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Amtech Group

PowerNet HV
Software for the Building Services Industry
















Copyright Amtech Group 1992-2013

Amtech Group
Bank House
171 Midsummer Boulevard
Central Milton Keynes
Buckinghamshire
England
MK9 1EB
Tel: 01908 608833
Fax : 01908 234355
Email : supportmk@amtech.co.uk
Web Site: www.amtech.co.uk

Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation

Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent an assurance of liability on the part of
Amtech Group. Amtech reserves the right to enhance or add new features which may not always be reflected in the manual
supplied.
The software described in this document is furnished under a licence agreement and may be used or copied only in accordance with
the terms of the agreement.
It is against the law to copy the software except as specifically allowed in the licence agreement. No part of this manual may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, for any
purpose, without the express permission of Amtech Group.
1992 -2013 Amtech Group




Amtech Group Contents i

Contents
Amtech System Requirements 1
Installation 3
Activating your Amtech software 5
Automatic Updates 9
Availability of Web Updates ....................................................................................................... 9
Applying a Web Update ........................................................................................................... 10
Checking your version of software........................................................................................... 12
Drawing Editor 13
Tutorial 15
Setting Defaults and Preferences ............................................................................................. 16
Page Setup ................................................................................................................. 16
Settings ...................................................................................................................... 16
Defaults ...................................................................................................................... 17
Fonts .......................................................................................................................... 18
Options ..................................................................................................................................... 19
Grid ............................................................................................................................ 19
Cursor ........................................................................................................................ 19
Display Options .......................................................................................................... 19
Node .......................................................................................................................... 19
Network ..................................................................................................................... 20
Transformer ............................................................................................................... 20
Cable .......................................................................................................................... 21
Overhead Lines .......................................................................................................... 21
Drawing the Diagram ............................................................................................................... 22
15 kV Bus ................................................................................................................... 22
380 Volt Bus ............................................................................................................... 23
Network ..................................................................................................................... 24
Transformer T1 .......................................................................................................... 25
Cable L1...................................................................................................................... 26
Transformer T2 .......................................................................................................... 27
Cable L2...................................................................................................................... 28
Cable L3...................................................................................................................... 29
Overhead Line L4 ....................................................................................................... 29
Edit Mode ................................................................................................................................. 31
Editing Element Details .............................................................................................. 31
ii Amtech System Requirements Amtech Group

Relocating and Reconnecting Elements ..................................................................... 32
Calculation ................................................................................................................................ 34
Calculation Type ......................................................................................................... 34
Results ...................................................................................................................................... 35
Viewing Results Data and the Analysis report. ........................................................................ 35
Printing ..................................................................................................................................... 36
Reference 37
Editing ...................................................................................................................................... 37
Editing Element Data ................................................................................................. 38
Element Insertions - General Rules .......................................................................................... 40
Node Insertion Routine .............................................................................................. 40
Single Node Elements ................................................................................................ 40
Double Node Elements .............................................................................................. 40
Reconnect .................................................................................................................. 41
Elements................................................................................................................................... 42
Node .......................................................................................................................... 42
Fault Nodes ................................................................................................................ 42
Network ..................................................................................................................... 42
Generator ................................................................................................................... 42
Motor ......................................................................................................................... 43
Cable .......................................................................................................................... 44
Overhead Line ............................................................................................................ 45
Estimation Of Resistance Of Overhead Lines ............................................................. 46
Estimation Of Reactance Of Overhead Lines ............................................................. 46
Busduct ...................................................................................................................... 47
Estimation Of Resistance Of Busducts ....................................................................... 48
Estimation Of Reactance Of Busducts ....................................................................... 48
Transformer ............................................................................................................... 49
Transformer Neutral Earthing .................................................................................... 50
Reactor ....................................................................................................................... 50
Impedance ................................................................................................................. 50
Bus Tie / Circuit Breaker ............................................................................................ 51
Switch ......................................................................................................................... 51
Switchfuse .................................................................................................................. 51
Contactor ................................................................................................................... 51
Settings and defaults ................................................................................................................ 52
Defaults ...................................................................................................................... 52
Transformer ............................................................................................................... 52
Cable .......................................................................................................................... 53
Overhead Line ............................................................................................................ 53
Busduct ...................................................................................................................... 53
Motor ......................................................................................................................... 53
Support Options ....................................................................................................................... 54
Help Options .............................................................................................................. 55
Help Topics ............................................................................................................................... 55
Display Options ........................................................................................................................ 56
Initial Settings ............................................................................................................ 56
Calc Options ............................................................................................................................. 56
Calculation Type ......................................................................................................... 56

Amtech Group Contents iii

Report Type ............................................................................................................... 56
Fault Types ................................................................................................................. 56
Data files 59
Cable Resistance ...................................................................................................................... 59
Sample RESIST.DAT File ............................................................................................. 59
RESIST.DAT as supplied with PowerNet HV ............................................................... 60
Cable Reactance ....................................................................................................................... 61
Sample React.DAT File ............................................................................................... 61
REACT.DAT as supplied with PowerNet HV................................................................ 62
Cable Zero Sequence Impedance Ratios .................................................................................. 63
Sample Z0.DAT File .................................................................................................... 63
Z0.DAT as supplied with PowerNet HV ...................................................................... 64
Frequently Asked Questions 65
How do I find my Amtech Licence number? ............................................................................ 65
How do I ensure that the Node Fault Results are Displayed? .................................................. 65
How does PowerNet treat Motor Loads? ................................................................................ 65
What is the Relationship between KG and Generator Fault Current? ..................................... 65
Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement 67
Amtech PremierCare 73
Amtech Training 75
Index 77


Amtech Group Amtech System Requirements 1

Amtech System Requirements
These specifications refer to the minimum specifications across the range of Amtech software applications.
Computer (desktop or laptop)
Minimum PC and system requirements are:
Intel Pentium 4 (2.0 GHz processor)
1GB RAM (recommended 2GB)
1.5GB free hard disk space
DVD drive
Mouse
Monitor: 1024x768 resolution min 256 colours (recommended 1280x1024)

Operating Systems
The following operating systems are supported on a desktop or laptop:
Microsoft Windows XP SP3 or above - Home or Pro (32 bit)
Microsoft Windows Vista Home Premium SP2 or above (32 and 64 bit)
Microsoft Windows 7 Home Premium or above (32 and 64 bit)
Microsoft Windows 8 Pro or above (32 and 64 bit)
Microsoft Windows Server 2003 or 2008 (FastTest/GasCert network installation)

Prerequisites
An NTFS file system must by used (not FAT32)
The Amtech product suite cannot be installed to a compressed drive
All antivirus and firewall security software must be disabled prior to the installation
We recommend applying the latest Microsoft operating system Service Packs and patches before installing Amtech software.


2 Amtech System Requirements Amtech Group

Pocket PC Amtech Mobile software
Amtech Mobile Software (FastTest Mobile and GasCert Mobile) require a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) running Microsoft
Windows Mobile 6, 6.1 or 6.5 later.
The minimum PDA memory requirement is 64Mb
The following Microsoft desktop to PDA connectivity software is required:
PDA operating system Desktop operating system Microsoft connectivity software
required
Windows Mobile 6.0 XP ActiveSync v4.5 or above
Vista Mobile Device Center v6.1 or above
Windows 7 Mobile Device Center v6.1 or above
Windows Mobile 6.1 XP ActiveSync v4.5 or above
Vista Mobile Device Center v6.1 or above
Windows 7 Mobile Device Center v6.1 or above
Windows Mobile 6.5 XP ActiveSync v4.5 or above
Vista Mobile Device Center v6.1 or above
Windows 7 Mobile Device Center v6.1 or above

Amtech Mobile software is installed using a desktop or laptop PC.


Amtech Group Installation 3

Installation
First, ensure that Microsoft Windows is already installed on your system.
You need your latest Amtech disk and licence number. Your licence number is given on the Delivery Note included with the
software.
To install:
Ensure that you are a local machine administrator
Close all open applications and the Office Toolbar, if running, before starting the installation.
Insert the Amtech Electrical Design Suite disk into your PC.
Setup should start automatically. If not do the following:
From the Start button on the Task Bar select Run.
In the Open data entry box type D:\setup (Where D: is your optical drive letter. If your optical drive has a different
drive letter type that in instead.) Press ENTER or click on OK to start the installation.

Setup will run from the disk. Follow on-screen instructions.

Amtech Group Activating your Amtech software 5

Activating your Amtech software
Amtech software is sold as a single user, single installation licence unless otherwise specified in your licence agreement. The
software may be installed and Activated on a single computer. Multi-user licence agreements will allow the software to be installed
and Activated on the specified number of computers.
The software is protected and requires Activation before unrestricted use. Before Activation there will be full functionality but the
message DEMONSTRATION ONLY will be printed on all documents.
You will receive reminders to Activate the software, however after 30 days the software must be activated.
Please Note:
Amtech Mobile programs, i.e. FastTest Mobile and GasCert Mobile do not require activating.
How do I Activate my Amtech software?
Activating your new software is a two step process
Step 1 - Send your Request Code to Amtech
The preferred method of Activation is to use the REQUEST ACTIVATION CODE button which sends your Request Code to Amtech
electronically. An email auto-responder will check to ensure that your company is the registered purchaser of the software and that
there is a user licence available. The auto-responder operates 24 hours a day seven days per week, giving prompt response any time
of day.
The Activate dialog box may appear at start-up and various other times indicating how many days you have left.
If the dialog box doesnt appear automatically then it can be accessed by going to the Support menu and selecting Activate
program


6 Activating your Amtech software Amtech Group

Click on the REQUEST ACTIVATION CODE button.

On pressing the Confirm button an activation request will be sent via the internet.
The e-mail response from Amtech will be sent to the address entered on the Activation Request dialog.
Users who are unable to activate electronically may call the Amtech Activation Hotline on 0871 220 8880 (during office hours only).
The number is displayed on the activation dialog box. An Amtech representative will undertake the security checks manually then, if
appropriate, authorise and issue an unlock code.
Please note that this manual activation process may take several minutes. We strongly suggest that you use the email method if
possible as the process of dictating and recording a long code by phone is open to transcription errors.
Please do not contact Amtech Support or Amtech Sales regarding activation or de-activation as they are unable to process these
requests.
Telephone calls are recorded to help prevent fraud.

Step 2 - Receive your Activation Code and Activate your software.
Check your email inbox. When you receive your Activation code from Amtech you must enter this into the lower box. Use copy and
paste functions if possible to eliminate transcription errors.
If you have received your Activation code by phone enter it into the lower box. Be sure to type it accurately. The majority of the
support problems relating to Activation are due to incorrectly recorded or mis-typed Activation codes.

Then click on the Activate Now button to complete the process.

How to Copy and Paste
Click and hold the left mouse button. Drag the cursor over the text to be copied to highlight it. Release left button. Place the cusor on
the highlighted text and right click. Select copy from the drop down menu.
Place the cursor in the location you wish to copy to. Right click and select paste. The copied text will be inserted.
Do I have to activate all my Amtech programs separately?
No. You only have to activate 1 program in a suite of software. For example, if you have installed Amtech Office you will only need to
perform activation in one of the programs (it doesn't matter which) in order to activate the full suite.
If, however you have more than one suite of software you will need to activate each suite, e.g. Amtech Office and ProDesign 200.
Deactivating your Amtech software
From time to time, a Software Deactivation may be required (for example, when transferring your Software from one machine to
another (Single User Licence)).

Amtech Group Activating your Amtech software 7

If this is the situation, please follow the procedure outlined below:
Make sure the Data is backed up from the original machine.
Install the Software onto the new machine (but do not attempt Activation at this point).
Transfer the backed up data from the original machine to the new.
Open the software and use File Restore to restore the data from the original machine.
Contact the Activations Team on 0871 220 8880. They will assist you in Deactivating the software on your old
machine.
This will allow you to Reactivate the software on the new machine.

Federation Against Software Theft (FAST)
Amtech is a member of the Federation Against Software Theft (FAST). Further information is available on their website:
http://www.fast.org.uk/


Amtech Group Automatic Updates 9

Automatic Updates
This feature can automatically check whether a web update is available for your Amtech software (excluding Amtech Mobile
software). It will then offer to automatically download and install it.
The Amtech Automatic Update feature is available in all Amtech desktop products.
Program Updates dialog
The Check for Updates dialog allows you to control when the Automatic Update feature operates.
To access this dialog, simply go to the Support Menu and Select Check For Updates.

Your Amtech software will automatically check for updates every time it is launched unless you choose one of the other options.
If you select the Manually option updates will not be automatically checked.
You can click the Check Now button at any time to force the update procedure to start.
The Only show critical updates tick box controls whether text-only messages will be displayed. If ticked, messages
such as New Service Pack CD is available will not be displayed. Downloadable web patches will be reported
irrespective of the state of this option.
Availability of Web Updates
In order to be able to receive an Amtech Web update you must have:
A current PremierCare agreement for the specific Amtech application
Registered your Amtech software
Registered your Amtech products on our website, www.amtech.co.uk
Internet Access

10 Automatic Updates Amtech Group

PremierCare Status
Web updates are available to registered PremierCare members only. You can inspect your PremierCare status in the applications
About dialog found in the Help menu.

Please contact our PremierCare renewal team on 01908 608833 if your PremierCare has expired.
N.B. If your Amtech program is unable to connect to the Amtech website the PremierCare status area will be blank.
Registration
Your software must be registered with us before updates will be made available to you.
If you purchased your software directly from Amtech then it will be already registered.
However, if you purchased from a third-party registration may be required. Please phone Amtech Registration and
Activation on 0871 220 8880 (10p/min) for further details.
N.B. Your software will be registered with us if it is already activated.
Register Products on our website
You must register your Amtech products on our website www.amtech.co.uk Go to the Premier Care members area of the website,
log in and register your products.
Internet Access
You must, of course, have internet access to obtain a web update. We recommend a broadband internet connection is used.
Applying a Web Update
When a web update is available for your Amtech software the following type of dialog will appear:


Amtech Group Automatic Updates 11

Please note:
Some Web Updates may affect more than one application. For example, ProDesign and Protect might be updated by a single patch.
Download Now
Clicking Download will download the update onto your computer if you have:
A current PremierCare agreement for the specific Amtech application
Registered your Amtech software
Registered your Amtech products on our website www.amtech.co.uk
Internet Access


Install Now
Clicking Install Now will start the update installation process. You Amtech program will close and the installation screens will
appear. Please follow the on-screen prompts.

After the installation has finished your Amtech program will re-start automatically.

12 Automatic Updates Amtech Group

Remind me
Clicking Remind me will close the Update available dialog. It will reappear next time the program checks for updates (or when you
click the Check Now button on the Check for Updates dialog).
Dismiss
Clicking Dismiss will cause the message to disappear. The message will not re-appear automatically in the future. However, critical
updates (such as program updates) can still be accessed by clicking the Check Now button on the Check for Updates dialog.
Checking your version of software
You can check which version of Amtech software you are running in the Help About dialog.

The programs version number is accompanied by the Service Pack and patch number. This information may be required by Amtech
Support during a technical enquiry.

Amtech Group Drawing Editor 13

Drawing Editor
The Drawing Editor screen comprises the Editor Windows, Title Bar, Status Bar, Toolbars and the Menus.
Editor Windows
An Editor window is used for creating and displaying the current system drawing. More than one system drawing may be viewed
simultaneously using multiple windows.
The active window may be selected by clicking anywhere in the window or by selecting the desired window from the Windows
menu.

A new window i.e. a blank drawing area may be created by selecting New Window.
Title Bar
The title bar displays the version of PowerNet HV and the active file name.
Status bar

The status bar at the bottom of the screen is used to display a prompt, the current command and the drawing co-ordinates.
Toolbars


14 Drawing Editor Amtech Group





Amtech Group Tutorial 15

Tutorial
This tutorial is based on Example No.1 of Appendix A of IEC 909. The system diagram for this example is shown below.



It is required to calculate the short circuit currents at locations F1,F2 and F3.
The system frequency is 50 Hertz and the results are to be presented in KA.

16 Tutorial Amtech Group

Setting Defaults and Preferences
Page Setup
When PowerNet HV starts up a new drawing the default page size is A3. For this example we will use an A4 sheet, so select Page
Setup from the File menu.

The Page Setup dialog box is displayed, indicating that the current drawing size is A3 and that a margin of 25mm is allowed on all
sides.
To change to A4, click on the A4 button in the Drawing Size box. The new X and Y dimensions are displayed ( 297 X 210 ).
When you have finished, click on the OK button.
The screen is redrawn, showing an A4 sheet with the specified border. To display the entire page, maximise the window by clicking
the maximise box in the top right hand corner or alternatively drag the vertical scroll box to approx. half way down the window until
the entire page is visible in the work space.
Note: For all standard sheet sizes, the page is assumed to be in landscape orientation.
Settings
This command is used to check or alter the current settings used by PowerNet HV.
Select Settings from the Settings Menu.

The Settings dialog box is displayed with the current settings, which may be changed if required.
For the purposes of this tutorial no changes are required.

Amtech Group Tutorial 17

Select OK to return to the diagram editor.
For more information on Settings see Settings in the Reference section.
Defaults
This command is used to check or alter default values used by PowerNet HV.
Default values are commonly used values, which are automatically updated by PowerNet HV each time an element is inserted into
the diagram.
Select Defaults from the Settings Menu.
The Defaults dialog box is displayed with the current default values, which may be changed if required.

For the purposes of this tutorial no changes are required.
Select OK to return to the diagram editor.
For more information on Defaults see Defaults in the Reference Section.

18 Tutorial Amtech Group

Fonts
PowerNet HV allows the user to change the font settings for text displays on the screen and printer.
Select Fonts from the Settings menu or use the icons on the system toolbar.


Element
Sets the font for attributes associated with circuit elements.


Text
Sets the font for Text elements drawn using the PowerNet HV Text function.


Results
Sets the font for the display of calculation results.



Set the text fonts to any desired values.

Amtech Group Tutorial 19

Options
The Options menu is used to set Grid size, Cursor type and Display Options.
Grid
It is important to use a grid setting wherever possible. Setting the grid will cause all point selections to snap to the nearest point on
the grid. This will ensure that all drawing elements are consistently placed and lined up and will also facilitate selection of elements
for editing etc.
Select Grid from the Options menu. The options Off, Fine, Medium and Coarse are available and the Fine option is already selected.
This is the default option set PowerNet HV on startup and corresponds to a 5 mm grid.
No change is required.
Note: Medium and Coarse grids correspond to 10 mm and 20 mm respectively.
Cursor
Two types of cursors are available, Normal and Full Screen. The Normal option selects the standard WINDOWS arrow cursor while
the Full Screen option selects a crosshairs type cursor.
The Full Screen cursor has already been selected by PowerNet HV at startup. This is the preferred cursor because it simplifies lining
up elements, horizontally and vertically. To remove the images left by the cursor, use the redraw function key F5 or the Redraw icon.

No change is required.
Display Options
Display Options are used to control which attributes of the network elements are displayed on the screen and on the printed page
and also which nodes are to be used as fault points for calculation.
Global display options may be set for each element type from the Options menu. These will be applied to each element of that type
when they are first inserted.

Note: The display options for each individual element may be altered during insertion or at any subsequent time using the Display
Options button on the element dialog box.
The diagram which we are about to draw contains a Network, Nodes, Transformers, Cables and an Overhead line so we will set
options for these element types.
On startup PowerNet HV sets all options OFF except for Description and Node Voltage.
Node
The Description and Voltage options are already set. We dont need to display the Index option. The Fault and Results options will be
set individually where required.


20 Tutorial Amtech Group

No change is required.
Note: These display options apply only to nodes which are drawn by the user. Auxiliary nodes which are inserted automatically by
PowerNet HV will have all options set to off. They may, as we shall see later, be subsequently set as required.

Network
We will display the Description and MVA.

Click the down arrow beside the Elements box and select Network.
The Description option is already set.
Set the MVA option by clicking the left mouse button on the check box beside this option.
Transformer
Use the scroll bar on the Elements box and select Transformer.

The Description option is already set.
In this case we also intend to display the Rating, Resistance, Impedance, R0 and X0 values so click on these buttons to set them on.




Amtech Group Tutorial 21


Cable
Scroll back up the selection box and select Cable.

The Description option is already set.
We intend to display the information as provided i.e. cable size, conductor, number of parallel cables and length.
Set Parallel Cables, Size, Conductor and Length on, leaving Description set on.
Overhead Lines
Select O/H Line from the selection box.

The Description option is already set.
We intend to display the information as provided i.e. size, length, conductor and spacing.
Set these options on, leaving Description set on.

We have now set all required options. Select OK.

22 Tutorial Amtech Group

Drawing the Diagram
We may now proceed with the draughting of the diagram and entering the system details. While it is not essential, it is convenient to
draw the 2 main busses before drawing the elements.
15 kV Bus
Select Node from the Elements Menu or click on the Node icon.

A message indicating the current command, Inserting Node, is displayed. The current command will remain active until a new
command is selected or the command is cancelled by clicking the right mouse button.
The Start Point prompt is displayed in the status bar, prompting you to select the start point for the node. Move the cursor to the
75,60 and press and hold down the left mouse button. The End Point prompt is displayed in the status bar.
While holding down the left mouse button, move the cursor to the end point 225,60. Release the left mouse button.
The node is drawn in red indicating that this is the current element and the Node dialog box is displayed.


For the Description, enter Q
For the Voltage (kV), enter 15


When finished select OK.
The node is redrawn in black

Amtech Group Tutorial 23

380 Volt Bus
The current command, Inserting Node, is still displayed together with the Start Point prompt, indicating that PowerNet HV is
expecting the start point of the next node.

Move the cursor to the desired start point of the 380 Volt Bus, 75,125 and press the left hand mouse button. Drag the cursor as
previously described to the end point of the node, 225,125 and release the mouse button.


To maintain the symmetry of the diagram ensure that the start point and end point of both busses are in line. When the Node dialog
box is displayed, enter the node details as follows:

For the Description enter F2.
For the Voltage enter 0.38.
This is a fault node and we require calculations to be carried out and results to be displayed. So click the Display Options button on
the dialog box and set the Fault and Results options on.
When finished select OK.
The message Inserting Node is displayed, indicating that PowerNet HV is repeating the last command. This will be cancelled when we
select the next command.

24 Tutorial Amtech Group

Network
We are now ready to draw the supply network which represent the Utility or other system capable of supplying power under short
circuit conditions.
Select Network from the Elements Menu or click on the Network icon.

The current command Inserting Network, is displayed together with the prompt, Select Node.
We will now make a deliberate error so that we can correct it later on.
The Network will be connected to the wrong Node!
Select the node to which the Network is to be connected, (for the moment, the 0.38kV bus) F2 at point 75,125. This incorrect point is
deliberately chosen so that we can relocate the Network later. See Relocating and Reconnecting Elements in the Section on Edit
Mode.
The node is highlighted to confirm the selection and the Select Location prompt is displayed. Select the location for the Network
symbol, 75,95.

If you select a location which does not allow the symbol to be correctly drawn, the message Too Close to Node is displayed and you
should reselect a location slightly further from the node.

When the Network dialog box is displayed, enter the details as follows:
For the Description, enter Network Feeder
For the MVA, enter 250

When finished select OK.
The message Inserting Network is displayed, indicating that PowerNet HV is repeating the last command. This will be cancelled when
we select the next command.

Amtech Group Tutorial 25

Transformer T1
Select Trans from the Elements Menu or click on the Transformer icon.

The current command is changed to Inserting Transformer and is displayed in the message area together with the prompt, Select
First Node.
For the first node, select the 15kV bus at point 110,60. The node is highlighted to confirm selection and the prompt changes to Select
Second Node.
For the second node, pick a point halfway between the 15kV bus (Q) and the 380 Volt bus (F2) at 110,90. There is no existing node at
this point so PowerNet HV will insert an auxiliary node, which will act as the node for the transformer secondary.
The dialog box for the new node is displayed and you are prompted to enter the details.
For the Description, enter F1
For the Voltage (kV), enter 0.38

This is a fault node and we require calculations to be carried out and results to be displayed. Click on the Display Options button on
the dialog box.
Because this is an auxiliary node PowerNet HV has set all options off.
Set the Fault and Results options on.
We require the description to be displayed, so set this option ON also.
The Display option is, however, also off. This option controls all display and is a way of switching selected displays on or off. While
this option is off all other display selections are ignored and no values will be displayed.

Set the Display option on.
When finished select OK.
The Transformer dialog box is displayed and PowerNet HV has already entered the default value for the transformer Regulation (5%),
R0/R1 (1) and X0/X1 (0.95).
PowerNet HV has assumed, correctly in this case, that the transformer is solidly earthed. This is the default earthing method. For
other earthing methods see Transformer Neutral Earthing, in the Reference section.
Enter the remaining values as follows:
For the Description, enter T1
For the Rating (kVA), enter 630

26 Tutorial Amtech Group


The losses in the transformer windings are quoted at 6.5 kW.
The Resistance percentage volt drop is therefore:
(6.5/630) X 100 = 1.03.
For the Resistance (%) enter 1.03 For the Impedance (%) enter 4.
It is not necessary, in this instance, to enter a value for Reactance, as the values for Resistance and Impedance are known and
PowerNet HV will calculate the Reactance value.
TIP
If the only value known is the Impedance(%) and values for Resistance and Reactance are not entered, the calculation will still be
accurate for the Maximum and Minimum values. However, the result obtained for the Peak value of short circuit current will reflect
the inaccuracy in the R/X ratio.
When finished select OK.

Cable L1
Select Cable from the Elements Menu or click on the Cable icon.

The current command is changed to Inserting Cable and is displayed together with the prompt, Select First Node.
For the first node, select the secondary node of the transformer T1.
For the second node, select the 380 Volt Bus at 110,125.

The Cable dialog box is displayed a PowerNet HV has already entered the default values for the Conductor (Cu), the No. of Cables (1)
and the Return Circuit (1). There are two parallel cables in this instance so the default value is incorrect and must be changed.
Enter the remaining values as follows:
For the Description, enter L1
For the Size (sq.mm.) enter 240
For the Length (metres) enter 10


Amtech Group Tutorial 27

We require PowerNet HV to estimate the values for Resistance and Reactance, so click the Find button in each of these boxes.
PowerNet HV locates values for resistance (0.075 ohms/km) and reactance (0.076 ohms/km) from the data files. For more
information see the section on Data Files.
We are given values for R0/R1 (3.7) and X0/X1 (1.81) so we do not require PowerNet HV to estimate these values and we can ignore
the value for Return Circuit.
For R0/R1 enter 3.7
For X0/X1 enter 1.81
For the No. of Cables, enter 2 in place of the default value.

When finished select OK.
Transformer T2
We will use the Copy/Paste facility to copy the details of Transformer T1.
Click the right mouse button to cancel any current command.
Highlight transformer T1 by clicking on it with the left mouse button. Copy the highlighted element to the clipboard by clicking the
Copy icon or by selecting Copy from the Edit menu or by typing Ctrl+C.

Start the Paste procedure by clicking the Paste icon or by selecting Paste from the Edit menu or by typing Ctrl+V. The prompt Select
First Node is displayed.

For the first node, select the 15kV at 190,60. The node is highlighted to confirm selection and the prompt changes to Select Second
Node.
For the second node, pick a point halfway between the 15kV bus (Q) and the 380 Volt bus (F2) in line with the secondary node for
transformer T1, at 190,90. There is no existing node at this point so PowerNet HV will insert an auxiliary node, which will act as the
node for the transformer secondary.
The dialog box for the new node is displayed and you are prompted to enter the details.
For Voltage enter 0.38.
When finished select OK.
The Transformer dialog box is displayed containing the attribute from transformer T1
Alter the values for T2 as follows:
For Description enter T2.
For the Rating (kVA) enter 400.

The losses in the transformer windings are quoted at 4.6 kW.
The Resistance percentage volt drop is therefore:
(4.6/400) x 100 = 1.15.
For Resistance (%) enter 1.15.

In order to force PowerNet HV to calculate the correct Reactance value;
For Reactance enter 0.
For Impedance (%) enter 4.

When finished select OK.

28 Tutorial Amtech Group

Cable L2
Similarly use the Copy/Paste function to copy from L1 to L2.
Highlight L1 and select Copy or type Ctrl+C.
Select Paste or type Ctrl+V.
For the first node select the T2 secondary node
For the second node select the 380Volt bus at 190,125.

Change the following attributes:
Change the Description to L2
Change the Size (sq.mm.) to 150
Change the Length (metres) to 4
Change the Conductor type to Al

We require PowerNet HV to estimate new values for Resistance and Reactance, so click the Find button in each of these boxes.
PowerNet HV locates values for resistance (0.206 ohms/km) and reactance (0.078 ohms/km) from the data files and overwrites the
values copied from L1. For more information see the Section on Data Files.
We are given values for R0/R1 (4.23) and X0/X1 (1.21) so we do not require PowerNet HV to estimate these values and we can
ignore the value for Return Circuit.
For R0/R1 enter 4.23.
For X0/X1 enter 1.21

When finished select OK.

Amtech Group Tutorial 29

Cable L3
We can use Paste again to use L1 as a template for L3.
We are still in Paste Mode and do not need to select Paste again.
For the first node, select the 380 Volt Bus (F2) at 150,125.
For the second node, pick a point a short distance below the first point at 150,150. There is no existing node at this point so
PowerNet HV will insert an auxiliary node, with the same voltage as the first node and without any description.
The Cable dialog box is displayed with the values for L1 entered

Change the following values:
For the Description enter L3
For the Size (sq.mm.) enter 70
For the Length (metres) enter 20

We require PowerNet HV to estimate new values for Resistance and Reactance, so click the Find button in each of these boxes.
PowerNet HV locates values for resistance (0.268 ohms/km) and reactance (0.079 ohms/km) from the data files.
For more information, see the section on Data Files.
We are given values for R0/R1 (3.00) and X0/X1 (4.46) so we do not require PowerNet HV to estimate these values and we can
ignore the value for Return Circuit.
For R0/R1 enter 3.00
For X0/X1 enter 4.46

When finished select OK.
Overhead Line L4
Select O/H Line from the Elements Menu or click on the O/H Line icon.

The current command is changed to Inserting Overhead Line and is displayed together with the prompt, Select First Node.

30 Tutorial Amtech Group

For the first node, select the end node of the previous cable L3.
For the second node, pick a point a short distance below the first point at 150,175. There is no existing node at this point so
PowerNet HV will insert an auxiliary node, with the same voltage as the first node and without any description.
This auxiliary node is also a fault node (F3) and we need to set some options. We will use the Edit Mode to make these changes after
insertion of the Overhead line is completed.

The Overhead Line dialog box for the line is displayed and PowerNet HV has already entered the default values for the Conductor
(Cu), the Reactance (0.3), R0/R1 (2) and X0/X1 (3).
For the Description attribute enter L4
For the Size (sq.mm) attribute enter 50
For the Length (metres) attribute enter 50
For the Spacing (mm) attribute enter 400.

We require PowerNet HV to calculate the values
for Resistance and Reactance, so click the Calc button in each of these boxes. PowerNet HV calculates values for resistance (0.370
ohms/km) and reactance (0.300 ohms/km). For more information on the formulae used for these calculations see Estimation of
Resistance of Overhead Lines in the Reference section.

When finished select OK.

Amtech Group Tutorial 31

Edit Mode
Editing Element Details
As previously mentioned, we need to edit the auxiliary node at the end of L4 because it is a fault node (F3) and requires calculation
options to be set.
There are three methods of displaying an element dialog box for editing but first it is necessary to cancel the current command and
return to Edit Mode by clicking the right mouse button.

To display the Node dialog box choose from the following methods. If you want to experiment with the various methods, click the
cancel (right) mouse button between methods.
Method 1:
Position the mouse on the node and double click the left mouse button . The dialog box is displayed.
Method 2:
Position the mouse on the node and click the left mouse button once. The node is highlighted, indicating that this is the current
element. While the element is highlighted, select Edit from the Edit menu. The dialog box is displayed.
Method 3:
Select Edit from the Edit menu. Edit is now the current command, the prompt Select Item is displayed. Position the mouse on the
node and click the left mouse button. The dialog box is displayed.

When you have finished, the Edit command remains the current command until it is cancelled.
Display the Node dialog box and enter the description F3.

Click the Display Options button and in the Display Options dialog set the Fault, Results, Description, and Display options on. Click
OK when finished.

32 Tutorial Amtech Group

Relocating and Reconnecting Elements
When we were drawing the network we deliberately positioned it incorrectly on the wrong node. We will now relocate it to the
centre of the 15kV Node (Q) at 150,60 and reconnect it to that node.
Ensure that you are in Edit Mode by clicking the right mouse button.
Position the cursor anywhere on the Network symbol or connecting line, say 75,110 and click the left mouse button.
The Network is highlighted in red and the node F2 is highlighted in green.

Highlighting the Network in red indicates that this is the current element.
highlighting the node F2 in green indicates that this is the Node to which the current element is connected.
In addition to highlighting the current element in red there are black or blue squares or Handles drawn in 3 locations on the element.
The blue handles are Node Handles and must always be positioned on a Node.
The current element may be moved about by positioning the cursor on the red area (avoiding the Handles) and pressing and holding
the left mouse button while moving the mouse.
By moving the Handles about you can change the location of the Handle and the length and direction of the connecting lines.
Thus you can choose to move an entire element in its present shape or to move a Handle, changing the location and rerouting the
connections.
TIP
During moving operations or at any other time the screen may become untidy with blips etc. Select Redraw from the toolbar or use
the Redraw button on the Tool Bar to tidy up.


To move the Network to the correct Node:
Position the cursor on the red connecting line of the Network, say 75,110.
Press and hold down the left mouse button.

Drag the Network, by moving the mouse with the left button still depressed, until the Node Handle (blue) is on the 15kV Node (Q) at
150,50.

Release the Mouse button.
The Network is now physically located in the correct location but PowerNet HV still assumes that it is connected to the 380 Volt Node
(F2) and Node F2 is still highlighted in green.
Select Reconnect from the menu or the System Toolbar.
The green highlight is shifted from Node F2 to Node Q indicating that PowerNet HV has now established the new connection.

Amtech Group Tutorial 33


If you have not placed the Node Handle (blue) exactly on the new node, the error message Cant establish new connections will be
displayed and the old connection will be maintained until the element is successfully reconnected.
Note: Having the Grid set makes positioning of Handles easier.
For double node elements the procedure is exactly the same except that there will be two Node Handles on the highlighted element.

The procedure for moving handles about is the same:
Position the cursor on the Handle.
Press and hold the left mouse button.
Drag the Handle to the desired location.

Pressing the left mouse button while the cursor is not positioned on the red parts of the highlighted element or on a Handle,
unhighlights the element.

34 Tutorial Amtech Group

Calculation
Before proceeding with the calculation we will check and set, if required, the Calculation options.
Select Calc Options from the Calc Menu. The Calc Options dialog box is displayed allowing you to choose which fault types are to be
calculated and also to select the required report type.

Calculation Type
SC Calc
Performs short circuit calculations only.
Analysis
Performs short circuit calculations and in addition analyses the network to provide voltage and current distribution throughout the
network during each fault condition.
For more information on Report types, see the Reference Section.
For more information on Fault types, see the Reference Section.

To carry out the calculation select SC Calc from the Calc menu or click the Calc button on the Tool Bar.

The Calculation dialog box is displayed and provides a report of progress during the calculation.

Amtech Group Tutorial 35

Results
When the calculation is finished, the results are displayed for the fault nodes for which the results display option has been set.
The default locations for displaying the results are, however not in all cases convenient. To select a new location for the results for
Node F1 select Place Results from the Calc menu.
The current command is changed to Placing Results and the prompt Select Node is displayed.
Select Node F1 and the prompt Select location is displayed.

Select point 35,90 and the results are redrawn in the new location.
Repeat this procedure for Node F3, selecting location 205,150.
The Place Results function may also be used to display results for nodes which do not have the Results display option set, provided
the Fault option has been set.
Viewing Results Data and the Analysis report.
The Calculation report is contained in a text file with the same name as the drawing file but with the extension .PER. It contains
details of all of the impedances in circuit for each fault, together with per unit values of impedances, formulae and derived values.
To view the calculation report select View Calcs from the Calc menu.

Depending on your system and the file size the report file will be opened with either Notepad or Wordpad.
The Analysis report is printed to a text file with the same name as the drawing file but with the extension .SIM. If an analysis calc has
been run, it contains details of the voltage and current distribution for each fault location.
Note: Voltage and current figures are only quoted for nodes and elements for which a description has been entered.


36 Tutorial Amtech Group

To view the Analysis file, select View Analysis from the Calcs menu.

Printing
To print the Diagram, Calculation Report or Analysis Report, select Print from the File menu, select the desired report and follow the
screen instructions.



Amtech Group Reference 37

Reference
Editing
While no other command is active PowerNet HV is in Edit Mode. Using the mouse in this mode, elements, lines, circles etc. may be
relocated, resized, rerouted and reconnected and element data may be changed. To cancel the existing command and return to Edit
Mode, click the right mouse button.
To edit an element, position the cursor on the element and click the left mouse button. Any previously highlighted element is
unhighlighted and the current element is highlighted as follows:
Nodes
The node and its text is highlighted in red and a black square, or handle, is positioned at each end of the node.

Moving these handles alters the length of the node.
Single Node Element
The element and its text are highlighted in red.

Three handles are drawn, two black and one blue. The blue handle is located on the node and is called the Node Handle. One of the
black handles is positioned on the element and is called the Element Handle. The other black handle, the Line Handle, is located
halfway between the Node Handle and the Element Handle.
The node to which the element is connected is highlighted in green.
Double Node Elements

The element and its text is highlighted in red.
Five Handles are drawn, three black and two blue. The blue handles are located on the node and are called Node Handles. One of the
black handles is positioned on the element and is called the Element Handle. The other black handles, Line Handles, are located half
way between the Node Handles and the Element Handle.

38 Reference Amtech Group

Lines
The line is highlighted in red and a handle is positioned at each end of the line.
Rectangle
The rectangle is highlighted in red and a handle is positioned at each corner.
Circle
The circle is redrawn in red and a handle is positioned on the circumference.
Text
The text is highlighted in red. No handles are drawn.
Moving Elements
To move an entire element without disturbing the relative position of the handles, position the cursor on the red highlighted part of
the element. Press and hold down the left mouse button and drag the element to the new location.
Moving Handles
Each handle may be individually moved and connecting lines between handles will be redrawn appropriately. To move a handle,
position the cursor on that handle, press and hold down the left mouse button and drag the handle to new location.
Connections
Existing connections, as displayed by the green nodes, will be maintained regardless of element or Node Handle locations until
PowerNet HV is asked to reconnect the element.
If the Node Handles are moved to new nodes, select Reconnect from the menu to establish the new connections. For more details
on reconnecting elements see the Reconnect section.
Editing Element Data
To edit element data or alter the display options for an element, position the cursor on the element and double click the left mouse
button. The element dialog box is displayed. When you have finished editing the dialog box the element remains highlighted as the
current item.
If a current element is highlighted, selecting the Edit option from the Edit menu will also display the dialog box for the element.
Using this method, however, Edit becomes the current command, and PowerNet HV will no longer be in edit mode.
Deleting an Element
To delete the currently highlighted element select Delete from the Edit menu or the toolbar.

The element is deleted without warning and Delete remains the current command.
Undelete
Deleted elements may be undeleted using the Undelete option from the Edit menu or the toolbar.

Redraw
If the screen becomes untidy with selection marks, or text disturbed through moving etc., the screen may be redrawn pressing F5 or
by selecting the Redraw button on the toolbar.


Amtech Group Reference 39

Copy
To copy an existing element to a new element use:
The Cut/Copy/Paste buttons on the toolbar
The Cut/Copy/Paste commands on the Edit menu, or
Ctrl+X/Ctrl+C/Crtl+P

To copy an element:
Highlight the element
Select Cut (to copy and delete the original) or Copy (to copy without deleting the original).
Select Paste to insert the copy.

The same insertion rules will be applied as for a new element.
Make any required alterations to the element data.
Select Paste again to insert multiple copies.

40 Reference Amtech Group

Element Insertions - General Rules
Nodes
Nodes, which represent system busses, may be inserted anywhere on the diagram and may be of any length.
Node reference numbers are automatically assigned by PowerNet HV and may be displayed alongside each node using the Display
Options.
Auxiliary Nodes
PowerNet HV will automatically insert a node where the end point picked for a double node element (e.g. a cable) is not on an
existing node. These automatically inserted nodes are of unit length and, except in the case of transformers, are given equal voltage
to the first node of the element.
Where the element is a transformer the Node dialog box is displayed for you to enter the secondary voltage and, if required, a
description.
Note: Where PowerNet HV inserts an auxiliary node all Display Options, including the global Display option are set off. The Fault
option is also set off. If a calculation is required for these nodes or if data is to be displayed, the Edit function should be used to make
the necessary changes to the data and display options.
Node Insertion Routine
Select Node from the Elements Menu or the PowerNet HV Toolbar.
Pick the start point of the bus and hold down the left mouse button.
Move the cursor to the end point of the bus and release the mouse button.
Fill in all the details on the dialog box and set the required display options.

Note: The length of the node may be changed at any time. See Edit Mode.

TIP
The insertion command may be cancelled by clicking down once with the right hand mouse button or clicking the Cancel button in
the dialog box.
Single Node Elements
Single node elements are elements which connect to the system at one point only e.g. Network, Generator and Motor.
They are inserted as follows:

Select the required element from the Element menu or the PowerNet HV Toolbar.
Select the node to which the element is to be connected. Note: This node must already exist. The selected node is
highlighted to confirm selection and the prompt changes to Select Location.
Select the location for the element. The element is drawn highlighted and the relevant dialog box is displayed.
Fill in all the details on the dialog box and the required display options.

Note: All selections are made by clicking down once with the left mouse button.

TIP
The insertion command may be cancelled by clicking down once with the right hand mouse button or clicking the Cancel button in
the dialog box.
Double Node Elements
Double node elements are elements which connect to the system at two nodes e.g. cables, transformers, overhead lines etc.

Amtech Group Reference 41

They are inserted as follows:

Select the required element from the Element menu or the PowerNet HV Toolbar.
Select the first node to which the element is to be connected. Note: This node must already exist. The selected node
is highlighted and the prompt changes to Select Second Node.
The second node to which the element is to be connected may or may not exist. If you select an existing node this is
accepted as the second node for the element. If the point selected is not on a node, then an auxiliary node is
inserted at this point.
Fill in the details on the dialog box and set the required display options.

TIP
For all double node elements, except transformers, both nodes must have the same operating voltage. When PowerNet HV
automatically inserts the second node, the voltage from the first node is applied to the second node. In the case of transformers you
are asked to specify the
Reconnect
The Reconnect function is used to establish new connections for elements that have been moved or altered in Edit Mode.
When an element is highlighted (i.e. the current element) the nodes to which this element is connected are also highlighted in green.
These nodes are selected when the element is first inserted and are not dependent simply on the location of the element.
To change the nodes to which an element is connected:
In Edit Mode, select the element to be reconnected.
The element is highlighted and the nodes to which it is connected are highlighted in green.
Move the element or its Handles such that the Node Handles (blue) are placed directly over the new nodes.
Select Reconnect from the menu or the Tool Bar.
If the new connection is established, the green highlighting moves to the new nodes.

If a connection cannot be established, possibly because the Node Handles are not correctly placed the old connections will be
retained, even if the element is no longer drawn between these nodes.

42 Reference Amtech Group

Elements
Node
A Node represents a point on the system where two or more items are connected together. The node may be of any length and is
given a line thickness of twice the standard line thickness. Nodes that are automatically inserted by PowerNet HV are of unit length.
For instructions on drawing Nodes see Element Insertion Rules.
The following data is attached to each node. Data may be displayed by clicking on the relevant check box in the Display Options
dialog box.
Description :
A descriptive tag for the Node. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
Voltage (kV):
The operating voltage of the node, expressed in kilovolts. Values less than 1kV should be expressed as a decimal e.g. 415 volts should
be expressed as 0.415.
Index :
The reference number for the node which is automatically assigned by PowerNet HV and which may not be altered. The purpose of
the reference number is to enable the user to identify nodes that have not been given a description and to trace the impedance
diagram from the information contained in the calculation report.
Results :
The results from the latest calculation carried out for this node. The results will be displayed for the fault types specified in the Calc
Options dialog box. The location of the results display may be altered using the Place Results option on the Calc menu. The Place
Results function may also be used to display results for nodes which do not have the display option set.
Note: Results will only be available for those nodes for which the Fault option has been set.
Fault Nodes
To apply a fault to a node and instruct PowerNet HV to carry out calculations at this node, set the Fault option in the Display Options
dialog box.
Calculations will be carried out at this node for the fault types specified in the Calc Options dialog box.
Network
A Network represents a connection to an external power source, such as a Utility, which may contribute to any short circuit.
For instructions on inserting a Network into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Single Node Elements.
Note: An error will occur and no calculation will be made if there is no power source in the current diagram. Any combination of
Network feeders and synchronised Generators are accepted as power sources.
Whilst Motors contribute power to three phase maximum faults they are not accepted as a sole power source.
The following data is attached to each Network. Data may be displayed by clicking on the relevant check box in the Display Options
dialog box.
Description :
A descriptive tag for the Network.
Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
Short Circuit MVA:
The initial symmetrical short circuit apparent power at the feeder connection point expressed in MVA.
Note: An error will occur if the short circuit MVA is zero.
Generator
For instructions on inserting a Generator into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Single Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Generator.

Amtech Group Reference 43

Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
Rating :
The rating of the generator expressed in kVA.
Note: An error will occur if no value is entered for Rating.
X
d
(%):
The subtransient reactance of the generator expressed as a percentage.
Note: An error will occur if no value is entered for Reactance.
P.F.:
The power factor (cosf) of the generator at rated current and voltage. Default value: 1.
X0/X1:
The ratio of Zero to positive sequence reactance.
R0/R1:
The ratio of Zero to positive sequence resistance.
Rated Voltage (kV):
The rated voltage (U
rg
) of the generator. The default value for this field is the nominal voltage (U
n
) of the node to which the generator
is connected.
Factor KG:
The impedance correction factor specified in Section 3.6 of IEC 60909-0.
Default value: 1.
The correction factor is calculated using the formula:

Synchronised:
This value indicates whether the generator is synchronised with the network feeder. If the generator is not synchronised then it is
ignored in the calculations.
Motor
The Motor symbol is used to represent single or groups of induction motors which make a contribution to 3 phase faults. In
accordance with IEC 60909 the contribution from motors is taken into account only when calculating maximum values.
For instructions on inserting a Motor into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Single Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Motor.
Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
Rating :
The rating of the motor or motor group in kVA.
Note: An error will occur if no value is entered for Rating.
Ian/In :
The ratio of starting current to running current. The default value will be used for this field.
Note: An error will occur if no value is entered for Ian/In.

44 Reference Amtech Group

Cable
The Cable symbol is used to represent cables or conductors connected between two Nodes, which must have equal voltages. The
resistance, reactance and zero sequence impedance data for the cable may be entered by the user or, if requested PowerNet HV will
search the data files for these values.
For instructions on inserting a Cable into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
For full information on the data used by PowerNet HV see Data Files.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the cable (usually the cable number). Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum
of 30 characters. It is not necessary that this description should describe the cable type or specification.
Size:
The cable size in square mms. Only standard cable sizes as defined by the relevant IEC Standards are accepted.
Minimum Size : 1.5 sq. mm.
Maximum Size : 1000 sq. mm.
A value is required for this field only when the resistance or reactance of the cable is not known and is to be estimated by PowerNet
HV.
Length:
The cable length in metres. Maximum Value 99999.
Conductor:
The cable conductor material.
The allowed values are:
Cu - Copper.
Al - Aluminium.
A default value may be set for all cables.
Resistance (ohms/km):
The cable resistance at 20 deg C per unit length. The value for this field may be entered by the user or may be selected from the data
files by clicking the Find button in the dialog box. A valid cable size must be entered before clicking the Find button.
The resistance per unit length is chosen from the file named RESIST.DAT.
This is a standard ASCII text file that may be altered using any standard text editor or word processor in programming mode.
The format of the file is explained in the Data Files section which also contains a listing of the data shipped with PowerNet HV.
Note: An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
Reactance (ohms/km):
The cable reactance of the cable per unit length. The value for this field may be entered by the user or may be selected from the
data files by clicking the Find button in the dialog box. A valid cable size must be entered before clicking the Find button.
The reactance per unit length is chosen from file REACT.DAT.
This is a standard ASCII text file that may be altered using any standard text editor or wordprocessor in programming mode.
The format of the file is explained in DATA FILES, which also contains a listing of the data shipped with PowerNet HV.
Note: These values should not be taken as exact. They are suitable for estimation purposes only. The reactance of cables may vary
considerably depending on the cable construction and core configuration.
Note: The operating voltage of the cable is taken to be the specified voltage of the nodes to which the cable is connected.
Note: An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
R0/R1:
The ratio of zero sequence to positive sequence resistance. The value for this field may be entered by the user or may be selected
from the data files by clicking the Find button in the dialog box. A valid cable size and return circuit type must be entered before
clicking the Find button.
The zero sequence resistance ratios are chosen from file Z0.DAT that contains average values for cables with various return circuit
configurations.


Amtech Group Reference 45

This is a standard ASCII text file that may be altered using any standard text editor or wordprocessor in programming mode.
The format of the file is explained in Data Files, which also contains a listing of the data shipped with PowerNet HV.
Note: These values should not be taken as exact. They are suitable for estimation purposes only. Exact values of zero sequence
impedance of cables can only be had from measurement of cables already installed.
Note: The operating voltage of the cable is taken to be the specified voltage of the nodes to which the cable is connected.
X0/X1:
The ratio of zero sequence to positive sequence reactance. The value for this field may be entered by the user or may be selected
from the data files by clicking the Find button in the dialog box. A valid cable size and return circuit type must be entered before
clicking the Find button.
The zero sequence reactance ratios are chosen from file Z0.DAT that contains average values for cables with various return circuit
configurations.
This is a standard ASCII text file which may be altered using any standard text editor or wordprocessor in programming mode.
The format of the file is explained in Data Files, which also contains a listing of the data shipped with PowerNet HV.
Note: These values should not be taken as exact. They are suitable for estimation purposes only. Exact values of zero sequence
impedance of cables can only be had from measurement of cables already installed.
Note: The operating voltage of the cable is taken to be the specified voltage of the nodes to which the cable is connected.
Cables:
The number of parallel cables in the circuit. The default value will be used for this field.
Return Circuit:
This value indicates the type of return circuit used by the cable i.e. the column number to be searched for the zero sequence
impedance in the file Z0.dat.
A value is required for this field only when the zero sequence impedances of the cable are not known and are to be estimated by
PowerNet HV.
The default value will be used for this field.
For the data file shipped with PowerNet HV the following values are valid:
New codes may be assigned to this attribute as described in Data Files.
Overhead Line
The Overhead Line symbol is used to represent overhead conductors connected between two Nodes, which must have equal
voltages. The resistance, reactance and zero sequence impedance data for the line may be entered by the user or, if requested
PowerNet HV will calculate these values.
For instructions on inserting an Overhead Line into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the overhead line. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the conductor type or specification.
Size:
The line size in square mm. Only standard cable sizes as defined by the relevant IEC standards are accepted.
Minimum Size : 1.5 sq. mm.
Maximum Size : 1000 sq. mm.
A value is required for this field only when the resistance or reactance of the line is not known and is to be estimated by
PowerNet HV.
Length:
The line length in metres.
Maximum Value 99999.
Conductor:
The conductor material. The allowed values are :
Cu - Copper.

46 Reference Amtech Group

Al - Aluminium.
AA - Aluminium alloy.
A default value may be set for this field.
Resistance (ohms/km):
The resistance of the line at 20 deg C per unit length. The value for this field may be entered by the user or may be calculated by
clicking the Calc button in the dialog box. A valid Size must be entered before clicking the Calc button.
For details of the calculation procedure see the following section on Estimation of Resistance of Overhead Lines.
Reactance (ohms/km):
The reactance of the line per unit length. A default value may be set for this filed. Alternatively, the value may be entered by the
user or may be calculated by clicking the Calc button in the dialog box. A valid Size and Spacing dimension must be entered before
clicking the Calc button.
For details of the calculation procedure see the following section on Estimation of Reactance of Overhead Lines.
Note: An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
R0/R1:
The ratio between zero sequence and positive sequence resistance.
X0/X1:
The ratio between zero sequence and positive sequence reactance. A default value may be for this field.
Spacing(mm):
The geometric mean distance between the conductors. A value is required for this field only when the reactance of the line is to be
estimated by PowerNet HV.
Estimation Of Resistance Of Overhead Lines
Note 1:
This procedure is followed only when the Calc button in the dialog box is clicked by the user.
Note 2:
A valid size must be entered before clicking the Calc button.

The resistance per unit length is calculated using the formula :

Note 3:
An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
Estimation Of Reactance Of Overhead Lines
Note 1:
This procedure is followed only when the Calc button in the dialog box is clicked by the User.

Amtech Group Reference 47

Note 2:
A valid Size and Spacing dimension must be entered before clicking the Calc button.

Note 3:
An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
Busduct
The Busduct symbol is used to represent enclosed or open busbar installations, connected between two Nodes, which must have
equal voltages. The resistance, reactance and zero sequence impedance data may be entered by the user or, if requested, PowerNet
HV will calculate these values.
For instructions on inserting a Busduct into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the busduct. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
Length:
The busduct length in metres. Maximum Value 99999.
Conductor:
The conductor material:
Cu Copper
Al - Aluminium.
A default value may be set for this field.
Resistance (ohms/km):
The resistance of the busduct at 20 deg C per unit length. The value for this field may be entered by the user or may be calculated by
clicking the Calc button in the dialog box. Valid Height and Width dimensions must be entered before clicking the Calc button.
For details of the calculation procedure, see Estimation of Resistance of Busducts below.
Reactance (ohms/km):
The reactance of the busduct per unit length. A default value may be set for this field. Alternatively, the value may be entered by the
user or may be calculated by clicking the Calc button in the dialog box. Valid Height, Width and Spacing dimensions must be entered
before clicking the Calc button.
For details of the calculation procedure, see Estimation of Reactance of Busducts below.
Note: An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
R0/R1:
The ratio between zero sequence and positive sequence resistance. A default value may be set for this field.
X0/X1:
The ratio between zero sequence and positive sequence reactance. A default value may be set for this field.
Bar Width(mm):
The bar width in millimetres.
A value is required for this field only if the resistance or the reactance of the busduct is to estimated by PowerNet HV.

48 Reference Amtech Group

Bar Height(mm):
The conductor height in millimetres.
A value is required for this field only if the resistance or the reactance of the busduct is to be estimated by PowerNet HV.
Spacing(mm):
The spacing in millimetres between the centres of the outer main conductors.
A value is required for this field only if the reactance of the busduct is to be estimated by PowerNet HV.
Note: An error will occur during calculation of the Reactance if the Spacing dimension is not greater than twice the Width dimension.
Bars per phase:
The number of bars in each phase conductor.
A value is required for this field only if the resistance or the reactance of the busduct is to be estimated by PowerNet HV.
Estimation Of Resistance Of Busducts
Note 1:
This procedure is followed only if the Calc button in the dialog box is clicked by the user.
Note 2:
Valid Height and Width dimensions must be entered before clicking the Calc button.
The resistance per unit length is calculated using the formula:

for copper conductors: k = 17.9 x 10-3
for aluminium conductors: k = 28.6 x 10-3
Note 3:
An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
Estimation Of Reactance Of Busducts
Note 1:
This procedure is followed only if the default value is zero and if no reactance per unit length is entered by the user.
Note 2:
Valid Height, Width and Spacing dimensions must be entered before clicking the Calc button.
Note 3:
An error will occur during the calculation if the Spacing dimension is not greater than twice the Width dimension.

Note 4:
An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.

Amtech Group Reference 49

Transformer
For instructions on inserting a Transformer into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Transformer. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the Transformer type or specification.
Rating:
The rating of the Transformer in kVA.
Regulation:
The Transformer regulation, expressed as a percentage.
For PowerNet HV purposes, transformer regulation is defined as the difference between transformer nominal secondary voltage and
system operating voltage expressed as a percentage of the nominal voltage.
The default value of 5% is valid for transformers with a nominal secondary voltage of 400 volts operating on a 380 volt system, i.e.

A default value may be set for this field.
Resistance:
The resistance volt drop expressed as a percentage.
A value for this field is optional. If values for reactance and impedance are entered the value for resistance will be calculated. An
incorrect value for the resistance will affect the accuracy of the calculation for Peak short circuit current.
Reactance:
The reactance volt drop expressed as a percentage.
A value for this field is optional and is not required if a value for impedance is entered. If values for resistance and impedance are
entered, the value for reactance will be calculated. If a value is entered for impedance only, the impedance value will be taken as the
reactance.
Impedance:
The impedance volt drop expressed as a percentage.
A value for this field is not required if a reactance value has been entered.
R0/R1:
The ratio between zero sequence and positive sequence resistance.
The values for this field may be entered in 3 ways:
Using Default values (see Defaults in the Tutorial section)
Manually entered values
Values calculated by PowerNetHV using the Neutral Earthing dialog box. See page 67
X0/X1:
The ratio between zero sequence and positive sequence reactance. A default value may be set for this field.
The values for this field may be entered in 3 ways:
Manually entered values
Values calculated by PowerNet HV using the Neutral Earthing
Values calculated by PowerNet HV using the Neutral Earthing d dialog box. See the next section, Transformer
Neutral Earthing.

Note: An error will occur if both Reactance and Impedance are zero or if no value is entered for Rating.

50 Reference Amtech Group

Transformer Neutral Earthing
The Transformer Neutral Earthing dialog box is used to calculate values of R0/R1 and X0/X1 for given values of earthing resistances
or reactors on transformers whose secondary star points are not solidly earthed.
In addition, PowerNet HV provides an approximate calculation of the resulting neutral current for each value of resistance or
reactance entered.
The initial values are Solidly Earthed with R0/R1 and X0/X1 at the values contained in the main transformer dialog box.
Earthing Type:
Specify the type of earthing applied to the transformer.
Resistor:
Enter the resistance value in ohms
Select Calc
The resultant values for R0/R1 and X0/X1are displayed. The approximate value of fault current in the neutral is also displayed.
Reactor:
Enter the reactor value in ohms
Select Calc
The resultant values for R0/R1 and X0/X1are displayed. The approximate value of fault current in the neutral is also displayed.
Solid:
The default values for R0/R1 and X0/X1 are entered.
Un-Earthed:
The transformer is unearthed and is therefore not in the zero sequence network. Values of zero are entered for R0/R1 and X0/X1.
Reactor
The Reactor symbol is used to represent current limiting reactors connected between two Nodes which must have equal voltages.
For instructions on inserting a Reactor into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the reactor. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the Reactor type or specification.
Rating:
The reactor rating in kVA.
Reactance:
The rated volt drop expressed as a percentage.
Note 1:
An error will occur if no value is entered for Rating or Reactance.
Note 2:
The zero sequence impedance of a reactor is assumed to be equal to the positive sequence impedance.
Impedance
The Impedance symbol is used to represent undefined impedances connected between two Nodes which must have equal voltages.
For instructions on inserting an Impedance into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Impedance. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the Impedance type or specification.
Resistance:
The resistance in ohms of the impedance.

Amtech Group Reference 51

Reactance:
The reactance in ohms of the impedance.
R0/R1:
The ratio between zero sequence and and positive sequence resistance.
X0/X1:
The ratio between zero sequence and positive sequence reactance.
Note: An error will occur if both resistance and reactance values are zero.
Bus Tie / Circuit Breaker
The Bus Tie and Circuit Breaker symbols and insertion functions are identical.
For instructions on inserting a Circuit Breaker into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Circuit Breaker. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the Circuit Breaker type or specification.
Condition:
The value of this attribute indicates whether the bus tie is open or closed.
Note: Circuit breakers and bus ties are assumed to have zero reactance and the resistance value specified in the Settings. If no
value is specified in the Settings a resistance of 0.1 milliohms will be assumed.
Switch
For instructions on inserting a Switch into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Switch. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the Switch type or specification.
Condition:
The value of this attribute indicates whether the switch is open or closed.
Note: Switches are assumed to have zero reactance and the resistance value specified in the Settings. If no value is specified in the
Settings a resistance of 0.1 milliohms will be assumed.
Switchfuse
For instructions on inserting a Switchfuse into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Switchfuse. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the Switchfuse type or specification.
Condition:
The value of this attribute indicates whether the switch is open or closed.
Note: Switches are assumed to have zero reactance and the resistance value specified in the Settings. If no value is specified in the
Settings a resistance of 0.1 milliohms will be assumed.
Contactor
For instructions on inserting a Contactor into the diagram see Element Insertion Rules for Double Node Elements.
Description:
A descriptive tag for the Contactor. Any combination of alphanumeric characters is allowed up to a maximum of 30 characters.
It is not necessary that this description should describe the Contactor type or specification.
Note: Contactors are assumed to have zero reactance and the resistance value specified in the Settings. If no value is specified in
the Settings a resistance of 0.5 milliohms will be assumed.

52 Reference Amtech Group

Settings and defaults
The following settings are used PowerNet HV and their values may be inspected or altered using the Settings option on the Settings
Menu command.
System Frequency:
This value specifies the operating frequency, in Hertz, of the system under consideration. Allowed values are 50Hz and 60Hz.
If the data files contain data at a different frequency the values will be converted to the Settings value. Shipment setting 50Hz.
Results Format:
This setting specifies the units in which results are presented. Allowed values are kA and MVA. Shipment setting kA.
Standard Resistances:
Switch/Circuit Breaker:
The resistance value of switches and circuit breakers. Shipment value 0.1 milliohms.
If a zero value is entered for this setting a value of 0.1 milliohms will be used in the calculations.
Fuse:
The resistance value of switchfuses. Shipment value 0.3 milliohms.
If a zero value is entered for this setting a value of 0.3 milliohms will be used in the calculations.
Contactor:
The resistance value of contactors. Shipment value 0.5 milliohms.
If a zero value is entered for this setting a value of 0.5 milliohms will be used in the calculations.
Voltage Constant:
In the transition from IEC909/BS7639 to IEC60909-0 the basis of application and values of the voltage constant c at voltages 1000V
changed. The voltage constant selection enables the user to select which setting PowerNet should use.
IEC909 (BS7636):
Applies the LV (1000V) voltage constants as per IEC909/BS7639 Table I.

IEC60909-0 6% Tolerance:
Applies the LV (1000V) voltage constants as per IEC60909-0 Table 1 for 6% voltage tolerance.

IEC60909-0 10% Tolerance:
Applies the LV (1000V) voltage constants as per IEC60909-0 Table 1 for 10% voltage tolerance.
Defaults
Defaults are data values that will be automatically entered for each element of the relevant type. It is not necessary to have a value
for every default. Where no value is required the entry on the Defaults window should be left blank.
In the case of reactance for Busducts and Overhead lines, default values should be used only when no better information is available
and an approximation will suffice, i.e. where no busduct or overhead line spacing dimensions are available and the actual value of
reactance is not known.

Transformer
Regulation:
The default value for transformer regulation expressed as a percentage. Shipment value 5.
R0/R1:
The default value for zero sequence resistance ratio of transformers. Shipment value 1
X0/X1:
The default value for zero sequence reactance ratio of transformers. Shipment value 0.95

Amtech Group Reference 53


Cable
Parallel :
The default value for the number of parallel cables in each cable run.
Return Circuit:
The default value for the attribute used to indicate the type of cable return circuit. This attribute is used choose the correct values
from the data file for zero sequence impedance ratios of cables.
Shipment value 1
Conductor:
The default value for the conductor type of cables. Shipment value Cu.

Overhead Line
Reactance:
The default value which will be used to approximate the reactance per unit length of Overhead Lines where the actual value is not
known and the reactance cannot be calculated because the dimensions are unknown. Shipment value 0.30 ohms/km.
R0/R1:
The default value for zero sequence resistance ratio of overhead lines. Shipment value 2
X0/X1:
The default value for zero sequence reactance ratio of overhead lines. Shipment value 3
Conductor:
The default value for the conductor type of overhead lines. Shipment value Cu.
Busduct
Reactance:
The default value which will be used to approximate the reactance per unit length of Busduct where the actual value is not known
and the reactance cannot be calculated because the dimensions are unknown. Shipment value 0.15 ohms/km
Conductor:
The default value for the conductor type of busducts. Shipment value Cu.
R0/R1:
The default value for zero sequence resistance ratio of busducts. Shipment value 4
X0/X1:
The default value for zero sequence reactance ratio of busducts. Shipment value 3
Motor
I
an
/I
n
:
The default value for the ratio of starting current to rated current for Induction motors or groups of Induction Motors. Shipment
value 6.

54 Reference Amtech Group

Support Options
The Amtech range offers extensive links to the Internet and in particular the Amtech Web Site. A new Support menu has been added
to the Main Menu which allows direct access to the Amtech Web Site from within the program. You must have a connection to the
Internet and an Internet Browser installed on your PC to make use of this facility.

Activate Program
All Amtech software must be Activated to allow continued use. See Activating Your Software for further information.
Amtech Updates
This feature allows you to automatically update your Amtech software from the Amtech Web Site. You will be able to download
minor program enhancements, fault fixes and additions and enhancements to the Protective Device, Cables and Busbar databases
all at the touch of a button.
If you select the Please Email me box above we will automatically email you any time new updates become available so you can go
straight to the Web Site and download them.
Amtech Web Site
Selecting this option takes you straight to Amtechs Home Page on their Web Site. This then gives you access to the whole Web Site.
A Button on the Tool Bar also performs the same operation.

Amtech Technical Support
This item will take you to the Premier Care Support page on Amtechs Web Site. From here you will have access to the whole range
of services available to Premier Care members. This includes Contact details, Newsletters you can download, Frequently Asked
Questions you can read, Program Updates you can download, access to a Technical Library, and even download a Training Brochure
and timetable.
Contact Amtech
This option allows you to bring up a contact page for Amtech Support. This contains our address, phone and Fax numbers. There are
even Buttons to Send Email or visit the Amtech Web Site.
Online FAQ
This item takes you straight to the Frequently Asked Questions section on the Amtech Web Site.
If you have read the User Manual and searched the program Help File, the answer to your question may be here. This list comprises
a list of the most commonly asked questions received by the Amtech Support Team. These questions are updated and added to on a
regular basis. If the answer to your question is not here you can even email your question to Amtech Support using the button Ask
Support.

Amtech Group Reference 55

Help Options
An improved Help system is supplied with all Amtech software. Selecting the Help menu brings up the following options.

Help Topics
A powerful help system has been provided with PowerNet to assist in using the program.
View Manual
All Amtech programs have Online User Manuals. These are supplied as Adobe Acrobat PDF files and use Acrobat Reader to view
them. Most Amtech programs also have an Online Manual Button on the Tool Bar.

The Online Manual can be viewed onscreen, paged through, zoomed in and out, and even printed if required.



56 Reference Amtech Group

Display Options
Display Options are used to control which attributes of the network elements are displayed on the screen and on the printed page
and also which nodes are to be used as fault points for calculation.
Changes made using the Display Options menu will only affect subsequently entered elements and do not alter the display for
existing elements.
The display options for each individual element may be altered during insertion or at any subsequent time using the Display Options
button on the element dialog box.
In addition to the check box for each displayable data item, there is, in the bottom right hand corner of the dialog box a check box
labelled Display. This is a global switch which controls all display options for the element and switches all display on or off regardless
of the status of the individual options. It is a way of turning selected display options on or off.
The Display Options settings are stored with each file and are restored when the file is opened.
Initial Settings
On startup PowerNet HV sets the Display options as follows:
Nodes:
Description, Voltage and Display ON, all others options OFF.
Other Elements:
Description and Display ON, all other options OFF.
Note: The status of the global Display option does not affect the Fault option for nodes.
Note: When PowerNet HV inserts an auxiliary node, all display options including the global Display option are set OFF.
Calc Options
The Calc Options dialog box is used to set the type of calculations to be carried out and the style of Calculation report to be provided.
Calculation Type
SC Calc:
Basic calculation without analysis of current or voltage distribution. This option is useful for very large networks where full for very
large networks where full analysis would be slow.
Analysis
Full calculation with voltage and current. Distribution calculations throughout the network during each fault condition.
Note: The Voltage Distribution section of the analysis report provides voltage values only for those nodes which have a description.
The Current Distribution section of the Analysis report provides current values only for elements which have a description.
Report Type
Full:
This is a very detailed report, listing all impedances in circuit for each fault location.
Std:
This is the standard report, set as default when PowerNet HV starts a new drawing. It lists all impedances, except Bus-ties, Circuit
Breakers, Switches and Switchfuses in circuit for each fault location.
Min:
No impedances are listed.
Fault Types
3 Phase (Ik):
Initial symmetrical short circuit current for a balanced 3 phase fault. The Peak short circuit current is calculated in accordance with
section 4.3.1.1 of IEC 60909-0.

Amtech Group Reference 57

Note: The maximum value of the three phase fault and the peak value are always calculated and are not optional settings.
2 Phase(IkE2E):
Initial symmetrical short circuit current for a line to line fault with earth connection. The value calculated is the current flowing in the
earth connection.
1 Phase (Ik):
Initial symmetrical short circuit current for a line to earth fault.
Max. Values:
Maximum values are calculated with conditions which will provide maximum fault currents:
Motor contribution is included.
Resistances of lines are calculated at 20 degC.
Min. Values:
Minimum values are calculated with conditions which will provide minimum fault currents:
Motor contribution is excluded.
Resistances of lines are calculated at 160 degC.
Note: In all cases the Voltage Factor c is applied in accordance with the preference defined in the Settings menu for Voltage
Constant.

Amtech Group Data files 59

Data files
Cable Resistance
The cable resistance data is held in the file named RESIST.DAT. This is a standard ASCII text file which may be created or edited using
a text editor (e.g. Notepad) or a word processor in programming mode. The filename may not be changed.
The data in the file consists of 3 columns that must be on the same line separated by blank spaces. The data in each column is as
follows:
Column 1
Cable size (sq mm)
Column 2
Resistance Copper Conductor (ohms per km) at 20 deg. C
Column 3
Resistance Aluminium Conductor (ohms per km) at 20 deg. C

Where a data line is required but no value is required for one of the columns, the space where the value would normally be must be
occupied by a horizontal dash or minus sign.
Comments may be included in the file by ensuring that the first character of each comment line begins with the percentage
character (%). POWERNET HV will ignore these lines as well as blank lines.
Sample RESIST.DAT File
% This is a comment
% So is this
2.5 7.41 -
% No data for 2.5 Al (This is another comment)
50 0.387 0.641

This example file contains the following data:
The resistance of a 2.5 sq. mm copper cable is 7.41 ohms per km.
The resistance of a 2.5 sq.mm aluminium cable is not known or not required.
The resistance of a 50 sq. mm copper cable is 0.387 ohms per km.
The resistance of a 50 sq.mm aluminium cable is 0.641 ohms per km.
The example file also contains 3 comment lines which will be ignored during data lookup.
For a lookup of the file to be successful there must be a value in the Size column which is equal to the Size attribute of the cable and
the Conductor attribute of the cable must contain either CU or AL (any combination of upper or lower case letters is allowed).

60 Data files Amtech Group

RESIST.DAT as supplied with PowerNet HV
% PowerNet HV version 4.0
% ------- ---- ------- ----
% Average values of resistance per unit length (ohms / km) for cables
% at 20 deg C
% Size Copper Aluminium
% ---- ------ ---------
% Sq.mm ohms/km ohms/km
% ----- ------- -------
0.5 36 -
0.75 24.5 -
1 18.1 -
1.5 12.1 -
2.5 7.41 -
4 4.61 -
6 3.08 -
10 1.83 -
16 1.15 1.91
25 0.727 1.2
35 0.524 0.868
50 0.387 0.641
70 0.268 0.443
95 0.193 0.32
120 0.153 0.253
150 0.124 0.206
185 0.0991 0.164
240 0.0754 0.125
300 0.0601 0.1
400 0.047 -
500 0.0366 -
630 0.0283 -
800 - -
1000 - -

Amtech Group Data files 61

Cable Reactance
The cable reactance data is held in the file named REACT.DAT. This is a standard ASCII text file that may be created or edited using a
text editor (e.g. Notepad) or a word processor in programming mode. The filename may not be changed.
The data in the file consists of up to 10 columns which must be on the same line separated by blank spaces.
The first data line must specify the operating voltages for each of the columns. This line must begin with the word KV followed by a
list of voltages each separated by at least one space.
The second data line must specify the frequency in Hertz. at which the values in the file have been calculated. This line must begin
with the word HZ followed by the frequency value, either 50 or 60. An illegal value will be taken as 50 Hz. If this frequency value is
different from that specified in the Settings, the data will be converted to the Settings value.
Subsequent data lines specify the reactances for various cable sizes at these voltages. The first item in the line specifies the cable size
followed by a list of reactances corresponding to the voltages specified on the KV line.
All reactance values should be for 50Hz operation. Conversion for 60HZ operation is carried out by the programme.
If there is no column with a specified voltage equal to the operating cable voltage, the column whose voltage is nearest to and
greater than the operating voltage will be used to choose the reactance.
For example, if the operating voltage is 10 kV and there is no column with this specified voltage but there are columns for 6 kV and
12 kV, the column for 12 kV will be used for the 10 kV cable.
Where a data line is required but no value is required for one of the columns the space where the value would normally be must be
occupied by a horizontal dash or minus sign.
Comments may be included in the file by ensuring that the first character of each comment line begins with the percentage
character (%). POWERNET HV as will blank lines will ignore these lines.

Sample React.DAT File
% This is a comment
kV 1 3 6 9
Hz 50
%Sq.mm
25 0.086 0.096 0.111 -
50 0.081 0.089 0.102 0.11

This file contains reactances at 50 HZ for 1kV, 3kV, 6kV and 9kV cables for 25 sq.mm and 50 sq.mm cables. There is no value for 25
sq.mm cable at 9 kV.
The reactance of 25 sq.mm. cable at 1 kV is 0.086 ohms/km.
The reactance of 25 sq.mm. cable at 3 kV is 0.096 ohms/km.
The reactance of 25 sq.mm. cable at 6 kV is 0.111 ohms/km.
The reactance of 50 sq.mm. cable at 1 kV is 0.081 ohms/km.
The reactance of 50 sq.mm. cable at 3 kV is 0.089 ohms/km.
The reactance of 50 sq.mm. cable at 6 kV is 0.102 ohms/km.
The reactance of 50 sq.mm. cable at 9 kV is 0.11 ohms/km.
The file also contains 2 comment lines.
For a lookup of the file to be successful there must be a value in the Size column which is equal to the Size attribute of the cable
there must be a column with a specified voltage which is equal to or greater than the operating voltage of the cable.

62 Data files Amtech Group

REACT.DAT as supplied with PowerNet HV
% PowerNet HV version 4.0
% ------- ---- ------- ----
%These values should not be taken as exact or precise values. They are %suitable for estimation
purposes only. Actual values of reactance for cables %may vary considerably depending on their
cable construction, core %configuration etc.
%For exact information on any particular cable contact the cable manufacturer.
% Average values of reactance (ohms / km) per unit length for cables
% operating at 50Hz
% Operating Voltage
% -----------------
KV 1 3 6 12 17.5 24 36
HZ 50
% Size 1kV 3kV 6kV 12kV 17.5kV 24kV 36kV
% ---- ------ ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
6 0.101 0.12 0.144 - - - -
10 0.096 0.122 0.133 0.142 - - -
16 0.09 0.105 0.123 0.132 0.152 - -
25 0.086 0.096 0.111 0.122 0.141 0.151 -
35 0.084 0.092 0.106 0.112 0.135 0.142 -
50 0.081 0.089 0.102 0.106 0.122 0.129 -
70 0.079 0.085 0.096 0.101 0.115 0.122 -
95 0.078 0.084 0.093 0.098 0.11 0.117 -
120 0.077 0.082 0.091 0.095 0.107 0.112 0.119
150 0.078 0.081 0.088 0.092 0.104 0.109 0.115
185 0.077 0.08 0.087 0.09 0.1 0.105 0.111
240 0.076 0.079 0.085 0.089 0.097 0.102 -
300 0.075 0.077 0.083 0.086 - - -
400 0.074 0.076 0.082 - - - -

Amtech Group Data files 63

Cable Zero Sequence Impedance Ratios
The cable zero sequence impedance ratio data is held in the file named Z0.DAT. This is a standard ASCII text file that may be created
or edited using a text editor ( e.g. Notepad) or a word processor in programming mode. The filename may not be changed.
The data in the file is arranged in columns, which must be on the same line separated by blank spaces.
The first column in each data line is the operating voltage of the cable.
The second column in each data line is the cable size.
The following pairs of columns (we will call them impedance columns) are the values for R0/R1 and X0/X1 corresponding to the value
of the Return Circuit attribute of the cable.
i.e.
The first pair of impedance columns corresponds to return circuit type 1.
The second pair of impedance columns corresponds to return circuit type 2.
etc.
Any meaning can be attached to the value of the Return Circuit attribute. These meanings may be inserted as comments in the file
above the relevant pair of impedance columns.
Sample Z0.DAT File
% This is a comment
%kv sqmm
1 25 4 3 3 2
6 50 - - 6 7

This file contains the values of R0/R1 and X0/X1 for return circuit types 1 and 2 for 25 sq.mm cables up to 1 Kv and for return circuit
type 2 for 50 sq.mm cables up to 6 kV.
The value of R0/R1 for 25 sq.mm 1 kv cable with return circuit type 1 is 4.
The value of X0/X1 for 25 sq.mm 1 kv cable with return circuit type 1 is 3.
The value of R0/R1 for 25 sq.mm 1 kv cable with return circuit type 2 is 3.
The value of X0/X1 for 25 sq.mm 1 kv cable with return circuit type 2 is 2.
The value of R0/R1 for 50 sq.mm 6 kv cable with return circuit type 2 is 6.
The value of X0/X1 for 50 sq.mm 6 kv cable with return circuit type 2 is 7.
The file also contains 2 comment lines.
For a lookup of the file to be successful there must be a value in the Size column which is equal to the Size attribute of the cable and
there must be with a specified voltage which is equal to or greater than the operating voltage of the cable.


64 Data files Amtech Group

Z0.DAT as supplied with PowerNet HV
% PowerNet HV version 4.0
% Average reference values of zero-impedances of different types of cable
% in relation to neutral return current.
% These values should not be taken as exact. They are suitable for estimation
% purposes only.
% For exact information on a particular cable installation contact the cable
% manufacturer or carry out on site measurements. %Attribute
%Value
%Meaning
%
%
1
Neutral
Sheath
2
Neutral &
Sheath &
Earth
3
Neutral
Only
4
Sheath
5
Sheath and
Earth

%KV
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
6
10
10
20
20
Size
10
25
35
50
70
95
120
150
185
240
300
50
300
50
300
50
300
R
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
R
3
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7
3.8
3.8
3.9
4
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
2
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.9
2.9
2.9
3
3
-
-
-
-
-
-
R
1.5
2.2
2.5
2.9
3.2
3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5
3.6
3.6
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
22
17
15
10
8
5
5
4
4
3.5
3.5
-
-
-
-
-
-
R
6.5
9
10
13
16
19
19
22
22
23
24
10
20
8
16
5
11
X
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.3
1.25
1.25
1.25
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.2
1.1
R
1.25
1.5
2
2.5
3
5
5
10
10
10
11
2.5
10
2.7
10
3
9
X
25
25
25
24
23
22
22
20
20
17
15
20
12
16
9
10
5



Amtech Group Frequently Asked Questions 65

Frequently Asked Questions
How do I find my Amtech Licence number?
Your Amtech Licence number can be found within the software in the following locations:
In the 'About' option found in the software 'Help' menu.
In the 'Contact Amtech' option found in the 'Support' Menu.
The number is also found on the Software Licence Card supplied with your initial package.
How do I ensure that the Node Fault Results are Displayed?
Follow this procedure to change the items displayed:
1. Select the node on the schematic (it will turn red).
2. Select Options -- Display Options from the menu.
3. Select both the Fault checkbox and the Display checkbox.
4. Click OK.
How does PowerNet treat Motor Loads?
Synchronous motors are treated the same as synchronous generators. In PowerNet HV it is possible to represent these as generators
in the drawing system.
For asynchronous motors the three phase symmetrical current I"
K3M
is equal to the motor starting current I
SM
providing the corrected
voltage cU
n
and the motor rated voltage U
RM
are the same. In practice there may be a small differential but for the purposes of
calculation of motor contribution to short circuits in industrial systems it is reasonable to take I"
K3M
= I
SM
.

The motor dialog in PowerNet asks you to specify the ratio of starting current to rated current.
For Full Details see the Technical Library at Amtech Web Site.This can be accessed only by the Premier Care members.
What is the Relationship between KG and Generator Fault Current?
IEC 909 uses the method of replacing all voltage sources and inline components with their impedances and having an equivalent
driving voltage located at the point of fault. This is the only active voltage in the system. The internal voltages of all synchronous and
asynchronous machines and generators are reduced to zero and therefore only the synchronous machine's sub-transient reactance
and asynchronous machine's starting current are relevant. When calculating three phase symmetrical faults in systems fed from
generators the following impedance is to be used in the sequence.
Z
GK
= K
G
Z
G
PowerNet allows you to specify a value for K
G
or it can be calculated from entered values of sub_transient reactance,resitance and
impedance.
For Full Details see the Technical Library at Amtech Web Site.This can be accessed only by the Premier Care members.

Amtech Group Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement 67

Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement

This Agreement and the attached terms and conditions constitute the entire Agreement between Amtech Group Limited and the
Customer concerning the Services. By proceeding with the purchase of the Services, the Customer confirms that they have read,
understood and agreed to this Agreement. Each party confirms that it has not relied upon any representations not recorded in this
Agreement. No variation of this Agreement will be valid unless confirmed in writing by authorised signatories of both parties. The
Schedule (the Schedule) forms part of this Agreement and is therefore subject to the terms and conditions within this Agreement.

1. DEFINITIONS
1.1. The meaning given to terms shall apply throughout this Agreement, and
1.2. British Standards means material identified as having been supplied by or on behalf of the British Standards
Institution.
1.3. Concurrent Users means multiple users, each covered under a single licence.
1.4. Data means the information products and/or information services purchased by, and/or subscribed to by the
Customer as set out in the Schedule.
1.5. Designated Equipment means the machine (s) and the locations identified to and agreed by the Licensor in writing.
Where no equipment is designated at the time of this Agreement, the Customer undertakes to identify equipment for
this purpose within 21 days of this Agreement.
1.6. End User means an individual enabled by the Customer to use the Services in accordance with this Agreement. The
total number of authorised End Users will be the quantity of licences granted to the Customer by the Licensor as set
out in the Schedule (Number of Licences).
1.7. Fault means an error in the Services constituting a material deviation from the criteria for performance of the Services
described in the specification in the Schedule.
1.8. Initial Support Period means the period during which support will be provided by the Licensor to the Customer to the
extent described in the Schedule. Such Initial Support Period will commence on the Start Date.
1.9. Initial Term means the period starting on the Start Date and lasting for the period specified on the Schedule. If no
period is specified, the Initial Term is one year.
1.10. Fees means the amount (exclusive of VAT) payable by the Customer to the Licensor in respect of the Services and as
set out in the Schedule.
1.11. Customer means the person or organisation purchasing the Services as named on the Schedule .
1.12. Licensor means Amtech Group Limited whose address is Bank House, 171 Midsummer Boulevard, Central Milton
Keynes, MK9 1EB.
1.13. Material means the content of the Services, including without limitation all text, data, diagrams, images, computer
programs, thesauruses, metadata and other works, including any physical media used to carry the same.
1.14. Network User means permitted number of End Users connected to the server on a single file server concurrently.
1.15. Payment Date means the date upon which payment of the Total Cost shall be due, and subject to clause 6 of this
Agreement.
1.16. Sage means The Sage Group plc of Sage (UK) Limited, North Park, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE13 9AA.
1.17. Sage Link means optional function in the Software enabling the Data to be exported to computer systems supplied by
Sage.
1.18. Services means the Software and/or Data purchased and/or subscribed to by the Customer and any support for the
Services provided by the Licensor, as set out in the Schedule.
1.19. Single User means the single primary user.
1.20. Software' means the software products (including Third Party Software) and/or software services (including Third

68 Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement Amtech Group

Party Software) purchased by the Customer as set out in the Schedule. Software includes any part of the Software, any
modification of the Software, any back-up copy of the Software, any updates to the Software provided by the Licensor
and/or acquired by the Customer and any related documentation including any Third Party Software.
1.21. Site means each and any geographical site (or the number of sites, as the case may be) under the control of the
Customer, at which the Customer and its authorised End Users may use the Services.
1.22. Start Date means the first day the Services become available to the Customer as specified on the Schedule.
1.23. Subscription Period means, in relation to the Services (or part of the Services) which are provided on a subscription
basis as detailed on the Schedule, a minimum period of twelve months from the Start Date and continuing thereafter
from month to month until cancelled by either party giving three months written notice.
1.24. Third Party Software means all Software owned by a third party but licensed for distribution by the Licensor as part of
the Software.
1.25. Total Cost means the total annual sum (exclusive of VAT) payable in respect of the Services or any other amount
substituted under clause 6 if the Schedule specifies that the Services are to be paid for on an annual basis.
1.26. Update means an instalment of Software or Data supplied to the Customer.
2. TERMS APPLICABLE TO ALL SERVICES
2.1. The Licensor grants to the Customer a non-exclusive non-transferable licence to install and operate the Software on the
Designated Equipment to the Number of Licences and no more.
2.2. This Agreement covers elements of the Services which may be variously sold as goods, supplied as services and
licensed. No term implied into this Agreement by statute or otherwise as regards any one or more of such elements
shall apply to any other element by virtue of being provided under this same Agreement.
2.3. If the Customer purchases the Services on a subscription basis, the Customers rights to use the Services are limited to
the Subscription Period. Customer may have the option to extend this Subscription Period or convert to a perpetual
licence, at the Licensors fees from time to time. If the Customer extends their Subscription Period, they may continue
using the Services until the end of their extended Subscription Period.
2.4. The Customer may not make any use of the Services except as expressly authorised in this Agreement. The Licensor
reserves the right to verify the validity and use of licences on Designated Equipment as and when required.
2.5. In particular, without limitation, the Customer shall not, and shall take steps to ensure that its End Users do not: (a)
modify, alter or adapt the Services or the Material; (b) copy, disclose or otherwise use any part of the Services or the
Material or any passwords or licence keys issued to the Customer otherwise than as expressly permitted in this
Agreement; (c) translate or decompile any Services, Material, Software, computer program or any website used for the
delivery of the Services, nor combine or incorporate any such computer program with or in any other; (d) submit,
publish, display or disclose any Material on any website whether by means of photocopies, screenshots, screen
scraping, linking or in any other manner whatsoever; (e) sell, market or distribute (or allow any other party to sell,
market or distribute) the Material.
2.6. In using the Services the Customer accepts full responsibility and liability for ensuring that the End Users fully comply
with these terms and notices. The Customer shall take all necessary and reasonable steps in order to ensure that End
Users comply with the terms of this Agreement and shall promptly notify the Licensor of any failures of which the
Customer becomes aware. The Customer shall provide all reasonably necessary assistance to the Licensor to protect
and enforce the Licensors rights in respect of the Services against any unauthorised usage.
2.7. All intellectual property rights, including (without limit) all rights in respect of copyright, database rights, know how,
trade marks, price lists, discounts, supplier/manufacturer/customer names and information, images, product data,
source code, object code and confidentiality anywhere in the world (and whether capable of registration or not) in the
Services (Intellectual Property Rights) belong to or are licensed to the Licensor and the Customer shall immediately
inform the Licensor of a breach of any of the Intellectual Property Rights and assist the Licensor in defending the same.
The Customer and its End Users will not acquire any rights or interests to or in any part of the Intellectual Property
Rights. The Customer shall co-operate fully with the Licensor by taking all steps required by the Licensor (in its sole
discretion) in connection with any infringement allegation or claim in respect of the Intellectual Property Rights,
including, without limitation, legal proceedings in the name of the Licensor or in the joint names of the parties. The
Licensor shall be responsible for the cost of any legal proceedings it initiates, and the Licensor is entitled to any
damages, account of profits and/or awards of costs recovered. The Customer shall use its best endeavours to assist the
Licensor in any legal proceedings relating to any such allegation of infringement.
2.8. The reproduction of parts of the Material may also be subject to restrictions imposed by third parties and the Customer
agrees that it shall not use any Material whether in whole or in part in any way which fails to comply with any
restrictions imposed by third parties.
2.9. The Customer shall indemnify the Licensor for any and all losses, liabilities, damages, costs, claims and expenses caused
to or incurred by the Licensor by an infringement of the Intellectual Property Rights by the Customer or by a third party

Amtech Group Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement 69

with the Customers assistance or omission.
2.10. If the Customer purchases the Services on a subscription basis, this subscription is personal to the Customer and is not
capable of assignment.
2.11. The Customer shall prevent any access to and use of the Services save as is permitted by this Agreement.
2.12. The Customer acknowledges that the selection of Material and its form and structure are the intellectual creation of
the Licensor and have not been made public but remain confidential to the Licensor and other Customers of the
Services. The Customer undertakes to maintain such confidentiality, and shall remain liable and responsible for
ensuring that its employees and End Users comply with such conditions of confidentiality.
2.13. Representatives of the Licensor may enter the Customers premises (including the Sites) at all reasonable times to verify
the Customers compliance with this Agreement. The Customer shall at all times keep accurate and up to date details
of the individual End Users to whom at any given time it has permitted access to the Services, Data and/or Material.
2.14. All physical property supplied by the Licensor, including without limitation CD-ROMs (or other storage/transmission
devices) and operating manuals, remains the property of the Licensor. The Customer shall, at its cost, return such
property to the Licensor on demand at the end of this Agreement in good and usable condition.
2.15. The Customer shall promptly notify the Licensor if any physical property supplied for the provision of the Services is lost
or damaged. Risk in such items passes to the Customer upon its receipt of those items. Upon payment by the Customer
of its then current prices for those items, the Licensor shall replace them as soon as reasonably practicable.
2.16. The Services shall be delivered to the physical and/or electronic addresses (as applicable) agreed by the parties. The
Customer shall promptly notify the Licensor of any change in the physical or electronic addresses to which the Services
or any of them and/or any notices should be delivered, and the Licensor shall not be liable for losses resulting from the
failure by the Customer to notify the Licensor of any such change.
3. TERMS APPLICABLE TO DATA
3.1. The Licensor will provide the Data to the Customer as agreed.
3.2. The nature and content of the Data may change from time to time. In particular, the Licensor might have to remove
certain parts of the Data if the Licensor ceases to have the right to include that Data. The Licensor is not responsible or
liable for any failure of, or problems with, the Data to the extent that such failure or problem is in any way connected
with the Customers use of any other resources which have not been expressly pre-approved by the Licensor.
3.3. The Licensor shall use reasonable endeavours to deliver the Data on or as soon as reasonably practicable after the Start
Date, but time is not of the essence. Where the Customer has entered into this Agreement for the supply of physical or
media carrying electronic copies of the Data, delivery of such Data shall be made to the physical and/or electronic
address(es) agreed, and it shall be the obligation of the Customer to notify the Licensor of any changes to these
addresses.
3.4. The Customer accepts full responsibility and liability for ensuring that it and, where relevant, any End Users follow(s)
the verification process specified by the Licensor within fourteen (14) days of the commencement of the provision of
the Data from the Licensor.
3.5. As part of the verification process the Customer acknowledges that the Licensor shall be entitled to collect and retain
the technical information of the Customer and, where relevant, any End User accessing the Data for the purpose of
ongoing account maintenance, subscription verification and delivery of the Data according to the terms of this
Agreement. The Customer accepts full responsibility for ensuring that it and, where relevant, any End User consents to
the processing of such technical information by the Licensor and, if the Customer and/or where relevant, any End User
does not give such consent, neither the Customer nor the End User shall be entitled to receive the Data and the
Licensor shall be entitled to terminate this Agreement without penalty.
3.6. The Licensor shall deliver the Data in the format it deems most suitable.
3.7. The Licensor reserves the right to deliver in part or whole the Data in other formats. Where a new delivery format is
made available or where the value or functionality of the Data is improved and is classified as an upgrade by the
Licensor then the Licensor reserves the right to increase the Total Cost payable in respect of affected Data at any stage
during the term of this Agreement. Changes shall be notified on 30 (thirty) days written notice.
4. TECHNICAL SUPPORT
4.1. In the Initial Support Period the Licensor shall provide advice and assistance by telephone or e-mail (at the Licensors
option) concerning the use of the Services. This assistance will be available to the Customer between the hours of
9.00am and 5.00pm GMT/BST Monday to Friday (excluding Bank Holidays in England and 27 to 31 December inclusive
in any year), via such telephone number or e-mail address as the Licensor may notify to the Customer from time to
time. The Licensor shall use reasonable skill and care in providing advice and assistance but cannot guarantee to be
able to answer every question put to it.
4.2. If (but only if) the Customer is able to demonstrate that any reported fault is a genuine Fault with the Services rather

70 Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement Amtech Group

than an error in the way the Services are being used or accessed by the Customer or End Users or in any computer
resources used by the Customer, the Licensor shall use reasonable endeavours to fix any Fault with the Services and
shall at the Licensors option provide the Customer with a workaround solution, a software patch or upgrade. Although
the Licensor will use reasonable endeavours to fix any Faults with the Software, Service or Data experienced by the
Customer, and to provide a workaround, it cannot guarantee the timely resolution of such faults.
4.3. After the expiry of the Initial Support Period, support will be given upon the Customer entering into a Support
Agreement on the Licensors standard terms and at the Licensors standard support fees, from time to time.
4.4. The Customer shall provide all information and assistance the Licensor reasonably asks for when attempting to provide
a solution to any Fault in the Services reported by the Customer.
5. THE CUSTOMER OBLIGATIONS AND LIABILITIES
5.1. The Customer shall indemnify the Licensor, and keep it indemnified, against all losses, liabilities, damages, costs, claims
and expenses any third party makes or brings against the Licensor in connection with the Customers (including in
respect of its employees) or any End Users use of the Services outside the terms of this Agreement This indemnity
includes the reimbursement of all costs and expenses incurred by the Licensor in connection with such claims and
proceedings.
6. LICENCE FEES
6.1. The Customer agrees to pay the Fees both as to time and manner of payment as required by the Licensor. If the
Customer fails to do so, the Licensor may immediately suspend or discontinue delivery of the Services and/or further
Updates and/or support services.
6.2. The Licensor reserves the right to review the Fees on each anniversary of the Agreement and shall give the Customer
30 days notice before such review becomes effective.
6.3. The Licensor reserves the right to assign any monies received in respect of this Agreement against any other amounts
outstanding in respect of other goods or services provided and suspend or discontinue delivery of further Updates, if
the Customers account falls into arrears. The Licensor further reserves the right to invoice the Customer through any
company affiliated to the Licensor, or through the use of any third party company or agent, provided that the Licensor
shall continue to ensure that the Services are delivered in accordance with this Agreement.
6.4. If the Fees are payable as a Total Cost, the Licensor will invoice the Customer once per year, but the Licensor may
permit part payments of the Total Cost using Direct Debit. If payment is by Direct Debit, then at least 30 (thirty) days
before the first Payment Date, the Customer shall deliver to the Licensor a properly executed bankers direct debit
mandate (in a form acceptable to the Licensor) for payment of the Fees. Payment by Direct Debit does not permit the
Customer to terminate this Agreement with a shorter notice period than that set out in this Agreement. The Customer
agrees that it shall continue to be liable for any sums due against the Total Cost following improper termination or
stoppage of a Direct Debit by the Customer.
6.5. The Customer shall be responsible for notifying the Licensor of any change to the address to which invoices and other
notifications should be sent in connection with this Agreement, and shall indemnify the Licensor for any losses or costs
resulting from its failure to do so.
7. RESTRICTIONS ON THE LICENSORS LIABILITY AND INDEMNIFICATION
7.1. The Services cannot be guaranteed to be free from errors. The Customer acknowledges and accepts that there may be
errors within the Services and the Licensor is not liable for any loss or damage the Customer suffers as a result of such
errors.
7.2. Much of the Data and/or Material is obtained from third parties. While the Licensor exercises reasonable care and skill
to reproduce information provided to it accurately, the Licensor does not check that the information contained in the
Data and/or Material is correct and the Licensor shall not be liable for any loss or damage that the Customer suffers as
a result of errors in the Data and/or Material, nor for any omission from that Data and/or Material of any relevant
information.
7.3. Whilst the Licensor does regularly check the presentation of the Data and/or Material to ensure that it is accessible and
well presented, the Licensor does not take responsibility for the reliability, suitability or any other quality of product or
service described in the Data and/or Material, and no reference in the Services to any person, product or service is an
endorsement or warranty by the Licensor concerning any of these. Accordingly the Licensor is not liable for any loss or
damage the Customer suffers as a result of using or relying on any such product or service.
7.4. Neither party shall be liable for the consequences of any delays in performance of it obligations hereunder caused by
any event beyond its control, including Acts of God, war, riot or civil commotion, fire, flood, strike or labour difficulties,
sabotage, or any act or omission of the other or any third party.
7.5. [If the Services include the Sage Link then Customer may export the Data to a computer system licensed to the
Customer by Sage and access the data via that system.
7.6. The Customer understands that the Company is not acting as agent, partner or authorised representative of Sage and

Amtech Group Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement 71

that this Agreement does not form the basis of any legal relationship, whether contractual or otherwise, between the
Customer and Sage and that Sage does not accept any responsibility for any defects in the Software.
7.7. It is understood and agreed by the Customer that the Company is not liable for any charges incurred by the Customer
for reconfiguring, upgrading or otherwise modifying its hardware and operating environment for use in conjunction
with the Services.
7.8. THE LICENSOR DISCLAIMS ALL CONDITIONS, WARRANTIES, REPRESENTATIONS OR OTHER TERMS EITHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED OTHER THAN AS SET OUT IN THIS AGREEMENT WITH RESPECT TO THE SERVICES INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO ANY WARRANTY AS TO THE FITNESS OF THE SERVICES FOR A PARTICULAR USE. THE LICENSOR GIVES NO WARRANTY
AS TO THE SUITABILITY OF THE SERVICES TO MEET THE CUSTOMERS REQUIREMENTS AND THE CUSTOMER
ACKNOWLEDGES THAT IT HAS NOT BEEN INDUCED TO ENTER INTO THIS AGREEMENT BY ANY REPRESENTATION MADE
BY THE LICENSOR AS TO THE SUITABILITY OF THE SERVICES TO MEET THE CUSTOMERS REQUIREMENTS. ANY
CONDITION, WARRANTY, REPRESENTATION OR OTHER TERM CONCERNING THE SUPPLY OF THE SERVICES WHICH
MIGHT OTHERWISE BE IMPLIED INTO OR INCORPORATED IN THIS AGREEMENT, OR ANY COLLATERAL CONTRACT
WHETHER BY STATUTE, COMMON LAW OR OTHERWISE IS HEREBY EXCLUDED TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY
LAW. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL THE LICENSOR OR ITS OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, AND
AFFILIATES, BE LIABLE TO THE CUSTOMER FOR ANY SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INDIRECT DAMAGES,
REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE LICENSOR WAS INFORMED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. THE AGGREGATE
LIABILITY TO THE CUSTOMER OF THE LICENSOR OR ITS OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, EMPLOYEES, AGENTS, AND AFFILIATES,
SHALL NOT EXCEED THE FEES PAID TO THE LICENSOR BY THE CUSTOMER DURING THE SIX (6) MONTHS PRECEDING THE
EVENT GIVING RISE TO LIABILITY, OR 5,000, WHICHEVER IS GREATER.
7.9. The Customer acknowledges that the Services have not been developed or provided to meet the Customers individual
requirements and that it is the Customers responsibility to ensure that the Services meet its requirements.
7.10. The Customer shall indemnify, defend and hold the Licensor harmless from any and all losses and expenses, including
legal fees, paid by the Licensor as a result of the negligence, gross negligence, wilful misconduct or breach of this
Agreement by the Customer.
8. TERM AND TERMINATION
8.1. This Agreement starts on the Start Date and continues in force for the Initial Term and thereafter from year to year
until terminated in accordance with this Agreement.
8.2. This Agreement may be terminated after the Initial Term (referred to in the definition of Subscription Period) by either
party giving the other three months written notice to end on a calendar month.
8.3. In addition to the rights of termination contained elsewhere in this Agreement, the Licensor may by notice in writing to
the Customer terminate this Agreement if any of the following events occur:
8.3.1. if the Customer is in breach of any term, condition or provision of this Agreement and fails to remedy such
breach within 14 days of having received written notice of such breach from the Licensor;
8.3.2. if the Customer, being a body corporate, shall present a petition or have a petition presented by a creditor for its
winding up, or shall convene a meeting to pass a resolution for voluntary winding up, or shall enter into any
liquidation (other than for the purposes of a bona fide reconstruction or amalgamation); shall call a meeting of
its creditors, or shall have a receiver of all or any of its undertakings or assets appointed, or shall be deemed by
the relevant statutory provisions under the applicable law to be unable to pay its debts or in the Customers
reasonable opinion such an event is reasonably likely to occur;
8.3.3. if the Customer ceases to operate;
8.3.4. if the Customer attempts to assign this Agreement.
8.4. Upon termination for any reason:
8.4.1. all rights granted to the Customer and its End Users under this Agreement shall cease;
8.4.2. the Customer must cease all activities authorised by this Agreement (and must procure that all End Users cease
all such activities);
8.4.3. the Customer must immediately pay to the Licensor any sums due to the Licensor under this Agreement; and
8.4.4. the Customer must immediately delete or remove all Software, Data and Material from all computer equipment
in its possession and immediately destroy or return to the Licensor (at the Licensor's option) all copies of the
same then in its possession, custody or control and, in the case of destruction, certify to the Licensor that it
has done so and, in each case, procure that End Users do the same.
9. FORCE MAJEURE
9.1. Neither party is in breach of this Agreement, nor liable in any way whatsoever, for any failure to perform, or delay in
performing, its obligations under this Agreement to the extent that the failure or delay results from any cause which is
beyond that partys reasonable control. This clause does not apply to any failure or delay by the Customer to pay any

72 Amtech Group Limited End-User Licence Agreement Amtech Group

charges due under this Agreement.
10. GENERAL
10.1. The Licensor may change these terms with immediate effect if it is reasonably necessary to do so in order to comply
with any applicable law, or with the instruction of any public or regulatory body.
10.2. This Agreement is subject to English law and the courts of England have exclusive jurisdiction in respect of any dispute
arising out of or in connection with this Agreement or the Services and their use.
10.3. The failure by a party to exercise a right or remedy does not constitute a waiver of that or any other right or remedy,
and nor does any delay by a party in exercising any right or remedy. The other party shall not rely on any such failure
or delay as constituting such a waiver or as preventing the exercise of any right or remedy.
10.4. Any notice may be served personally or sent by pre-paid registered letter or recorded delivery to the addresses most
recently given to the other party. Such notice shall be deemed to have been duly served upon and received by the
addressee, when served personally, at the time of such service or, when posted, 48 hours after the same has been
posted correctly addressed and pre-paid.


Amtech Group Amtech PremierCare 73

Amtech PremierCare
Amtechs unique Technical Support Service, PremierCare, brings a new dimension to customer service. PremierCare is a Quality
Assured service to customers of our software, as all Amtech software is covered by ISO 9001 TickIT for software development.

Benefits to members include
Technical support
Software service packs
Exclusive access to online technical support
Discounts
Technical Support
Get help when you need it from the largest team of Electrical Software Support Engineers in the industry. Amtechs Technical
Support staff has a wealth of experience, understand your business and can be contacted by phone during office hours, and by fax,
email and via Amtechs website.
A menu option link to the Amtech Support web page has a direct link to the Amtech Assistance login page.

When you click on this option from the menu it will take you to the Amtech Support web page.
On the Amtech Support page there is a link to click on that will take you directly to the Live Remote Assistance website.
This allows the Support Engineers to view and control your machines, with your permission, from the office.
Software service packs
Products, legislation and design trends are constantly changing... Amtech software developers make sure Amtech software keeps up
to date. As a PremierCare member, you will automatically receive our service packs as soon as they are released, free of charge.
These keep your Amtech product databases right up to date including product deletions as well as additions so you can be sure
that you always have the most current range of approved devices in your design toolbox. You will also receive substantial discounts
on major upgrades.

Exclusive access to online technical support
Access to the members-only area on Amtechs website for
free downloads including maintenance releases and database updates
access to FAQs and valuable technical tips
SuperCharged, the newsletter for PremierCare members, with all the latest technical tips, update information and
general news, keeping you informed of what's going on at Amtech before anyone else
logging a support request.

74 Amtech PremierCare Amtech Group

Discounts
PremierCare members can purchase additional Amtech products and upgrades at discounted rates. These discounts also apply to
our training courses. Other special promotional offers are also available to PremierCare members from time to time.
Further information
If you wish to check your PremierCare status or to renew your membership please call
0800 028 28 28
PremierCare login
If you have current PremierCare membership and wish to access the PremierCare members area on Amtechs website use the
following web address.
http://www.amtech.co.uk



Amtech Group Amtech Training 75

Amtech Training
Get the most from your software with one of Amtechs range of training courses
Receive expert tuition from our team of engineers in a relaxed, friendly atmosphere. Amtech training is suitable for all levels of
ability, from first time users to those who have had the software for a while and not yet explored all the available features.
Learn the capabilities of the software - discover the many features included in Amtech software and how to apply them to your own
projects.
Learn dozens of tips, short cuts and features these will help you make use of the software effectively and efficiently.
Learn how to produce quick, economical designs - avoid over-engineering by sizing cables, busbars and protective devices
accurately to meet the minimum criteria defined in the wiring regulations.
Learn how to produce professional documentation - you will soon be able to present your clients with high quality documentation
for design or verification calculations, single line diagrams and certification (depending on your software package).
Receive your own course workbook to help you remember what you have learned.

Courses
For more information about Amtech Training Courses see our website:
http://www.amtech.co.uk or call our Training Department on 01908 608833

Amtech's UK Training Centre
Regular scheduled courses are held in our fully equipped, air-conditioned training centre in Milton Keynes. Each delegate has the use
of a PC loaded with the latest software. Refreshments and a buffet lunch are provided.

On site training
Training courses are also available at your premises by arrangement. Bringing these courses directly to your organisation offers many
advantages, especially for companies that have several engineers requiring training. To find out more, phone Amtech on 0800 028 28
28 or send us an email using the following address:sales@amtech.co.uk

CPD points
All Amtech courses attract Continuing Professional Development (CPD) hours which are credited towards an individual's CPD. The
aim of CPD is to enhance business performance and improve an individual's career prospects.

Amtech is an Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEE) Endorsed Provider and is registered with the Chartered Institute of Building
Services Engineers (CIBSE) as a course provider.




Amtech Group Index 77

Index
A
Applying a Web Update 10
Availability of Web Updates 9
B
Busduct 47
reactance 48
resistance 48
Spacing 48
Bustie 51
C
cable
operating voltage 45, 61
reactance data 61
Return Circuit 63
zero sequence impedance 63
Cable 44
drawing 26
parallel cables 45
Reactance 44
Resistance 44
resistance data 59
return circuit 45
Ro/R1 44
Xo/X1 45
calculation
Fault Types 56
Calculation
current distribution 35
Current Distribution 56
fault types 34
Options 34
report type 34
reports 35
results display 35
Results Format 52
SC Calc 56
voltage distribution 35
Voltage Distribution 56
Voltage Factor 57
Checking your version of software 12
Circuit Breaker 51
resistance 52
Contactor 51
resistance 52
D
Data files
zero sequence impedance ratio 63
Default values 17
Delete 38
E
Edit
Changing connections 41
Deleting 38
handles 37
moving handles 33
Editor Window 13
F
Frequency 52, 61
Fuse
resistance 52
G
Generator 42
Grid
Coarse 19
default option 19
Fine 19
Medium 19
Off 19
I
Impedance 50
M
Motor 43
N
Network 42
drawing 24
Nodes
Auxiliary nodes 20
display options 20
drawing 22
Fault 23
Index 42
Voltage 42

78 Index Amtech Group

O
Overhead Line 45
drawing 29
Reactance 46
resistance 46
Resistance 46
Spacing 46
P
Page Setup 16
default page size 16
orientation 16
Program Updates dialog 9
R
Reactor 50
Reconnect 32, 38
RECONNECT 41
Redraw 38
Results Format 52
S
Settings 16, 52
Standard Resistances 52
Switch 51
resistance 52
Switchfuse 51
T
toolbar 18, 32, 38
Transformer 49
drawing 25
Regulation 49
V
Voltage Factor 57


Amtech Group Index 79