thickest connected plate: p

- plates with thickness 0.25 in., a

max-

= t or 0.25 in. (the smallest).

- plates with thickness 0.25 in., a

max

= t - 1/16 in.

MinimumLength of fillet welds L Minimum Length of fillet welds L

w

- L

w

4 a otherwise a

eff

= L

w

/ 4

- Intermittent fillet welds: L

w-min

= 4 a and 1.5 in.

EndReturns: End Returns:

When a weld extends to the corner of a member, it must be continued around

the corner to avoid stress concentration.

Length of end returns >two times the weld size. = 2a

The maximum size than can be made with a single pass of

l t d i i t l 5/ 16 i h d lti l electrode is approximately 5/ 16 inch, and multiple passes

will add to the cost.

l d b l Pelat dengan tebal <6.4mm

amaks diambil sama dengan tebal connectedparts(t)

Pelat > 6.4mm;amks =t 1.6mm

1/4

66

Near side (arrow side)

1/4

6

1/4

6

Other side

1/4

1/4

6

6

1/4

6

Both side

Weld all arround

1/4

6

1/4

6

E70

R f Fi ld ld Reference Field weld

t =0.5 in. t =0.5 in.

Step I. Check the limitations

t

min

= 3/8 in. (member)

5 in.

05in

4 in x 3/8 in.

a =0.25 in.

5 in.

05in

4 in x 3/8 in.

a =0.25 in.

min

t

max

= 0.5 in. (gusset)

Then, a

min

= 3/16 in.

a

max

= 3/8 - 1/16 = 5/16in.

5in.

0.5 in.

0.5 in.

5in.

0.5 in.

0.5 in.

weld size = a = 1/4 in. OK!

L

w-min

= 1.0 in.

Given length =5 0 in >L

5 in. 5 in.

StepII Design st ength of the eld

Given length = 5.0 in. > L

min

.

OK!

End returns :

Step II. Design strength of the weld

Weld strength = f x 0.707 x a x 0.60 x F

EXX

x L

w

= 0.75 x 0.707 x 0.25 x 0.60 x 70 x 10 = 55.67 kips

Min size = 2 a = 0.5 in. OK!

Step II. Design strength of the weld

Base Metal strength =min {x 0 6 x F x L x t ; x 0 6 x F x L x t} Base Metal strength = min {x 0.6 x F

y

x L

w

x t ; x 0.6 x F

u

x L

w

x t}

= min {1.0 x 0.6 x 50 x 10 x 3/8 ; 0.75 x 0.6 x 65 x 10 x 3/8}

= min {112.5 ; 109.7 kips}

=1097 kips = 109.7 kips

Step III. Tension strength of the member

R =0 9 x 50 x 4 x 3/8 =675 kips - tension yield R

n

= 0.9 x 50 x 4 x 3/8 = 67.5 kips tension yield

R

n

= 0.75 x A

e

x 65 - tension fracture

A

e

= U A

A =A =4 x 3/8 =1 5 in

2

A = A

g

= 4 x 3/8 = 1.5 in

U = 0.75 , since connection length (L

conn

) < 1.5 w

Therefore, R

n

= 54.8 kips

The design strength of the member-connection system = 54.8 kips.

Tension fracture of the member governs.

The end returns at the corners were not included in the calculations The end returns at the corners were not included in the calculations.

Step I. Assume material properties :

Fy= 36ksi for member & gusset plates and E70XX electrode for the fillet welds.

Step II. Design the tension member

Select 2L 5 x 3 x 1/2 made from 36 ksi steel.

Yield strength = 260 kips Fracture strength = 261 kips.

S III D i h ld d i Step III . Design the welded connection

a

min

= 3/16 in. a

max

= 1/2 - 1/16 in. = 7/16 in.

Design, a = 3/8 in. = 0.375 in.

Shear strength of weld metal = R

n

= 0.75 x 0.60 x F

EXX

x 0.707 x a x L

w

= 8.35 L

w

kips

Strength of the base metal in shear =

min {1.0 x 0.6 x F

y

x t x L

w

; 0.75 x 0.6 x F

u

x t x L

w

}

min { 10.8 L

w

; 14.62 L

w

} kips

Shear strength of weld metal governs, R

n

= 8.35 L

w

kips

2 0 k 8 3 2 0 k R

n

> 250 kips 8.35 L

w

> 250 kips

L

w

> 29.94 in.

use Lw= 30.0 in.

(a) (a) (a) (a)

Welding on both

sides of gusset.

L

1

a

(b)

Welding on both

sides of gusset.

Welding on both

sides of gusset.

L

1

a L

1

a L

1

a L

1

a

(b)

2a 2a 2a 2a

L

2

(c)

L

2

L

2

L

2

L

2

(c)

L

w

= 30 in. for two angles

Assume L

w

for each = 15.0 in.

E70XX fillet weld can be placed in

three ways (a), (b), and (c).

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

three ways (a), (b), and (c).

AISC Spec. requires that the fillet weld

(a) (a)

p q

terminate at a distance greater than the

size (1/2 in.) of the weld. For this option,

L

1

will be equal to 7.5 in.

The fillet weld can be returned

continuously around the corner for a

distance of at least 2 a (1 in)

L

1

a

(b)

L

1

a L

1

a L

1

a L

1

a

(b)

distance of at least 2 a (1 in.).

L

2

can be either 6.5 in. or 7.5 in.

However, the value of 7.5 in. is

preferred.

2a 2a 2a 2a

L

3

will be equal to 5.75 in.

L

2

(c)

L

2

L

2

L

2

L

2

(c)

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

L

3

Step V. Fracture strength of the member

A

e

= U A

g

A

e

U A

g

U = 1- x/L Asssume case a ------ U = 1-0.901/7.5 = 0.88 0.9

R

n

= 0.75 x 0.88 x 8.00 x 58 = 306.24 kips > 250 kips OK

Step VI. Design the gusset plate R

n

> T

u

Tension yielding limit state

0.9 x A

g

x 36 > 250 kips A

g

> 7.71 in

2

g

p

g

Tension fracture limit state

0.75 x A

n

x F

u

> 250 kips

AISC specification A

n

0.85 A

g

1/2

7.5 in.

(a)

1/2

7.5 in.

(a)

p

n g

A

n

> 5.747 in

2

A

g

> 6.76 in

2

Design gusset plate :

1/2 7.5 in.

Gusset plate 8 x in.

1/2 7.5 in.

Gusset plate 8 x in.

thickness = 1.0 in.

width = 8.0 in.

1/2

7.5 in.

1/2 7.5 in.

Two 5 x 3.5 x 1/2 in

1/2

7.5 in.

1/2 7.5 in.

Two 5 x 3.5 x 1/2 in

E70

7225

7120

E70

E70

120.120.8

gusset 9mm

E70

775

gusset9mm

Hitung beban maksimum yang

mampu ditahan sambungan las mampu ditahan sambungan las.

D=80kN

L=140kN

Akibat pembebanan yang

ada,disainlah sambungan , g

antara profil siku 100x100x8

dengan gussetplatesetebal

3/8inc(9.5mm)

menggunakan tebal las

minimumyangdisyaratkan.

Sambungan hanya pada 2

( h l d l)

32.4

sisi saja (arah longitudinal)

dan memperhitungkan efek

eksentrisitas akibat titik

berat profil siku Sket hasil

100

32.4

berat profil siku.Sket hasil

disain dalam gambar kerja

yanglengkap!

100

UnbalancedCondition

1 Uk l 1. Ukuran las yangsama

pada sisi atas dan

bawah,

mengakibatkan g

terjadinya

ketidaksetimbangan

pada gayagaya

2 Seolah olah 2. Seolaholah

sambungan bersifat

eccentric

Disain Sambungan Laspada Profil yangunsymetri

(profil siku)

Dengan menerapkan konsep kesetimbangan,

1.maka :P1P2

k l h l b b 2.Akan diperoleh panjang las yangberbeda antara sisi

atas dan sisi bawah L1L2

Sambungan Baut : 7.4.4 ; 7.4.6 ;

Sambungan Las : 7.11.2; 7.11.4

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