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Ecuaciones Diferenciales Ordinarias

Sebastin Manosalvas 5 de septiembre de 2013

1.

Ecuaciones con varibles separables


(1 + y 2 )dx + (1 + x2 )dy dx = 1 + x2 dy 1 + x2

1. (1 + y 2 )dx + (1 + x2 d)y = 0

arctan(x) = arctan(y ) arctan(x) + arctan(y ) = C 2. (y 2 + xy 2 )y + x2 yx2 = 0 y 2 (1 + x) dy + x2 (1 y ) dx

y 2 (1 + x)dy = x2 (1 y )dx y2 x2 dy = dx 1y 1+x 1 1 )dy = (x 1 + ) (y 1 y1 x+1 1 1 (y + 1 + )dy = (x 1 + ) y1 x+1 ydy + dy + 1 dy = y1 xdx dx + 1 dx x+1

3. x

y2 x2 + y + ln(y 1) + x ln(x + 1) = C 2 2 1 + y 2 + yy 1 + x2 = 0 xdx 1 + y 2 + ydy 1 + x2 = 0 y 1 + y2 dy = 0

x dx + 1 + x2 1

x = a tan(z ) a tan(z )a sec2 (z ) a2 + a2 tan2 (z ) dz +

dx = a sec2 (z )dz a tan(t)a sec2 (t) a2 + a2 tan2 (t) dt = 0

a sec(z ) tan(z )dz +

a sec(t) tan(t)dt = 0

sec(z ) + sec(t) = 0 x2 + 1 + 4. ey (1 + y ) = 1 (1 + y ) = ey dx + dy = dxey dy = dx ey 1 ey =x+C 1 ey ln(1 ey ) x = C 5. y = ax+y dy = ax ay dx dy = ax dx ay ax ay =C ln a ln a ax + ay = C 6. (1 + ex )yy = ey (1 + ex )y dy = ey dx ydy dx = ey (1 + ex ) dv = dy u = e y ey dy = dw = ex dx dw w(1 + w) dw w+1 y2 + 1 = C

v=y du = e
y

ex = w yey +

yey ey =

dw w

ey (y + 1) = ln ex ln ex + 1 x ln(ex + 1) + ey (y + 1) = C 2

7. (xy 2 y 2 + x 1)dx + (x2 y 2xy + x2 2y 2x + 2)dy = 0 [y 2 (x 1) + (x 1)]dx + [y (x2 2x + 2) + x2 2x + 2]dy = 0 (y 2 + 1)(x 1)dx + (y + 1)(x2 2x + 2)dy = 0 1 2 y = a tan(z ) 1 ln(x2 2x + 2) + 2 x(x 1)dx + (x2 2x + 2) y+1 dy y2 + 1 dy = a sec2 (z )dz tan z + 1 sec2 zdz tan2 (z + 1)

1 1 ln(x2 2x + 2) + ln(y 2 + 1) + arctan y = C 2 2 ln(x2 2x + 2)(y 2 + 1) + 2 arctan y = C 8. y = ax + by + c dy = axdx + bydx + cdx u = ax + by + c 1 du ( a) = u b dx du a = ub + a dx du = dx bu + a 1 ln(ub + a) x = C b ub + a ebx = C b(ax + by + c) + a ebx = C 9. (1 y )ey y +
y2 x ln x

du dy =a+b dx dx

=0 (1 y )ey dy dx + =0 y2 x ln x (y 1)ey dy + y2 dx =0 x ln x

ey + ln(ln x) = C y

10. xy 2 (xy + y ) = a2 u = xy dy = x du u u2 dx u ( x ( ) + ) = a2 2 2 x x x u2 x du ( dx ) = a2 x x u2 du = a2 xdx x du dx u x2

u3 x2 = a2 3 2 2x3 y 3 3a2 11. (1 + x2 y 2 )y + (xy 1)2 xy = 0 t = xy (1 + t2 ) y =


dt x dx t 2 x

x2 =C 2

x dt t t + (t 1)2 x( dx 2 ) = 0 x x dt (1 + t2 )t + (t 1)2 (x t) = 0 dx dt (1 + t2 )t + x(t 1)2 t(t 1)2 = 0 dx dt t3 + 2t2 t = 0 t + t3 + x(t 1)2 dx (t 1)2 dt dx +2 =0 t2 x dt dt dx dt 2 + +2 =0 t t2 x 1 + 2 ln x = C t 1 xy 2 ln xy + 2 ln x = C xy t 2 ln t

12. (x6 2x5 + 2x4 y 3 + 4x2 y )dx + (xy 2 4x3 )dy = 0 y = tx dy = tdx + xdt

(x6 2x5 + 2x4 t3 x3 + 4x3 t)dx + (xt2 x2 4x3 )(tdx + xdt) = 0 (x3 2x2 + 2x t3 + 4t + t3 4t)dx + (t2 4)(xdt) = 0 (x2 2x + 2)dx + (t2 4)dt = 0

x3 t3 x2 + 2x + 4t = C 3 3 3 y x3 y x2 + 2 x + 3 4 = C 3 3x x 13. (ln x + y 3 )dx 3xy 2 dy = 0 u = ln x + y 3 1 du = + 3y 2 y dx x u 3xy 2 y = 0 xdu 1) = 0 dx udx (xdu + dx) = 0 u( dx x du =0 u+1 xdu 1 = 3xy 2 y dx

ln x ln(u + 1) = C ln x ln(ln x + y 3 + 1) = C x )=C ln( ln x + y 3 + 1 14. y xy = a(1 + x2 y 2 ) yx dy dy a ax2 =0 dx dx

ydx xdy adx ax2 dy = 0 dx(y a) dy (x + ax2 ) = 0 ax2 dx = +x dy ya dy ya

dx adx = x ax + 1

ln x ln(ax + 1) = ln(y a) x y+a=C ax + 1 5

y xy 15. y + sen x+ 2 = sen 2

y + sen

x y x y x y x y cos + cos sen = sen cos cos sen 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 y + 2 sen x y cos = 0 2 2 x dy + 2 cos dx = 0 sen y 2 2 x cos dx = 0 2

y csc dy + 2 2 2

x =C 2 y y x 2 ln(csc cot ) + 4 sen = C 2 2 2 csc udu + 4 sen

2.

Ecuaciones homogneas y reducibles a ellas


y = tx dy = tdx + xdt (4x 3y )dx + (2y 3x)dy = 0 (4x 3tx)dx + (2tx 3x)(tdx + xdt) (4 3t)dx + (2t 3)tdx + (2t 3)xdt = 0 dx(4 3t + 2t2 3t) + (2t 3)xdt 2 dx + x 2t 3 dt t2 3 t + 2

1. 4x 3y + y (2y 3x) = 0

2 ln x + ln(t2 3t + 2) = C y y 2 ln x + ln( )2 3 + 2 x x ln(y 2 3xy + 2x2 ) = C 2. 4x2 xy + y 2 + y (x2 xy + 4y 2 ) = 0 (4x2 xy + y 2 )dx + (x2 xy + 4y 2 )dy = 0 y = tx
2 2 2 2 2 2

dy = tdx + xdt

(4x x t + x t )dx + (x x t + 4x2 t2 )(tdx + xdt) = 0 (4 t + t2 )dx + (1 t + 4t2 )(tdx + xdt) = 0 4(t3 + 1)dx + (4t2 t + 1)xdt = 0

dx + x 4 ln x + (

(4t2 t + 1) dt = 0 (t + 1)(t2 t + 1) 2 2t 1 + 2 )dt = C t + 1 t t+

ln x4 (t + 1)2 (t2 t + 1) = C ln(x4 ( y y3 + 1)( 3 + 1)) = C x x

(y + x)(y 3 + x3 ) = C 3. y =
2xy 3x 2 y 2

2xydx (3x2 y 2 )dy y = tx


2 2 2 2

dy = tdx + xdt 2tdx (3 t2 )(tdx + xdt) = 0 (2t 3t + t3 ) (3 t2 )xdt = 0 dx + x ln x + 3 t2 3 dt = 0 t(t2 1) dt t ln 2t dt = C t2 1

2x tdx (3x x t )(tdx + xdt) = 0

xt3 =C t2 1 y2 y3 x2

ln

y3 =C y 2 x2 4. xy = y 2 x2 xdy = y = tx x(tdx + xdt) (t dx + x ln x + ln x + t2 t + 2 2 y 2 x2 dx dy = tdx + xdt t2 x2 x2 dx = 0

t2 x2 x2 )dx + xdt t t+ dt =0 t2 x2 x2

t2 x2 x2 = C 1 ln(t + 2 t 2 x2 x2 )

t2 1 7

ln

x3 y+ x3 y2 y 2 x2 x2 +

y2 y + 2 =C 2 x2 sx y 2 x2 =C 2x2

ln

y2 + y

y+

5. (y 4 3x2 )dy = xydx y = ta dy = ata1 dt (t4a 3x2 )ata1 dt = xta dx at5a1 dt 3ax2 ta1 dt + xta dx = 0 1 1 1 3 (t 2 3x2 t 2 )dt + xt 2 dx = 0 2 (t2 3x2 )dt + 2xtdx = 0 (t2 3z 2 t2 )dt + 2zt2 (zdt + tdz ) = 0 (1 3z 2 )dt + 2z (zdt + tdz = 0) dt + t y2
x 2 y 4 y4

2zdz =0 1 z2

ln t ln(z 2 1) = C =C

x2 6. (y xy )2 = x2 + y 2 y = tx yx

y6 =C y4

dy = tdx + xdt dy = dx x2 + y 2 x2 + t2 x2 dx 1 + t2

dxtx x(tdx + xdt) = dxt tdx xdt = dx + x ln x + ln(t + ln(x( y+

dt =0 1 + t2 1 + t2 ) = C

x2 + y 2 )) = C x x2 + y 2 = C 8

y+

7. 2x + 2y 1 + y (x + y 2) + 0 x+y =t dx + dy = dt

(2t 1)dx + (t 2)(dt dx) = 0 (2t 1 t + 2)dx + (t 2)dt = 0 dx + x+ t2 dt = 0 t+1 dt =C t+1

t dt x t+1

x 2 ln t + 1 + t ln t + 1 = C x 3 ln(x + y + 1) + x + y = C 2x + y 3 ln(x + y + 1) = C 8. (y + y x2 y 4 + 1)dx + 2xdy = 0 y= t x ( t t + x x t ( 2 x dy = xdt tdx x2

t4 xdt tdx + 1)dx + 2 =0 2 x x t x2 + t4 )dx + 2dt = 0 x

(t x2 + t4 xt)dx + 2x2 dt = 0 x = u2 dx = 2udu t( u4 + t4 u2 )du + u3 dt = 0 ( t4 z 4 + t4 t2 z 2 )(tdz + zdt) + t3 z 3 dt = 0 t( z 4 + 1 z 2 ) + z ( z 4 + 1 z 2 )dt + z 3 dt = 0 z4 + 1 z2 dt dz + =0 4 t z z +1 dz z z dz + ln t = C z4 + 1 1 1 ln z + ln t 2 2 w +1 x + 1) = C x2 y 2 1 + 1) = C xy 2

ln xy ln

x 1 x ln( 2 2 + xy 2 x y x 1 1 ln( 2 + 2 xy 9

9. (x + y 3 )dx + (3y 5 3y 2 x)dx = 0 y = ta dy = ata1 dt

(x + t3a )dx + (3t5a 3t2a x)dy = 0 (x + t3a )dx + (3t6a1 3xt3a1 )adt = 0 (x + t)dx + (t x)dt = 0 (ut + t)(udy + ydu) + (t ut)dt = 0 u(u + 1)dt + t(u + 1)du + (1 u)dt = 0 dt + t ln t + ln y 3 + u2 u+1 du = 0 u2 + 1 u2 du =C +1

u du + +1

1 x x ln( 3 + 1) + arctan 3 = C 2 y y

10. (2x 4y )dx + (x + y 3)dy = 0 2x 4y = 0 x+y3=0 x=z+2 x=2 y=1 y =w+1

(2z + 4 4w 4)dz + (z + 2 + w + 1 3)dw = 0 (2z 4tz )dz + (z + tz )(tdz + zdt) = 0 dz + z ln z + ln z + ln x 2 + 3 2 1+t dt = 0 t2 3t + 2 2t 3 dt = C t2 3t + 2 dt 3 t2 2 dt t1

1 dt + t2 3t + 2 2

1 3 ln(t2 3t + 2) + 2 2

1 y1 2 y1 3 y1 3 y2 ln[( ) 3( ) + 2] + ln( 2) ln( 1) 2 x2 x2 2 x2 2 x2

11. (x y + 3)dx + (3x + y + 1)dy = 0 xy+3=0 3x + y + 1 = 0 x=z1 x = 1 y=2 y =w+2

(z 1 w 2 + 3)dz + (3z 3 + w + 2 + 1)dw = 0 10

(1 t + 3t + t2 )dt + (3 + t)zdt = 0 dz + z ln z + 2 ln z t2 3+t dt = 0 + 2t + 1

1 dt + ln(t2 + 2t + 1) = C 2 (t + 1) 2

1 2t + ln(t2 + 2t + 1) = C t+1 2 x+y1 1 y2 2 y2 ln(x + 1) + ln[( ) + 2( ) + 1) = C 2(y 2) 2 x+1 x+1 12. y cos xdx + (2y sen x)dy = 0 z = sen x y= t z dz = cos xdx dy = zdt + tdz tzdz + (2tz z )(tdz + zdt) = 0 (t + 2t2 t) + (2t 1)zdt = 0 dz + z ln z + 1 2 2t 1 =0 2t2 dt t dt =C 2t2

1 1 ln t + =C 2 2t 1 y sen x ln sen x + ln + =C 2 sen x 2y ln z + sen x 1 ln sen xy + =C 2 2y 13. y 3 dy + 3y 2 xdx + 2x3 dx = 0 y = tx dy = tdx + xdt

t3 x3 (tdx + xdt) + 3(t2 x2 )dx + 2x3 dx = 0 (t4 + 3t2 + 2)dx + xt3 dt = 0 dx + x ln x + (3 2


5 2

t4

t3 dt = 0 + 3t2 + 1 t3
5 2

dx = C x2 ) 1 (15 3 5) ln((3 + 5 2x2 ) + (5 + 3 5) ln(3 + 52x2 )) 20


3 x2 )( 2 +

11

3.

Ecuaciones Diferenciales Exactas


x(2x2 + y 2 )dx + y (x2 + 2y 2 )dy = 0 Py = 2xy
4

1. x(2x2 + y 2 ) + y (x2 + 2y 2 )y = 0

Px = 2xy (2x3 + y 2 x)dx = (x2 y + 2y 3 )dy = x y x + 2 2


2 2

x2 y 2 y4 + 2 2

x2 y 2 y4 x4 + + =C 2 2 2 x4 + y 2 + x2 y 2 = C 2. (
x x2 +y 2

1 x

1 +y )dx + (

y x2 +y 2

1 y

x y 2 )dy

Py =

y2 1 3 2 2 2 y 2 (x + y ) ( x x2 + y 2 +

Px =

y2 1 3 2 2 2 y 2 (x + y )

1 1 + )dx x y

x dx + x2 + y 2

dx dx + x y x x2 + y 2 + ln y + = C y y x2 + y 2 y dy + + 1 x )dy y y2 dy y x dy y2

x2 + y 2

x =C y x x2 + y 2 + ln xy + = C y x2 + y 2 + ln y + 3. (2x +
x2 +y 2 x2 y )dx

x2 +y 2 xy 2 dy

1 1 Py = + 2 y x (2x + 12

1 1 Px = + 2 y x x2 + y 2 )dx x2 y

2xdx +

1 y dx dx + y x2 x y x2 + = C y x x2 + y 2 dy xy 2 x dy dy + y2 x x y + =C y x x y x2 + = C y x

4. (3x2 2x y )dx + (2y x + 3y 2 )dy = 0 Py = x 1 + 2x 2 x 1+x Px = x 1 + 2x 2 x 1+x

(3x2 2x y )dx x3 x2 xy = C (2y x + 3y 2 )dy y 2 xy + y 3 = C x3 x2 xy + y 2 + y 3


1 1 )dx + (x cos y cos x + y )dy 5. (sen y + y sen x + x

Py = cos y + sen x

Px = cos y + sen x 1 )dx x dx x

(sen y + y sen x + (sen ydx +

y sen xdx +

x sen y y cos x + ln x = C 1 (x cos y cos x + )dy y x cos ydy cos xdy + dy y

x sen y y cos x + ln y = C x sen y y cos x + ln y = C 13

6.

y +sen x cos2 xy dx cos2 xy

+ ( cosx 2 xy + sen y )dy = 0 Px = sec2 xy +2xy sec2 xy tan xy

Py = sec2 xy +2xy sec2 xy tan xy (

y + sen x cos2 xy dx) cos2 xy sen xdx

y dx + cos2 xy y

sec2 xydx cos x = C tan xy cos x = C ( x + sen y )dy cos2 xy sen ydy

x dy + cos2 xy

tan xy cos y tan xy cos x cos y = C 7. {n cos(nx + my ) m sen(mx + ny )}dx + {(m cos(nx + my ) n sen(mx + ny )}dy = 0 Py = nm sen(nx+my )nm cos(mx+ny ) Px = nm sen(nx+my )nm cos(mx+ny )

{n cos(nx + my ) m sen(mx + ny )}dx n cos nx cos mydxn sen nx sen mydxm sen mx cos nydxm cos mx sen nydx

cos my sen nx + sen my cos nx + cos ny cos mx sen ny sen mx = C {(m cos(nx + my ) n sen(mx + ny )}dy m cos nx cos mydy m sen nx sen mydy n sen mx cos nydy n cos mx sen ydy

cos nx sen my + sen nx cos my sen mx sen ny + cos mx cos ny = C cos my sen nx + sen my cos nx + cos ny cos mx sen ny sen mx = C sen(nx + my ) + cos(mx + ny )

14

1 8. ( y sen x y

y x2

y y 1 cos x + 1)dx + ( x cos x xy 2 sen x y +

1 y 2 )dy

=0

Py = Px =

x x y y x 1 y 1 sen 3 cos 2 cos + 3 sen y2 y y y x x x x 1 x x y y x 1 y sen 3 cos 2 cos + 3 sen y2 y y y x x x x 1 y x y ( sen 2 cos + 1)dx y y x x

1 y

y x y cos dx + sen dx y x2 x x y cos + sen + x = C y x 1 y x 1 ( cos xy 2 sen + 2 )dy x x y y

dx

1 x

y cos dy x sen sen

x x sen dy + y2 y

dy dy y2

x 1 y cos = C x y y

y x 1 cos + x = C x y y = (y 2 x2 ) Px = 2y = e2 ln x u= 1 x2

9. (x2 + y 2 + 1)dx 2xydy = 0, Py = 2y u=e


2dx x

1 2 2y (x + y 2 + 1)dx dy = 0 2 x 1 2 (x + y 2 + 1)dx 2 x y2 + 1 =C x 2y dy x y2 =C x

y2 + 1 y2 =C x x

15

10. (3x2 y + y 3 )dx + (x3 + 3xy 2 )dy = 0 Py = 3x2 + 3y 2 Px = 3x2 + 3y 2 (3x2 y + y 3 )dx x3 y + xy 3 = C (x3 + 3xy 2 )dy x3 y + xy 3 = C xy 3 + x3 y = C 11. (x2 + y )dx xdy = 0, = (x) Py = 1 e
2dx x

Px = 1 =

1 x2 y 1 (1 + 2 )dx dy x x 1 1 Py = 2 Px = 2 x x y 1 + 2 )dx x y x =C x 1 dy x y =C x y x =C x 12. (2x2 y + 2y + 5)dx + (2x3 + 2x)dy = 0, Py = 2x2 + 2 = (x) Px = 6x2 + 2

4x2 2x = 2 2x3 + 2x x +1 u=e


2xdx x2 +1

= e ln(x

+1)

u=

x2

1 +1

x2

1 2x(x2 + 1) (2y (x2 + 1) + 5)dx + dy = 0 +1 x2 + 1 Py = 2 Px = 2 16

x2

1 (2y (x2 + 1) + 5)dx +1 2x(x2 + 1) dy x2 + 1 2xy = C

2xy + 5 arctan x = C

5 arctan x + 2xy = C 13. (x + sen x + sen y )dx + cos ydy = 0, Py = cos y cos y 0 =1 cos y u=e
dx

= (x) Px = 0

u = ex Px = ex cos y

(xex + sen xex + sen yex )dx + ex cos ydy = 0 Py = ex cos y

(xex + sen xex + sen yex )dx 1 x e (2(x + sen y 1) + sen x cos x) = C 2 ex cos ydy ex sen y = C 1 ex sen y + (2(x 1) + sen x cos x) = C 2 14. (3y 2 x)dx + (2y 3 6xy )dy = 0, Py = 6y 6y (6y ) = (2y 3 6xy ) d(ln u) = 3dz z = (x + y 2 ) Px = 6y d(ln u) d ln u (3y 2 x)2y dz dz 1 ln u = 3 ln z u= (x + y 2 )3

(3y 2 x 2y 3 6xy dx + dy = 0 2 3 (x + y ) (x + y 2 )3 (3y 2 x dx (x + y 2 )3 4y 2 ln(x + y 2 ) = C x + y2 17

2y 3 6xy dy (x + y 2 )3 x y2 =C (x + y 2 )3 4y 2 x y2 ln(x + y 2 ) = C (x + y 2 )3 x + y2

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