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THE JUSTCATON O THE EXSTENCE O HGHER NATURES N

THE PHYSCS O ARSTOTE


A DIsserLuLIon
DIrecLed by Dr. EnrIque AIurcn
ErIk M. NorveIIe
SepLember zo11
UnIversILy oI Nuvurru
PumpIonu, Nuvurru (SpuIn)
ServIcIo de PubIIcucIones de Iu UnIversIdud de Nuvurru
SBN: 8q-8o81-11q-
or my IumIIy, especIuIIy my moLIer und IuLIer, wIo Iuve supporLed me
uncondILIonuIIy Irom LIe very begInnIng oI my pIIIosopIIcuI sLudIes.
I
Contents
Abstruct v
Introdoction
1 The Seurch Ior the Zp_c 1g
1.1 TIe evoIuLIon oI LIe Lerm 'c:,` . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.1.1 1c:, us p_ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.1.z 1c:, us 'source oI operuLIons` . . . . . . . . . . . . . zo
1.1. TIe ncp cco, uccounLs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zz
1.1.q ConcIusIons ubouL LIe senses oI c:, . . . . . . . . . zq
1.z TIe LIeorIes oI EmpedocIes, Anuxugorus und LIe ALomIsLs . z
1.z.1 EmpedocIes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
1.z.z Anuxugorus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
1.z. TIe ALomIsLs: eucIppus und DemocrILus . . . . . . .
1. ArIsLoLIe`s derIvuLIon oI LIe p_c In LIe Phsics, Book . . . q
1..1 PurmenIdes und LIe docLrIne oI LIe One . . . . . . . . q
1..z TIe oc:oyo: und LIe cici-c . . . . . . . . . . . . . q8
1.q TIe p_c us IormuI und muLerIuI prIncIpIes, und LIeIr reIu-
LIon Lo c:, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q
1.q.1 TIe noxc:ioi und p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q
1.q.z c:, us IormuI prIncIpIe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1. 1c:, In LIe brouder conLexL oI ArIsLoLIe`s oLIer works . . . . 6o
1..1 1c:, us occ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
1.6 ConcIusIons: LIe docLrIne oI LIe p_c und ILs ImpIIcuLIons . 6
1c:, und Wuys oI Being 6S
z.1 TIe deveIopmenL oI LIe Lerm - i In LIe Pre-SocruLIcs . . . . 6q
z.z BeIng und LIe cuLegorIes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
z.z.1 TIe cuLegorIuI unuIysIs oI beIng In ArIsLoLIe . . . . . . ;
z.z.z TIe muILIvocILy oI 'beIng` und LIe oc:oyo: . . . . . ;6
z.z. ConcIusIons concernIng cuLegorIuI beIng . . . . . . . 81
z. ReuI vs. noeLIc beIng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
z..1 TIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI noeLIc beIng . . . . . . . . . . . 8;
z..z TIe PurmenIdeun error und LIe oc:oyo: . . . . . . q1
z.. ConcIusIons on noeLIc und reuI beIng . . . . . . . . . q6
z.q TIe docLrIne oI poLency und ucL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q;
z.q.1 PoLency und ucL us 'wuys oI beIng` . . . . . . . . . . . qq
z.q.z TIe MegurIuns: ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL Ior poLency In
uddILIon Lo ucLuuIILy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1o1
z.q. ArIsLoLIe`s dIIucIduLIon oI LIe noLIons oI poLency und
ucL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1oq
z.q.q orm us ucL und Iorm us poLency . . . . . . . . . . . . 11q
z. ConcIusIon: c:, und LIe 'wuys oI beIng` . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1c:, us Principle oI Motion 1q
.1 TIe ArIsLoLeIIun unuIysIs oI moLIon und cIunge . . . . . . . . 1q
.1.1 A brIeI Iook uL ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory . . . . . . . . . . . . 1q
.1.z TIe deIInILIon oI moLIon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1qq
.z SeII movers und LIIngs LIuL move LIemseIves . . . . . . . . . 1q8
.z.1 Are seII-movers possIbIe? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1qq
.z.z A prooI Ior LIe exIsLence oI seII-movers . . . . . . . . 16
.z. How seII-moLIon occurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
.z.q TensIons concernIng LIe noLIon oI seII-movemenL . . 16
.z. ConcIusIons on subIunur seII-movers . . . . . . . . . 1;8
. CommunIcuLIon oI Iorm In moLIon und cIunge . . . . . . . . 18z
..1 TIe dIIIIcuILy oI LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` . . . . . 18z
..z TIe condILIons Ior communIcuLIon oI Iorm . . . . . . 18
.. KInds oI moLIons und cIunges resuILIng Irom com-
munIcuLIon oI Iorm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18;
..q A possIbIe soIuLIon Lo LIe dIIIIcuILy . . . . . . . . . . 1qo
.. WuLerIow`s unILury subjecL LIeory . . . . . . . . . . . 1qz
.q ConcIusIons regurdIng moLIon und cIunge . . . . . . . . . . 1q6
q The Argoments Ior Nutorul Iinulity 1qS
q.1 EmpedocIes`s 'evoIuLIonury` LIeory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zoo
q.z AccIdenL, cIunce und Iuck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zoq
q.z.1 - i xc- co[c[px,: AccIdenLuI beIng . . . . . . . . zoq
q.z.z ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI cIunce und Iuck . . . . . . . . . z1z
q. ArIsLoLIe`s responses Lo EmpedocIes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z18
q..1 1c:, us ucLIng 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL` . . . . . . z1q
q..z End-dIrecLedness us requIrIng reuson . . . . . . . . . zz8
q.q An Issue concernIng bIoIogIcuI IInuIILy . . . . . . . . . . . . . z8
q. InuIILy und ReducLIonIsm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zq
q.6 ConcIusIons: c:, und IInuIILy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zq;
III
g Aristotle's Comprehensive Argoment Ior Higher 1c:, g
.1 TIe eIImInuLIon oI LIe obsLucIes produced by erroneous LIe-
orIes oI nuLure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . zz
.1.1 TIe muILIpIIcILy oI beIng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z
.1.z TIe p_c oI mobIIe beIng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z8
.1. TIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI c:, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z61
.z TIe cuse Ior LIe exIsLence oI IIgIer c:, . . . . . . . . . . . z6;
.z.1 DemonsLruLIng LIe exIsLence oI c:, us 'ycooi` . . . z68
.z.z ArgumenLs Ior LIe exIsLence oI IIgIer cc:, . . . . . z;1
.z. Non-reducIbIe powers und poLencIes . . . . . . . . . z;q
. ConcIusIons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z88
Conclosion q1
A Trunslutions oI Greek Texts o
A.1 ArIsLoLIe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
A.1.1 CuLegorIes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
A.1.z On SopIIsLIcuI ReIuLuLIons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
A.1. PIysIcs, or NuLuruI HeurIng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o
A.1.q On LIe Heuvens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z6
A.1. On GeneruLIon und CorrupLIon . . . . . . . . . . . . . z8
A.1.6 MeLeoroIogIu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q
A.1.; On Dreums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q
A.1.8 On Sense und LIe SensIbIe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . q
A.1.q De AnImu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
A.1.1o On LIe PurLs oI AnImuIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qo
A.1.11 MoLIon oI AnImuIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qz
A.1.1z On LIe GeneruLIon oI AnImuIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . qz
A.1.1 MeLupIysIcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qq
A.1.1q NIcomucIeun ELIIcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
A.1.1 RIeLorIc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
A.z DIeIs, H. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
A.z.1 DIe rugmenLe der VorsokruLIker . . . . . . . . . . . 6
A. EmpedocIes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6;
A..1 On NuLure, LrunsIuLed by W. E. eonurd . . . . . . . 6;
A.q PurmenIdes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;1
A.q.1 On NuLure, LrunsIuLIon by J. BurneL . . . . . . . . . ;1
A. PIuLo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
A..1 uws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
A..z Meno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;q
A.. TIeuLeLus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;q
Iv
A.6 SImpIIcIus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;q
A.6.1 On ArIsLoLIe's PIysIcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;q
A.6.z On ArIsLoLIe's PIysIcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ;
Bibliogruphy ,,
v
Abstruct
NorveIIe, ErIk M. DocLor, UnIversILy oI Nuvurru, SepLember, zo11. TIe
JusLIIIcuLIon oI LIe ExIsLence oI HIgIer NuLures In LIe PIysIcs oI ArIsLo-
LIe. Mujor ProIessor: Dr. EnrIque AIurcn.
n IIs own eru, jusL us Loduy, ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI c:, wus conLrover-
sIuI. AguInsL LIe muLerIuIIsL pIIIosopIers oI IIs duy, ArIsLoLIe susLuIned LIe
exIsLence oI reuI ucLuuIILIes oI u IIgIer order LIun LIe 'eIemenLs` or 'uLoms`
posLuIuLed by LIese pIIIosopIers. TIIs Lype oI IIgIer ucLuuIILy or 'IIgIer`
c:, Is LIe Iorm oI u nuLuruI subsLunce, wIIcI gIves IL u genuIne unILy be-
yond LIuL oI un uggreguLe oI eIemenLs, und wIIcI ucLs us LIe source oI LIe
subsLunce`s cIurucLerIsLIc operuLIons. Howdoes LIe SLugIrILe jusLIIy posLu-
IuLIng sucI IIgIer ucLuuIILIes? n LIIs dIsserLuLIon, wIII exumIne LIe jusLI-
IIcuLIons LIuL ArIsLoLIe gIves, boLI expIIcILIy und IndIrecLIy, In LIe Phsics,
LIe Metcphsics, Dn the Soul, Dn Generction cnd Corruption und Dn the
Hectens, umong oLIer LexLs. sIowLIuL ArIsLoLIe`s jusLIIIcuLIon Ior usserL-
Ing LIe reuIILy oI 'IIgIer` c:, derIves Irom Lwo sources. n LIe IIrsL pIuce,
IIs overuII pIysIcuI und meLupIysIcuI docLrInes undermIne LIe urgumenLs
udduced by LIe uncIenL Greek muLerIuIIsLs In Iuvor oI reducLIonIsm, und
muke pIuusIbIe LIe exIsLence oI IIgIer c:, oI LIe sorL Ie proposes. Sec-
ondIy, ArIsLoLIe provIdes u number oI posILIve urgumenLs In Iuvor oI LIe
necessILy oI posLuIuLIng IIgIer ucLuuIILIes or c:, In order Lo expIuIn LIe
exIsLence und ucLIvILy oI orgunIsms. TIese urgumenLs ucquIre subsLunLIuIIy
greuLer weIgIL und cogency LIun Is commonIy ucknowIedged wIen vIewed
In LIe IIgIL oI IIs meLupIysIcuI und pIysIcuI docLrInes.
Introdoction
L Is LIrougI un unIorLunuLe quIrk oI IIsLory LIuL we Iuck Loduy un exLended
work by ArIsLoLIe dedIcuLed Lo u sLudy oI IIs predecessors In nuLuruI pIIIos-
opIy, LIe oc:oyo:. SImpIIcIus, LIe neo-PIuLonIc ByzunLIne pIIIosopIer
und commenLuLor on ArIsLoLIe, quoLes Irom u work LunLuIIzIngIy enLILIed
On DemocrILus, wIIcI wus uLLrIbuLed Lo LIe SLugIrILe. UnIorLunuLeIy,
LIIs work Ius been IosL, und we Iuve Loduy no more LIun LIe IrugmenLs
preserved In SImpIIcIus`s commenLury on Dn the Hectens.
1
TIe SLugIrILe,
Iowever, wus u cureIuI sLudenL oI IIs predecessors, und IIs works on nuLu-
ruI pIIIosopIy und meLupIysIcs ure repIeLe wILI exLensIve cILuLIons oI LIe
works oI LIe oc:oyo:, uIong wILI purupIruses oI LIeIr docLrInes und de-
LuIIed crILIques oI LIeIr posILIons. WIIIe ArIsLoLIe muInLuIned un InLeresL
In dIuIogue wILI LIe PIuLonIsLs, wILI wIom Ie sLudIed und worked Ior so
muny yeurs, LIe mujorILy oI IIs menLIons oI oLIer pIIIosopIers concern
LIe PresocruLIc nuLuruI pIIIosopIers, In purLIcuIur DemocrILus, Empedo-
cIes und Anuxugorus. WIIIe Ie IrequenLIy dIsugreed wILI LIeIr busIc us-
sumpLIons, LIe Iounder oI LIe PerIpuLeLIc scIooI Iud u proIound respecL Ior
LIese pIIIosopIers, und deveIoped u broud pIysIcuI LIeory-bused IIrmIy
1
TIe cuLuIogue oI ArIsLoLIe`s works Iound In DIogenes urLIus`s Lites oj the Philoso-
phers (cILed In Burnes 1qq, ;-q) IIsLs u work enLILIed 'ProbIems Irom DemocrILus,` wIIcI
muy or muy noL be LIe sume work; DIogenes`s IIsL Iucks uny reIerence Lo works dedIcuLed
Lo LIe docLrInes oI Anuxugorus, EmpedocIes or eucIppus.
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
on IIs meLupIysIcs-In order Lo respond Lo wIuL we mIgIL cuII LIeIr 'reduc-
LIve muLerIuIIsm.`
TIIs dIsserLuLIonwIII Iocus onArIsLoLIe`s response Lo LIe oc:oyo:, Luk-
Ing us ILs cenLruI LopIc LIe noLIon oI 'nuLure` or c:,
z
us deveIoped by ArIs-
LoLIe. n purLIcuIur, wIII InvesLIguLe LIe wuys In wIIcI ArIsLoLIe deIends
LIe necessILy oI posLuIuLIng wIuL Lerm 'compIex` or 'IIgIer` c:, uguInsL
LIe reducLIonIsm oI LIese Pre-SocruLIc pIIIosopIers.

WIIIe LIIs dIsserLu-


LIonIs specIIIcuIIy ubouL c:,, wIII uIso IncIude dIscussIonoI oLIer uspecLs
oI ArIsLoLIe`s pIIIosopIy wIIcI underIIe und supporL IIs descrIpLIon und
deIense oI IIgIer c:, und cc:,. My InvesLIguLIon wIII LIereIore runge
beyond LIe Phsics ILseII, und wIII IncIude LIe expIoruLIon oI docLrInes In-
Lroduced In LIe Metcphsics, Dn the Hectens, Dn the Soul und Dn Gener-
ction cnd Corruption, umong oLIer works.
TIe sLrengLIs und weuknesses oI ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs ure oI InLeresL
Lo me, In IIgIL oI my pIuns Ior IuLure reseurcI. TIereIore Iuve noLed,
wIere possIbIe, LIose oI IIs urgumenLs LIuL seempurLIcuIurIy sLrong, espe-
cIuIIy wIen vIewed In LIe IIgIL oI IIs meLupIysIcuI docLrInes, wIIcI ure Ire-
quenLIy overIooked by modern commenLuLors. NeverLIeIess, LIe prImury
z
n order Lo uvoId conIusIon, In LIIs work wIII normuIIy reIer Lo LIIs noLIon by LIe
Greek word c:,, InsLeud oI LIe EngIIsI correIuLe 'nuLure,` wIose modern usuge InvoIves
muny sIudes oI meunIng wIIcI ure onIy remoLeIy reIuLed Lo LIe noLIon wIIcI ArIsLoLIe
deveIoped und deIends.

n usIng LIe Lerms 'compIex` or 'IIgIer` c:,, um IndIcuLIng LIose cc:, wIIcI
ure LIe prIncIpIes oI beIng-In ArIsLoLIe`s nuLuruI pIIIosopIy-Ior compIex nuLuruI sub-
sLunces, In purLIcuIur IIvIng LIIngs, us opposed Lo LIe 'sImpIe` or eIemenLuI nuLures. TIe
Lerm 'IIgIer c:,` Is noL commonIy used In ArIsLoLIe, buL IL does occur once In LIe cor-
pus: c yp iyxp xc o_, -c-o_pxic: -::o-pc, -::-cpc yp -c-c -, cco, -, -i
o_pi, On BreuLIIng, q;;u16-1;. TIe noLIon oI u scuIe oI nuLuruI beIngs, rungIng Irom
LIe IowesL-LIe sImpIe bodIes-Lo LIe IIgIesL-ruLIonuI beIngs-is quILe common In ArIs-
LoLIe`s wrILIngs, so IeeI jusLIIIed In usIng LIe IocuLIon 'IIgIer c:,` Lo express LIIs noLIon.

nLroducLIon
purpose oI LIe sLudy Is descrIpLIve. TIuL Is, IIrsL wIsI Lo dIscern hou, In us
broud u sense us possIbIe, ArIsLoLIe jusLIIIed IIs docLrIne oI IIgIer c:,. As
u secondury consIderuLIon, seek Lo expIore LIe degree Lo wIIcI ArIsLoLIe`s
urgumenLs ure genuIneIy probuLIve uguInsL IIs oc:oyo: InLerIocuLors.
1c:, in Aristotle's works
ArIsLoLIe, uL LIe begInnIng oI Book oI LIe Phsics, gIves IIs Iumous
deIInILIon oI 'nuLure` us u prIncIpIe oI moLIon und resL: , ocp, -, cco,
p_, -:i, xc c-c, -o x:icc0c: xc pcc, ci np_c: np-o, xc0' c- xc
xc- co[c[px,.
q
WIuL does LIIs deIInILIon meun, und wIy Is IL Impor-
LunL (Lo ArIsLoLIe und Lo us)?
Tosomeone noL weII-ucquuInLedwILIArIsLoLIe`s overuII pIIIosopIy, LIIs
deIInILIon wouId be quILe obscure, sInce IL Is sLuLed In Lerms oI LIe LecInI-
cuI vocubuIury LIuL ArIsLoLIe deveIoped us un uppuruLus Ior InvesLIguLIng
LIe nuLuruI worId. NeverLIeIess, In LIe precedIng purugrupI, Ie gIves un
expIunuLIon In Lerms oI exumpIes, IIIusLruLIng In LIIs wuy wIuL Ie meuns
by LIe LecInIcuI Lerm 'c:,.` He sLuLes,
Ti i-oi - i cc-: cc:, - oc o:' c, c-c,, cc: ci - -c
c xc - pp c-i xc - o- xc - n -i co-oi, ooi y
xc np xc p xc oop |-c-c yp cic: xc - -o:c-c cc: ci,
ni-c oc -c-c cic-c: o:cpoi-c np, - cc: coicc--c. -o
-oi ci yp cxcc-oi ci cco- p_i c_c: x:icco, xc c-cco,, - ci
xc- -noi, - oc xc-' c(pc:i xc 0c:i, - oc xc-' ooc:i.

q
Phsics, 1qzbzo-z.

Phsics, 1qzbo8-16.
q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
TIIs IIsL IncIudes u number oI very dIIIerenL kInds oI beIngs, wIIcI we
mIgIL noL normuIIy ussocIuLe: IIvIng orgunIsms (pIunLs, non-ruLIonuI un-
ImuIs und Iumun beIngs), LIeIr purLs (LIe Iomoeomerous bodIes, sucI
us IIesI, und LIe more compIex orguns), und (InLeresLIngIy Ior u modern
reuder) LIe 'sImpIe bodIes,` or LIe LrudILIonuI Iour eIemenLs oI Greek cos-
moIogy. TIese beIngs Iuve u number oI cIurucLerIsLIcs In common: LIey
Iorm genuIne unILIes (In ArIsLoLIe`s vIew, uL IeusL), LIey demonsLruLe cIur-
ucLerIsLIc operuLIons wIIcI LIey uIwuys exercIse (In LIe ubsence oI exLernuI
ImpedImenLs), und LIey Iuve u permunence LIuL oLIer beIngs do noL sIure
(boLI In LIe sense oI IusLIng LIrougI LIme und resIsLIng degruduLIon, und
In some cuses, oI reproducIng LIeIr essences).
'1c:,` Is ArIsLoLIe`s word Ior LIe prIncIpIe (p_) LIuL underIIes uII oI
LIese cIurucLerIsLIcs, und wIIcI mukes u sIngIe 'IumIIy` ouL oI LIe dIspuruLe
kInds oI beIngs Ie Ius IIsLed. n LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe Is usserLIng LIuL sucI
u prIncIpIe exIsLs, LIuL IL cun be descrIbed scIenLIIIcuIIy, und LIuL by us-
Ing IL Ie cun soIve u number oI exLremeIy dIIIIcuIL probIems LIuL precedIng
pIIIosopIers were unubIe Lo soIve. 1c:, Is ArIsLoLIe`s unswer Lo LIe LIorny
probIemoI expIuInIng IowLIere couId be u muILIpIIcILy oI cIungIng beIngs
LIuL LruIy ure (In uII oI LIe wuys LIuL 'be` cun be suId), und IIs cIuIm Is LIuL
LIose wIo deny c:, desLroy LIe ubIIILy Lo expIuIn LIe worId us IL ucLuuIIy
Is: o, o' ic:pc o-o, yoi - cc: -c xc c:i.
6
ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI c:, Is LIus InLImuLeIy IInked wILI LIe enLIreLy
oI IIs pIIIosopIIcuI projecL. However, LIe quesLIon oI wIeLIer cc:, exIsL
Is oI InLeresL Iur beyond ArIsLoLIe`s own uge und LIe cIrcIe oI Greek pIIIoso-
6
Phsics, 1qqb1-b16.

nLroducLIon
pIers wILI wIom Ie wus In dIuIogue. L Is uIso oI greuL ImporLunce Loduy,
gIvenLIe conLemporury InLeresL InproducIng IuIIy muLerIuIIsL expIunuLIons
Ior IIIe und LIe mInd, und LIeorIes oI eLIIcs wIIcI muke no reIerence Lo u
normuLIve Iumun nuLure. or LIIs reuson Iuve cIosen Lo Iocus on LIe ur-
gumenLs LIuL ArIsLoLIe mukes Ior LIe vuIIdILy oI IIs docLrIne. NeverLIeIess,
In LIIs sLudy, wIII noL enLer InLo LIe Issue oI modern crILIcs oI ArIsLoLeIIun
nuLuruI pIIIosopIy, buL wIII Iocus on LIe Issues us ArIsLoLIe encounLered
LIem.
ArIsLoLIe wus LIe IeIr Lo, und purLIcIpunL In, LIe exLruordInurIIy Iecund
eru oI CIussIcuI GreekpIIIosopIy, begInnIng wILILIe onIunnuLuruI pIIIoso-
pIers, und conLInuIng In ArIsLoLIe`s duy wILI LIe muLure PIuLonIc Acudemy,
CynIcs, ALomIsLs und SopIIsLs, umong oLIers. ArIsLoLIe IImseII wus In-
LImuLeIy IumIIIur wILI LIe work oI LIese pIIIosopIers; Indeed, In severuI
cuses,
;
LIe InIormuLIon we Iuve ubouL LIeIr docLrInes comes In Iurge purL
Irom cILuLIons In LIe SLugIrILe`s works. He deveIoped IIs own docLrInes
In dIuIogue wILI LIese pIIIosopIers, und generuIIy summurIzes LIeIr posI-
LIons prIor Lo demonsLruLIng wIy IIs own posILIon Is superIor.
n IIs vurIous works oI pIysIcuI scIence und meLupIysIcs, ArIsLoLIe de-
veIoped u compIeLe docLrIne LIuL provIdes u Iur superIor expIunuLIon oI LIe
worId LIun LIose oIIered by LIe vurIous oc:oyo: LIuL were IIs predeces-
sors und conLemporurIes. n uddILIon, uL vurIous poInLs LIrougIouL IIs
works, ArIsLoLIe oIIers dIrecL reIuLuLIons oI LIe LIeorIes oI LIe oc:oyo:,
und provIdes u jusLIIIcuLIon oI wIy IIs own posILIon Is superIor. NeverLIe-
;
n LIe cuse oI DemocrILus, Ior InsLunce, neurIy IuII oI LIe 'eIre` IrugmenLs LIuL DIeIs
cILes ure Irom ArIsLoLIe.
6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Iess, LIe deveIopmenL oI IIs pIysIcuI und meLupIysIcuI docLrInes, und IIs
reIuLuLIons oI IIs opponenLs, ure spreud wIdeIy LIrougIouL IIs works, und
LIe crILIques LIuL Iuve been mude oI IIs urgumenLs In purLIcuIur cuses Ire-
quenLIy IuII Lo Luke InLo consIderuLIon oLIer uspecLs oI IIs pIIIosopIy LIuL
sLrengLIen LIe urgumenLs Ie mukes.
WIIIe ArIsLoLIe Is known Lo Iuve wrILLen u LexL dedIcuLed Lo un exumI-
nuLIon-und possIbIe crILIcIsm-oI DemocrILus (LIe work Dn Democritus,
menLIoned ubove), onIy u Iew IrugmenLs oI LIIs work survIve. urLIer,
Lo LIe besL oI my knowIedge, LIere Is no conLemporury work In EngIIsI
wIIcI unILes ArIsLoLIe`s busIc pIIIosopIIcuI LeucIIngs wILI IIs expIIcIL ur-
gumenLuLIon uguInsL LIe oc:oyo: In order Lo provIde u compIeLe vIsIon
oI LIe response LIuL Ie mukes Lo muLerIuIIsm. TIIs sLudy, LIen, wIII pro-
vIde un InILIuI skeLcI oI u IoIIsLIc vIew on ArIsLoLIe`s uILernuLIve Lo Greek
muLerIuIIsm, wILI un empIusIs on Iow Ie jusLIIIes IIs docLrIne oI 'IIgIer`
c:, (I.e. LIe cc:, oI LIe 'Iomoeomerous bodIes` und oI IIvIng orgunIsms,
sucI us pIunLs, unImuIs und Iumun beIngs). wIII Iocus on LIe LIeorIes oI
Anuxugorus, EmpedocIes und LIe uncIenL ALomIsLs, eucIppus und Dem-
ocrILus, wILI some menLIon oI LIe EIeuLIcs; Ior reusons oI spuce, wIII Ieuve
Ior IuLure sLudy IIs deIense oI IIs docLrIne uguInsL PIuLonIc IdeuIIsm und
LIe PIuLonIc pIIIosopIy oI nuLure.
Sommury oI chupter contents
TIe docLrIne oI c:, Is uL LIe cenLer oI ArIsLoLIe`s response Lo LIe cIuI-
Ienge oI deveIopIng u compIeLe ncp cco, uccounL wIIcInoL onIy expIuIned
;
nLroducLIon
LIe sume pIenomenu us dId LIe LIeorIes oI IIs muLerIuIIsL rIvuIs, buL wIIcI
expIuIned u subsLunLIuIIy Iurger runge oI pIenomenu vIu u unIIIed LIeory
uL LIe meLupIysIcuI, pIysIcuI und psycIoIogIcuI IeveIs oI reuIILy. n my re-
seurcI, Iuve IdenLIIIed Iour key ureus wIere ArIsLoLIe deveIoped urgu-
menLs In order Lo susLuIn LIe exIsLence oI cc:,, sucI LIuL Ie mIgIL cIuIm
Lo un unconvInced LIIrd purLy LIuL LIe LIeory Ie deveIops on LIe busIs oI
LIe noLIon oI c:, Is noL mereIy beLLer uL expIuInIng LIe expIunundu, buL
LIuL IL Is u necessury deveIopmenL, gIven LIe pIenomenu Lo be expIuIned.
deveIop LIese urgumenLs In LIe IoIIowIng cIupLers:
n CIupLer 1, begIn my sLudy wILI u brIeI overvIew oI LIe seurcI un-
derLuken by LIe oc:oyo: Ior LIe p_c (or busIc buIIdIng bIocks) oI
LIe pIysIcuI unIverse, In LIe conLexL oI LrucIng LIe deveIopmenL oI LIe
Lermc:, up Lo LIe LIme oI ArIsLoLIe. Lruce IowLIe Lermc:, cume
Lo be IInked Lo LIese p_c, und gIve u skeLcI oI LIe LIeorIes oI ArIsLo-
LIe`s mosL ImporLunL InLerIocuLors. NexL, provIde u reudIng oI Book
oI LIe Phsics, LrucIng Iow ArIsLoLIe demonsLruLes wIuL LIe uILImuLe
'prIncIpIes` or p_c oI nuLuruI beIngs musL In IucL be, und Iow LIe
vurIous proposuIs oI eurIIer pIIIosopIers IuII Lo reucI LIe Lrue Irre-
ducIbIe prIncIpIes ncp cco,. TIe cIupLer concIudes by exumInIng
LIe vurIous wuys In wIIcI LIe Lerm c:, Is used by ArIsLoLIe, In or-
der Lo dIsLInguIsI LIe sense wIIcI wIII be oI cenLruI ImporLunce Lo my
sLudy.
n CIupLer z, InLroduce ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI LIe wuys In wIIcI 'be-
Ing` Is suId, und Iow LIIs unuIysIs ImpucLs LIe ubIIILy oI LIe oc:oyo:
8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lo deIend u pureIy muLerIuIIsL vIew oI LIe unIverse. begIn wILI cuL-
egorIuI beIng, sIowIng Iow IIs unuIysIs necessILuLes LIuL 'beIng` be
used In muILIpIe wuys uccordIng Lo LIe IIgures oI predIcuLIon, even
wILIIn LIe LIeorIes proposed by LIe oc:oyo:. NexL, exumIne 'be-
Ing us LruLI,` or noeLIc beIng, In order Lo sIow Iow LIe error oI Pur-
menIdes derIves Irom LIe uppIIcuLIon oI LIe cIurucLer oI concepLuuI
beIng Lo reuI beIng; LIe resuILIng IuIIure oI LIe PurmenIdeun urgu-
menL wIII uIsosevereIy ImpucL LIe ubIIILy oI LIe mujorILy oI LIe oc:oyo:
Lo deIend eLernuI 'uLoms` or 'rooLs`. InuIIy, puy purLIcuIur uLLenLIon
Lo beIng quc poLency und ucL, und sIow Iow c:, Is prImurIIy suId
Lo be IormuI ucL, und Iow In LIIs wuy IL cun be un p_ LIuL cun IosL
poLenLIuIILIes Ior LIe operuLIons cIurucLerIsLIc oI u gIven Lype oI nuL-
uruI beIng, mukIng IL possIbIe Ior ArIsLoLIe Lo posLuIuLe IIgIer cc:,
LIuL 'vIrLuuIIy` conLuIn LIe poLencIes oI Iesser nuLures.
n CIupLer , dIscuss ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI moLIon und cIunge. n
purLIcuIur, sIow Iow LIIs LIeory resoIves LIe probIems oI moLIon
LIuL remuInedunexpIuIned(undIndeedunexpIuInubIe) Ior LIe oc:oyo:,
Iow IIs docLrIne boLI expIuIns und mukes necessury LIe exIsLence oI
'subIunur` seII-movers wILI compIex nuLures, und IInuIIy Iow ArIs-
LoLIe`s LIeory expIuIns Iow one beIng cun uIIecL unoLIer (I.e. be u
genuIne mover oI oLIer beIngs).
n CIupLer q, dIscuss LIe urgumenLs LIuL ArIsLoLIe puLs IorLI Lo sup-
porL IIs vIew LIuL LIere Is IInuIILy or end-dIrecLedness In orgunIsms,
boLI In LIeIr deveIopmenL und LIeIr ucLIvILy. exumIne EmpedocIes`s
q
nLroducLIon
'evoIuLIonury` LIeory, und ArIsLoLIe`s response, wIIcI Ie deveIops uI-
Ler un exLensIve unuIysIs oI Iuck und cIunce. uIso Iook uL un Issue
reIuLIng Lo bIoIogIcuI IInuIILy, sIowIng Iow IL cun be LIuL purLs oI or-
gunIsms cun boLI demonsLruLe u dIsLIncL IInuIILy oI LIeIr own, wIIIe
neverLIeIess ucLIng us purL oI LIe wIoIe orgunIsmIn LIe ucIIevemenL
oI ILs IIgIer IInuIILIes. InuIIy, Iook uL LIe Issue oI IInuIILy und re-
ducLIonIsm, exumInIng vurIous conLemporury urgumenLs In Iuvor oI
und uguInsL LIe Ideu LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s deIense oI IInuI cuuses In nuLuruI
comIng Lo be vILIuLes uny possIbIIILy oI reducIng LIe IuncLIonuIILy oI
IIgIer nuLuruI beIngs Lo LIuL oI LIeIr consLILuenL purLs.
n CIupLer , wIII unILe LIe vurIous sLrunds oI ArIsLoLIe`s urgumen-
LuLIon LIuL Iuve presenLed In eurIIer cIupLers, In order Lo presenL
u IoIIsLIc vIew oI IIs compreIensIve urgumenL Ior LIe exIsLence oI
'IIgIer cc:,,` I.e. LIe kInds oI c:, wIIcI ure LIe source oI beIng Ior
nuLuruI subsLunces oI greuLer compIexILy LIun LIe 'sImpIe nuLures` or
eIemenLs. TIe cIupLer Is dIvIded InLo Lwo overuII secLIons, LIe IIrsL
oI wIIcI presenLs LIe LIeoreLIcuI buckground by wIIcI ArIsLoLIe 'pre-
pures LIe ground` Ior IIs posILIve urgumenLuLIon In Iuvor oI IIgIer
c:,; LIIs urgumenLuLIon Is Iound boLI In LIe crILIcIsms oI LIe LIeo-
rIes proposed by LIe oc:oyo:, us weII us IIs exposILIon oI IIs pIysI-
cuI und meLupIysIcuI posILIons. TIe second secLIon expIores LIe vur-
Ious posILIve urgumenLs LIuL ArIsLoLIe udduces In Iuvor oI LIe neces-
sILy Lo posIL IIgIer c:, oI LIIs kInd. romLIese Lwo dIsLIncL uspecLs
oI IIs urgumenLuLIon, we cun sIow LIuL LIe SLugIrILe Ius deveIoped u
1o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
soIIdIounduLIonIor usserLIng LIe docLrIne oI 'IIgIer` c:, uguInsL LIe
vurIous conLemporury pIIIosopIers wIo urgued uguInsL IIm. n LIIs
cIupLer uIso expIore LIe Issue oI wIy ArIsLoLIe sLuLed LIuL IL Is un-
necessury (or even rIdIcuIous, 'ycooi`
8
) Lo demonsLruLe LIe exIsLence
oI c:,, und Iow LIIs uIIecLs LIe possIbIIILy oI u sysLemuLIc uccounL
oI LIe sorL deveIop Iere.
Notes on method
n LIIs dIsserLuLIon IoIIowwIuL E. AIurcn cuIIs u 'IermeneuLIc oI con-
sIsLency.`
q
TIIs InLerpreLuLIve meLIodoIogy ussumes us ILs deIuuIL posILIon
LIuL u pIIIosopIer Is consIsLenL wILI IImseII ucross IIs vurIous works und
ucross LIme, unIess LIere Is cIeur evIdence Lo LIe conLrury. TIIs Iermeneu-
LIc Is noL mereIy u personuI InLerpreLuLIve cIoIce, buL derIves Iromu deeper
requIremenL, numeIy LIuL IL be possIbIe Lo come Lo u deIensIbIe gIobuI InLer-
preLuLIon oI LIe pIIIosopIer In quesLIon. I we do noL ussume consIsLency
us u deIuuIL posILIon, uny IncoIerenL InLerpreLuLIon oI LIe pIIIosopIer be-
comes vuIId, even wIen LIe LexLs do noL supporL IL. urLIermore, LIere Is
no Ionger uny jusLIIIcuLIon Ior preIerrIng one InLerpreLuLIon over unoLIer
wIen one encounLers LexLs LIuL cIusI wILI one unoLIer. TIe IermeneuLIc
oI consIsLency gIves preIerence Lo LIuL InLerpreLuLIon wIIcI provIdes LIe
mosL consIsLenL InLerpreLuLIon oI LIe LexLs, wIIIe LukIng InLo consIderuLIon
wIuL Is known ubouL LIe uuLIor's docLrInuI deveIopmenL over LIme.
Bused on LIIs prIncIpIe, wIen IL Is uncIeur Iow one urgumenL or doc-
8
ArIsLoLIe, Phsics, 1qu.
q
PersonuI conversuLIon wILI EnrIque AIurcn, o8JoJzo1o.
11
nLroducLIon
LrIne IILs wILI unoLIer, gIve ArIsLoLIe 'LIe beneIIL oI LIe doubL,` ussum-
Ing LIuL Ie Is IundumenLuIIy coIerenL over LIe course oI IIs pIIIosopII-
cuI cureer, und LIuL LIe IuLer ArIsLoLIe dId noL deny crILIcuI docLrInes LIuL
Ie orIgInuIIy IormuIuLed In IIs eurIIesL perIod.
1o
L Is cIeur LIuL ArIsLoLIe
muInLuIned u subsLunLIuI InLeIIecLuuI IIexIbIIILy und u dedIcuLIon Lo conLIn-
uuI revIsIon oI IIs own LIeorIes, und we see LIuL In IuLer works Ie InLro-
duced concepLs und proposuIs LIuL IIL poorIy, II uL uII, wILI IIs eurIIer posI-
LIons. or exumpIe, InDn the Motion oj Animcls, we encounLer LIe concepL
oI nicc, wIIcI Is enLIreIy ubsenL Irom Dn the Soul, und Is Iurd Lo muke
compuLIbIe wILI LIe eurIIer LIeory. OLIer exumpIes oI LIIs kInd oI rework-
Ing oI IIs LIeorIes ure Iound LIrougIouL ArIsLoLIe`s works, buL unIess LIere
Is cIeur LexLuuI evIdence suggesLIng LIuL Ie Ius ubundoned u mujor eurIIer
docLrIne, LIe PrIncIpIe oI ConsIsLency jusLIIIes LIe uccordIng oI LIe beneIIL
oI LIe doubL Lo ArIsLoLIe, und ussumIng LIuL Ie IImseII beIIeved IImseII Lo
be deveIopIng or exLendIng IIs overuII docLrIne, und noL breukIng rudIcuIIy
wILI IIs 'younger seII.`
Iuve cIosen, IoIIowIng LIe udvIce oI my docLoruI udvIsor, Lo use cI-
LuLIons In Greek, ruLIer LIun cILIng EngIIsI LrunsIuLIons. WIIIe LIIs Ius
LIe eIIecL oI mukIng LIe presenLuLIon Iess eusIIy uccessIbIe, excepL Lo scIoI-
urs wILI exceIIenL reudIng knowIedge oI Greek (my own Greek Is suIIIcIenL
Lo reud ArIsLoLIe cjter un InILIuI reudIng In EngIIsI), IL Ius LIe udvunLuge
oI uvoIdIng errors oI InLerpreLuLIon cuused by LIe unuvoIdubIe dIsLorLIons
presenL Inuny LrunsIuLIon. IncIude, InunuppendIx uL LIe endoI LIIs sLudy,
1o
n purLIcuIur, LIe perIod LIuL Jueger ussIgns us beIng ArIsLoLIe`s perIod oI greuLesL
dedIcuLIon Lo LIe deveIopmenL oI IIs 'pIysIcs,` up Lo und uround q; B.C., jusL uILer Ie IeIL
LIe PIuLonIc Acudemy; cI. Jueger, Aristoteles: Grundleun, pp. z-6.
1z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LrunsIuLIons Ior uII LIe cILuLIons Iuve used (In EngIIsI, wIere possIbIe; In
LIe cuse oI cILuLIons Irom DIeIs, IncIude LIe Germun II no good EngIIsI
LrunsIuLIon Is uvuIIubIe). cILe Greek LexLs usIng LIe Greek uIpIubeL, IoI-
IowIng LIe prucLIce wIIcI Ius been LrudILIonuI In cIussIcuI und pIIIosopI-
IcuI sLudIes unLII very recenLIy. WIIIe some pIIIosopIers Iuve begun Lo
cILe Greek usIng u IuLInIzed speIIIng, Iuve reIruIned IromdoIng so, excepL
wIen LIe need Lo preserve LexLuuI cILuLIons Ius mude IL unuvoIdubIe.
Acknowledgements
InuIIy, In concIudIng LIIs nLroducLIon, wouId IIke Lo Luke LIe oppor-
LunILy Lo LIunk LIose wIo Iuve been especIuIIy ImporLunL In mukIng IL pos-
sIbIe Ior me Lo compIeLe LIIs dIsserLuLIon. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, wouId IIke
Lo ucknowIedge LIe debL oI gruLILude LIuL owe Lo Dr. EnrIque AIurcn,
my dIsserLuLIon dIrecLor, wIose IeIp und guIdunce Iuve been InvuIuubIe In
LIe deveIopmenL oI LIIs reseurcI projecL. SecondIy, wouId IIke Lo LIunk
LIe AssocIuLIon oI rIends oI LIe UnIversILy oI Nuvurru, wIIcI grucIousIy
provIded me wILI LIe scIoIursIIp LIuL mude my docLoruI sLudIes possI-
bIe. n uddILIon, LIunks go Lo LIe DepurLmenL oI PIIIosopIy Ior provIdIng
me wILI u posILIon us reseurcI ussIsLunL, und Ior provIdIng un ouLsLundIng
uLmospIere In wIIcI Lo pursue LIe 'Iove oI wIsdom.` wIsI Lo especIuIIy
ucknowIedge Drs. AIessundro GIIsuIberLI und eo EIders, wIo grucIousIy
evuIuuLed my dIsserLuLIon In uccordunce wILI LIe guIdeIInes Ior obLuInIng
LIe Europeun DocLoruLe menLIon Ior my dIpIomu. TIunks uIso go Lo Dr.
JuIme NubIoIu, uIso oI LIe DepL. oI PIIIosopIy, wIose guIdunce wus enor-
1
nLroducLIon
mousIy IeIpIuI durIng my perIod oI udupLuLIon Lo SpuIn, und wIose IrIend-
sIIp und good udvIce conLInue Lo be u greuL source oI supporL. InuIIy, sev-
eruI proIessors oI LIe UnIversILy oI Nuvurru provIded me wILI useIuI guId-
unce durIng LIe deveIopmenL oI LIIs DIsserLuLIon: Dr. AIejundro VIgo, Dr.
AIejundro Iuno, und Dr. ngeI uIs GonzuIez.
1q
1. The Seurch Ior the Zp_c
..., ocp, -, cco, p_, -:i, xc c-c, -o x:icc0c: xc pcc,
ci np_c: np-o, xc0' c- xc xc- co[c[px,. (Phsics,
1qzbzo-z)
ArIsLoLIe`s Iumous deIInILIon oI c:, us un p_ oI moLIon und resL In
subsLunces Is LIe cuImInuLIon oI more LIun u cenLury und u IuII oI Greek eI-
IorL Lo come Lo un undersLundIng oI LIe underIyIng mukeup oI LIe pIysIcuI
worId. TIIs cIupLer wIII InvesLIguLe LIe IIsLorIcuI buckground Lo ArIsLoLIe`s
own LIeory oI c:,, prIor Lo proceedIng Lo u sLudy oI c:, In LIe works oI
ArIsLoLIe IImseII, especIuIIy LIe Phsics.
n secLIon 1.1, provIde u brIeI overvIew oI LIe evoIuLIon oI LIe Lerm
c:, us u resuIL oI LIe eIIorLs oI LIe oc:oyo:, or uncIenL Greek muLerI-
uIIsL pIIIosopIers, Lo come Lo u unIIIed und non-myLIIcuI undersLundIng
oI LIe cosmos. n purLIcuIur, descrIbe Iow LIe noLIon oI c:, cume Lo
be used us u LecInIcuI Lerm by LIe nuLuruI pIIIosopIers oI LIe perIod pre-
cedIng ArIsLoLIe. n secLIon 1.z, provIde u more deLuIIed overvIew oI LIe
p_c
1
oI LIe pIysIcuI worId proposed by LIose IuLer oc:oyo: wIose LIeo-
1
use LIe Lerm 'p_` In ArIsLoLIe`s sense oI un IrreducIbIe IIrsL componenL oI LIIngs:
oc yp -, p_, -c c( oi cic: -c c( oi, xc cx -o-oi ni-c (Phsics, 188uz8).
AccordIng Lo A. VIgo (personuI conversuLIon, June 6, zo1o) 'p_` In LIIs sense Is u PerI-
puLeLIc Lerm, noL u PresocruLIc one, undLIuL supposedeurIIer uppeurunces oI LIe Lermused
In ArIsLoLIe`s sense ure eILIer mIsInLerpreLuLIons (us In LIe cuse oI AnuxImunder: cI. Ecrl
Greel Philosoph, ; n. 1, wIere BurneL poInLs ouL LIuL p_ Is beIng used us u LecInIcuI
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
rIes IIgure mosL promInenLIy InArIsLoLIe`s works: EmpedocIes, DemocrILus
und Anuxugorus. n secLIon 1., Iook uL ArIsLoLIe`s own LIeory ubouL LIe
p_c, und IowLIe p_c ure reIuLed Lo LIe noLIon oI c:,, IIgIIIgILIng Iow
ArIsLoLIe`s soIuLIonprovIdes LIe necessury Irumework wILIInwIIcI uny ud-
equuLe LIeory oI nuLure musL work. InuIIy, In secLIon 1., exumIne LIe
use oI LIe Lerm c:, In LIe brouder conLexL oI ArIsLoLIe`s compIeLe corpus,
IocusIng In purLIcuIur on LIe sense oI c:, us occ.
1.1 The evolotion oI the term 'c:,'
TIe Lerm c:, Ius u compIex IIsLory In Greek LIougIL. L Is derIved
IromLIe ndo-Europeun rooL bh.
z
TIIs rooL Ius LIe buse meunIng 'Lo be,
exIsL, grow,`

und munIIesLs In AncIenL Greek In severuI buse Iorms, IncIud-


Ing o ('Lo brIng IorLI, produce, puL IorLI`), o ('Iorm, |nobIe| sLuLure`),
und o ('ruce or LrIbe oI men`), us weII us c:,.
q
TIe meunIng oI c:,,
Iowever, Ius noL proved eusy Lo pIn down. EurIIer In LIe zoLI cenLury, LIe
compIexILy oI LIe Lerm wus noL uIwuys recognIzed, und IL wus common Lo
IInd wrILers on LIe subjecL uLLempLIng Lo gIve u sIngIe meunIng Lo LIe Lerm
Lerm by TIeopIrusLus, Irom wIom LIe cILuLIon uILImuLeIy comes, und LIuL AnuxImunder
wus noL cuIIIng -o nc:poi un p_; cI. uIso eszI, ArIsLoLIe on LIe UnILy oI PresocruLIc
PIIIosopIy, 6, n. ;), or eIse ure Iound In cILuLIons oI PresocruLIc uuLIors Iound In ArIs-
LoLIe`s works, us In LIe cuse oI HerucIILus (DIeIs und Krunz, DK, zzA; wIII IenceIorLI
cILe DIeIs und Krunz us DK). NeverLIeIess, LIe IucL LIuL LIe PresocruLIcs uere In seurcI oI
one or more IrreducIbIe IIrsL componenL(s) oI LIIngs meuns LIuL IL Is IegILImuLe, wILI ArIs-
LoLIe, Lo use LIe Lerm p_ wIen reIerrIng Lo LIe docLrInes oI LIe PresocruLIcs, provIded
one recognIzes LIuL LIeIr own LermInoIogy Is IIkeIy Lo Iuve been dIIIerenL.
z
NudduI, The Greel Concept oj Ncture, p. 1z.

PIckeLL, The Americcn Heritce Dictioncr oj the Enlish Lcnuce, AppendIx 1,


ndo-Europeun RooLs, enLry 'bheu-`.
q
IddeII und ScoLL, An Intermedicte Greel-Enlish Lexicon, enLrIes Ior o, o, o
und c:,, respecLIveIy.
16
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIuL wouId uppIy Lo uII ILs usuges umongsL LIe Pre-SocruLIcs. An exumpIe oI
LIIs Lendency Is Iound In BurneL, Greel Philosoph: Thcles to Plcto, p. z;,
wIere Ie usserLs LIuL umong Pre-SocruLIc uuLIors c:, meunL LIe purLIc-
uIur sLuII oI wIIcI u gIven LIIng Is mude, und LIuL LIIs orIgInuI sense oI
LIe Lerm excIuded LIe noLIon oI 'growLI` (cI. IbId, n. 1). SImIIurIy, und In
opposILIon Lo BurneL, CoIIIngwood usserLs LIuL
In our eurIIer documenLs oI Greek IILeruLure, c:, ... uIwuys
meuns someLIIng wILIIn, or InLImuLeIy beIongIng Lo, u LIIng,
wIIcIIs LIe source oI ILs beIuvIour. TIIs Is LIe onIy sense IL ever
beurs In LIe eurIIer Greek uuLIors, und remuIns LIrougIouL LIe
IIsLory oI Greek IILeruLure ILs normuI sense.

More recenL sLudIes, by GerurdNudduI undTomus CuIvoMurLinez, wIIIe


noL denyIng LIe conLrIbuLIons oI BurneL und CoIIIngwood, Iuve InLegruLed
LIeIr cIuIms InLo un overurcIIng LIeory ubouL LIe compIex seL oI InLerre-
IuLed meunIngs LIuL c:, ucquIred umongsL LIe Pre-SocruLIcs, uII derIvIng
Irom un uncIenL 'IocuI meunIng` oI 'growLI` or 'bIrLI.`
6
n broud sLrokes, we
cun IdenLIIy Lwo generuI Lypes oI usuges: In LIe IIrsL pIuce, u purLIcuIurIzed
use, wIere LIe InvesLIguLIon resoIves uround LIe c:, oj some pcrticu-
lcr thin, und In LIe second pIuce, u unIversuIIzed use, wIere LIere Is un
uLLempL Lo deveIop u progrum oI sLudy ncp cco,, wIIcI exLends Lo LIe
LoLuIILy oI exIsLIng LIIngs.

CoIIIngwood, The Idec oj Ncture, p. qq


6
CI. CuIvo MurLinez, u nocIn de phsis, p. 6 und NudduI, The Greel Concept oj
Ncture, p. 1z.
1;
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
TIe IIrsL munner oI usIng LIe Lerm preduLes pIIIosopIIcuI InquIry per
se, occurrIng us IL does In Ddsse X, o, wIere Hermes uIds Odysseus
by oIIerIng IIm un Ierb (moIy) LIuL wouId counLerucL LIe eIIecLs oI CIrce's
poLIon, wIIcI Iud Lurned LIe resL oI IIs men InLo pIgs. Hermes sIows
IIm LIe c:, oI LIe moIy pIunL, expIuInIng Iow IL wIII work Lo proLecL IIm
Irom CIrce`s wIIes. CuIvo MurLinez usks wIuL IL Is LIuL Hermes Ius sIown
Odysseus In sIowIng IIm ILs c:,, und unswers LIuL Iemos de enLender
que Ie mosLruriu o expIIcuriu su composIcIn, su constitucin, pero Lum-
bIn, sIn dudu, sus vIrLudes o propiedcdes cctitcs, puesLo que de un Iur-
muco se LruLu.
;
n conLrusL Lo ILs uppeurunce, LIe c:, oI LIe moIy pIunL
Is wIuL LIe LIIng Is reuIIy, quc LIe source oI ILs ucLIve properLIes.
8
1.1.1 1c:, us p_
Over LIe course oI LIe deveIopmenL oI Pre-SocruLIc pIIIosopIy, LIere Is
uddILIonuIIy u cIeur deveIopmenL oI LIe noLIon oI c:, Lowurds LIe sense
oI 'prIncIpIe` or 'IundumenLuI buIIdIng bIock` (c:, us p_ oI currenLIy ex-
IsLIng LIIngs), In Lerms oI wIIcI LIe surIuce uppeurunce und ucLIvILIes oI un
objecL cun be expIuIned.
q
A noLubIe cIurucLerIsLIc oI LIe Pre-SocruLIcs Is
LIeIr InLeresL In IdenLIIyIng one or severuI p_c oI LIIs sorL, IncIudIng LIe
;
CuIvo MurLinez, u nocIn de phsis, p. z.
8
n conLrusL, NudduI InLerpreLs LIIs occurrence oI c:, In Homer us un ucLIon noun,
wILI LIe meunIng oI 'growLI, bIrLI`; see NudduI, p. 1z, cILIng Burger (1qz). n LIIs cuse,
sIde wILI CuIvo MurLinez; see no grounds Ior InLerpreLIng c:, In LIIs pussuge us sIgnI-
IyIng 'growLI` or 'bIrLI`.
q
TIIs sense oI c:, Is cIoseIy reIuLed Lo ArIsLoLIe`s sense oI LIe Lerm us IndIcuLIng u
'purL` oI u nuLuruI subsLunce, sInce c:, Is no Ionger IndIcuLIng LIe LoLuIILy oI LIe LIIng,
buL ruLIer ILs deeper, und presumubIy Lruer, componenLs. dIscuss ArIsLoLIe`s use oI LIIs
sense oI c:, In secLIon 1.q.z.
18
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
wuLer oI TIuIes, LIe nc:poi oI AnuxImunder, LIe Iour eIemenLs oI Empedo-
cIes und LIe '-oo:` oI DemocrILus. SInce LIe worId und LIe LIIngs exIsLIng
In IL ure consLrucLed oI one or severuI muLerIuI eIemenLs, LIese LIInkers
couId derIve LIe concIusIon LIuL LIe dIversILy oI LIe presenL order Is noL
Irom eLernILy, buL Ius evoIved Irom someLIIng rudIcuIIy sImpIer uL u pur-
LIcuIur poInL In LIme.
1o
We see LIIs sense oI c:, In sucI wrILers us HerucIILus, wIere Ie speuks
oI LIe power oI IIs yo, Lo sLrIp LIIngs down Lo LIeIr deepesL nuLures,
11
In
PIIIoIuus, wIo speuks oI LIe 'genuIne nuLure` oI LIe 'unIImILed,` 'souIIess`
und 'mIndIess` us beIng 'LIe IuIse` und 'envy,`
1z
und In DemocrILus, wIere Ie
conLrusLs LIe convenLIonuIILy oI quuIILIes wILI LIeIr 'Lrue nuLure` us uLoms
und voId: no:-p-c, oc io: cic:, cc: o' -oc xc xcii.
1
n LIese cILu-
LIons, c:, Is Luken us wIuL Is 'LruIy exIsLenL` In LIe beIng, I.e. ILs genuIne
componenLs, us opposed Lo ILs composILe 'uppeurunce` Lo LIe senses or In-
LeIIIgence. Here, c:, Is cIeurIy un p_, In LIe sense oI IdenLIIyIng LIe
sLubIe rooL componenL(s) oI LIe LIIng.
By knowIng LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI LIIs p_ (or p_c) LIe pIysIcIsL muy
peneLruLe pusL LIe surIuce uppeurunce oI dIversILy und uLLuIn Lo u sIngIe,
unIversuI expIunuLIon oI observed pIenomenu bused on LIe wuys In wIIcI
LIe p_ (or p_c) munIIesLs ILs Inner dynumIsm. KnowIng wIuL u LIIng
reuIIy Is InvoIves knowIng LIIs p_, wIIcI Is c:, IdenLIIIed noL now prI-
1o
GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , p. 8.
11
y:ioioi yp ni-oi xc- -i yoi -ioc ncpo:c:i coxcc:, nc:pcio: xc cnoi xc
cpyoi -o:o-oi, xooi cy o:pycc: xc- c:i o:c:poi cxcc-oi xc poi xo, c_c:,
DKzzB1, 6-8.
1z
-, - ncpo xc io-o xc yo c:o, - coo, xc 0io, cc-, DKqq11, 1o.
1
As cILed by SImpIIcIus In IIs CommenLury on ArIsLoLeIe`s De ccelo, quoLed In DK68A1,
q;.
1q
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
murIIy us growLI, buL ruLIer us Iow LIe 'buIIdIng bIocks` muke up u com-
pound beIng uL ILs currenL momenL oI exIsLence (uILIougI growLI remuIns
ImpIIcIL In LIe noLIon, us ArIsLoLIe noLes uL Phsics 1qb1z).
1q
TIIs Is LIe
busIs Ior LIe senses oI c:, us p_ wIIcI we encounLer In LIe works oI
ArIsLoLIe.
1.1. 1c:, us 'soorce oI operutions'
A second IdenLIIIubIe sense oI c:, In LIe Pre-SocruLIcs Is us 'source oI
moLIon,` u sense wIIcI Is exLremeIy cIose Lo ArIsLoLIe`s IuIIy precIse deIInI-
LIon In LIe Phsics. TIIs sense oI LIe Lerm Is buIIL upon LIe senses jusL de-
scrIbed, InsoIur us c:, us source oI moLIon Is precIseIy LIe moLIon wIIcI
Is cIurucLerIsLIc oI LIuL beIng quc ILs kInd, I.e. LIuL moLIon wIIcI proceeds
Irom ILs reuI cIurucLer or rooL. TIIs Is cIeurIy u sense wIIcI derIves Irom
LIe prImordIuI sense oI c:, us process oI growLI, menLIoned ubove; IL Is,
IurLIermore, u nuLuruI deveIopmenL IromLIe sense oI c:, us p_ us weII,
sInce IL Is precIseIy LIe rooL or reuI cIurucLer oI u LIIng LIuL deLermInes Iow
IL wIII deveIop und ucL.
TIIs sense oI LIe Lerm c:, Is quILe common In LIe Pre-SocruLIcs und
IuLer nuLuruI pIIIosopIers. DIeIs und Krunz IIsLs 68 occurrences oI c:, In
LIe sense oI 'Ncturlrcjt` or 'Ncturcnlce`; oI LIese, 6z ure Irom pIIIoso-
pIers or wrILers conLemporury wILI or eurIIer LIun ArIsLoLIe. or InsLunce,
DemocrILus compures c:, wILI LeucIIng, becuuse LIey Iuve sImIIur eI-
IecLs InucLIon: c:, xc o:oc_ ncpcnc:i cc-:. xc yp o:oc_ c-cpoco
1q
NudduI, p. 1.
zo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
-i i0ponoi, c-cpococc oc oc:ono:c.
1
GorgIus, In u sImIIur munner,
cIurucLerIzes c:, us LIe ubsoIuLeIy InescupubIe cuuse oI deuLI und decuy
presenL In uII LIIngs: ci xc-pyopc xc nooyc xpc:, o ncp 0ci-oo
yyicc0c:| 0ic-oi ci yp c:, cicp: -: o: ni-oi xc-cpcc-o -i
0ip-i...
16
InuIIy, HerucIILus cIurucLerIzes c:, us LIe guIde or source oI
ucLIvILy LIuL Ieuds Lo IeuILI: copoici pc- cyc-p, xc cop p0c yc:i
xc no:ci xc- c:i cncoi-c,.
1;
TIus, by LIe LIme oI ArIsLoLIe, u sense oI c:, Iud deveIoped wIIcI Is
very cIose Lo LIuL wIIcI Ie deIInes expIIcILIy uL Phsics, 1qzbzo-z. WIen
ArIsLoLIe Lukes up LIe cIuIIenge oI deveIopIng u compIeLe LIeory oI LIe
prIncIpIes oI mobIIe beIng, Ie Is ubIe Lo muke use oI u LermInoIogy LIuL
Ius uIreudy been In deveIopmenL sInce LIe LIme oI Homer, und wIIcI Iud
wIdespreud uccepLunce umong LIe pIIIosopIers wILI wIom Ie wus In dIu-
Iogue (uILIougILIe use oI LIe Lermc:, Is noL uLLesLedInuII oI LIe oc:oyo:).
TIIs sense Is LIuL oI c:, us un p_ deLermInIng u LIIng`s 'reuI consLILu-
LIon,` und wIIcI Is LIe source oI LIe cIurucLerIsLIc ucLIvILIes oI LIe beIng (or
cIuss oI beIngs) In quesLIon; In some cuses LIIs 'reuI consLILuLIon` wus In-
LerpreLed In u reducLIonIsL sense, wIereus In oLIer cuses no reducLIonIsm
seems Lo be ImpIIed.
1
DKB.
16
DK8zB11u, 1-z.
1;
DKzzB11z. TIe sense oI c:, us 'rooL` or 'reuI cIurucLer` Is uIso noLubIe Iere, sIowIng
LIe deep connecLIon beLween LIe Lwo senses.
z1
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
1.1. The ncp cco, uccoonts
A IInuI sense oI c:, begIns Lo uppeur wILI LIe emergence oI Greek nuL-
uruI pIIIosopIy In onIu: LIIs Is LIe sense uIreudy IdenLIIIed ubove wIIcI
uses c:, us u synonymIor LIe LoLuIILy oI reuIILy us u wIoIe.
18
onIu Is LIe
bIrLIpIuce oI LIe so-cuIIed ncp cco, uccounL, wIose sLrucLure wouId be
IoIIowedby numerous nuLuruI pIIIosopIers upLIrougILIe LIme oI SocruLes,
wIo uLLended LIe IecLures oI ArcIeIuos, one oI LIe IusL oI LIe oc:oyo:.
1q
TIese uccounLs uLLempLed Lo provIde u nuLuruIIsLIc expIunuLIon Ior LIe gen-
esIs, muLerIuI composILIon, deveIopmenL und IInuI sLuLe oI LIe worId us we
know IL: us CuIvo MurLinez puLs IL, eI progrumu de Iu InvesLIgucIn ncp
cco, IncIuiu, sIn dudu, Lodos esLos eIemenLos por Io que se reIIere u Iu
LoLuIIdud de Io exIsLenLe.
zo
TIe IIrsL work oI LIIs Lype LIuL we know oI Is LIe IosL Hcp cco, oI
AnuxImunder. We Iuve onIy u sIngIe preserved IrugmenL oI LIIs work, buL
enougI doxogrupIIc menLIons exIsL Lo enubIe us Lo geL u sense oI LIe sLruc-
Lure und conLenL oI LIe work, und Lo see Iow LIe Lerm c:, Ius ucquIred u
LrIpIe meunIng by LIe LIme oI LIe eurIy onIuns. AnuxImunder`s Hcp cco,
esLubIIsIed u durubIe modeI Ior subsequenL works oI LIe sume Lype, Inso-
Iur us IL wus u wIde-rungIng uLLempL Lo provIde un expIunuLIon oI LIe c:,
oI 'uII LIIngs` (- ni-c), In Lerms oI ILs orIgIn (c:, us ubsoIuLe p_), LIe
sLuges oI ILs evoIuLIon (c:, us process oI growLI) und LIe resuILIng xco,
us we know IL (c:, us resuIL).
z1
18
CI. CuIvo MurLinez, u nocIn de phsis, p. ;.
1q
BurneL, Greel Philosoph: Thcles to Plcto, pp. 1zq-z.
zo
CuIvo MurLinez, u nocIn de phsis, p. 6.
z1
NudduI, The Greel Concept oj Ncture, p. 6q.
zz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
oIIowIng on LIe modeI oI AnuxImunder, eurIy uccounLs oI LIe Hcp
cco, Lype Lended Lo provIde LIree mujor kInds oI InIormuLIon ubouL LIe
cosmos, correspondIng Lo LIese LIree uspecLs oI c:, Luken unIversuIIy: u
cosmogony or uccounL oI LIe orIgIn oI LIe unIverse, un expIunuLIon oI Iow
LIe unIverse couIddeveIop(or grow) IromLIIs sLurLIng poInL, undu descrIp-
LIon oI IowLIe currenL sLuLe oI LIIngs Is LIe necessury resuIL oI LIIs growLI
process (IncIudIng, In some cuses, un uccounL oI LIe IormuLIon oI Iumun
socIeLy).
zz
AccordIng Lo NudduI, oLIer Pre-SocruLIcs wIo IoIIowed LIIs puL-
Lern IncIuded XenopIunes,
z
LIe PyLIugoreuns,
zq
HerucIILus,
z
Empedo-
cIes,
z6
und LIe ALomIsLs.
z;
n u depurLure Irom LrudILIonuI InLerpreLuLIons,
NudduI uIso sees LIe second purL oI PurmenIdes` poem us u genuIne Hcp
cco, uccounL, presumubIy represenLIng u reuIIsLIc uccounL oI LIe worId
oI morLuIs, despILe LIIs uccounL IuvIng un epIsLemIc sLuLus wIIcI Is LIuL oI
opInIon und noL LruLI.
z8
NudduI LIus sees LIe LrIpurLILe concepL oI c:,
us underIyIng und sLrucLurIng LIe umbILIous sysLems oI unIversuI expIunu-
LIon deveIoped by LIe Pre-SocruLIcs: LIe senses oI c:, us orIgIn, growLI
und IInuI resuIL remuIn sLrongIy presenL, muInLuInIng u cIeur IInkuge Lo LIe
prImordIuI meunIng oI c:, us 'growLI` or 'bIrLI.`
zz
NudduI, 6q; cI. uIso p. zo.
z
NudduI, p. 11.
zq
NudduI, p. 1z.
z
NudduI, 1z8II.
z6
NudduI, 1qzII.
z;
NudduI, pp. 1-6.
z8
NudduI, p. 16.
z
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
1.1.q Conclosions uboot the senses oI c:,
PrIor LoproceedIng Lou dIscussIonoI LIe concreLe LIeorIes oI LIe oc:oyo:,
IL Is worLI LukIng u momenL Lo Iook uL LIe concIusIons we cun druw Irom
LIIs dIscussIon oI LIe evoIuLIon oI LIe senses oI c:,. TIe IIrsL sense we
Iooked uL Is LIuL oI wIIcI we see presenL uIreudy In Homer: c:, us LIe
'nuLure oI u LIIng, wILI uII ILs properLIes,` wIIcI corresponds rougIIy Lo
ArIsLoLIe`s sense oI c:, us - - i cic:, I.e. us LIe LoLuIILy oI LIe 'wIuL-
ness` oI u mobIIe beIng us expressed In ILs deIInILIon. A second sense wIIcI
we encounLer In LIe Pre-SocruLIcs Is c:, us p_, IIgIIIgILIng LIe 'IIdden
componenLs` beIInd our sensIbIe experIence oI nuLuruI subsLunces. TIIs
sense corresponds, uguIn rougIIy, Lo LIe sense oI c:, us LIe muLerIuI purL
oI u mobIIe beIng wIIcI Is unuIyzed In LIe IIrsL Lwo books oI LIe Phsics,
us we sIuII soon see. A LIIrd IdenLIIIubIe sense Is LIuL wIIcI IIgIIIgILs LIe
wuy In wIIcI LIe 'reuI consLILuLIon` (eILIer In Lerms oI ILs componenL purLs,
or In Lerms oI ILs essence) produces LIe cIurucLerIsLIc ucLIvILy oI LIe beIngs
oI our worId; LIIs sense Is cIeurIy reIuLed Lo ArIsLoLIe`s deIInILIon oI c:,
us u prIncIpIe oI moLIon und resL. TIe IInuI sense LIuL we Iuve Iooked uL
Is LIuL wIIcI uccounLs Ior LIe conLenL und orIenLuLIon oI Hcp cco, uc-
counLs, us LIe 'orIgIn, growLI und IInuI resuIL` oI cosmIc processes und LIeIr
consLILuenL eIemenLs. DescrIpLIon In LIese Lerms Is LIe Iocus oI LIe new
'scIence` oI specuIuLIon ubouL LIe nuLuruI worId.
TIus, we cun druw LIe concIusIon LIuL LIe vurIous senses oI c:, LIuL
exIsL In LIe ArIsLoLeIIun corpus In IucL precede ArIsLoLIe IImseII, und LIuL
ArIsLoLIe`s ucIIevemenL wus precIseIy Lo reIuLe uII LIese senses oI LIe Lerm
zq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
wILIIn u sIngIe, overurcIIng LIeory oI 'pIysIcs` buIIL upon LIe buse oI IIs
meLupIysIcuI dIscoverIes. Upon begInnIng our cIoser sLudy oI ArIsLoLIe`s
own LIeorIes, begInnIng In secLIon 1., we wIII see In deLuII Iow Ie InLe-
gruLes LIese senses oI c:, InLo IIs sysLem, und In LIe process reIInIng
LIem und gIvIng LIem scIenLIIIc deIInILIons.
1. The theories oI Impedocles, Anuxugorus und the Atomists
ArIsLoLIe wus IIgIIy knowIedgeubIe ubouL IIs predecessors, LIe oc:oyo:,
und quoLed LIem exLensIveIy In IIs vurIous works on nuLuruI pIIIosopIy
und In LIe Metcphsics. ndeed, muny oI LIe exLunL IrugmenLs oI LIeIr
oLIerwIse IosL works ure IromexLensIve quoLuLIons or purupIruses In ArIs-
LoLIe`s wrILIngs. WIIIe crILIcuI oI LIeIr errors, Ie neverLIeIess wus ubIe Lo
deveIop IIs own LIeorIes by 'sLundIng on LIe sIouIders oI gIunLs.` n LIIs
secLIon, wIII provIde u brIeI buckground Lo LIose oI LIe oc:oyo: wIose
rIvuI LIeorIes oI LIe nuLuruI worId were oI greuLesL ImporLunce Lo ArIsLo-
LIe.
zq
TIe pIIIosopIers wIII dIscuss ure Anuxugorus, EmpedocIes und LIe
ALomIsLs (prImurIIy IocusIng on DemocrILus, sInce we reLuIn so IILLIe con-
cernIng eucIppus).
o
TIIs sLudy Is noL InLended us un exIuusLIve InvesLI-
guLIon oI LIese pIIIosopIers. RuLIer, In LIIs secLIon wIII IIgIIIgIL boLI
zq
AILIougI NudduI InLerpreLs PurmenIdes us u oc:oyo,, InsoIur us LIe second purL oI
IIs Iumous poem conLuIns u subsLunLIuI Hcp cco, uccounL (cI. NudduI, pp. 1q-qo),
ArIsLoLIe does noL normuIIy urgue uguInsL LIe LIeory oI nuLure oI PurmenIdes, buL ruLIer
uguInsL IIs denIuI oI LIe possIbIIILy oI cIunge due Lo LIe ubsoIuLe unILy und ImmobIIILy oI
beIng (cI. Phsics, 18u1-zo); LIus, wIII prImurIIy dIscuss PurmenIdes In LIe conLexL oI
ArIsLoLIe`s reIuLuLIon oI LIe Iormer`s monIsLIc LIeory oI beIng.
o
TIese pIIIosopIers Iuve been Lermed by Wurdy (wIo Is IoIIowed by GruIumund oLI-
ers) 'EIeuLIc pIuruIIsLs,` InsoIur us LIey uccepL LIe busIc Lerms oI LIe EIeuLIc urgumenL, In
purLIcuIur LIuL in truth noLIIng comes InLo or goes ouL oI exIsLence, Wurdy, EIeuLIc PIu-
ruIIsm, p. 1z.
z
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
LIeIr proposuIs Ior LIe p_c oI LIe pIysIcuI worId, us weII us LIose uspecLs
oI LIeIr LeucIIngs wIIcI ArIsLoLIe dIscusses us IuvIng been serIous rIvuIs
Lo LIe docLrInes proposed In IIs own 'pIysIcs.` n LIIs wuy, my IuLer dIs-
cussIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs wIII Iuve LIe necessury buckground Ior un
undersLundIng oI Iow Ie dIIIers Irom IIs predecessors, und Iow IIs own
proposuIs consLILuLe un ImporLunL Ieup Iorwurd In LIe undersLundIng oI LIe
pIysIcuI worId.
1..1 Impedocles
EmpedocIes Is LIe mosL IrequenLIy cILed Pre-SocruLIc pIIIosopIer In LIe
ArIsLoLeIIun corpus, beIng dIrecLIy reIerred Lo over 16o LImes. WIIIe IIs
docLrInes do noL gurner LIe pruIse LIuL DemocrILus Is gIven,
1
ArIsLoLIe ob-
vIousIy consIders IIm Lo be u worLIy opponenL, und Lukes IIs LeucIIngs
very serIousIy. EmpedocIes uppeurs Lo Iuve been LIe IIrsL mujor nuLuruI
pIIIosopIer Lo uLLempL Lo InLegruLe LIe uppurenLIy IrreIuLubIe urgumenLs
oI PurmenIdes on LIe ImpossIbIIILy oI cIunge.
z
He uIso uLLempLed Lo de-
veIop u compIeLe uccounL oI uII uspecLs oI LIe worId, Irom LIe LrudILIonuI
LopIcs oI Hcp cco, uccounLs (I.e. u cosmogony, u IIsLory oI LIe unIverse
und un expIunuLIon oI LIe currenL sLrucLure oI LIe worId

), Lo un uccounL
oI LIe IIIe processes oI unImuIs, Iumun sensuLIon und cognILIon, und eLII-
cuI und spIrILuuI Issues. TIus, EmpedocIes Is LIe provIder oI un InLegruLed
uccounL oI LIe worId wIIcI Is neurIy us wIde-rungIng und umbILIous us LIuL
1
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zqbz-.
z
CI. GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , pp. 18-q.

CI. NudduI, p. 6q.


z6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
oI ArIsLoLIe.
TIere ure u number oI mujor LopIcs wILIInEmpedocIes`s sysLemLowIIcI
ArIsLoLIe puys specIuI uLLenLIon, eucI oI wIIcI wIII descrIbe brIeIIy In Lurn.
TIe mosL InIIuenLIuI docLrIne oI EmpedocIes Is perIups IIs LIeory oI LIe
Iour 'rooLs` or busIc prIncIpIes oI uII LIIngs In LIe cosmos, u LIeory wIIcI
ArIsLoLIe boLI pruIses (Ior ILs eIegunce, expIunuLory power und sImpIIcILy
q
)
und buIIds upon, In IIs own LIeory oI LIe Iour c-o:_cc or 'sImpIe bodIes.`
EmpedocIes sLuLes LIe LIeory oI LIe Iour eIemenLs In rugmenL 6, -cccpc
yp ni-oi :c-c np-oi xooc Zc, py, pp -c cpc[:o, o' Z:ooic,
Nc-, 0', ocxpo:, -yyc: xpoioc [p-c:oi,

cIuImIng LIuL cll LIIngs ure


mude up oI LIese 'rooLs` uIone: cx -o-oi yp ni0' cc -' i cc -' cc-: xc
cc-c:.
6
TIIs docLrIne, uccordIng Lo GuLIrIe, Is EmpedocIes`s uLLempL Lo
reLuIn PurmenIdes`s busIc InsIgIL LIuL LIuL wIIcI Is, cunnoL ceuse Lo be
;
;
LIese Iour 'rooLs` ure eLernuI, eucI oI LIemreLuInIng ILs purLIcuIur cIurucLer
or 'oIIIce` Ior uII LIme.
8
TIe Iour 'rooLs` pIuy LIe roIe oI p_c In Empedo-
cIes`s sysLem, sInce LIere Is noLIIng more busIc, und uII eIse Is buIIL Irom
LIem.
q
CI. Dn the Hectens, ozbzo-o.

DK1B6. wIII cILe uII IrugmenLs oI EmpedocIes usIng LIe numberIng Iound In DIeIs
und Krunz (1q6q edILIon).
6
DK1Bz1.
;
More commonIy Iowever LIe Iunguuge oI PurmenIdes Is recuIIed Lo sIow Iow Iur
EmpedocIes Is prepured Lo go wILI IIm. He uccepLs LIe sLuLemenLs LIuL noLIIng cun come
ouL oI noLIIng, und LIuL wIuL exIsLs cunnoL perIsI; LIe sum oI beIng Is consLunL, GuLIrIe,
A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , p. 1q. CI. uIso NudduI, The Greel Concept oj
Ncture, p. 1q1, WIen exumInIng EmpedocIes` poem Peri phuseos, LIe IIrsL LIIng oI noLe
Is LIuL Ie cIeurIy wunLs Lo uccommoduLe LIe consequences oI PurmenIdes` wuy oI LruLI.
n IucL, EmpedocIes ucLuuIIy cusLIguLes IIs conLemporurIes und predecessors Ior IuIIIng Lo
recognIze LIe new sIne quu non oI uny peri phuseos uccounL: LIuL noLIIng cun come InLo
exIsLence Irom wIuL dId noL prevIousIy exIsL.
8
DK1B1;, z;-.
z;
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
EmpedocIes, Iowever, wus noL u mun Lo deny LIe pIenomenu; Indeed,
Ie wus InLenseIy Immersed In LIe worId und u cIose observer, especIuIIy
In LIe reuIm oI medIcIne.
q
TIe IucL oI cIunge, LIen, cunnoL be denIed,
buL musL be expIuIned. EmpedocIes`s soIuLIon wus Lo propose LIuL cIunge
couId be expIuIned wILIouL denyIng LIe cIungeIessness oI wIuL LruIy Is, by
posLuIuLIng 'sepuruLIon` und 'uggreguLIon`
qo
us processes LIuL produce mIx-
Lures
q1
uccordIng Lo 'ruLIos` wIIcI uccounL Ior LIe pecuIIur cIurucLer oI eucI
resuILIng uggreguLe.
qz
n order Lo uccounL Ior LIe observed moLIon und (up-
purenL) generuLIon oI pIysIcuI beIngs, und gIven LIuL LIe Iour 'rooLs` Iuve
no proper moLIonoI LIeIr own,
q
EmpedocIes proposes IIs Lwo Iumous unI-
versuI Iorces, 'ove` und 'SLrIIe,` wIIcI ure coeLernuI wILI LIe Iour 'rooLs`
und cuuse uggreguLIon und sepuruLIon, respecLIveIy:
-o-o ci i [po-oi coi p:ocxc-oi yxoi
o-c ci 1:-p-: coicp_ci' c, i nci-c
yoc, - cc oy_c, [oo 0c0oi-o, ci x:
o-c o' c-c xcx:c: o:c-p0i-' poccc:
nc-c: io:_' cxcc-c ncppppyi: [o:o.
qq
A mujor ImpIIcuLIon oI EmpedocIes`s LIeory Is LIuL LIere ure no Lrue
'IIgIer` beIngs or subsLunces; LIere Is no Lrue 'comIng-Lo-be,` or c:, In
EmpedocIes`s own LermInoIogy (yicc:, In ArIsLoLIe`s LermInoIogy): o
q
CI. GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , p. 1z-.
qo
DK1Bzo.
q1
DK1B8.
qz
As InLerpreLed by ArIsLoLIe, In Dn the Pcrts oj Animcls, 6qzu1;II.
q
TIIs Ideu seems Lo be conLrudIcLed by rugmenL 6z, DK1B6z, buL ArIsLoLIe uppeurs
Lo ussume LIuL ove und SLrIIe ure LIe onIy sources oI moLIon In EmpedocIes`s LIeory; cI.
Phsics, zobz6-z1u.
qq
DK1Bzo.
z8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
o -o: cpo c:, ooci, cc-:i ni-oi 0ip-i... ioi (:, -c o:c(, -c
:yi-oi cc-, c:, o' cn -o, ioc-c: i0pno:c:i.
q
n purLIcuIur, sup-
posedIIgIer-IeveI pIenomenu, sucIus 'nuLures` or gouI-orIenLedbeIuvIor,
cun be expIuIned In Lerms oI LIe necessury beIuvIor oI LIe eIemenLs
q6
und
rundom urrungemenLs produced by cIunce.
q;
TIIs rudIcuI reducLIonIsm
seems Lo ImpIy LIe ImpossIbIIILy oI LIe comIng-Lo-be oI LIe IIgIIy com-
pIex beIngs we see uround us, especIuIIy orgunIsms; In order Lo uccounL Ior
LIe deveIopmenL oI beIngs sucI us cows und Iumuns, Ie posLuIuLed un In-
genIous LIeory oI 'nuLuruI seIecLIon,` wIereby 'oxen-Iuced men` und oLIer
rundom jumbIes oI orguns urose
q8
due Lo LIe Iong process oI LIe sepuru-
LIon oI LIe eIemenLs Irom LIe One.
qq
ArIsLoLIe Is our source Ior Empedo-
cIes`s Ideu oI LIe 'survIvuI oI LIe IILLesL,` wIIcI Is noL uLLesLed dIrecLIy In uny
IrugmenL. AccordIng Lo LIIs LIeory, onIy LIose uggIomeruLed beIngs wIIcI
were 'IIL` Ior survIvIng dId so, wIereus LIe 'unIIL` dIed oII, IeuvIng us wILI
LIe runge oI unImuIs we knowLoduy: cc oc o-o,, nc-o xc no-c:,
xc0ncp ncoox, yc: - [ooyci iopnppc.
o
AIInuI uspecL oI EmpedocIes`s pIysIcuI LIeory Is IIs usserLIon LIuL wIIIe
LIe eIemenLs or 'rooLs` embody LIe cici-c or opposILe quuIILIes LIuL ure
uL LIe buse oI LIe observed cIurucLerIsLIcs oI nuLuruI beIngs,
1
IL Is pre-
cIseIy lile LIuL uIIecLs IIke, und noL LIuL wIIcI Is dIIIerenL or opposILe: ,
q
DK1B8.
q6
GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , p. 16II.
q;
EmpedocIes expIuIns LIe comIng Lo be oI LIe eye us beIng by -_c (DK1B8), und
ArIsLoLIe Lukes LIIs urgumenL up exLensIveIy In Book oI LIe Phsics.
q8
DK1B61.
qq
CI. DK1B1;.
o
Phsics, 1q8b1;-bq.
1
CI. DK1B6, ci o' c_0p xc0cpoc: - ci -c0ooc: yoicxc,, _co, i-:cci-c, - o'
cnc:i ppcic 0cpo|.
zq
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
yox ci yox pn-c, n:xpi o' cn n:xpi poocci, ( o' cn' ( c[p, occpi
o' cno_c-o ocpp:.
z
TIIs muLuuI InIIuence oI IIke upon IIke uccounLs Ior
sucI pIenomenu sucI us vIsIon, wIereby IIgIL emunuLes Irom LIe eye, und
meeLs wILI 'eIIIuence`-emILLIng objecLs In LIe worId, LIus cuusIng LIe sen-
suLIon oI 'seeIng` In LIe mInd.

n LIe sume IrugmenL (8q) EmpedocIes


uIso InLroduces un ImporLunL 'udjusLmenL` Lo IIs LIeory: sInce LIere Is no
voId
q
LIe IIgIL musL Ieuve LIe eye LIrougI pores In ILs surIuce. TIe LIeory
oI pores Is uIso one LIuL ArIsLoLIe Lukes up, buL wILI ImporLunL modIIIcu-
LIons, us we sIuII see IuLer, In LIe dIscussIon oI conLucL und communIcuLIon
oI Iorm (p. 1z).
1.. Anuxugorus
Anuxugorus oI CIuzomenue Is u pIIIosopIer Ior wIomwe Iuve subsLun-
LIuIIy Iess dIrecL LexLuuI evIdence; In Die Ircmente der Vorsolrctiler oI
DIeIs und Krunz, onIy some zz IrugmenLs oI IIs wrILIngs ure uLLesLed, us
uguInsL 161 Ior EmpedocIes. NeverLIeIess, Ie wus un ImporLunL LIInker In
LIe eyes oI ArIsLoLIe, wIo reIers Lo IImmore LIunu IundredLImes LIrougI-
ouL IIs works. ArIsLoLIe does noL uIwuys sIowus mucIrespecL Ior Anuxugo-
rus`s pIIIosopIIcuI conLrIbuLIons us Ior LIose oI EmpedocIes, und on sev-
eruI occusIons uses IIm us un exumpIe oI u LIInker wIo, wIIIe creuLIve,
wus noneLIeIess unwIIIIng or unubIe Lo LIInk LIrougI LIe ImpIIcuLIons oI
z
DK1Bqo.

DK1B8q.
q
CI. DK1B1.
o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IIs own docLrInes.

DespILe LIIs someLImes crILIcuI uLLILude, u number oI


LIe Ideus oI Anuxugorus IeuLure promInenLIy In LIe SLugIrILe`s dIscussIons
oI eurIIer LIeorIes, und on severuI occusIons ArIsLoLIe Lukes LIe LIme Lo re-
IuLe LIe posILIons oI Anuxugorus dIrecLIy. wIII LoucI brIeIIy, LIereIore,
on LIose uspecLs oI Anuxugorus`s docLrIne wIIcI wIII IeIp Lo puL ArIsLoLIe`s
dIscussIons In conLexL.
TIe IIrsL AnuxugorIun docLrIne oI InLeresL Is IIs LIeory oI 'comIng Lo
be` und 'pussIng uwuy` us sepuruLIon und uggreguLIon, mucI IIke LIe LIe-
ory oI EmpedocIes: ooci yp _pc yyic-c: ooc no-c:, ' n ci-oi
_pp-oi cocyc-c -c xc o:cxpic-c:. xc o-o, i p0, xcoci - -c yicc0c:
cocycc0c: xc - noc0c: o:cxpi
cc0c:.
6
AguIn, IIke EmpedocIes, Anuxugorus uccepLed LIe PurmenIdeun
cunons LIuL LIere Is no empLy spuce, und LIuL comIng-InLo-beIng und per-
IsIIng InLo noL-beIng ure sLrIcLIy ImpossIbIe, und In generuI Lerms Ie uc-
cepLed LIe sume uILernuLIve.
;
WIere Anuxugorus dIIIers Irom Empedo-
cIes Is In LIe number oI p_c LIuL Ie proposes. As GuLIrIe expIuIns IL,
On LIe EmpedocIeun LIeory, II IL were possIbIe Lo dIvIde u pIece
oI (suy) IIesI InLo smuII enougI IrugmenLs, LIe eIemenLs wouId
come Lo IIgIL, und IL wouId be IIesI no Ionger. BuL Anuxugorus
IeId LIuL even II LIIs were LIeoreLIcuIIy possIbIe, LIen u deII-

See, Ior InsLunce, ArIsLoLIe`s surcusLIc commenLs on Anuxugorus`s use oI io, us u Deus
ex mcchinc uL Metcphsics, q8u1qII. SImIIurIy, uL ArIsLoLIe, Dn the Hectens, ozb1II,
Ie crILIcIzes Anuxugorus Ior noL undersLundIng wIuL 'c-o:_coi` meuns, even LIougI Ie
uses LIe Lerm In IIs LIeory. Numerous oLIer exumpIes oI LIIs sorL oI crILIcIsm couId be
cILed. On LIe oLIer Iund, eIsewIere ArIsLoLIe pruIses IIm Ior urrIvIng uL LIe necessILy oI
u movIng or eIIIcIenL cuuse, In uddILIon Lo LIe muLerIuI cuuse: Ie Is suId Lo be us u 'sober
mun` In compurIson wILI IIs predecessors; Metcphsics, q8qb1.
6
DIeIs und Krunz, DK, qB1;.
;
GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , p. z;1.
1
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
nILe subsLunce, IIesI, couId perIsI. TIere wus no reuson Ior sIn-
gIIng ouL cerLuInIorms oI muLLer IIke eurLIor wuLer us prImury...
AII LIe InIInILe number oI nuLuruI subsLunces, IIesI, bone, IuIr,
sInew, wood, Iron, sLone, eLc. musL be equuIIy reuI.
8
n uddILIon, IL uppeurs LIuL Anuxugorus IncIuded 'quuIILIes` In umongsL LIe
InIInILe p_c LIuL ure presenL In everyLIIng.
q
Anuxugorus`s posLuIuLIng oI
InIInILe p_c wIII be ImporLunL In ArIsLoLIe`s dIscussIon oI LIe derIvuLIon oI
LIe IIrsL prIncIpIes oI nuLure In Book oI LIe Phsics, und In IIs dIscussIon
oI comIng Lo be und pussIng In uwuy In Dn Generction cnd Corruption.
A second ImporLunL uspecL oI Anuxugorus`s LeucIIngs InvoIves LIe roIe
oI io, or 'mInd` us u IIrsL movIng cuuse In LIe cosmos. TIIs docLrIne wus
consIdered by IuLer LIInkers Lo be u mujor sLep Iorwurd, by cIeurIy sepu-
ruLIng, Ior LIe IIrsL LIme, LIe movIng cuuse Irom LIe muLLer moved, und by
cIurucLerIzIng LIIs sepuruLe cuuse us MInd or nLeIIecLIon.
6o
However, us
ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL, Anuxugorus uppeurs Lo usserL LIuL io, wus onIy uc-
LIve uL LIe begInnIng oI LIe cosmos, puLLIng LIe wIoIe InLo moLIon, und
LIen 'gruduuIIy wILIdruwIng`: xc cnc p(c-o io, x:ici, n -o x:iooioo
nci-, ncxpic-o...
61
n pIuce oI io,, LIe IuLer deveIopmenL oI LIe unIverse
proceeded by 'nuLuruI necessILy` und 'cIunce`: Zic(cypc,... opoi c-ci
i0ponio: oy:c: ci yp cic: xc-' iyxpi, oc xc0' ccpipi, oc
8
GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , p. z;z.
q
IoIIow Iere LIe opInIon oI GuLIrIe (voI. , p. z;z), wIIcI Is supporLed by LIe sLuLe-
menL oI ArIsLoLIe LIuL o-o ci yp i co, c-:c o(c:ci cic: , - coxi c:yioi - cox,
' o-o, ci yo, ci cxip-o,, i Zic(cypc, ci np-o, Eoo(o, o' c-cpoi xc o:
-:ic, ccyoi o:oi yp coicycyci no xc oic-c np, -i -o:c-pi o(ci, Metcphsics,
qq1u1-zo.
6o
GuLIrIe, voI. , p. z;z.
61
DKqB1.
z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
xc- npocpcc:i, oc xc- -_pi, oc xc- - c-c-oi.
6z
L Is noL cIeur wIeLIer Anuxugorus vIewed io, us someLIIng 'spIrILuuI`
or non-muLerIuI, buL Ie descrIbed IL us rudIcuIIy dIIIerenL Irom LIe muLe-
rIuI 'seeds` wIIcI muke up LIe pIysIcuI worId: - ci c nci-, opci
c-_c:, io, o cc-:i nc:poi xc c-oxpc-c, xc c:x-c: ooci _pc-:...
6
By
posLuIuLIng io,, Anuxugorus wus noL onIy ubIe Lo expIuIn LIe begInnIng
oI moLIon In LIe cosmos, buL uIso Lo expIuIn LIe presence oI yo, In uII
LIIngs, sInce oc io,, , c cc-:, - xp-c xc ii cc-:i ic xc - c ni-c,
ci -: no: ncp:_oi-: xc ci -o, npocxp:0cc: xc ci -o, noxcxp:io:,.
6q
n
u munner sImIIur Lo EmpedocIes, Ie uppeurs Lo Iuve expIuIned LIe purLIc-
uIur cIurucLerIsLIcs oI compIex 'uggreguLes` In Lerms oI LIe proporLIons oI
LIe busIc consLILuenLs.
6
Mucro-scuIe objecLs, wIIIe IuvIng uII LIe 'seeds`
wILIIn LIem, noneLIeIess Iuve one kInd oI seed wIIcI predomInuLes, LIus
provIdIng ILs pecuIIur vIsIbIeJsensIbIe cIurucLer.
1.. The Atomists: Leocippos und emocritos
TIe ALomIsL 'scIooI`
66
wus Iounded by eucIppus, buL wus conLInued
by DemocrILus, wIo wus ILs mosL Iumous und mosL ImporLunL exposILor.
MucIIIke ArIsLoLIe undEmpedocIes, LIe InLeresLs oI DemocrILus were wIde-
6z
ALIus, quoLed In DKqA66. We Iuve onIy IndIrecL evIdence Ior LIIs posILIon, buL IL Is
ussumed uIso by ArIsLoLIe, InIIs dIscussIonoI nuLuruI IInuIILy InPhsics .8(1q8b1o-b1;).
6
DKqB1z.
6q
DKqB1q.
6
CI. GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , p. zqo.
66
AccordIng Lo GuLIrIe, LIe ALomIsLs dId noL consLILuLe u IormuI scIooI In munner oI LIe
PIuLonIc Acudemy or LIe yceum oI LIe PerIpuLeLIcs, buL ruLIer LIere wus u successIon oI
pIIIosopIers oI wIom one wus LIe dIscIpIe oI LIe oLIer, IbId., voI. , p. 8z. DemocrILus
IImseII Iud quILe u number oI dIscIpIes, und LIe ALomIsL docLrIne cun be suId Lo Iuve
conLInued uILer ArIsLoLIe wILIIn LIe LeucIIngs oI LIe EpIcureun scIooI (IbId.).

Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c


rungIng; LIe IrugmenLs oI IIs wrILIngs und menLIons In IuLer pIIIosopIers
IndIcuLe LIuL Ie wroLe on LIe LrudILIonuI Issues oI 'nuLuruI pIIIosopIy,` cos-
mogony und cosmoIogy, buL uIso on Issues oI LIe mInd, psycIoIogy, IIIe
uILer deuLI, und eLIIcuI und poIILIcuI LIeory. ndeed, CIemenL oI AIexun-
drIu cILes DemocrILus us IuvIng suId, cy oc -i xc-' cco-i i0pnoi yi
ncc-pi cncncipcpi c-opoi - x:c-c,
6;
und DIogenes urLIus suys
LIuL Ie sLudIed pIysIcuI und moruI Issues, buL uIso muLIemuLIcs und LIe
LopIcs oI generuI cuILure, und Iud u broud experIence oI LIe urLs.
68
eucIppus IImseII uppeurs Lo Iuve been LIe IIrsL Lo propose 'uLoms`
(-oo:) us u soIuLIon Lo LIe cIussIc PurmenIdeun probIem oI reconcIIIng
LIe worId oI cIunge wILI LIe ImmuLubIIILy oI beIng, by posLuIuLIng LIem us
LIe uILImuLe und uncIungIng p_c oI sensIbIe, cIungeubIe beIngs. ArIsLo-
LIe IImseII gIves us un exceIIenL summury oI IIs proposuI In Dn Generction
cndCorruption, wIIcIIs worLIcILIng Iere InILs enLIreLy, due Lo ILs concIse-
ness und compIeLeness ( IncIude LIe quoLe In EngIIsI, due Lo ILs IengLI):
BuL eucIppus LIougIL Ie Iud u LIeory wIIcI wouId ugree wILI
LIe sense und wouId noL uboIIsI comIng-Lo-be or desLrucLIon
or moLIon or LIe pIuruIILy oI exIsLIng LIIngs. So mucI Ie con-
ceded Lo LIe pIenomenu, wIereus Lo LIe proponenLs oI unILy
Ie grunLed LIuL LIere couId noL be movemenL wILIouL voId, LIuL
LIe voId wus 'noL beIng,' und noLIIng oI wIuL Is Is noL beIng;
wIuL, sLrIcLIy speukIng, Is, Is compIeLeIy IuII. BuL sucI beIng, Ie
6;
DK68Bzqq.
68
DK68A1, ;; EngIIsI LrunsIuLIon IromLIe SpunIsI In un und JuIIu, Los jilsojos pre-
socrcticos, z8.
q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
cIuImed, Is noL u unILy. L consIsLs oI u pIuruIILy oI LIIngs InIInILe
In number und Loo smuII Lo be seen. TIey move In LIe voId (Ior
LIere Is voId), und LIeIr combInuLIon cuuses comIng-Lo-be, LIeIr
sepuruLIon dIssoIuLIon. TIey ucL und ure ucLed upon us LIey
Iuppen Lo LoucI (Ior In LIIs wuy LIey ure noL one) und gener-
uLe by comIng LogeLIer und InLerIockIng. A Lrue unILy cun never
gIve rIse Lo muILIpIIcILy, nor u Lrue pIuruIILy produce unILy. TIuL
Is ImpossIbIe, buL us EmpedocIes und oLIers suy LIuL LIIngs ure
ucLed upon by meuns oI pores, so Ie cIuImed LIuL uILeruLIon und
every Iorm oI beIng-ucLed-on Lukes pIuce In LIIs wuy: dIssoIu-
LIon und desLrucLIon occur by meuns oI LIe voId, us uIso does
growLI wIen soIId bodIes sIIp In |sc. Lo IIII empLy spuces|.
6q
TIIs cILuLIon IncIudes muny oI LIe mujor Ideus wIIcI ArIsLoLIe crILIcIzes
LIrougI-ouL IIs wrILIngs. n purLIcuIur, we noLe LIe docLrIne oI LIe pIenum
und LIe voId (LIe 'uLoms` beIng LIny versIons oI PurmenIdes` One),
;o
LIe
InIInILy oI prIncIpIes, LIe expIunuLIon oI comIng Lo be und pussIng uwuy In
Lerms oI uggreguLIon und sepuruLIon, und moLIon beIng expIuIned by LIe
exIsLence oI LIe voId. DemocrILus udds LIuL eucI uLom Is eLernuI, never
LrunsIormIng InLo unyLIIng eIse; LIeIr onIy InLrInsIc dIIIerences ure sIupe,
urrungemenL, sIze und posILIon.
;1
TIe moLIon oI LIe uLoms Is equuIIy eLer-
6q
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zuz-; LrunsIuLIon by JoucIIm.
;o
CI. Wurdy, EIeuLIc PIuruIIsm, p. 1z6, |n eucIppus`s busIc docLrIne|, LIe EIeuLIc
cornersLone Is IeIL unLoucIed InsoIur us LIere Is no comIng Lo be or pussIng uwuy oI LIe
uLoms LIemseIves. L Is grunLed LIuL moLIon Is ImpossIbIe wILIouL voId, buL muInLuIned
LIuL sInce wIuL Is noL someIow Is, IocomoLIon cun und does occur... InuIIy, sInce LIere
Is wIuL Is noL Lo dIvIde up Iomogeneous beIng, eucIppus und DemocrILus ure Iree Lo
posLuIuLe LIe exIsLence oI u muILILude oI bodIes eucI oI wIIcI Is IIke LIe One.
;1
dpxp:-o, o' ooci c-cpoi c( c-poo yyicc0c: -i np-o pci ' o, yc c- - xo:ii

Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c


nuI, u bruLe IucL wIose 'cuuse` needs no IurLIer expIunuLIon.
;z
TIus, LIe
ALomIsLs recognIzed LIe need Ior u movIng cuuse, mucI us dId Anuxugorus
und EmpedocIes, buL In conLrusL Lo LIese oLIer pIIIosopIers, LIey mude
no uLLempL Lo uccounL Ior IL In Lerms oI un orIgInuLIng 'mover,` sucI us
oveJSLrIIe or io,.
The relution oI Atomism to the Ileutics
As LIe cILuLIon by Wurdy IndIcuLes, IL Ius Iong been IeId LIuL LIe ALom-
IsLs IeId Lo LIe cenLruI LeneLs oI PurmenIdes`s Wuy oI TruLI, modIIyIng IL
onIy In LIe wuys necessury Lo uccounL Ior moLIon und pIuruIILy. GuLIrIe,
Ior exumpIe, sLuLes LIuL eucIppus Iooked ... Lo PurmenIdes, wIose LIe-
ory Ie modIIIed onIy In LIe mInImuI wuys jusL menLIoned |I.e. un uLom
Is neILIer InIInILe, unmoved nor wILIouL densILy|. WIuL remuIns musL sLIII
be ungeneruLed und ImperIsIubIe, uncIungeubIe, IncupubIe oI beIng udded
Lo or subLrucLed Irom, Iomogenous, IInILe und u pIenum, conLInuous und
IndIvIsIbIe.
;
TIe quesLIon LIus urIses us Lo wIuL exLenL LIe ALomIsLs ure dependenL
upon LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL uguInsL comIng Lo be und pussIng uwuy,
In order LIuL LIe 'uLoms` (IndIvIsIbIes) LIuL LIey posLuIuLe be prooI uguInsL
cc ni-oi cc-i p_, cy0c: xc- p:c xc c_c-: o:cpoi, Phsics, zou-z und
E oc coic_c, - ni, ' cncp yc: dpxp:-o, xc Zcx:nno,, o:op:cic - xci, ci
icyxcoi cci: ni-oi -i xipc:i. o:p:c-c: ci yp -o, c_cc:i -i oc c:i cic c-i
ci, cncp i c _poc, cxcc-oi cp xc_op:cioi, Dn the Hectens, z;bo-q.
;z
O xc, oc yooc:i ooc -o o: -/ -i iyxpi co: yooc: -: o-o, c y/yic-c:, xc
-c-pi cic: io/ooc:i p_i ci c-o,, cncp dpxp:-o, Z[opp/-p,, -: -o ci c xc nc/poo
ox cc-:i p_p, - oc o: -/ p_p, - o c nc:poi, c-c - cpo-i - o: -/ ncp -i -o:o-oi -:i,
- p-ci cic/ pc: -o nc/poo p_pi, Generction oj Animcls, ;qzb1;-zz.
;
GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel Philosoph, voI. , qz.
6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
cIunge. CouId ALomIsmsurvIve us u vIubIe LIeory II LIe PurmenIdeun Wuy
oI TruLI were Iound Lo be IuIse? GruIum IoIds LIuL LIere Is u dIIIerence
Iere beLween eucIppus, Iounder oI LIe ALomIsLIc scIooI, und IIs dIscI-
pIe DemocrILus: eucIppus Is un EIeuLIc, workIng In LIe Irumework oI u
consLrucLIve modeI oI cosmoIogy. DemocrILus Is u reIormer oI EIeuLIc LIe-
ory, wILI u sIurp crILIcIsm oI u deIInIng LIeorem oI EIeuLIc meLupIysIcs,
numeIy LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween wIuL-Is und wIuL-Is-noL.
;q
AccordIng Lo
LIIs modeI, eucIppus, IIke EmpedocIes und Anuxugorus, uccepLs LIe busIc
uxIoms presenLed In PurmenIdes`s poem, buL reudIng LIe Aletheic In IIgIL
oI LIe Doxc, ruLIer LIun vIce-versu.
;
TIe prIncIpIes oI IIgIL und nIgIL In
PurmenIdes`s Wuy oI OpInIon become LIe busIc prIncIpIes upon wIIcI Lo
buIId u pIuruIIsLIc cosmoIogy, wILI nIgIL represenLIng soIId, uncIungIng
beIng, und IIgIL represenLIng LIe voId. n GruIum`s reconsLrucLIon oI LIe
cIronoIogy oI ALomIsm, eucIppus sees no reusonLo provIde u deLuIIedLIe-
oreLIcuI jusLIIIcuLIon Ior LIe exIsLence oI uLoms und LIe voId, LukIng LIem
us udequuLeIy wurrunLed by LIe Wuy oI TruLI (LIuL wIIcI Is cunnoL noL be,
Is u pIenum, Is ImmuLubIe und IndIvIsIbIe) LogeLIer wILI LIe Wuy oI OpIn-
Ion (LIere ure Lwo prIncIpIes, one oI wIIcI corresponds Lo beIng, und LIe
oLIer Lo noL-beIng.
;6
I LIIs reudIng Is correcL, LIen eucIppus`s versIon oI
ALomIsm wouId be vuInerubIe Lo u successIuI uLLuck on LIe PurmenIdeun
LIeory.
GruIum poInLs ouL, noneLIeIess, LIuL LIIs Is noL LIe end oI LIe sLory
Ior ALomIsm. TIe deIense by MeIIssus oI EIeuLIc prIncIpIes wus so rIg-
;q
GruIum, eucIppus's ALomIsm, p. q;.
;
IbId., p. q.
;6
IbId., p. q6.
;
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
orous LIuL Ie mude IL ubundunLIy cIeur LIuL LIe wuy oI opInIon wus jusL
LIuL-unreIIubIe doxc wIose vuIIdILy Is precIuded by LIe dIumond-IIke per-
IecLIon oI LIe urgumenL oI LIe Wuy oI TruLI. urLIermore, In rougIIy LIe
sume LIme perIodZeno presenLs IIs urgumenLs Ior LIe ImmobIIILy undunILy
oI beIng. n LIIs conLexL, DemocrILus uppeurs us LIe mun wIo provIded u
posL-EIeuLIc IounduLIonIor uLomIsmInresponse Lo u newEIeuLIc cIuIIenge,
und Lo LIuL exLenL murked u new begInnIng Ior cosmoIogy.
;;
WIuL wouId
LIIs posL-EIeuLIc IounduLIon Iuve consIsLed In?
A cIue Lo un unswer muy be provIded by u Iook uL DemocrILus`s muIn
urgumenLs us LIey Iuve come down Lo us, prIncIpuIIy In ArIsLoLIe (espe-
cIuIIy DnGenerctioncnd Corruption.z) us weII us unImporLunL urgumenL
preserved In PIuLurcI.
;8
TIese urgumenLs Iuve Lwo ImporLunL cIurucLer-
IsLIcs: LIey revoIve uround LIe noLIon oI IndIvIsIbIe mugnILudes, und LIey
ure muLIemuLIcuI, ruLIer LIun dIuIecLIcuI, In cIurucLer. SLuLes AIIIerI,
`uLomIsmo u quesLu sosLunzu uILImu urrIvu, o s`IIIude dI ur-
rIvure: sosLunzu I`IndIvIsIbIIe, cIe II soIo vero IndIvIduo cIe
esIsLu... e I`IndIvIsIbIIe cI cIe, pur essendo susceLLIbIIe unco-
ru dI dIvIsIone menLuIe... non susceLLIbIIe dI dIvIsIone reuIe,
percI, non conLenendo In s uIcun vuoLo, no Iu purLI, dun-
que i coic_,, come uppunLo vIen deIInILo I`essere In LermInI
purmenIdeI.
;q
n LIe DemocrILeun urgumenLs preserved by ArIsLoLIe In GC .z, we IInd
;;
GruIum, eucIppus's ALomIsm, p. q8.
;8
CI. SedIey, ALomIsm's EIeuLIc RooLs, p. z.
;q
AIIIerI, Atomos Idec, pp. 8-q.
8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
no reIerences Lo LIe uspecL oI LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL ubouL Iow uhct
is Is unubIe Lo ceuse Lo be, buL ruLIer we see ecIoes oI LIe urgumenL oI LIe
Wuy oI TruLI concernIng LIe IndIvIsIbIIILy oI wIuL Is. SedIey InLerpreLs GC
.z us conLuInIng Lwo versIons oI u sIngIe busIc urgumenL, one wIIcI sLrIcLIy
preserves LIe Lerms In wIIcI DemocrILus presenLed IIs orIgInuI urgumenL
Ior IndIvIsIbIe mugnILudes, und u second versIon In wIIcI ArIsLoLIe 'Iends
u Iund` Lo DemocrILus, repIrusIng IIs urgumenL In Lerms oI noLIons Irom
ArIsLoLIe`s own meLupIysIcs, sucI us poLency und ucL.
8o
TIe nucIeus oI
LIIs second versIon oI LIe urgumenL Is LIuL II u mugnILude cun be sImuILu-
neousIy be dIvIded In poLency, LIen LIIs meuns LIuL uL some poInL IL mIgIL
ucLuuIIy come Lo be so, resuILIng In eILIer poInLs, or noLIIng uL uII. TIe
orIgInuI mugnILude cunnoL be reconsLrucLed ouL oI eILIer oI LIese, LIus IL Is
ImpossIbIe LIuL IL be poLenLIuIIy dIvIsIbIe uL every poInL. Ergo, LIere musL
be uLomIc mugnILudes.
81
One mIgIL wonder wIy LIese uLomIc mugnILudes ure pIysIcuIIy IndI-
vIsIbIe (-oo,), wIen LIey remuIn uL IeusL LIeoreLIcuIIy dIvIsIbIe (Ior LIey
ure suId Lo Iuve numerous sIupes, meunIng LIuL one purL oI un uLom cun
be dIsLInguIsIed In LIe mInd Irom ILs oLIer purLs). SedIey provIdes LIe un-
swer, In cILIng LIe urgumenL by DemocrILus LIuL Is preserved In PIuLurcI,
us menLIoned ubove. TIIs Is LIe so-cuIIed 'cone purudox,` und Is urgued us
IoIIows:
I u cone were cuL uIong u pIune puruIIeI Lo ILs buse, wIuL
sIouId we IoId LIe surIuces oI LIe segmenLs Lo be, equuI or un-
8o
SedIey, ALomIsm's EIeuLIc RooLs, pp. 11-1z.
81
ArIsLoLIe, Dn Generction cnd Corruption, 16bzo-z8.
q
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
equuI? or II LIey ure unequuI LIey wIII muke LIe cone uneven,
wILI muny sLep-IIke IndenLuLIons und rougI edges. BuL II LIey
ure equuI, LIe segmenLs wIII be equuI und LIe cone wIII Lurn ouL
Lo Iuve LIe properLIes oI u cyIInder, LIrougI consIsLIng oI equuI,
noL unequuI, cIrcIes, wIIcI Is quILe ubsurd.
8z
Ergo, u Lrue cone Is uncuLLubIe. As SedIey noLes, LIIs urgumenL cun uppIy
equuIIy weII Lo oLIer reguIur und IrreguIur geomeLrIc IIgures wIIcI ure dIs-
creLe und u pIenum: LIey wIII be dIvIsIbIe (II uL uII) onIy uIong u sLrIcLIy de-
IImILedsubseL oI InLernuI pIunes.
8
Hence, DemocrILus Ius wIuL Ie needs-uncuLLubIe,
dIscreLe mugnILudes-undIe Ius no needLo dependuponLIe PurmenIdeun
urgumenL Ior LIe uncIungeubIIILy oI uhct is. ALoms sLIII sIure muny oI LIe
cIurucLerIsLIcs oI PurmenIdeun beIng, especIuIIy LIose oI IndIvIsIbIIILy und
eLernILy, wIIIe beIng surrounded by LIe voId (non-beIng), buL LIose cIur-
ucLerIsLIcs ure bused on u jusLIIIcuLIon wIIcI Is IndependenL oI LIe meLu-
pIysIcuI urgumenL oI LIe greuL EIeuLIc.
Other uspects oI Atomism
n uddILIon Lo recognIzIng LIe need Ior u movIng cuuse, us noLed ubove,
LIe ALomIsLs were pruIsedby ArIsLoLIe Ior IuvIng LreuLed(evenII sIIgILIy) oI
LIe IormuI cuuse und unIversuI deIInILIon, by posLuIuLIng 'urrungemenL` us
u cuLegory oI beIng ubove und beyond LIe sIupe und sIze oI LIe uLoms.
8q
8z
PIuLurcI, Comm. not. 1o;qE, us cILed In SedIey, ALomIsm's EIeuLIc RooLs, pp. z-q.
8
IbId., p. z.
8q
c, ci yp -o, p_coo, no[ci-: o(c:ci i cic: -, p, |cn :xpi yp -: po,
ncoox, xc dpxp:-o, -o cooo, xc -o - i cic: ci-o, Phsics, 1qquzo-zz. Never-
LIeIess, Ior LIe ALomIsLs 'urrungemenL` uppeurs Lo Iuve more LIe cIurucLer oI un epIpIe-
nomenon LIun u Lrue prIncIpIe.
qo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
NeverLIeIess, LIe eIIorLs oI eucIppus und DemocrILus, uL IeusL, uppeur
Lo Iuve been dIrecLed Lowurds u rudIcuI eIImInuLIon oI prIncIpIes wIIcI
were noL sLrIcLIy expIuInubIe In Lerms oI LIe pIysIcuI uLoms LIemseIves.
or InsLunce, LIey reduced 'souI` (o_) Lo someLIIng very sImIIur Lo IIre
(und conIIuLed o_ und io, enLIreIy).
8
AII operuLIons oI nuLure ure by
'necessILy` (iyxp): ni-c -c xc-' iyxpi yicc0c:, -, oip, c-c, ocp,
-, ycicco, ni-oi, i iyxpi yc:,
86
LIere beIng no subsLunLIuI unILIes
(oLIer LIun LIe uLoms) wIIcI mIgIL provIde uny kInd oI IormuI or LeIe-
oIogIcuI cuusuLIon;
8;
compIex sysLems und orgunIsms presumubIy come
ubouL In LIe sume 'necessury` munner. ndeed, LIe ALomIsLs wenL IurLIer
LIun EmpedocIes und oLIer oc:oyo:, In reducIng muny oI LIe LrudILIonuI
cici-c, sucI us sweeLJbILLer und IoLJcoId, Lo 'IuIsILy` or uppeurunce; coIor
uIsoIuIIs vIcLImLoLIe ALomIsL unuIysIs: i yox, i n:xpi, i 0cpi,
i o_pi, i _po:, c-c oc -oc xc xcii...
88
OLIer docLrInes oI DemocrILus LIuL ure menLIoned or crILIcIzed by ArIs-
LoLIe, und wIIcI derIve nuLuruIIy Irom LIe Iormer`s reducLIonIsm, IncIude
LIe ucLIon oI IIke-on-IIke, LIe ussImIIuLIon oI LIe moLIons oI LIe 'souI` Lo
LIose oI LIe uLoms, und vIsIon us 'mIrrorIng.` n LIe IIrsL cuse, we Iuve u
conLInuuLIon oI LIe EmpedocIeun LIeory oI LIe necessILy Ior Lwo objecLs Lo
be 'IIke` Inorder Ior LIemLo InLerucL: dpxp:-o, ... pc yp - c- xc o:oi
8
-i -c :oi xc -i ccipi cx -o:o-oi coi xc ncp:cpi yxoi coyxcxpc0c:, xc -i
o_i oo, i xc ioi -c-i cic:. TIe quoLuLIon Is Irom DIogenes urLIus, und Is cILed
In DK68A1, qq.
86
QuoLuLIon Irom DIogenes urLIus, cILed In DK68A1, q.
8;
...cpoic, oc -, -oo,| cnn-c:i xc ncp:nxcc0c: ncp:noxi -o:c-pi cocc:i
ci c- xc npcoi oi cic: no:c, c:i i-o: ci c( cxcioi xc-' 0c:ci oo' i-:icoi
ycii xo:o yp cp0c, cic: - oo - ncoic ycic0c: i no-c ci. CILuLIon Irom ArIsLoLIe`s
IosL LexL Dn Democritus, In SImpIIcIus De ccelo, cILed In KIrk und Ruven, p. q18.
88
KIrk und Ruven, p. qzz; cI. DK68Bq.
q1
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
cic: - -c no:oi xc - nc_oi o yp cy_opci - c-cpc xc o:cpoi-c nc_c:i
n poi, xi c-cpc i-c no: -: c, pc, o_ c-cpc -c-i -:
np_c:, -c- -o-o co[c/ic:i c-o,.
8q
We see u deveIopmenL oI LIIs no-
LIon In DemocrILus`s LIeory oI vIsIon, wIereby vIsIon Is ussImIIuLed Lo LIe
pIenomenon oI reIIecLIon, u pIenomenon wIIcI Is cIeurIy cuused by und
oI LIe sume kInd us LIe IIgIL comIng Irom u vIsIbIe objecL.
qo
As KIrk und Ruven summurIze LIe ALomIsL docLrIne on sensuLIon,
L Is u necessury consequence oI LIe uLomIsL docLrIne, LIuL ev-
eryLIIng consIsLs oI uLoms undLIe voId, LIuL uII sensuLIonsIouId
be expIuIned us u Iorm oI conLucL or LoucI. TIe souI consIsLs
oI spIerIcuI uLoms spreud LIrougI LIe body, und LIe mInd wus
presumubIy regurded us u concenLruLIon oI souI-uLoms. TIus
LIougIL Is u process unuIogous Lo sensuLIon, und Lukes pIuce
wIen LIe souI- or mInd-uLoms ure seL In moLIon by LIe ImpInge-
menL oI congruenL uLoms Irom ouLsIde.
A IrugmenL Iound In ALIus IndIcuLes LIuL menLuI Imuges ure LIe dIrecL re-
suIL oI Imuges comIng Irom wILIouL: Zcx:nno, dcpxp:-o, nxoopo, -i
cc0pc:i xc -i ipc:i yicc0c: cooi c(o0ci npoc:i-oi poci yp cn:[c:i
poc-pci _op, -o npocnn-oi-o, cooo.
q1
TIere Is LIus no specIuI onLo-
IogIcuI sLuLus correspondIng Lo menLuI 'moLIons`: LIe moLIon oI LIe uLoms
8q
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zb1o-1.
qo
dpxp:-o, o' -: ci oop cic pc:, yc: xc,, -: o' oc-c: - pi cic: -i ccc:i,
o xc, -o-o ci yp co[cic: -: - c coi, xc cc-:i ox ci cxci ' ci - pi-:
ixcc:, yp - n0o,, xc0oo ncp -i cc:ioioi xc icxcco, ooi no ooi i,
, co:xci. -onoi oc xc - cnc0ci c- nopcc: o: - 0c, p ioi, -i o' oi
ooci ci o, ccic-c: - cooc, De sensu eL sensuLo, q8u-1o.
q1
CILed In KIrk und Ruven, p. qz1; see uIso un und JuIIu, Los jilsojos presocrcticos.
qz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
und LIuL Iound In LIe souI ure IundumenLuIIy oI LIe sume kInd.
TIe IundumenLuI ucIIevemenL oI DemocrILus, wIIcI seLs IIm up-urL
IromIIs musLer eucIppus, uppeurs Lo Iuve been IIs deveIopmenL oI u unI-
versuI LIeory wIIcI, despILe InvoIvIng u rudIcuI reducLIon In LIe number oI
busIc prIncIpIes LIuL IL posILed, wus neverLIeIess ubIe Lo expIuIn (or uLLempL
Lo expIuIn) u wIde vurIeLy oI dIIIerenL Lypes oI pIenomenu. TIe InIIuence
und IngenuILy oI IIs sysLem Is reIIecLed In LIe ImporLunL roIe LIuL ArIsLo-
LIe ussIgns Lo DemocrILus us LIe musLer oI u mujor rIvuI scIooI, und In LIe
pruIse wIIcI LIe SLugIrILe gIves IIm: o, oc ncp - cn:no, ncp ooci,
ooc, cnc-pcci c(o dpoxp/-oo. O-o, o co:xc ci ncp ni-oi poi-/cc:, op
oc ci - n, o:cpc:i.
qz
1. Aristotle's derivution oI the p_c in the 3K\VLFV, Book I
ArIsLoLIe begIns LIe Phsics wILI u decIuruLIon oI scIenLIIIc prIncIpIes:
nc:o - coic: xc - cnc-cc0c: co[cic: ncp ncc, -, c0ooo,, i cci
p_c c-:c c-o:_cc, cx -o -c-c yiopc:i ... ooi -: xc -, ncp cco,
cn:c-p, nc:pc-oi o:opccc0c: np-oi - ncp -, p_,.
q
TIe oc:oyo:, us
qz
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, 1b-.
q
Phsics, 18quoq-16. BoIzun poInLs ouL LIuL, In regurds Lo scIenLIIIc meLIod, ArIsLoLIe
wus InsubsLunLIuI ugreemenL wILIDemocrILus, evenII Ie dIdnoL beIIeve LIuL LIe IuLLer Iud
derIved correcL concIusIons: 'u ruzn de no poder comprender IecIos corrIenLes resIde
en Iu InexperIencIu. Por eIIo es que quIenes LIenen muyor IumIIIurIdud con Ios IecIos nuL-
uruIes, son mus cupuces de esLubIecer prIncIpIos que permILen reIucIonur muyor nmero
de Ienmenos. Mus quIenes ubusun deI ruzonumIenLo dIuIcLIco, se pronuncIun demusI-
udo IucIImenLe busudos en un pequeo nmero de IecIos` (GC, 16u). Se LruLu uqui de
Iu dIIerencIu enLre eI ruzonumIenLo sImpIemenLe oy:x, de un PIuLn, y eI ruzonumIenLo
oc:x, de un DemcrILo LruLundo de IundumenLur sus opInIones con urgumenLos ude-
cuudos y sucudos de Iu mIsmu IisIcu (GC, 16u1o). EsLo no IndIcu que ArIsLLeIes mIsmo
esL de ucuerdo con DemcrILo y su soIucIn, sIno que sIo Io esLu con su mLodo BoIzun,
Isicc, qumicc jilosojc ncturcl en Aristteles, p. 8z.
q
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
we Iuve seen, deveIoped ever more sopIIsLIcuLed LIeorIes ubouL wIuL LIese
p_c Iud Lo be, und ArIsLoLIe deveIops IIs own LIeory In conversuLIon wILI
LIese eurIIer LIInkers.
TIe possIbIe cundIduLes Ior LIe p_c, us proposed by LIe pIIIosopIers
LIuL ArIsLoLIe quoLes, ure muny und dIverse. WIIIe eucI oc:oyo, Iud
IIs own LIeory wIIcI dIIIered IromLIe oLIers Lo u greuLer or Iesser degree,
ArIsLoLIe IInds enougI In common Lo provIde u summury oI LIeIr posILIons
wIIcI Is succIncL und cIeur:
Zicyxp o' -o: ci cic: -i p_i ncoo,, xc ci, -o: xip-oi,
, pc: Hcpciop, xc M:cco,, x:iooipi, cncp o oc:xo, o
ci pc cxoi-c, cic: o o' oop -i np-pi p_i c oc ncoo,,
ncncpccic, ncpoo,, xc c ncncpccic, ncoo, oc :,, oo
-pc, ---cpc, oi -:i p:0i, xc c ncpoo,, o-o, cncp
dpxp:-o,, - yio, ci, c_c-: oc o:ccpocc,, coc o:ccpocc,
xc cici-c,.
qq
L Is cIeur LIuL LIese LIInkers dId noL uII Iuve LIe sume sorL oI LIIng In
mIndInLIeIr InvesLIguLIons InLo LIe p_c. npurLIcuIur, LIe dIIIerences be-
Lween LIe EIeuLIc posILIon und LIuL oI LIe oc:oyo: ure sIgnIIIcunL. Never-
LIeIess, In LIIs pussuge, p_ cun be InLerpreLed us sIgnIIyIng u 'busIc buIId-
Ing bIock,` someLIIng wIIcI Is IrreducIbIy presenL In u nuLuruI beIng, und
wIIcI cunnoL be expIuIned In Lerms oI unoLIer sucI buIIdIng bIock.
q
TIus,
LIe uncIenL LIInkers wIo posLuIuLed monIsm wIsIed Lo usserL LIuL LIere
qq
Phsics, 18qb1-zz.
q
ArIsLoLIe suys oI LIe p_c LIuL oc yp -, p_, -c c( oi cic: -c c( oi, xc
cx -o-oi ni-c Phsics, 188uz;.
qq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
wus onIy one kInd oI buIIdIng bIock uvuIIubIe Ior us Lo reIer Lo In our uc-
counL oI Iow LIe unIverse Is sLrucLured. TIe EIeuLIc monIsLs usserLed LIuL
'beIng` wus LIIs one buIIdIng bIock, und LIuL In uddILIon, LIIs buIIdIng bIock
Is one In number. TIe uppurenL muILIpIIcILy oI beIngs Is consIgned Lo LIe
'wuy oI opInIon,` O yp no-c -o-o oc cic: ci-c c -co' '
oo o:c:o, cpyc ipc,
q6
sInce LIIs requIres suyIng LIuL, In some sense,
LIuL wIIcI Is Is someIow noL. TIe eurIy muLerIuIIsLs oI LIe onIun scIooI,
on LIe oLIer Iund, muInLuIned LIuL LIere wus cerLuInIy u muILIpIIcILy oI
beIngs, buL uII oI LIem beIng generuLed Irom one sIngIe underIyIng LIIng,
be IL AIr, Ire or WuLer. TIe oc:oyo: (I.e. EmpedocIes, Anuxugorus und
LIe ALomIsLs) proposed muILIpIe p_c, us Iuve deLuIIed In LIe prevIous
secLIon.
n Book oI LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe seLs IImseII u LwoIoId Lusk: IIrsL, Ie
wIII deLermIne LIe LruLI ubouL LIe p_c, specIIyIng Iow muny LIere ure,
und LIe nuLure oI eucI; second, Ie InLends Lo resoIve once und Ior uII LIe
Iong-sLundIng conundrumoI Iow IL cun be possIbIe Ior LIere Lo be genuIne
cIunge. deLuII IIs soIuLIon In LIe IoIIowIng subsecLIons.
1..1 Purmenides und the doctrine oI the One
L Is uppurenL LIuL ArIsLoLIe Iud doubLs ubouL LIe proprIeLy oI IncIudIng
u dIscussIon ubouL PurmenIdes In IIs LreuLIse on c:,. As ArIsLoLIe mukes
cIeur, LIose wIo compIeLeIy deny uny muILIpIIcILy In reuIILy ure reuIIy noL
q6
DKz8B;.
q
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
sLudyIng LIe nuLuruI worId,
q;
nor Is LIeIr InvesLIguLIon ubouL 'p_c,` sInce
p_c musL be oI some LIIng or LIIngs. NeverLIeIess, ArIsLoLIe udmILs LIuL
LIe PurmenIdeun docLrIne oI LIe One cuuses nopc: Ior nuLuruI pIIIoso-
pIers us weII, und LIus u IILLIe bIL oI dIscussIon on LIe LopIc mIgIL be worLI-
wIIIe.
q8
ArIsLoLIe Lukes Lwo ImporLunL sLeps InLIe deveIopmenL oI IIs docLrIne oI
c:, InIIs dIscussIonoI LIe PurmenIdeundocLrIne. IrsL, Ie demonsLruLes
LIuL LIe p_c musL be muILIpIe. SInce we know Irom InducLIon (cncyoy)
LIuL uII (or uL IeusL some) nuLuruI LIIngs ure movIng, PurmenIdes`s urgu-
menL musL be bused on u mIsInLerpreLuLIon oI wIuL 'beIng` meuns. 'BeIng`
Is noL u unIvocuI Lerm: p_ oc oxc:o--p ncci, cnc:o noc_, yc-c: -
i...
qq
I we uLLempL Lo reduce beIng Lo one or unoLIer oI LIe cuLegorIes
dIsLIncL Irom subsLunce, we run InLo un ImmedIuLe ubsurdILy, sInce sucI
LIIngs us quuIILIes und quunLILIes ure predIcuLed onIy oI subsLunce, und ure
noL IndependenL. BuL II we Iuve Iuve Lo muInLuIn quuIILy und quunLILy und
LIe oLIer cuLegorIes uIongsIde subsLunce, LIen beIng Is muILIpIe: c ci yp
cc-c: xc occ xc no:i xc noci, xc -c-c co-' nocoic n' oi c-c
, no - i-c...
1oo
NeverLIeIess, demonsLruLIng LIe cuLegorIcuI muILIpIIcILy oI beIng does
noL dIrecLIy uddress LIe IeurL oI PurmenIdes` InsIgIL, LIuL LIuL wIIcI Is
q;
- ci oi c i xc xip-oi - i cxonci o ncp cc, cc-: cxonci cncp yp xc -
yco-p ox-: yo, cc-: np, -i ici-c -, p_,, ' -o: c-pc, cn:c-p, ncci
xo:i,, o-o, ooc - ncp p_i o yp c-: p_ cc-:i, c i ioi xc o-o, i cc-:i. yp
p_ -:i, -:ii... i o' noxcc0o - cc: ni-c ci:c x:iocic cic: ooi o' cx -,
cncyoy,... o i ' cnc:o ncp cco, ci o, oc:x, oc nopc, co[cic: yc:i c-o,, co,
c_c: xc, cn :xpi o:cc_0ic: ncp c-i c_c: yp :ococi cx:,, Phsics, 18u1-oq.
q8
bId.
qq
Phsics, 18uz1-zz.
1oo
Phsics, 18uz1-z6.
q6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
wIuL IL Is cunnoL ceuse Lo be wIuL IL Is, wILIouL ceusIng Lo be compIeLeIy, In
wIIcI cuse IL Is noL, simpliciter, und we cun no Ionger suy LIuL 'IL Is.` TIIs
Is uIso LIe probIem LIuL Ied PIuLo Lo posLuIuLe LIe eLernuI deus or orms,
sInce 'wIuL JusLIce Is` musL uIwuys be wIuL IL Is, wIeLIer or noL unyLIIng In
LIe worId InsLunLIuLes IL.
n IucL, ArIsLoLIe ucknowIedges LIIs dIIIIcuILy, und Lo u cerLuIn poInL Is
In ugreemenL. TIuL wIIcI wIILeness Is, cunnoL 'suIIer by ILs conLrury,` I.e.
purLIcIpuLe In non-wIILe, Ior LIIs wouId meun LIuL 'wIILeness` wouId ceuse
Lo be: cc-: o' , o n' oi yp nc_c:i -ici-c oic-oi.
1o1
RuLIer
LIun uccepLIng LIuL LIIs sIouId ImpIy LIe ImmobIIILy oI beIng In generuI,
ArIsLoLIe mude un ImporLunL concepLuuI Ieup, noLIng LIuL wIen we suy LIuL
'LIe wIILe becomes bIuck,` wIuL we ure not suyIng Is LIuL 'wIILeness` be-
comes 'bIuckness,` buL ruLIer LIuL 'LIuL wIIcI Is wIILe` ceuses Lo be wIILe,
und InsLeud comes Lo be 'LIuL wIIcI Is bIuck` (or noL-wIILe). ndeed, LIe
LIIng wIIcI cIunges moves, us IL were, into LIe specIes, pIuce or number
LIuL IL becomes: o-c yp x:ic o-c x:ic-c: - coo, -no, - -ocioc, '
cc-: x:ioi xc x:iocioi xc c, x:ic-c:.
1oz
TIIs Is LIe second oI LIe Lwo
mujor sLeps LIuL ArIsLoLIe Lukes In LIe deveIopmenL oI IIs docLrIne oI c:,.
TIIs dIscovery enubIes us Lo udvunce consIderubIy In our knowIedge oI
wIuL c:, Is: u nuLuruI beIng Is someLIIng LIuL cun cIunge by 'movIng`
Irom beIng In one wuy, Lo beIng In unoLIer wuy, uII LIe wIIIe remuInIng
In un ImporLunL sense 'LIe sume.` TIe Lwo Lerms oI LIe cIunge, Iowever,
ure Lo u cerLuIn degree 'beIng` und 'noL-beIng.` or LIe nuLuruI beIng LIuL
1o1
Phsics, 1qob.
1oz
Phsics, zzqbo-bo;.
q;
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
cIunges Irom beIng wIILe Lo beIng bIuck Ius gone, under unoLIer unuIysIs,
Irom beIng wIILe Lo beIng non-wIILe. TIese Lwo end-poInLs oI cIunge ure
equuIIy reuI, buL ure IrreducIbIe Lo one unoLIer. ArIsLoLIe muInLuIns LIese
cici-c us IrreducIbIe opposILes, puIrs wILIIn wIIcI one member Is us 'LIuL
wIIcI Is` und LIe oLIer us 'LIuL wIIcI Is noL.` He LIus muInLuIns LIuL In u
cerLuIn sense, someLIIng cun be suId Lo urIse Irom non-beIng, buL noL xc0'
c-, buL onIy xc- co[c[px,.
1o
1.. The oc:oyo: und the cici-c
TIe cici-c were cerLuInIy noL un InvenLIon oI ArIsLoLIe; Indeed, LIe ex-
IsLence oI 'opposILes` wIIcI uppurenLIy LrunsmuLed InLo one unoLIer wus
one oI LIe busIc duLu Irom wIIcI LIe uncIenL onIun pIIIosopIers deveI-
oped LIeIr LIeorIes oI LIe eIemenLs, Irom wIIcI uII oLIer LIIngs were buIIL.
BusIc opposILes sucIus 'Ieuvy` und 'IIgIL,` 'durk` und 'brIgIL,` 'IoL` und 'coId`
seemed Lo underIIe LIe objecLs we encounLer In duIIy IIIe, und cIunge oc-
curs beLween LIese puIrs. WIen LIe sun goes down, LIuL wIIcI wus IIgIL
becomes durk; wIen wood Is puL on LIe IIre, LIuL wIIcI wus coId becomes
IoL, und wIen LIe IIre goes ouL, LIuL wIIcI wus IoL becomes coId.
TIIs uppurenL cupucILy Ior muLuuI InLer-LrunsIormuLIon beLween LIese
cici-c guve rIse LodIvergenL opInIons ubouL LIe number oI p_c LIuL needed
Lo be posILed In order Lo uccounL Ior LIIs dIversILy. n CIupLers q und oI
LIe IIrsL book oI LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe uddresses LIese LIeorIes, boLI LIose
wIIcI usserL LIuL LIere cun onIy be one p_, us weII us LIose wIIcI usserL
1o
c, oc xc c-o cci yyicc0c: ci p0ci n, cx i-o,, n, i-o: yyicc0c: cx
i-o,, ooi xc- co[c[px,... Phsics, 1q1b1-b1.
q8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIuL LIey musL be InIInILe. n uddILIon, Ie cIurIIIes LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween
LIe cici-c und LIe p_c, sIowIng LIuL LIey ure LIe sume Iromone poInL oI
vIew, buL Irom unoLIer LIey ure quILe dIsLIncL.
ArIsLoLIe dIvIdes LIe opInIons oI LIe eurIIer nuLuruI pIIIosopIers InLo
Lwo groups, uccordIng Lo LIe number oI busIc 'bodIes` LIey proposed. n LIe
IIrsL groupIe pIuces LIose eurIIer pIIIosopIers, sucIus TIuIes, AnuxImenes
und HerucIILus, wIo posLuIuLed u sIngIe underIyIng prIncIpIe or body, Irom
wIIcI LIe vurIous busIc eIemenLs were derIved vIu u process oI 'densIII-
cuLIon` or 'rureIucLIon,` (LIese IuLLer beIng LIe busIc conLrurIes).
1oq
A sec-
ond group oI pIIIosopIers, noLubIy Anuxugorus, AnuxImunder und Empe-
docIes, usserLed LIuL LIe cici-c ure conLuIned In LIe one, und someIow
emerge Irom IL by u process oI segreguLIon, e.g. by 'sLrIIe`, und IuLer (In
LIe cuse oI EmpedocIes) reLurnIng Lo LIe one.
1o
Among LIIs second group
oI pIIIosopIers were LIose wIo usserLed LIuL LIe conLrurIes (und LIus LIe
p_c) were IInILe, versus LIose wIo usserLed LIuL LIey were InIInILe.
ArIsLoLIe IIrsL LreuLs oI LIe second group oI pIIIosopIers, LIose wIo
muInLuIn LIuL LIe prIncIpIes ure eILIer InIInILe, or LIuL LIey urIse ouL oI
eucI oLIer. He progressIveIy dIscurds LIeIr vurIous proposuIs, noLIng LIuL
LIere cunnoL be onIy one prIncIpIe, Ior LIere cunnoL be onIy one oppo-
sILe, und LIuL neILIer cun cIunge be expIuIned by mIxIng und sepuruLIon.
1oq
ArIsLoLIe noLes u sLrong sImIIurILy Lo PIuLo`s LIeory oI LIe 'greuLer` und 'smuIIer,` uI-
LIougI PIuLo`s conLrurIes ucLed us LIe muLerIuI prIncIpIe wILI respecL Lo LIe IormuI: -c-c
o' cc-i cici-c, xc0oo o' ncpo_ xc cc::,, cncp - yc pc H-oi xc - :xpi, ni
-: ci -c-c no:c pi - oc i - coo,, o oc - ci i - noxccioi pi, - o' cici-c o:cop,
xc cop, Phsics, 18;u16-18.
1o
o o' cx -o ci, ciocc, -, cici-:-p-c, cxxpicc0c:, cncp Zic(ciop, pc:, xc co:
o' i xc: no cc:i cic:, cncp 'Encoox, xc 'Zic(cypc, cx -o yc-o, yp xc o-o:
cxxpiooc: -c. o:cpooc: oc oi - -i ci ncoooi no:ci -o-oi, -i o' nc(, xc -i ci
nc:pc, - -c o:ocp xc -ici-c, -i oc - xcocic c-o:_cc ioi, Phsics, 18;uzo-z6.
qq
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
or everyLIIng cunnoL be conLuIned In everyLIIng. AccordIng Lo LIe LIe-
ory oI Anuxugorus, ni-c ci cionp_c: - -o:c-c ci o:,, xc yyic-c:
' cxxpic-c: cii-c ... ooi cx ccpx, oop cxxp:icioi xc cp( c( oc-o;
LIIs posILIon, Iowever, Ieuds Lo un ubsurdILy, Ior c oc c-cc-c: ' c
c(c: cpcc:i, ci ncncpcci cy0c: cc ncncpccic cic-c: nc:pc - n0o,
-o-o o' oic-oi.
1o6
TIus, LIe p_c ure genuIneIy dIsLIncL, uILIougI LIe
beIngs LIey muke up ure Indeed composed.
1o;
n regurds Lo LIe IIrsL group oI pIIIosopIers-LIe 'muLerIuI monIsLs`
TIuIes, AnuxImenes und HerucIILus-ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL LIey Iuve Indeed
IdenLIIIedLIe prImury puIr oI opposILes us beIng 'excess` und'deIecL.` WIere
LIese pIIIosopIers Iuve gone wrong Is noL seeIng LIuL In uddILIon Lo LIe
conLrurIes, wIIcI cunnoL become eucI oLIer nor cun be InIInILeIy mIxed,
LIere musL be u LIIrd prIncIpIe wIIcI Is oI un enLIreIy dIIIerenL order.
1o8
ArIsLoLIe LIus reLuIns LIe uncIenL docLrIne oI LIe conLrurIes, IdenLIIyIng
LIemus beIng eILIer sepuruLe prIncIpIes (Iormund prIvuLIon) or us u sIngIe
prIncIpIe wILIIn wIIcI LIere cun be excess or deIecL. BuL Ie Is LIe IIrsL Lo
1o6
Phsics, 18;bzz-z;.
1o;
n IIs dIscussIon oI LIIs second group oI pIIIosopIers, ArIsLoLIe mukes un ImporLunL
poInL, wIIcIwIII be key Lo our undersLundIng oI c:,: Ie noLes LIuL u concIusIve urgumenL
uguInsL LIe InIInILy oI prIncIpIes Is LIuL sucI un InIInILy wouId muke c:, unInLeIIIgIbIe:
c o - ci nc:poi nc:poi yioc-oi, - ci xc- n0o, xc- yc0o, nc:poi yioc-oi
ncoi -:, - oc xc-' coo, nc:poi yioc-oi noi -:. -i o' p_i ncpoi oci xc xc- n0o,
xc xc-' coo,, oic-oi coic: - cx -o-oi. o-o yp coic: - ci0c-oi noc[ioci, -ci
coci cx -ioi xc ncoi cc-:i, Phsics, 18;b;-1z. TIIs Is un ImporLunL sLep In ArIsLoLIe`s
jusLIIIcuLIon oI IIs docLrIne oI c:,. L Is precIseIy LIe IucL LIuL c:, Is knowubIe LIuL
enubIes us Lo InvesLIguLe IL, und LIIs knowubIIILy meuns LIuL we cun usserL LIe IInILude oI
LIe prIncIpIes wIIcI muke IL up.
1o8
xc co:xc ncc: cic: xc c-p o(c, -: - i xc ncpo_ xc cc::, p_c -i i-oi cc,
ni o -i c-i -pnoi, ' o ci p_co: - oo ci no:ci - oc i nc_c:i, -i o' c-pooi
-:ic, -oici-oi - ci i no:ci - oc oo nc_c:i cc oi. - ci oi -pc cxc:i - c-o:_cc
cic: cx -c -o-oi xc cx -o:o-oi oi cn:cxonoc: o(c:ci i c_c:i -:i yoi, cncp cnoci...
Phsics, 18qb1z-b1;.
o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
dIscover LIe cIurucLer oI LIe LIIrdprIncIpIe, LIe noxc:ioi or 'underIyIng,`
wIIcI Is oI un enLIreIy dIIIerenL order LIun LIe IormuI prIncIpIe(s).
1oq
TIIs
noxc:ioi Is precIseIy wIuL mukes cIunge possIbIe. WIIIe 'wIuL IL Is Lo
be wIILe` cunnoL ceuse Lo be wIuL IL Is, LIe noxc:ioi, on LIe oLIer Iund,
beIng oI u dIIIerenL order Irom LIe cici-c, cun Indeed 'move` Irom beIng
one Lo beIng unoLIer.
11o
TIIs InLerpreLuLIon oI LIe roIe oI LIe noxccioi Is LrudILIonuI; cI. Ior In-
sLunce AquInus`s commenLury on LIe Phsics
111
; PIIIoponus, LIougI crIL-
IcuI oI ArIsLoLIe`s pIysIcs, InLerpreLs LIe pussuges In quesLIon In LIe 'Lru-
dILIonuI` IusIIon us weII.
11z
L Is Iound In LIe zoLI cenLury In MunsIon us
weII.
11
BegInnIng In LIe 1q;o`s, Iowever, LIIs InLerpreLuLIon cume under
quesLIon, IIrsL by W. CIurILon,
11q
und IoIIowed by B. Jones.
11
BoLI oI LIese
uuLIors IoId LIuL (uL IeusL In some cuses) LIe noxccioi does noL survIve
1oq
WIIIe PIuLo Iud dIscovered LIe exIsLence oI u muLerIuI prIncIpIe, Ie Iud pIuced LIe
'greuLer` und LIe 'Iesser` wILIIn LIIs order, wIereus ArIsLoLIe sIows LIuL LIese musL beIong
Lo LIe IormuI order, sInce LIe greuLer ILseII does noL become Iesser.
11o
cc-: oc - ci noxccioi p:0 ci ci, coc: oc oo | ci yp i0pono, xc _poc, xc o,
p p:0p- -oc yp -: oi, xc o xc- co[c[px, c( c-o yyic-c: - y:ycioi oc
c-ppc:, xc cici-oco, co[c[px, i oc - coo,, ooi -(:, ooc:x -i oi -: -i
o-o xc-pyopooioi, Phsics, 1qobz-zq.
111
AquInus, In Phsicorum, IIb. , IecL. 1z.
11z
CI. PIIIoponus, Dn Aristotle Phsics :.(-p, pp. 1,16-zz.
11
CI. MunsIon, Introduction c lc Phsique cristotelicienne, pp. ;1-;.
11q
CI. CIurILon, Aristotle's Phsics, p. ;: L Is Indeed Lrue LIuL In uII cuses we musL
suppose un underIyIng LIIng, buL LIe underIyIng LIIng Is noL u LIIrd IucLor over und ubove
LIe opposILes: IL Is LIe sume LIIng us one oI LIe opposILes, vIz. LIuL IromwIIcI LIe cIunge
Lukes pIuce, buL under u dIIIerenL descrIpLIon.
11
Jones sees ArIsLoLIe us enguged In u process oI pureIy IInguIsLIc InquIry: |W|e muy
dIsmIss uny suggesLIon LIuL we ure deuIIng Iere wILI un empIrIcuI InquIry InLo cIunge.
RuLIer, Ie Is consIderIng IInguIsLIc pIenomenu, Jones, ArIsLoLIe's nLroducLIon oI MuL-
Ler, p. q;8. oIIowIng LIIs vIew, Jones InLerpreLs LIe noxccioi us LIuL IndIvIduuI ILem,
be IL sImpIy u pIece oI some sLuII or eIse u subsLunLIuI IndIvIduuI, sucI us u seed or un em-
bryo, wILI wIIcI u process oI comIng InLo exIsLence begIns, und Irom wIIcI LIe producL
comes Lo exIsL, wIere LIe 'Irom` Ius Lo be undersLood us IuvIng u pureIy cIronoIogIcuI
Iorce, IbId., p. q;8. As wILI CIurILon, LIe noxccioi Is IdenLIIIed us LIuL Irom wIIcI LIe
cIunge Lukes pIuce, buL noL us LIuL wIIcI underIIes und survIves LIe cIunge.
1
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
LIe process oI cIunge; In LIe process LIey eIImInuLe ArIsLoLIe`s ubIIILy Lo re-
soIve LIe PurmenIdeun cIuIIenge, Ior LIeIr InLerpreLuLIons ImpIy LIuL LIuL
wIIcI comes Lo be musL come Lo be Irom LIuL wIIcI Is noL, per se. uLer
uuLIors Iuve cIuIIenged CIurILon und Jones, begInnIng wILI A. Code,
116
D.
BosLock,
11;
und S. WuLerIow.
118
To my mInd, LIe besL und mosL compIeLe unswer Lo CIurILon und Jones
Is Iound In GIII, Aristotle on Substcnce, In purLIcuIur becuuse LIe modeI oI
cIunge GIII presenLs uppIIes noL onIy Lo non-subsLunLIuI cIunge (Lo wIIcI
WuLerIow`s modeI Is IImILed), buL uIso uccounLs Ior generuLIon und desLruc-
LIon, wIIcI CIurILon suw us u serIous gup In ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI cIunge.
11q
GIII`s modeI, wIIcI sIe Lerms LIe 'consLrucLIon modeI,` sIows Iow muL-
Ler persIsLs even LIrougI subsLunLIuI cIunge.
1zo
TIe consLrucLIon modeI
116
Code cIuIms LIuL Jones`s concIusIons ure bused upon u IuuILy reudIng oI Phsics
1qouz1-zq, u crILIcuI pussuge wIIcI uppeurs Lo suggesL LIuL LIe InILIuI muLerIuI subsLruLe
does noL survIve LIe cIunge; I.e. LIuL IL Is noL bronze LIuL survIves In LIe sLuLue LIuL comes
Lo be, buL ruLIer LIe sLuLue Is bruzen. CI. Code, TIe PersIsLence oI ArIsLoLeIIun MuLLer,
pp. q-61. or Code, LIe conLroversIuI pussuge musL be reud In LIe opposILe munner, uI-
IowIng LIe persIsLence oI LIe muLerIuI subsLruLe, sInce LIe spuLIo-LemporuI conLInuILy oI
LIe bronze wILI wIIcI we begIn wILI LIe bronze LIuL mukes up LIe IInIsIed sLuLue demon-
sLruLes conLInuILy; IbId., p. 6z.
11;
or BosLock, In LIe mosL pIuusIbIe versIon oI LIe docLrIne oI cIupLer ; LIe LIIrd prIn-
cIpIe Is noL wIuL underIIes In LIe sense oI wIuL Is u subjecL oI predIcuLes (I.e. LIe LIIng
suId Lo become so-und-so), buL ruLIer wIuL underIIes In LIe sense oI wIuL persIsLs LIrougI
cIunge, BosLock, ArIsLoLIe on LIe PrIncIpIes oI CIunge, p. 1q.
118
WuLerIow Is concerned Lo suve ArIsLoLIe Irom LIe PurmenIdeun purudox, wIIcI sIe
IoIds Is generuLed by empIusIzIng possIbIe buL Iess upproprIuLe wuys oI descrIbIng
cIunge. TIere ure muny wuys Lo LuIk ubouL LIe mun wIo becomes musIcuI. ArIsLoLIe, sIe
cIuIms, denIes LIuL every possIbIe wuy oI descrIbIng LIIs cIunge Is equuIIy upproprIuLe,
und LIuL LIe soIuLIon Lo LIe purudox (In cuses oI non-subsLunLIuI cIunge) IIes In empIu-
sIzIng us prImury LIose Iorms oI descrIbIng cIunge wIIcI reveuI LIuL someLIIng underIIes
wIIIe someLIIng perIsIes und someLIIng comes Lo be. CI. WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne,
cnd Aenc, p. 16. or ArIsLoLIe, no oLIer prooI Is requIred, Ior once Ie Ius sIown LIuL
LIe pIenomenu ure expIuIned wIen LIe 'preIerred` descrIpLIon Ius been dIscovered, LIe
Lusk oI LIe pIIIosopIer Ius come Lo un end; cI. IbId., 18-1q.
11q
CIurILon, Aristotle's Phsics, p. ;;.
1zo
CI. GIII, Aristotle on Substcnce, pp. 1;-6q.
z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Is desIgned Lo uccounL Ior LIose cuses In wIIcI LIere Is u comIng Lo be or
pussIng uwuy oI u subsLunce, und Ience u LrunsILIon Lo or Irom non-beIng
In u sLronger sense LIun wILI uccIdenLuI cIunges. NoneLIeIess, In order
LIuL cIunge be possIbIe, u generuLIon-Ior InsLunce-cunnoL be Irom ubso-
IuLe non-beIng. TIere Is uIwuys someLIIng LIuL persIsLs, und uL LIe mosL
busIc IeveI wIuL persIsLs ure LIe eIemenLs, wIIcI GIII InLerpreLs us 'prIme
muLLer.` TIe eIemenLs ure In poLency Lo IIgIer sLuLes oI beIng, e.g. bIood,
wIIcI cun In Lurn be 'worked up`
1z1
InLo un embryo by LIe ucLIon oI LIe se-
men,
1zz
wIIcI Is In poLency Lo be u Iumun beIng. n LIIs cuse, LIe Iumun
beIng Is uL LIe Lop oI un upex oI Iess compIex ucLuuIILIes, wIIcI durIng LIe
process oI deveIopmenL ure 'consLrucLed` InLo wIuL LIey ure In poLency Lo
xc0' c(:i. SImIIurIy, LIe eIemenLs ure In poLency Lo uII LIe producLs oI cor-
rupLIon, buL onIy xc- c-ppc:i, I.e. us u resuIL oI LIe pussIng uwuy oI LIe
IIgIesL ucLuuIILy.
TIrougIouL uII LIIs LIe eIemenLs persIsL 'InpoLency,` us properLIes wIIcI
cIurucLerIze LIe generuLed ucLuuIILy, buL wIIcI uIso serve Lo reconsLILuLe
LIe eIemenLuI muLLer (In GIII`s InLerpreLuLIon) wIen LIe process oI corrup-
LIon Is compIeLe.
1z
TIus, In GIII`s modeI LIere Is boLI someLIIng wIIcI
remuIns us noxccioi, buL wIIcI-pcce CIurILon und Jones-need noL be
IdenLIcuI wILI eILIer oI LIe end-poInLs oI LIe cIunge, buL ruLIer ucLs us u
genuIne LIIrd prIncIpIe underIyIng LIe comIng Lo be und pussIng uwuy oI
LIe Iorms cIurucLerIzIng LIe beIng undergoIng cIunge In LIe vurIous sLuges
1z1
CI. Generction oj Animcls, ;8uzo-zq.
1zz
CI. Generction oj Animcls, ;6bo8-16.
1z
CI. IbId., p. 1;. NoLe LIuL GIII`s 'consLrucLIon modeI` puruIIeIs LIe noLIon oI 'scuIIoId-
Ing oI Iorms` wIIcI dIscuss In cIupLer z, p. 116.

Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c


oI ILs deveIopmenL und degeneruLIon.
1zq
1.q The p_c us Iormul und muteriul principles, und their relu-
tion to c:,
ArIsLoLIe Ius LIus derIved LIe necessILy oI u IormuI und muLerIuI 'purL`
In nuLuruI subsLunces. n LIIs secLIon, wIII dIscuss Iow LIese p_c corre-
spond Lo LIe concepLs oI Iorm und muLLer In ArIsLoLIe`s onLoIogy, IoIIowed
by u dIscussIon oI Iow c:, prImurIIy pIuys LIe roIe oI IormuI prIncIpIe In
LIe subsLunces IL mukes Lo be.
1.q.1 The noxc:ioi und p
By LIe end oI Book oI LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe Ius provIded LIe jusLI-
IIcuLIon Ior posILIng Lwo IundumenLuI prIncIpIes or p_c oI beIngs wIIcI
undergo cIunge: u IormuI prIncIpIe und u prIncIpIe wIIcI underIIes. n
order Lo uvoId LIe concIusIon LIuL 'beIng` becomes 'non-beIng` sImpIIcILer,
Ie sIows LIuL one prIncIpIe oI every beIng subjecL Lo cIunge musL be LIe
underIyIng or noxc:ioi, wIIcI 'undergoes` LIe cIunge In quesLIon, und
remuIns numerIcuIIy LIe sume LIrougIouL LIe cIunge; on LIe oLIer Iund,
1zq
do noL beIIeve LIuL IL Is necessury Lo uccepL GIII`s posILIon on LIe eIemenLs us beIng
'prIme muLLer` Inorder Lo IoIdLIuL LIe consLrucLIonmodeI Is essenLIuIIy vuIId. L needonIy
be uccepLed LIuL LIe eIemenLs ure muLerIuI In regurds Lo LIe enLILIes consLILuLed by LIem,
wIIIe recognIzIng LIuL LIe eIemenLs LIemseIves, wILI LIeIr ucLIve und pussIve quuIILIes
und unIque ussocIuLed moLIons, Iuve u deLermInuLe wuy oI beIng und Ience Iuve Iorm.
I, us Brenner sLuLes, muLLer und Iorm ure compIemenLury prIncIpIes oI LIIngs subjecL
Lo cIunge, (Brenner, PrIme MuLLer und BurrIngLon Jones, p. zzq) LIen LIe eIemenLs,
wIIcI ure subjecL Lo cIunge, musL LIemseIves be comprIsed oI boLI subsLunLIuI Iorm und
u muLLer wIIcI Is In poLency Lo become uny one oI LIe Iour. BuL LIIs posILIon does no Iurm
Lo GIII`s consLrucLIon modeI, wIIcI depends mereIy upon LIe secondury muLerIuIILy oI LIe
eIemenLs LIemseIves, I.e. LIeIr ubIIILy Lo be 'worked up` InLo more compIex subsLunces.
q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
uhct IL cIunges Lo be Is LIe IormuI prIncIpIe.
1z
ArIsLoLIe`s IInuI sLep In IIs deIInILIon oI LIe noxc:ioi us p_ Is IIs
specIIIcuLIon oI IL us 'muLLer` or p: , yp np, iop:i-c _cx, np,
xipi (oi np, -i oi -: -i c_i-oi opi p xc| - opoi c_c:
npi c[ci -i opi...
1z6
TIe noxc:ioi Ius LIe ubIIILy Lo Luke on u Iorm,
und IL Is consIdered us p InsoIur us IL Is ubIe Lo do so, buL Ius noL yeL
done so.
1z;
Becuuse LIe noxc:ioi Is reuI und Ius u cIurucLer wIIcI cun
be known vIu unuIogy, o-o, c-p np, occi c_c: xc - -oc -: xc - i.
1z8
And becuuse oI LIIs reuIILy, und ILs ubIIILy Lo muke someLIIng Lo be wIuL IL
Is Lo u cerLuIn degree, ArIsLoLIe cuIIs LIe noxc:ioi 'c:,`: oc noxc:ip
c:, cn:c-p- xc-' icoyci.
1zq
TIus, ArIsLoLIe ends Book oI LIe Phsics IuvIng sIown LIe need Ior u
muLerIuI prIncIpIe LIuL cun, Lo u cerLuIn degree, be cuIIed c:,,
1o
sInce Lo
u cerLuIn degree (und mosL especIuIIy In cerLuIn cuses, sucI us urLIIucLs) LIe
p provIdes LIe 'wIuLness` oI LIe LIIng. n Book oI LIe Phsics, ArIs-
LoLIe mukes IL cIeur LIuL c:, Is more properIy suId Lo be LIe Iorm; never-
LIeIess, LIe connecLIon oI c:, wILI muLLer serves Lo sIow LIuL LIe Iorm Is
connecLed wILI poLency Lo some degree. TIIs wIII be dIscussed IurLIer In
CIupLers z und , wIere wIII dIscuss Iow c:, ImpIIes poLency.
1z
cicpi oi ,, cncp cci c-c: xc p_c -i cc: i-oi, c( i np-oi cc xc ycyicc:
xc- co[c[px, ' cxcc-oi yc-c: xc- -i occi, -: yyic-c: ni cx -c -o noxc:ioo
xc -, op,, Phsics, 1qob1;-1q.
1z6
Phsics, 1q1uo8-u11.
1z;
CI. Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zou-, c- oc p :c-c ci xc xop/o, -
noxc/cioi ycicco, xc 0op, ocx-:xi, -pnoi o -:ic xc - -c, c:, c-c[oc,, -: ni-c
ocx-:x - noxc/cic cici-:cci -:ioi.
1z8
Phsics, 1q1u1z-u1.
1zq
Phsics, 1q1uo;.
1o
See Phsics, 1q1bz8-o

Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c


1.q. c:, us Iormul principle
TIe quesLIon LIus urIses, gIven LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius IdenLIIIed c:, us be-
Ing u p_ ...| -o x:icc0c: xc pcc, us Lo uhich oI LIe Lwo (or LIree) p_c
Ie wIsIes Lo IdenLIIy wILI c:,. As noLed ubove, LIere Is uL IeusL one sense
In wIIcI c:, cun be suId Lo be muLLer. NeverLIeIess, LIIs Is noL LIe en-
LIreLy oI LIe Issue, us ArIsLoLIe mukes cIeur In Book , wIere Ie dedIcuLes
LIe IIrsL cIupLers Lo deLermInIng LIe unswer Lo sIowIng LIuL 'c:,` Is prI-
murIIy suId oI LIe IormuI prIncIpIe.
TIe roIe oI LIe IormIs, In LIe IIrsL pIuce, us LIe ucLuuIILy oI LIe muLLer oI
LIe subsLunce.
11
TIIs Is Iess eusIIy seen wILI nuLuruI subsLunces, wIere LIe
11
c-: p cc-: ooic: -: c0o: i c, - coo, -ci oc yc cicpyc , --c ci - coc: cc-i,
Metcphsics, 1oou1-1;. My IormuIuLIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne wus Iur Irom unconLro-
versIuI In zoLI cenLury EngIIsI-Iunguuge dIscussIons. IoId LIuL LIIs wus prImurIIy due
Lo u wIdespreud Lendency umongsL EngIIsI-speukIng pIIIosopIers Lo InLerpreL ArIsLoLIe`s
docLrIne oI Iorm LIrougI LIe prIsm oI Metcphsics V-V, negIecLIng LIe docLrIne oI
poLency und ucL Iound In Metcphsics X.
SeIIurs, SubsLunce und orm In ArIsLoLIe, pp. 6q;-8 Is LypIcuI, In IoIdIng mereIy LIuL
LIe Iorm... Is LIuL by vIrLue oI wIIcI |un orgunIsm or urLIIucL| Is u prImury substcnce,
wIIcI Is Lrue us Iur us IL goes, buL mIsses LIe roIe oI ucL In druwIng wIuL Is poLenLIuIIy u
subsLunce InLo IuII reuIILy. AIbrILLon, orms oI PurLIcuIur SubsLunces In ArIsLoLIe's Metc-
phsics, p. ;o;, respondIng Lo SeIIurs, LIrows InLo doubL ArIsLoLIe`s commILmenL Lo IndI-
vIduuI Iorms, wIIcI Is LunLumounL Lo denyIng LIuL LIey couId be ucLuuIIzers oI muLLer In
LIe composILIon oI exIsLIng subsLunces.
Nussbuum (1q;8) Lukes wIuL muy be Lermed un 'empIrIcIsL` vIew oI Iorm; speukIng oI
LIe roIe oI Iorm In ArIsLoLIe`s bIoIogy, sIe sLuLes LIuL |Iorm| Is noL u consLILuenL oI LIe
unImuI over und ubove ILs muLerIuI consLILuenLs... IL Is LIe urrungemenL oI LIe consLILuenLs
LIemseIves (Nussbuum, ArIsLoLIe onTeIeoIogIcuI ExpIunuLIon, p. ;), undLIe IormoI u
IIvIng beIng Is noL someLIIng sepurubIe IrommuLLer, IL Is someLIIng muLerIuI, u IuncLIonuI
sLuLe oI muLLer-or, II youpreIer, u IIrsL enLeIecIy (LIe orgunIzuLIon-Lo-IuncLIon, unuIogous
Lo sIgIL) (IbId., p. ;z).
n LIe 1q8o`s uuLIors begun Lo recover LIe ImporLunce oI LIe poLenLIuIJucLuuI dIsLInc-
LIon Ior undersLundIng muLerIuI subsLunce. urLI, Ior InsLunce, Ius cIeurIy recognIzed LIe
cuusuI prIorILy oI IormIn LIe beIng oI muLerIuI subsLunce, und wIIIe Ie normuIIy descrIbes
LIIs vIu LIe 'InIorms` operuLor (e.g. LIe SocruLIc sIupe injorms LIe bronze, producIng u
sLuLue oI SocruLes), Ie uIso ucknowIedges LIuL 'InIorms` couId be repIuced by 'ucLuuIIzes` us
u more eIegunL uILernuLIve (urLI, Substcnce, Iorm, cnd Psche, p. 1q8). CIurIes, MuLLer
und orm: UnILy, PersIsLence und denLILy und ScuILsus, SubsLunLIuI HoIIsm ure IurLIer
exumpIes oI LIIs IuLer Lendency Lo empIusIze LIe roIe oI Iorm us cctuclizer oI ILs muLLer.
6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Iorm und LIe muLLer deveIop LogeLIer In LIe growLI oI LIe orgunIsm, buL IL
Is more obvIous In LIe cuse oI urLIIucLs, wIere LIe IormIs Imposed on u pre-
exIsLIng muLLer.
1z
TIe ucL oI LIe resuILIng urLIIucL Is wIuL IL Is, due Lo LIe
Iorm LIuL Ius been Imposed. As ArIsLoLIe noLes, coi ci oi c-cpi - cc-:
ncp -i _pc:i - y:yicioi, -o-oi ci cipyc:c ci - no:ooi cc-i ooi
-c oxoopc:, ci - oxoooooi.
1
TIe PIIIosopIer Ius sLuLed severuI
LImes LIuL c:, In nuLuruI subsLunces Is dIrecLIy puruIIeI Lo LIe urLIIIcIuI
Iorm Imposed In works oI urL
1q
; LIus, we cun sLuLe LIuL nuLure us Iorm Is
LIe ucLuuIILy oI LIe nuLuruI subsLunce, gIvIng beIng Lo ILs muLLer und IosLIng
ILs poLenLIuIILIes (poLenLIuIILy beIng posLerIor Lo ucLuuIILy In uccounL
1
und
In subsLunce
16
).
NuLure us Iorm Is uIso LIe prIncIpIe oI unILy Ior LIe nuLuruI subsLunce IL
mukes ucLuuI. AL Metcphsics V.6, ArIsLoLIe suys cc-: o', cncp cpp-c:,
cc_-p p xc op -c- xc ci, ooic:, - oc cicpyc, c-c o:oi - p-ci
-o cio, - c-:oi xc -o ci cic:.
1;
SInce LIe IormIs wIuL mukes LIe muLLer Lo
be ucLuuI, und LIe composILe LIuL resuILs Is one, we muy suy LIuL LIe IormIs
1z
TIIs Is despILe LIe IucL LIuL, us urLI noLes, urLIIucLs (especIuIIy sImpIe ones IIke sLuL-
ues und spIeres) ure, Irom one perspecLIve, bud exumpIes Ior subsLunces, Ior LIe urLI-
IucL Iucks LIe Lrue subsLunce`s ubIIILy Lo muInLuIn ILseII LIrougI cIunge-even In ILs own
muLLer-over LIme; uccordIng Lo urLI, un urLIIucL`s Iorm Is LIIn und exIguous, und uny
process oI muInLenunce und repuIr Is noL selj -muInLenunce or selj -repuIr. CI. urLI, Sub-
stcnce, Iorm, cnd Psche, p. 181. ArIsLoLIe, us urLI poInLs ouL, expIuIns LIe useIuIness oI
urLIIucLuuI exumpIes by noLIng LIuL LIere Is someLIIng 'unuIogous` (ioyoi) Lo subsLun-
LIuI beIng In uII oI LIem (Metcphsics, 1oquq).
1
Metcphsics, 1oouo-1oob.
1q
TIIs puruIIeI underIIes LIe urgumenL Ior nuLure us end-dIrecLed In PIysIcs .8, us we
sIuII see In LIe IuLLer purL oI LIIs sLudy; Ior InsLunce, ArIsLoLIe sLuLes uL 1qqu16-1q LIuL
o, oc -_ip - ci cn:-cc c:, ooic-c ncpyccc0c:, - oc :c-c:. c oi - xc-
-_ipi cicx -oo, ooi -: xc - xc- c:i.
1
Metcphsics, 1oqqb1z.
16
Metcphsics, 1oou.
1;
Metcphsics, 1oqb1q-z1.
;
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
LIe prIncIpIe oI unILy In u nuLuruI subsLunce. MoLIon Is mosL properIy suId
Lo occur In LIose beIngs wIIcI ure one subjecL, sInce Ior u moLIon Lo be LruIy
one, IL musL be In u subjecL LIuL Is ILseII one.
18
M. urLI poInLs ouL IurLIer
LIuL unoLIer IndIcuLIon oI LIe IInkuge beLween bein jormed und bein one
In ArIsLoLIe`s LIougIL cun be Iound In LIe dIscussIon oI embryonIc deveIop-
menL presenLed In LIe Generction oj Animcls. n LIe generuLIon oI u gIven
unImuI, suy, u Iorse, LIere ure Lwo uspecLs we cun dIsLInguIsI:
(1) LIe LrunsIormuLIon oI someLIIng undIIIerenLIuLed und Iuck-
Ing specIIIc Iorm, InLo u IuIIy dIIIerenLIuLed und sIurpIy deIIned
specImen oI u subsLunLIuI specIes, und (z) LIe LrunsIormuLIon
oI u 'unIIorm` (o:ocp,) muss or uggIomeruLIon, someLIIng oI
LIe nuLure oI u 'Ieup,` InLo u nonunIIorm (ioo:ocp,) enLILy
IuvIng LIe IIgIer order oI unILy, In wIIcI LIe wIoIe Is some-
LIIng beyond LIe purLs, wIIcI ArIsLoLIe ussocIuLes wILI un IndI-
vIduuI or 'LIIs` (-oc -:).
1q
NuLure us Iorm Is uIso suId Lo be LIe cuuse oI LIe 'wIuLness` oI LIe sub-
sLunce LIuL IL ucLuuIIzes. As ArIsLoLIe sLuLes In Phsics .z,
c-c oi -pnoi c:, i cp -i c_i-oi ci c-o, x:icco, p_i
op xc - coo,, o _op:c-i i ' xc- -i yoi. |- o' cx
-o-oi c:, ci ox cc-:i, cc: o, ooi i0pono,. xc oi c-p
c:, -, p, cxcc-oi yp --c yc-c: -ci ci-cc_c , oi
-ci ooic:.
1qo
18
xc - x:iocioi i cic: xc- co[c[px,, Phsics, zz;b1.
1q
urLI, ArIsLoLIe on LIe UnILy oI orm, p. 8.
1qo
Phsics, 1qbz-b;.
8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
And In MeLupIysIcs V.;, Ie sLuLes LIuL coo, oc yo - - i cic: cxc-oo
xc -i np-pi occi.
1q1
rom LIIs we cun deduce (uILIougI Ie does noL
uppeur Lo suy so dIrecLIy) LIuL c:,, Luken us LIe IormuI ucL oI u cIungeubIe
beIng, gIves IL ILs 'wIuLness` or - - i cic:.
1qz
orm-or coo,-Is noL, Iowever, IdenLIcuI wILI c:,, sInce Iorm, us In-
dIcuLIng un InLeIIIgIbIe deLermInuLIon oI some kInd, cun uIso be Luken In
u secondury sense Lo reIer Lo prIvuLIon.
1q
1c:, Is, ruLIer, u posILIve uc-
LuuIILy LIuL deLermInes ILs muLLer Lo be u cerLuIn wuy, und Is noL mereIy u
wuy oI expressIng u mode oI beIng, wIIcI Is Iow coo, Is beIng used wIen
IL expresses prIvuLIon. TIIs dIIIerence beLween c:, und coo, Is LIuL LIe
Iormer Is un ucL wIIcI Is deLermIned und deLermInIng (und Ience 'IormuI`)
oI u beIng subjecL Lo cIunge, wIereus LIe IuLLer cun uIso be suId oI LIe de-
LermInuLIon us thouht. WIIIe LIe IormuI ucL oI u mobIIe beIng Is IosL Lo
muny poLencIes, und LIus Is open Lo cIunge,
Iu Iormu |pensudu| es sIempre Iu mIsmu... Por consIguIenLe, Iu
Iormu es ucLo, pero no Io es en cuunLo se expresu en Iu Ideu (pues
Iu Ideu es sIempre Iu mIsmu). EI ucLo de Iu Iormu no se Iu de bus-
cur enIu mIsmIdud de Iu Ideu nI ensus deLermInucIones sIempre
IdnLIcus. Asi pues, Iu Iormu es ucLo, pero eI ucLo no se reduce u
Iormu, sIno que LumbIn es ucLo eI movImIenLo.
1qq
1q1
Metcphsics, 1ozbo1-oz. wIII dIscuss LIe connecLIon oI - - i cic: und c:, In
greuLer depLI In secLIon 1., Ior LIe - - i cic: Is noL u 'purL` oI LIe beIng, us LIe Iorm Is
wIen Luken In opposILIon wILI LIe muLLer oI LIe LIIng.
1qz
rom LIIs we cun uIso deduce LIuL urLIIucLs do noL Iuve u reuI 'wIuLness`; LIey do noL
Iorm genuIne nuLuruI Lypes. TIeIr 'wIuLness` Is reIuLIve Lo LIe use LIuL Iumun beIngs puL
LIem Lo.
1q
oc op xc c:, o:_, yc-c: xc yp c-ppc:, coo, n, cc-:i Phsics, 1qb1q.
1qq
de Guruy, Los sentidos de lc jormc en Aristteles, pug. 1o6. wIII dIscuss LIIs dIIIer-
ence In greuLer depLI In CIupLer z, secLIon z.q.
q
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
TIe IormuI ucL Is uIwuys posILIve und reuI (us opposed Lo LIe noeLIc coo,,
wIIcI cun express prIvuLIon), und Is open Lo cIunge vIu LIe poLencIes LIuL
LIe ucLuuIILy IosLs, wIereus LIe Iorm us LIougIL Is ImmuLubIe.
1q
TIus,
c:, us ucL oI LIe nuLuruI subsLunce Is IormuI, und Is LIus LIInkubIe und
expressIbIe In deIInILIons (und LIus Is LIe possIbIe subjecL oI scIence). Nev-
erLIeIess, IL Is precIseIy LIe IucL LIuL c:, Is noL 'coo,` cs immobilized in
thouht wIIcI mukes IL possIbIe Ior ArIsLoLIe Lo escupe LIe PIuLonIc Lrup oI
posLuIuLIng eLernuI, subsIsLenL 'Iorms` In wIIcI cIungeubIe LIIngs purLIcI-
puLe.
1.g 1c:, in the brouder context oI Aristotle's other works
n LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe deIInes LIe Lerm c:, prImurIIy In Lerms oI
LIe IormuI purL oI nuLuruI (I.e. cIungeubIe) subsLunces. NeverLIeIess, In
LIe Metcphsics, Ie cIeurIy sLuLes LIuL LIe prImury sense oI c:, Is LIuL oI
'occ,` LIus ruIsIng un ImporLunL dIIIIcuILy: wIIcI sense oI c:, reuIIy Is
prImury?
1q
AsImIsmo Iu Iormu esLu deIInIdu, LermInudu, ucubudu. Es perIecLu. EsLu Lodu en si
mIsmu de unu vez por Lodus. 'A Iu Iormu no Ie IuILu nudu` (Isicc .q, 1qzu z1). Su unIdud
y su necesIdud es ucubumIenLo. u Iormu es perIecLu, en esLu consIderucIn, no por sus
posIbIIIdudes, sIno porque sus IimILes esLun yu IIjudos. SI se compurun Ius Iormus con Ios
seres en movImIenLo, se observu que sLos buscun uIcunzur unus deLermInucIones; son
ImperIecLos respecLo u esus Iormus deseudus. Por eI conLrurIo, Iu Iormu no buscu nI deseu
nudu (Isicc .q, 1qzu zo), porque yu posee Lodu Iu deLermInucIn que puede Lener. No
Lodo esLu sIempre cumbIundo, sIno que Iuy LumbIn seres InmvIIes (Met. V., 1o1ob
-; V.8, 1o1zb zz-1). u Iormu, en esLe senLIdo, comporLu InmovIIIdud, IIjezu, IrenLe
uI movImIenLo, de Guruy, Los sentidos de lc jormc en Aristteles, p. ;.
6o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1.g.1 1c:, us occ
We Iuve uIreudy seen, wILI LIe Pre-SocruLIcs, LIuL LIe sense oI c:, us
'reuI consLILuLIon` deveIoped In order Lo expIuIn LIe ucLIvILIes oI compIex
beIngs In LIe IIgIL oI busIc prIncIpIes. n ArIsLoLIe`s own LermInoIogy, LIe
correIuLe Lo 'reuI consLILuLIon` Is 'essence,` wIIcI ArIsLoLIe LypIcuIIy renders
us '- - i cic:` (uILIougI In cerLuIn conLexLs Ie uIso uses LIe Lerm 'occ`).
TIe essence Is suId Lo be LIe enLIreLy oI LIe beIng wIIcI IL consLILuLes, Ior
LIere Is no dIIIerence beLween LIe 'reuI consLILuLIon` (or essence) oI LIe be-
Ing und LIe beIng ILseII, us ArIsLoLIe mukes cIeur In LIe IoIIowIng pussuge
Irom Book V oI LIe Metcphsics:
xc-o: - xoc: xc ii cic: ci:c c0, - i cic:, cncp occ - - i
cic:, i o ioi ci, xc yo, c-, c-i, , ooi
xc cx -i cppioi. o yp xc- co[c[px, i - ci cic: xc ci. c-:
c o cc-c:, c, nc:poi cc:i. - ci yp cc-c: - i cic: -o ci, -
oc - ci, c-c xc cn' cxcioi c-, cc-c: yo,. -: ci oi cn -i
np-oi xc xc0' c- cyoioi - cxc- cic: xc cxcc-oi - c-
xc ci cc-:.
1q6
nBook VoI LIe Metcphsics, ArIsLoLIe gIves IIs deIInILIons oI u number
oI key Lerms In IIs new scIence oI 'beIng quc beIng,` und In LIIs conLexL Ie
expIuIns Iow LIe Lerm c:, Is Lo be used. He IdenLIIIes, In LIe process,
u number oI LIe senses wIIcI Iuve LoucIed upon so Iur, IncIudIng LIe
sense oI 'genesIs oI u IIvIng LIIng` (LIe prImordIuI meunIng oI c:,), 'source
oI movemenL In nuLuruI beIngs` (c:, us purL oI LIe beIng, InsoIur us LIe
1q6
Metcphsics, 1o1bo-1ozu6.
61
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
source Is noL LIe wIoIe), 'muLLer oI LIe beIng` (c:, us muLerIuI purL) und
'LIe Iorm or essence` (c:, us IormuI purL, us opposed Lo LIe muLLer).
1q;
However, Ie IoIIows up LIIs IIsLIng oI senses by sLuLIng LIuL LIe prImury
sense oI LIe Lermc:, IndIcuLes LIe 'occ` oI beIngs wILI un Inner prIncIpIe
oI moLIon, In LIe sense oI LIeIr 'reuI consLILuLIon` or 'essence`: np-p
c:, xc xopo, cyoip cc-i occ -i c_i-oi p_i x:icco, ci c-o,
c-.
1q8
TIIs sense oI c:, us essence Is prImury Ior ArIsLoLIe, becuuse In LIe
deveIopmenL oI u scIence oI mobIIe beIng, LIe sense oI c:, us purL cun-
noL be prImury: IuvIng purLs Is precIseIy u cIurucLerIsLIc oI beIng (und by
exLensIon, oI mobIIe beIng), buL Is noL LIe noLIon oI beIng quc mobIIe IL-
seII.
1qq
TIus, un InvesLIguLIon oI LIe purLs oI mobIIe beIng Is un ImporLunL
LopIc In IIs Phsics, buL pIysIcuI scIence Is concerned more generuIIy wILI
LIe properLIes oI mobIIe beIng us sucI, IncIudIng LIe deLermInuLIon oI LIe
noLIons oI cuuse, moLIon, pIuce und LIme, wIIcI perLuIn noL Lo c:, us u
purL oI beIng, buL ruLIer Lo beIngs subjecL Lo cIunge, us enLIre und compIeLe
beIngs.
NeverLIeIess, LIe sense oI c:, us LIe IormuI purL oI mobIIe beIng re-
muIns 'prImury` In cerLuIn kInds oI InvesLIguLIons. One sucI InvesLIguLIon
InvoIves LIe deLermInuLIonoI wIuL LIe p_c oI mobIIe beIng ure, undwIIcI
(II uny) oI LIese p_c Ius prIorILy over LIe oLIer; LIIs Is precIseIy LIe In-
1q;
Metcphsics, 1o1qbzz-u1z.
1q8
Metcphsics, 1o1u1-1q.
1qq
Here, 'purL` cun be InLerpreLed In severuI wuys: us one eIemenL oI u compIex beIng, und
In LIIs sense 'Iorm` und 'muLLer` ure purLs oI mobIIe beIng; or us IndIvIduuI uspecLs derIv-
ubIe Irom u concepL reIuLed Lo beIng, und In LIIs sense we cun speuk oI 'purLs oI oneness`
or 'purLs oI beIng` In u brouder sense.
6z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
vesLIguLIon we encounLer In Book oI LIe Phsics. AnoLIer InvesLIguLIon
InvoIves LIe Issue oI wIeLIer LIere exIsL seII-movers, wIIcI Iorms purL oI
ArIsLoLIe`s Iurger InvesLIguLIon InLo LIe exIsLence oI u IIrsL unmoved cuuse
oI moLIon; In LIIs conLexL, ArIsLoLIe wIsIes Lo usserL LIuL LIere Is u moved
und un unmoved purL In uny seII-mover, und LIe unmoved purL wIII cor-
respond Lo LIe c:, us IormuI purL oI LIe beIng.
1o
A LIIrd InvesLIguLIon
InvoIves LIe jusLIIIcuLIon oI wIeLIer LIere exIsL kInds oI IormuI ucL wIIcI
muke IIgIer beIngs Lo be, or wIeLIer onIy LIe eIemenLs or uLoms cun LruIy
be suId 'Lo be,` us LIe oc:oyo: susLuIned. TIIs IuLLer InvesLIguLIon Is pre-
cIseIy LIe Iocus oI LIIs sLudy, und LIus LIe c:, us IormuI ucL (In opposILIon
Lo LIe muLerIuI subsLruLe) oI mobIIe beIng wIII be IIgIIIgILed. TIus, wIIIe
LIe sense oI c:, us essence Ius prImucy In LIe scIence oI mobIIe beIng
us u wIoIe, LIe sense oI c:, us IormuI purL wIII normuIIy be LIe uspecL Lo
wIIcI dedIcuLe my uLLenLIon.
1.6 Conclosions: the doctrine oI the p_c und its implicutions
n LIIs cIupLer, we Iuve obLuIned un overuII (II brIeI) vIew oI LIe evoIu-
LIon oI LIe Lerm c:, us u LecInIcuI Lerm umong LIe Greek oc:oyo:, us
weII us u generuI pIcLure oI LIe docLrInes oI LIose nuLuruI pIIIosopIers wIo
were mosL ImporLunL Lo ArIsLoLIe us InLerIocuLors: EmpedocIes, Anuxugo-
rus und LIe ALomIsLs. n purLIcuIur, we Iuve seen Iowc:, cume Lo Iuve u
number oI dIsLIncL-LIougI cIoseIy reIuLed-senses, und we Iuve seen LIuL
1o
TIIs Is LIe posILIon LIuL ArIsLoLIe Lukes In LIe Phsics und Dn the Soul; oLIer works
(especIuIIy Dn the Motion oj Animcls) seem Lo suggesL oLIerwIse. wIII InvesLIguLe LIIs
LIorny Issue IurLIer In CIupLer .
6
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
LIese were Luken up by ArIsLoLIe, reIIned, und InLegruLed InLo IIs overuII
pIysIcuI und meLupIysIcuI LIeorIes. n uddILIon, we Iuve seen Iow LIe de-
veIopmenL oI LIe noLIon oI LIe p_c oI LIe pIysIcuI worId cume Lo deveIop,
und IowArIsLoLIe derIved c:, us one oI LIese p_c. WIuL, Iowever, Iuve
we ucIIeved Lowurds undersLundIng IowArIsLoLIe jusLIIIes LIe exIsLence oI
IIgIer cc:,?
TIe muIn ucIIevemenL oI ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLuLIon In Book oI LIe
Phsics, und IIs deveIopmenL oI LIe docLrIne oI LIe p_c, Is Lo provIde u
busIs Ior undersLundIng moLIon (xipc:,) und subsLunLIuI cIunge (yicc:, or
0op), uguInsL LIose wIo wouId deny ILs reuIILy. TIose wIo deny cIunge
IncIude LIose wIo, IoIIowIng LIe EIeuLIc 'LempLuLIon,` deny LIuL LIere Is
genuIneIy moLIon In LIe unIverse, und LIose wIo usserL LIuL LIere Is noLI-
Ing more LIun uggreguLIon und segreguLIon, IoIIowIng LIe muLerIuIIsL vIew.
ArIsLoLIe`s ucIIevemenL Iere wIII Iuve u Iur-reucIIng ImpucL on LIe resL
oI IIs pIIIosopIy, Irom IIs cosmoIogy Lo IIs undersLundIng oI LIe Iumun
souI, und enubIes IIm Lo propose u LIeory oI c:, us u sLubIe prIncIpIe
wIIcI underIIes 'surIuce` cIunges.
WIIIe ArIsLoLIe Ius noL yeL-In LIe LexLs we Iuve cILed-reucIed u sLuge
wIere Ie cun demonsLruLe LIe exIsLence oI beIngs wIIcI Iuve wILIIn LIem-
seIves u 'prIncIpIe oI moLIon und cIunge` (Ior up Lo LIIs poInL Ie Ius onIy
demonsLruLed LIe prIncIpIes LIuL underIIe beIngs subjecL Lo cIunge, und
noL LIe cuuse oI LIuL cIunge) Ie neverLIeIess Ius mude u Ieup wIIcI wIII
Iuve ImporLunL consequences Ior IIs ubIIILy Lo deIend c:, uguInsL LIe
oc:oyo: . TIIs Is becuuse LIe LIeorIes oI LIese muLerIuIIsL LIInkers ure
uIso necessurIIy subjecL Lo un unuIysIs In Lerms oI LIe ArIsLoLeIIun p_c, I.e.
6q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Iorm und muLLer.
As ArIsLoLIe descrIbes LIe ALomIsL posILIon, eucIppus und DemocrILus
propose u sIngIe cc ('body`), wIIcI exIsLs In un InIInILe muILILude oI In-
dIvIsIbIe unILs ('uLoms`) vuryIng onIy by sIze und sIupe. TIIs 'body` Is oI
u sIngIe muLLer, mucI us muny IIukes oI goId ure uII oI LIe sume muLerIuI.
TIe uLoms, composed oI LIIs sIngIe muLLer und movIng In LIe voId, LIus
Iorm Iurger bodIes by uggreguLIon; LIus LIe ALomIsLs ure ubIe Lo deny Lrue
comIng-Lo-be. TIe posLuIuLIon oI 'uLoms` by LIese LIInkers does noL, Iow-
ever, enubIe LIem Lo uvoId LIe unuIysIs oI beIng In Lerms oI LIe p_c. or
LIe ALomIsLs propose u sIngIe lind oI muLerIuI wIIcI vurIes In sIupe und
sIze. BuL LIese ure IormuI dIIIerences, supervenIng on u p (Lo use LIe
ArIsLoLeIIun Lerm) wIIcI Is nuLuruIIy upL Lo Luke on LIese dIIIerIng sIupes.
TIus, LIIs underIyIng cc Is In poLency Lo LIese IormuI modIIIcuLIons
(evenLIougI LIe 'uLoms`, beIng eLernuI, do noL cIunge sIupe). TIus, we ure
IeIL wILI IuvIng Lo propose u IormuI prIncIpIe dIsLIncL Iromund IrreducIbIe
Lo LIe muLerIuI prIncIpIe (sInce LIe cc ILseII does noL expIuIn LIe sIupe
oI u gIven uLom). SInce LIe unuIysIs In Lerms oI LIe p_c Is unuvoIdubIe
even Ior LIe ALomIsLs, LIe onIy quesLIon Is wIeLIer ArIsLoLIe cun prove LIuL
LIere ure IormuI p_c wIIcI cun generuLe IIgIer unILIes (sucI us orgun-
Isms). We cun sLuLe LIuL LIe exIsLence oI c:, uL LIe IeveI oI LIe eIemenLs
Is uIreudy purLIuIIy demonsLruLed by ArIsLoLIe`s derIvuLIonoI LIe IormuI und
muLerIuI p_c.
EmpedocIes posLuIuLes, Ior IIs purL, Iour 'rooLs` wIIcI Iuve purLIcuIur
'oIIIces` (cIurucLerIsLIcs or properLIes), wIIcILIrougIcombInuLIons Inpur-
LIcuIur ruLIos Iorm uII LIe known subsLunces oI LIe cosmos. However, LIe
6
Chcpter :. The Secrch jor the Zp_c
IucL LIuL eucI 'rooL` Is u determined somethin ImpIIes IormuIILy, u purLIcu-
Iur wuy oI beIng LIuL Is unIque Lo IL und IL uIone, und wIIcI munIIesLs ILseII
In purLIcuIur beIuvIors or wuy oI InLerucLIng. TIe IucL LIuL LIe purLIcuIur
'Iorm` oI eucI rooL Is ubIe Lo be presenL In muILIpIe InsLunces meuns LIuL
LIere musL be, In uddILIon, u muLerIuI prIncIpIe wIIcI Is ubIe Lo Luke on
LIIs IormuIILy, even II u gIven rooL never cIunges Lo be oLIer. or uII LIe
rooLs sIure u common 'someLIIng,` sucI us corporuIILy or spuLIuIILy, und
LIuL wIIcI LIey sIure In common musL be ubIe Lo receIve LIe IormoI u pur-
LIcuIur rooL.
Anuxugorus, IInuIIy, posLuIuLes bodIes LIuL ure InIInILeIy dIvIsIbIe, eucI
conLuInIng wILIIn IL LIe muILIpIIcILy oI busIc 'seeds` or quuIILIes wIIcI exIsL
In LIe worId, und wIIcI Iuve LIeIr vIsIbIe und sensIbIe cIurucLerIsLIcs uc-
cordIng Lo LIe proporLIon oI LIese 'seeds` wIIcI predomInuLe (uL wIuLever
IeveI oI dIvIsIon one wIsIes Lo ucIIeve). BuL quuIILIes (us embodIed In LIe
seeds) ure deLermInuLIons or purLIcuIur wuys oI beIng, und ure LIus IormuI.
WIIIe Anuxugorus muy wIsI Lo cIuImLIuL uII exIsLIng IormuIILIes cun be en-
counLered (even II In LIny proporLIons) In eter body LIuL Is dIvIded, IL Is
noneLIeIess LIe cuse LIuL Ie Is proposIng IormuI und muLerIuI uspecLs In
IIs LIeory. n order Ior LIese quuIILIes Lo be exIsLenL In muILIpIe IndIvIdu-
uIs, LIere musL uIso be someLIIng wIIcI IndIvIduuLes und gIves LIem LIe
ubIIILy Lo be IocuLed; oLIerwIse, LIey wouId be PIuLonIcuIIy exIsLenL, und
noL pIysIcuIIy exIsLenL. And LIIs IndIvIduuLIng und IocuIIzIng subsLruLe, In
wIIcI LIe quuIILIes InIere, musL be 'muLLer,` InsoIur us IL Is someLIIng ubIe
Lo receIve LIe IormuIILy oI LIe vurIous 'seeds.`
TIus, LIe uccounLs gIven by LIe oc:oyo: requIre Iorm und muLLer us
66
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
even deeper prIncIpIes LIun LIe eIemenLs or uLoms LIuL LIey LIemseIves
posIL us mosL busIc. WILIIn LIe umbIL oI Iorm, LIe oc:oyo: uIso requIre
someLIIng ukIn Lo 'essence.` or wIuL IL Is Lo be, Ior InsLunce, u muLerIuI
'rooL` oI LIe kInd p, Is u deLermInuLIon or purLIcuIur wuy Lo be, und dru-
muLIcuIIy dIIIerenL Irom beIng u rooL oI LIe kInd y. SImIIurIy, Lo be un
'uLom` oI u cerLuIn sIze und sIupe Is u deLermInuLIon und purLIcuIur wuy
Lo be, dIsLIncL Irom oLIer uLoms, und wIIcI gIves LIe uLom In quesLIon
ILs ubIIILIes und cIurucLerIsLIcs. ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL cn :xpi yp -: po,
ncoox, xc dpxp:-o, -o cooo, xc -o - i cic: ci-o,
11
so IL Is cIeur
LIuL LIese LIInkers Iud uL IeusL u vugue Ideu oI LIe necessILy oI LIe IormuI
deLermInuLIon oI beIng und ILs expressIbIIILy In LIe deIInILIon.
AL LIe end oI IIs derIvuLIon oI LIe p_c In Lerms oI 'muLLer` und 'Iorm,`
ArIsLoLIe Ius noL mereIy seL ouL un uILernuLIve vIsIon oI wIuL mIgIL pos-
sIbIy be LIe IIrsL prIncIpIes oI nuLure, us oLIer nuLuruI pIIIosopIers Iud
done. RuLIer Ie Ius gone mucI IurLIer, provIdIng un unuIysIs oI LIe prIn-
cIpIes oI mobIIe beIng LIuL Is uppIIcubIe Lo cn LIeory LIuL wIsIes Lo LreuL
oI LIe pIysIcuI worId. TIe necessury cIurucLer oI LIIs unuIysIs provIdes u
soIId IounduLIon Ior IIs IuLer InsIsLence LIuL LIere exIsL IIgIer-IeveI cc:,,
sucI us LIose oI orgunIsms. or once Ie Ius esLubIIsIed LIe necessILy oI
IormuI ucL und muLerIuI subsLruLe, IL becomes u quesLIon oI uhich kInds oI
IormuI ucLs exIsL, und IL no Ionger Is ubsurd Lo posLuIuLe IIgIer IormuI ucLs,
sInce LIe 'genus` oI sucI IormuI ucLs Ius uIreudy been esLubIIsIed Lo be un
ubsoIuLeIy necessury posLuIuLe.
11
Phsics, 1qquzo-zz; Inu sImIIur wuy, LIey LoucIedonLIe movIng cuuse, wILIouL reuIIy
gruspIng ILs ImporLunce, us uIreudy menLIoned.
6;
. 1c:, und Wuys oI Being
n LIIs cIupLer, wIII dIscuss ArIsLoLIe`s 'muILIvocuI` unuIysIs oI beIng
und ILs ImpucL on IIs ubIIILy Lo susLuIn LIe exIsLence oI IIgIer-IeveI cc:,
uguInsL IIs crILIcs, LIe oc:oyo:. n LIe IIrsL secLIon, wIII dIscuss LIe evo-
IuLIon oI LIe Greek word - i InLo u pIIIosopIIcuI Lerm oI urL. n LIe sec-
ond secLIon, wIII descrIbe Iow ArIsLoLIe sIows LIuL 'beIng` musL be suId
muILIpIy uccordIng Lo LIe 'cuLegorIes,` IrreducIbIy dIIIerenL wuys oI suyIng
LIuL someLIIng Is (or Is u beIng) vIu LIe IucuILy oI judgmenL, buL wIIcI cor-
respond Lo genuIne dIsLIncLIons In reuIILy. n LIe LIIrd secLIon, wIII ex-
umIne LIe dIIIerences beLween 'beIng-us-reuI` und 'beIng-us-LruLI,` or reuI
und noeLIc beIng. TIIs dIsLIncLIon becomes very ImporLunL Ior ArIsLoLIe
Lo reIuLe PurmenIdes; In uddILIon, LIe dIssocIuLIon oI LIese Lwo kInds oI
beIng wIII uIso remove LIe jusLIIIcuLIon LIuL LIe oc:oyo: Iuve Ior usserL-
Ing LIe ubsoIuLe cIungeIessness oI 'LIuL wIIcI Is.` n LIe IourLI, und mosL
exLensIve, secLIon, wIII cover LIe docLrIne oI 'beIng` us ucLuuIILy und us po-
Lency, connecLIng LIese noLIons wILI LIe 'purLs` oI mobIIe beIng LIuL ArIs-
LoLIe demonsLruLes In Phsics, Book . n so doIng, wIII sIow Iow c:, us
IormuI ucL Is u IosL oI poLencIes, sucI LIuL IL cun be u 'prIncIpIe oI cIunge`;
In uddILIon, wIII InvesLIguLe LIe pIenomenon oI 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm,`
sIowIng LIuL c:, cun be u prIncIpIe oI cIunge In cnother. InuIIy, wIII
concIude LIIs cIupLer wILI u summury oI wIuL Ius been uccompIIsIed,
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IIgIIIgILIng exucLIy Iow ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs uguInsL LIe oc:oyo: ure
uIIecLed, und IIs usserLIon oI IIgIer-IeveI cc:, mude pIuusIbIe.
1
.1 The development oI the term- i in the Pre-Socrutics
TIe oc:oyo: Iud Iong been InLeresLed In LIe quesLIon oI wIuL 'reuIIy
Is,` und LIIs Ied LIem Lo propose LIeIr vurIous LIeorIes concernIng LIe per-
munenL, uncIungIng p_c LIuL underIIe LIe worId oI cIunge und uppeur-
unce, us we Iuve dIscussed In CIupLer 1. Over LIe course oI LIe deveIop-
menL oI Greek nuLuruI pIIIosopIy, we cun observe Iow LIIs Ied Lo u Iocus
on LIe 'Isness` oI LIe LIIngs oI LIe worId, und un IdenLIIIcuLIon oI LIe use-
IuIness oI LIe word 'i` und ILs derIvuLIves Lo express or IIgIIIgIL LIe degree
oI 'Isness,` reuIILy or exIsLence oI LIe LIIngs beIng dIscussed.
n eurIy Greek, begInnIng wILI Homer, i Is presenL us u sLundurd pur-
LIcIpIe: IL Is LIe |neuLer| Iorm Luken by LIe verb In vurIous subordInuLe or
coordInuLe consLrucLIons, muny oI wIIcI cun be LrunsIuLed InLo EngIIsI us
reIuLIve cIuuses oI cIrcumsLunce, cuuse, und LIe IIke.
z
Even uL LIIs eurIy
sLuge oI Greek, severuI dIsLIncL uses cun be IdenLIIIed Ior LIe purLIcIpIe,
wIIcI wIII IuLer become ImporLunL Ior ILs use In pIIIosopIIcuI conLexLs. n
purLIcuIur, KuIn IdenLIIIes Lwo sucI uses, LIe verIdIcuI use (- ci-c yc:i,
Lo LeII LIe Lrue sLory

) und LIe so-cuIIed exIsLenLIuI Type V (c ci -,


npooocc, ocp,, c oc xc _c:io, i-o,, |BrusIdus eusIIy overcume LIe guurd|
1
n LIIs cIupLer, wIII noL dIscuss LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween 'uccIdenLuI beIng` und 'per se
beIng,` wIIcI Is LIe IIrsL oI LIe dIsLIncLIons beLween wuys oI beIng LIuL ArIsLoLIe dIscusses
In Metcphsics V.;. wIII dIscuss uccIdenLuI beIng In CIupLer q.
z
KuIn, The Verb 'e' in Ancient Greel, p. q.

HdL. .q.1, cILed In KuIn, p. qq.


6q
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
sInce LIere wus LreucIery |umong LIem| und uIso u sLorm
q
) wIIcI wIII be
oI especIuI ImporLunce Ior LIe deveIopmenL oI LIe pIIIosopIIcuI use oI LIe
Lerm - i (or ILs vurIunL In onIc, - ci).
TIe exIsLenLIuI use oI LIe purLIcIpIe - i In ILs pIuruI Iorm (- ci-c) Is
uLLesLed In Homer: , op - -' ci-c - -' ccccic np -' ci-c, (CuIcIus)
wIo knew LIe LIIngs LIuL were, LIuL Iud been, und LIose LIuL were Lo be,

wIere IL denoLes uII LIe ucLIons und evenLs wIIcI u sooLIsuyer Is supposed
Lo dIvIne.
6
TIIs Is very cIose InmeunIng Lo LIe eurIIesL uLLesLeduse oI Iorms
oI - i by u PresocruLIc pIIIosopIer, In AnuxImunder,
;
wIere LIe pIIIoso-
pIer Is usIng LIe purLIcIpIes -i i-oi und -o, oc: Lo speuk oI 'LIIngs LIuL
ure,` upurL Irom uny IurLIer deLermInuLIons.
8
A second ImporLunL eurIy Greek usuge oI LIe pIuruI purLIcIpIe Iorm -
i-c Is wIuL KuIn Lerms LIe 'verIdIcuI` usuge, wIere - i-c yc:i meuns
Lo 'speuk LIe LruLI` or 'sLuLe LIe IucLs.`
q
Here, InsLeud oI reIerrIng mereIy Lo
'LIIngs LIuL ure,` - i-c reIers Lo 'LIIngs LIuL LruIy ure.` TIIs Is very cIose
Lo LIe usuge we IInd In PurmenIdes, wIere we see u new Iocus on LIe 'reuI-
ness` LIuL Is ImpIIed by suyIng LIuL someLIIng 'Is`: E o' y' cyi cpo...
ci no, cc-:i -c xc , ox cc-: cic:.
1o
or LIe EIeuLIc, suyIng LIuL some-
LIIng 'Is` ImpIIes LIuL IL 'cunnoL noL be,` Ior Lo be ubIe Lo be oLIer Is, In some
q
TIuc. V. 1o., cILed In KuIn, Ioc. cIL.

Ilicd 1.;o, cILed In KuIn, q.


6
bId.
;
CI. KuIn, Ancximcnder cnd the Driins oj Greel Cosmolo, pp. zq und ; cI. uIso
DK1zB1.
8
TIIs presupposes LIuL we uccepL LIe IIdeIILy oI LIe IrugmenL Irom SImpIIcIus Lo LIe
AnuxImundrIun orIgInuI, someLIIng LIuL KuIn beIIeves Lo be wurrunLed, despILe LIe use
oI ALLIc Iorms oI LIe purLIcIpIe; cI. KuIn, The Verb 'e' in Ancient Greel, p. q6.
q
IbId., p. q.
1o
DKz8Bz.
;o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
sense, u 'noL beIng` wIuL IL Is, und o yp no-c -o-o oc cic: ci-c.
11
PurmenIdes LIus connecLed 'reuIness` wILI LIuL wIIcI Is necesscril wIuL
IL Is, remuInIng uncIungIng beyond uII surIuce 'uppeurunce` oI cIunge. n
PurmenIdes we encounLer, In uddILIon, u LecInIcuI pIIIosopIIcuI use oI LIe
purLIcIpIe ci (LIe equIvuIenL Lo i In LIe onIc dIuIecL used by PurmenIdes),
us reIerrIng Lo somethin LIuL exIsLs or LIuL LruIy Is.
1z
Around LIe LIme oI PurmenIdes`s IIourIsIIng, IL becomes more IrequenL
Lo IInd LIe Lerm - i used In pIIIosopIIcuI conLexLs. PrIor Lo LIe EIeuLIc,
pIIIosopIIcuI usuges oI - i In ILs vurIous Iorms ure spurse Indeed
1
; uILer
IIm, LIe LermIs IoundusedInLwo LecInIcuI senses by LIe pIIIosopIers wIo
IoIIowed PurmenIdes, eILIer us dIscIpIes or us musLers oI rIvuI scIooIs.
1q
TIe IIrsL oI LIese senses Is 'i` In LIe sense oI 'someLIIng wIIcI Is,` u 'beIng,`
buL IndependenL oI reIerence Lo purLIcuIur deLermInuLIons or deeper prIn-
cIpIes. We begIn Lo see expressIons sucI us 0ic-i -c cic: xc ioc:i ni-c
11
DKz8B;.
1z
urLI noLes, us do KIrk und Ruven, LIuL cic: (und Ience ci) Iuve Lwo senses LIuL
ure noL cIeurIy dIsLInguIsIed In Greek uuLIors oI LIIs perIod. One Is LIe exIsLenLIuI sense,
uIreudy menLIoned ubove. TIe second Is u 'predIcuLIve` sense, wIere some properLy Is
usserLed oI u subjecL. TIe noLIon oI 'beIng` sLudIed by PurmenIdes und by eurIy Greek
pIIIosopIy In generuI, Is noL 'conIIned` Lo eILIer oI our Lwo dIsLIncL concepLs, LIuL oI ex-
IsLence und LIuL oI beIng someLIIng-or-oLIer In LIe sense oI IuvIng sucI-und-sucI prop-
erLIes (beIng u mun, beIng green); ruLIer, LIese noLIons ure ImpucLed or jused In LIe eurIy
Greek concepL oI beIng, urLI, TIe Pre-SocruLIcs, p. zq. TIe 'verIdIcuI` sense oI i/ci
dIscerned by KuIn wouId LIus be u vurIunL oI LIe busIc predIcuLIve sense oI LIe verb und
ILs purLIcIpIuI Iorms. BerLI sums up LIese urgumenLs us IoIIows: Surebbe unucronIsLIco,
InIuLLI, supporre cIe egII uvesse gIu cIIuru Iu dIsLInzIone Lru copuIu e predIcuLo, o queIIu
Lru predIcuLo dI LIpo sempIIcemenLe uLLrIbuLIvo, predIcuLo dI LIpo esIsLenzIuIe e predIcuLo
dI LIpo verILuLIvo, BerLI, 'essere e Ie sue regIonI, p. q6.
1
KuIn zoo, p. q6 n. 1.
1q
TIe LImIng oI LIe sudden popuIurILy oI LIe Lerm - i umongsL pIIIosopIers oI LIIs
LIme perIod Is IIgIIy suggesLIve oI u PurmenIdeun InIIuence, buL IL Is ImporLunL Lo uvoId
LIe error post hoc, ero propter hoc. n LIe ubsence oI more concreLe evIdence, we cun
onIy specuIuLe ubouL LIe degree oI InIIuence PurmenIdes exercIsed on oLIer pIIIosopIers
In LIIs regurd.
;1
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
xc pi xc xoc:i xc coic: ni-c, ci-c -c xc cccic,
1
ncp yp occ
- - i-o, np-:c-c oo cocc -i icc-poi c_c:,
16
und iyxc - ci-c cci
ni-c ncp:cioi-c nc:pc ncpcioi- -c xc nc:pc.
1;
TIIs sense Is cIose
Lo LIuL oI LIe nomInuI EngIIsI Iorm 'beIng` (us opposed Lo LIe purLIcIpIuI
sense seen In, e.g., 'Ie Is beIng good`).
We uIso see u deveIopIng sense oI i us 'LIuL wIIcI trul Is,` IoIIow-
Ing LIe PurmenIdeun exumpIe, umong pIIIosopIers wIdeIy consIdered Lo
Iuve been InIIuenced by PurmenIdes`s urgumenL.
18
TIIs sense Is cIeur In
u quoLe Irom EmpedocIes, wIere Ie cIuIms LIuL LIe 'rooLs` LruIy ure, und
cunnoL puss uwuy: cx -c yp oo' ci-o, _cii cc-: ycic0c:, xc -' ci
c(cnoc0c: ii0c-oi xc noc-oi.
1q
. SImIIurIy, In MeIIssus, we IInd LIe IoI-
IowIng quoLe: yp xco, npc0ci ci ox no-c: o-c ci yic-c:,
zo
wILI u cIeur sense oI ubsoIuLeIy necessury permunence. Anuxugorus, In
Lurn, cIeurIy sLuLes LIuL 'LIuL wIIcI Is` cunnoL ceuse Lo be: - yp ci ox
cc-: - ox cic:.
z1
TIus, LIe Lerm 'beIng` or i cume Lo Iuve u duuI ussocIuLIon In LIe Pre-
SocruLIcs. Among some pIIIosopIers IL uppeurs Lo Iuve come Lo meun 'u
LIIng wIIcI Is,` IndependenL oI uny gIven deLermInuLIon. Among oLIers,
1
DIogenes oI ApoIIonIu, DK6qB, Iere us meunIng 'LIose LIIngs wIIcI ure or wIII come
Lo be.`
16
ArcIyLus, DKq;B1, 1o; LIe sense Iere Is 'LIose LIIngs composed oI LIe IIrsL prIncIpIes.`
1;
PIIIoIuus, DKqqBz, z; LIe uppurenL sense Iere Is LIe 'LrunsIenL LIIngs` oI LIe worId,
und noL LIe 'prIncIpIes.`
18
TIIs InIIuence does noL necessurIIy meun LIuL PurmenIdes wus LIe IIrsL Lo InLroduce
LIe dIsLIncLIonbeLweennecessury undconLIngenL beIng; IL Is, Iowever, probubIe LIuL LIese
IuLer wrILers encounLered LIe dIsLIncLIon In IIs poem.
1q
EmpedocIes, DK1B1z; LIe sense Iere oI ci Is LIuL oI 'LIuL wIIcI exIsLs und cunnoL
ceuse Lo be,` IoIIowIng WrIgIL, Empedocles: the Extcnt Ircments, pp. 1;z-;.
zo
DKoB;, .
z1
DKqB.
;z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IIkeIy under LIe InIIuence oI PurmenIdes`s urgumenL, LIe Lerm cume Lo be
ussocIuLed wILI LIe noLIon oI LIuL wIIcI Is necessury In LIe worId, I.e. LIuL
wIIcI does noL ceuse Lo be wIuL IL Is. n LIuL wuy, LIey couId suy LIuL LIe
p_c LruIy 'ure,` wIIIe LIe LrunsIenL und composILe LIIngs wIIcI ure mude
up oI LIe p_c 'ure noL.`
. Being und the cutegories
TIe genIus oI ArIsLoLIe wus Lo reuIIze LIuL i Is noL u unIvocuI Lerm, buL
Is In IucL suId 'muILIpIy.` TIuL Is, LIere ure muny Lrue wuys Lo suy LIuL some-
LIIng Is u beIng. TIe Lerm i derIved Irom cic: In order Lo IndIcuLe 'some-
LIIng LIuL Is`; ArIsLoLIe suw LIuL LIere ure us muny senses oI i us LIere ure
wuys oI usIng cic: ILseII.
zz
..1 The cutegoriul unulysis oI being in Aristotle
TIe IIrsL oI LIese 'wuys oI beIng` Is wIuL ArIsLoLIe cuIIs LIe 'IIgures oI
predIcuLIon,` or wIuL ure more commonIy cuIIed LIe 'cuLegorIes` oI beIng.
or InsLunce, we muy suy LIuL LIe cuL Is on LIe muL, or LIe orunge Is
LusLy, undLIuL LIese expressIons IndIcuLe 'LIIngs LIuL exIsL` InseveruI wuys.
n LIe IIrsL pIuce, we Iuve u subjecL LIuL Is suId Lo be, simpliciter: LIe cuL
or LIe orunge. BuL, LIere Is uIso LIe deLermInuLIon oI LIe cuL or LIe orunge:
zz
L Is worLI noLIng LIuL In LIe opInIon oI BerLI, ArIsLoLIe`s deveIopmenL oI LIe docLrIne
oI LIe 'muILIvocILy` oI beIng wus In expIIcIL response Lo LIe EIeuLIc docLrIne oI LIe ubso-
IuLe unIvocILy oI LIe Lerm; cI. BerLI, 'essere e Ie sue regIonI, p. 6, neI IIbro deIIu
Iisicc InIuLLI, proprIo per deIendere I`esIsLenzu deIIu nuLuru, ArIsLoLeIe crILIcu PurmenIde
e MeIIsso uIIermundo cIe 'I`essere sI dIce In moILI sensI (noc_, yc-c: - i)` (Phs. z,
18 u z1), cosi come 'In moILI sensI sI dIce uncIe I`uno (- ci), uIIo sLesso modo deII`essere`
(18 b 6).
;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
'beIng-on-LIe-muL` und 'beIng-LusLy` ure uIso 'someLIIng LIuL Is,` Ior unIess
we udmIL LIuL LIey cre, we ure unubIe Lo speuk ubouL LIem, und Indeed
wouId be denyIng LIuL LIese deLermInuLIons ure reuI. BuL IL Is jusL us reuI,
In LIe currenL sILuuLIon, LIuL LIe cuL Is Indeed In LIe pIuce Iuve IndIcuLed,
us Is LIe exIsLence oI LIe cuL ILseII. TIe reuI, LIereIore, Is muILIdImensIonuI;
'beIng` does noL mereIy reIer Lo one wuy oI exIsLIng, buL Lo uII LIe dIIIerenL
(und IrreducIbIe) kInds oI deLermInuLIons LIuL we cun IInd In reuIILy.
z
ArIsLoLIe`s eurIy work The Ccteories expIuIns LIe senses oI 'cuLegorIuI
beIng` In LIe IoIIowIng wuy:
Ti xc- pocci conoxi cyoioi cxcc-oi -o: occi cpcic:
noci no:i np, -: no no-c xcc0c: c_c:i no:ci nc_c:i.
cc-: oc occ ci , -n cnci ooi i0pono,, nno, noci oc ooi
coxi, ypcc-:xi np, -: oc ooi o:nc:oi, :co, coi no oc
z
NoL uII commenLuLors ure In ugreemenL LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s cuLegorIes Iuve un onLoIogIcuI
orIgIn; TrendeIenburg, Ior InsLunce, IoIds LIuL LIe cuLegorIes, wIIIe reIerrIng Lo objecLIve
reuIILy, noneLIeIess Iuve LIeIr orIgIn In grummuLIcuI consIderuLIons: m Besondern IsL
uber uucI scIon AnIungs ungedeuLeL, duss dIe KuLegorIen dIe uus der AuIIsung des SuL-
zes enLsLundenen EIemenLe sInd... so Lrugen dIe KuLegorIen ZeIcIen IIres Ursprunges un
sIcI und LreIben IIre WurzeIn In den eInIucIen SuLz zurck, TrendeIenburg, Geschichte
der Kcteorienlehre, p. 1. G. E. Anscombe proposed u sImIIur, IInguIsLIc vIsIon oI LIe
cuLegorIes, InLerpreLIng ArIsLoLIe`s InLenLIon us |IIndIng| u compIeLe IIsL oI IuIrIy sImpIe
kInds oI LIIngs, wILI sIgnIIIcunL IogIcuI dIIIerences, LIuL mIgIL be suId ubouL u subjecL,
Anscombe und GeucI, Three Philosophers, p. 1q. AnoLIer sImIIur uccounL muy be Iound
In RyIe, CuLegorIes, p. 66: Any Lwo predIcuLes wIIcI suLIsIy LIe sume InLerroguLIve ure
oI LIe sume cuLegory, und uny Lwo wIIcI do noL suLIsIy LIe sume InLerroguLIve ure oI dII-
IerenL cuLegorIes. n LIe muIn, ArIsLoLIe seems Lo conLenL IImseII wILI LukIng ordInury
Iunguuge us IIs cIue Lo LIe IIsL oI Ieuds oI quesLIons, und so oI Lypes oI predIcuLes.
NeverLIeIess, LIere ure sLIII Lo be Iound LIose wIo deIend u more reuIIsL uccounL oI
LIe cuLegorIes, sucI us WedIn, wIo urgues LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory Is u LIeory ubouL uhct
is, more precIseIy, ubouL LIe busIc sorLs oI LIIngs LIuL ure... TIIs LIeory LeIIs us wIuL
LIIngs musL exIsL und In wIuL reIuLIons LIey musL sLund Ior u gIven sucI sLuLemenL Lo be
Lrue, WedIn, Aristotle's Theor oj Substcnce, p. ;. CI. uIso SunIord, CuLegorIes und
MeLupIysIcs, p. zo, TIere Is, LIInk, pIenLy oI reuson Lo suppose u kInsIIp beLween |our
mInds und LIe worId|, one LIuL Is predIcuLed upon LIe wuy In wIIcI LIe worId Is und our
recepLIvILy Lo LIe worId-Ience LIe ImporLunce oI cuLegorIes, wIIcI ure uL once IogIcuI und
meLupIysIcuI.
;q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ooi ci Zoxc, ci yop no-c oc ooi c_0,, npoc:i xcc0c: oc ooi ixc:-c:,
x0p-c: c_c:i oc ooi noooc-c:, n:c-c: no:ci oc ooi -cic:, xcc:
nc_c:i oc ooi -ic-c:, xcc-c:.
zq
OI uII LIese senses oI 'beIng,` one Is prImury: LIuL wIIcI reIers Lo occ,
wIIcI Is LIe 'subjecL` oI LIe oLIer IIgures oI predIcuLIon, or wuys oI usIng
LIe Lerm 'i.`
z
WIuL LIe oc:oyo: Iuve IdenLIIIed us 'beIng` Is onIy one oI
LIe severuI senses oI LIe Lerm.
z6
NeverLIeIess, LIeIr unuIyses oI LIe nuL-
uruI worId musL uIso Luke Ieed oI LIe dIsLIncLIon LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius mude
beLween wuys oI beIng, us we sIuII see In LIe nexL subsecLIon.
zq
Ccteories, 1bz-zuq.
z
xc p:c, cncp xc - - cc-: ncoic_, yc-c:, xc yp - - cc-:i cic ci -pnoi
cpcic: -i occi xc - -oc -:, oi oc cxcc-oi -i xc-pyopooioi, noci no:i xc cc
c -o:c-c. cncp yp xc - cc-:i np_c: nc:i, ' o_ oo, - ci np-o, -o,
o' cnoio,, o-o xc - - cc-:i n, ci - oc n, oc -o, o:,. xc yp - no:i cpoc0'
i - cc-:i, c-c xc - no:i -i - cc-:i, ' o_ n,, ' cncp cn -o i-o, oy:x,
cc -:ic, cic: - i, o_ n, i, o-o xc - no:i, Metcphsics, 1oou1;-z.
VIgo noLes LIuL LIe prImucy or prIorILy oI subsLunce over LIe uccIdenLuI cuLegorIes does
noL mereIy IoId uL LIe 'IogIcuI` IeveI: Por eI conLrurIo, Iu prIorIdud IgIcu de Iu susLun-
cIu respecLo de Ius cuLegorius sIo resuILu InLeIIgIbIe u purLIr de su prIorIdud onLoIgIcu:
su cupucIdud puru ser deIInIdu uuLnomumenLe no es sIno un reIIejo en eI pIuno IgIco
de su cupucIdud puru exIsLIr uuLnomumenLe; vIceversu, Iu ImposIbIIIdud de deIInIr uuL-
nomumenLe Ios cuLegoremus uccIdenLuIes es un reIIejo de su IncupucIdud puru exIsLIr con
IndependencIu de Iu susLuncIu, VIgo, PrIorIdud onLoIgIcu y prIorIdud IgIcu, p. 8.
z6
u IunzIone, cIe ubbIumo cIIumuLo dI 'vIcurIo unIversuIe`, proprIu deI verbo 'es-
sere`, non conduce cosi uII`uIIIrmuzIone deIIu suu unILu, come In PurmenIde, bensi pro-
prIo u queIIu deIIu suu moILepIIcILu, BerLI, 'essere e Ie sue regIonI, p. ;. oux IurLIer
noLes LIuL LIe IuIIure Lo noLe LIIs muILIpIIcILy on LIe purL oI LIe oc:oyo: (IoIIowIng Pur-
menIdes) Is uL LIe rooL oI LIeIr IuIIure Lo undersLund LIe possIbIIILy oI cIunge: TIe upsIoL
oI |Phsics| A.;, Iowever, Is jusL LIuL onLoIogIes IIke LIese ure mIsguIded In IuIIIng Lo rec-
ognIze LIuL uLLrIbuLes ure uLLrIbuLes oj oLIer LIIngs... und ArIsLoLIe wIII wunL Lo InsIsL LIuL
once we recognIze LIese IucLs, comIng Lo be Is no Ionger IeId IosLuge Lo LIe PurmenIdeun
urgumenL, oux, ArIsLoLIe und PurmenIdes: An nLerpreLuLIon oI PIysIcs A8, p. zq.
;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
.. The moltivocity oI 'being' und the oc:oyo:
L Is cerLuInIy noL LIe cuse LIuL one musL, u prIorI, uccepL LIuL beIng cun
be suId muILIpIy. ndeed, LIe neguLIon oI LIIs Is uL LIe IeurL oI LIe Pur-
menIdeun urgumenL: LIuL beIng Ius onIy one meunIng, 'LIuL wIIcI neces-
surIIy Is wIuL IL Is,` und LIe oLIer senses oI LIe Lerm ure suppressed us In-
dIcuLIng kInds oI non-beIng.
z;
'TIuL wIIcI Is`
z8
cunnoL, Ior InsLunce, Iuve
IocuLIon, Ior LIere Is noLIIng eIse LIuL mIgIL gIve IL 'pIuce`: o yp c-i ooc
iop-i cc-:i no, ox cc-:.
zq
L cunnoL Iuve quunLILy, Ior LIuL wouId muke
IL dIvIsIbIe, und ooc o:c:pc-i cc-:i, cnc ni cc-:i ooi, und -: (oic_c,
ni cc-:i ci yp ci-: ncc:.
o
DespILe IIs use oI LIe Imuge oI LIe spIere,
-c-cccioi cc- ni-o0ci, cxxoo ccpp, cicyx:oi yxo:, ccc0ci concc,
ni-p:,
1
i Is noL cIurucLerIzed by IuvIng sIupe or sIze, buL ruLIer by com-
pIeLeness und Iuck oI need Ior unyLIIng.
z
NeverLIeIess, LIe prIce one Ius Lo puy Ior usserLIng unubsoIuLeIy unIque
meunIng Lo i Is precIseIy LIe PurmenIdeun prIce: one Ioses LIe ubIIILy Lo
usserL LIuL LIere Is uny kInd oI beIng oLIer LIun LIe one ubsoIuLeIy neces-
sury BeIng.

And, us ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL In Phsics .z (18u1-z), - ci


z;
CI. Phsics 186uz.
z8
.e. LIe unIverse; cI. Ross, CommenLury on LIe MeLupIysIcs, p. zq.
zq
DKz8B8, 8.
o
DKz8B8, zzJz.
1
DKz8B8, qz-qq.
z
As TurunpoInLs ouL, TIe poInL |oI LIe sImIIe oI LIe spIere| Is LIuL LIe muss oI u spIere
In equIIIbrIum uround LIe mIddIe Is In uII purLs oI equuI sLrengLI... LIuL BeIng Is compIeLe
everywIere meuns LIuL everywIere IL Is jusL BeIng, und LIIs preserves LIe IdenLILy oI BeIng
us LIe IomogeneILy oI LIe spIere keeps IL In equIIIbrIum Turun, Pcrmenides, A Text uith
Trcnslction, Commentcr cnd Criticcl Esscs, p. 1q.

CIernIss noLes LIuL ArIsLoLIe Lukes LIe EIeuLIcs Lo Lusk on precIseIy LIIs poInL: PrI-
merumenLe uLucu eI concepLo de Ser desde eI punLo de vIsLu de Ius cuLegorius, mosLrundo
que, sI es susLuncIu, cuuIIdud cunLIdud, es mILIpIe y, sI es Lodo cunLIdud o cuuIIdud, se
vIoIu eI uxIomu de que sIo Iu susLuncIu es sepurubIe, CIernIss, Lc crticc cristotelicc c
;6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
oi c i xc xip-oi - i cxonci o ncp cc, cc-: cxonci. WIuL LIe nuLuruI
pIIIosopIer Is IookIng Ior Is precIseIy un expIunuLIon oI LIe very evIdenL
IucL oI cIunge. BuL LIIs requIres, In Lurn, un ubundonmenL oI LIe unIvoc-
ILy oI beIng, Ior In order Lo usserL LIuL someLIIng cIunges, LIere musL be u
someLIIng wIIcI is wIuL IL Is, despILe ILs undergoIng modIIIcuLIon In some
munner LIuL does noL LoucI ILs 'wIuLness.`
q
n LIe cuse oI LIose cIunges
wIIcI do noL requIre us Lo suy LIuL 'LIuL wIIcI Is` ceuses Lo be wIuL IL Is
(I.e. In xicc:, us opposed Lo c-c[o), we Iuve u conLrusL beLween LIuL
kInd oI beIng wIIcI IndIcuLes LIe muInLenunce oI LIe essenLIuI 'wIuLness`
oI LIe LIIng (und LIIs Is LIe beIng oI occ us subjecL) und LIose wuys oI
beIng wIIcI ure poLenLIuIIy LrunsIenL, und LIus 'uccIdenLuI` Lo LIe beIng us
subjecL: cnc oi -i xc-pyopooioi - ci - cc-: cpcic:, - oc no:i, - oc
noci, - oc np, -:, - oc no:ci nc_c:i, - oc no, - oc no-, cxc- -o-oi -
cic: -c- cpcic:.

n LIe cuse oI more rudIcuI cIunge, wIere LIe very


'wIuLness` ceuses Lo be, we musL muInLuIn LIuL LIere Is u 'someLIIng un-
lc jilosojc presocrcticc, pp. 8q-8.
GersIenson und Greenberg IurLIer unuIyze ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL Lo sIow LIuL Ie Iorces
LIe EIeuLIcs Lo udmIL LIuL beIng Is muILIpIe us soon us LIey udmIL predIcuLIon uL uII. AL
Phsics 186bq-1z, ArIsLoLIe uddresses LIe predIcuLIon 'beIng Is wIILe`. GersIenson und
Greenberg sLuLe LIuL mereIy Lo suy LIuL beIng Is wIILe Is noL Lo muke beIng Iuve Lwo
meunIngs, us LIe EIeuLIcs wouId be quIck Lo poInL ouL, Ior wIILe ILseII muy noL be un ex-
IsLenL LIIng. However, II wIILe Is noL un exIsLenL LIIng, LIen LIe ExIsLenL ILseII cunnoL
purLuke oI beIng, becuuse In purLukIng oI wIILe, or uny oLIer predIcuLe, IL Is purLukIng
oI non-exIsLence. TIus, LIe necessILy oI mukIng LIe ExIsLenL purLuke oI beIng Iorces LIe
EIeuLIcs Lo muke wIILe unoLIer uspecL oI exIsLence In LIe IuII sense, unoLIer 'LIuL wIIcI
exIsLs`, GersIenson und Greenberg, ArIsLoLIe ConIronLs LIe EIeuLIcs: Two ArgumenLs on
'TIe One', p. 1q;. Hence, II LIe EIeuLIcs reIuse Lo uccede Lo ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL und do
noL udmIL pIuruIILy, LIey Iose LIe ubIIILy Lo predIcuLe unyLIIng oI - ncp i, IncIudIng LIuL
IL purLukes oI beIng.
q
n LIIs sense, ArIsLoLIe muInLuIns uspecLs oI LIe PurmenIdeun docLrIne oI - i: sub-
sLunce (occ) Is LIuL wIIcI LruIy Is, und Is one, In LIe IIgIesL sense (np-o,) und wIIcI
Is LIe source oI unILy wIIcI LIe oLIer cuLegorIes Iuve np, ci. CI. BerLI, 'essere e Ie sue
regIonI, pp. 61-z.

Metcphsics, 1o1;uzo-z.
;;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
derIyIng` wIIcI Is or remuIns, und LIIs Loo Is u sense oI 'Is` wIIcI Is noL LIe
sume us 'wIuLness.`
I we ure unubIe Lo muke u dIsLIncLIon beLween subjecL und uccIdenLs,
we wIII be unubIe Lo do more LIun LIe HerucIILeuns, wIo suy LIuL ni-c
_opc xc ooci ic:,
6
Ior LIere wIII be no 'LIIs` LIuL cIunges. ndeed, LIe
HerucIILeun LempLuLIon Is equuIIy devusLuLIng Ior LIe sLudenL oI nuLure us
Is LIe PurmenIdeun, Ior II LIere Is no 'someLIIng` LIuL cIunges, IL Is dIIII-
cuIL Lo suy LIuL LIere Is, In IucL, cIunge uL uII. TIe oc:oyo:, Ior LIeIr purL,
were unwIIIIng Lo cede IuIIy Lo eILIer LempLuLIon. TIey posLuIuLed 'sub-
jecLs` oI uccIdenLuI cIunge, wIeLIer LIe 'rooLs` oI EmpedocIes, LIe 'seeds`
oI Anuxugorus or LIe 'uLoms` oI eucIppus und DemocrILus. TIese eLer-
nuIIy exIsLenL subjecLs couId noL ceuse Lo be (und LIus LIey denIed cIunge
In LIe cuLegory oI occ),
;
buL LIey couId cIunge In vurIous oLIer wuys,
wIIcI enubIed LIem Lo Iorm uggreguLes, und Ior LIese uggreguLes, In Lurn,
Lo sepuruLe InLo LIeIr busIc componenLs once uguIn.
8
BuL LIIs, In Lurn, re-
6
QuoLed In PIuLo`s Crctlus, cILed In DIeIs (zzA6). KIrk IoIds LIuL LIe exLreme docLrIne
oI unIversuI cIunge wus probubIy noL IeId by HerucIILus IImseII, buL by dIscIpIes sucI us
CruLyIus, wIo Look LIeIr musLer`s docLrInes Lo exLremes unsupporLed by IIm; cI. KIrk,
Hercclitus: The Cosmic Ircments, p. ;q. (L Is Ience Lo LIese dIscIpIes LIuL wIII be
reIerrIng Lo wIen speuk oI 'HerucIILeuns` or 'LIe HerucIILeun docLrIne`.) TIe quoLuLIon
ni-c _opc xc ooci ic: Is IIkeIy reIuLed Lo LIe Iumous IrugmenL oI HerucIILus wIIcI
conLuIns IIs rIver unuIogy (DKzzBqz). HerucIILus IImseII mereIy sLuLes no-coc: -oc:i
c-oc:i c[cio0c:i c-cpc xc c-cpc oc-c cn:ppc, wIIcI Ius LIe eIIecL oI IIgIIIgILIng LIe
coIncIdence beLween sLubIIILy (oI LIe wIoIe rIver) und cIunge (oI LIe wuLers IIowIng pusL
u IIxedpoInL), ruLIer LIunconLInuILy oI cIunge, KIrk, Hercclitus: The Cosmic Ircments,
p. ;;. TIunks Lo A. VIgo (prIvuLe conversuLIon) Ior brIngIng LIIs poInL Lo my uLLenLIon.
;
As ArIsLoLIe unuIyzes LIe cuLegory correspondIng Lo LIe '- n cc-c,` Metcphsics,
1o1;b1o.
8
P. Curdurgues LIuL LIe busIc IounduLIonIor LIe newLIeorIes oI EmpedocIes, Anuxugo-
rus undLIe ALomIsLs wus uIreudy presenL InLIe Hcp cco, oI PurmenIdes, InsoIur us-sIe
cIuIms-LIe EIeuLIc never urgued Ior 'numerIcuI monIsm`: concIude, LIen, LIuL LIe Pur-
menIdeun rejecLIon oI dIvIsIon und dIIIerence wILIIn wIuL-Is does noL Iorce us Lo InLerpreL
PurmenIdes us u numerIcuI monIsL, Curd, The Lecc oj Pcrmenides, p. q;. or Curd,
PurmenIdes Is commILLed Lo und urgues Ior LIe InLernuI unILy oI eucI LIIng LIuL Is, IbId.,
;8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
quIres LIe InLroducLIon oI un IrreducIbIe vurIeLy In LIe wuys oI suyIng LIuL
someLIIng Is, or In ArIsLoLIe`s Lerms, LIe wuys In wIIcI someLIIng cun be
un i.
ArIsLoLIe IImseII poInLs ouL LIe necessILy Ior 'uILeruLIon` (o/oc:,) In
LIe LIeorIes oI LIe oc:oyo: In LIe IoIIowIng Lerms:
To, ci oi c( ci, ni-c xc-ccxcoooc:i icyxcoi yc:i -i yicc:i
xc -i 0opi o/oc:i c yp ic:i - noxc/cioi -c- xc ci
- oc -o:o-oi o:oc0c/ cci -o, oc - yip nc/o no:oc: o:cpc:i
-i o/oc:i -, ycicco, coi:i-oi yp xc o:cooioi yicc:,
co[c/ic: xc 0op... icyxcoi oc xc -o-o:, -i o/oc:i cic:
i -: ic: ncp -i yicc:i, oic-oi i-o: xc- - n cxc/ioi cycic.
q
SInce o/oc:, perLuIns Lo LIe comIng-Lo-be or pussIng-uwuy oI quuIILIes
(or quunLILy) In u subjecL, IL Is eusy Ior ArIsLoLIe Lo sIow, In LIe cuse oI
EmpedocIes, LIuL eIImInuLIon oI cIunge In LIe cuLegorIes oI quuIILy und
p. q6, und eucI LIIng-LIuL-Is Is cIurucLerIzed by beIng (1) ungenerubIe und IndIsLrucLIbIe,
(z) IndIvIsIbIe, () ImmobIIe, und (q) compIeLe or perIecL, IbId., p. 6q. Curd urgues LIuL
LIese crILerIu do noL excIude muILIpIIcILy und dIIIerence beLween LIe LIIngs-LIuL-ure: IL
seems LIuL PurmenIdes dId noL LIInk LIuL exLernuI dIIIerences cuuse InLernuI dIIIerences,
IbId., p. q6, und Ience, wIIIe u LIIng-LIuL-Is musL be u predIcuLIonuI unILy |I.e. musL
compIy wILI LIe Iour crILerIu seL ouL ubove|, PurmenIdes` LIeory Ieuves open LIe quesLIon
oI Iow muny sucI enLILIes LIere ure, IbId., p. q;. SIe sees LIe IIrsL generuLIon oI posL-
PurmenIdeun pIIIosopIers us mereIy deveIopIng dIIIerenL possIbIe expIunuLIons Ior wIuL
LIe LIIngs-LIuL-ure ure IIke, und Iow LIey InLerucL Lo generuLe LIe worId we know.
WIIIe Curd`s urgumenLs ure InLeresLIng, um noL convInced LIuL numerIcuI pIuruIILy
wus uIIowed by PurmenIdes`s LIeory, gIven LIe unIversuI eurIy LesLImony In Iuvor oI IIs
IoIdIng Lo LIe posILIon LIuL - ci Is noL jusL one InLernuIIy, buL unIque und excIusIve oI
muILIpIIcILy. urLIermore, PurmenIdes urgues so sLrongIy Ior LIe unIcILy oI beIng LIuL
IL wouId Iuve been Iurd Ior IIm Lo Iuve mIssed LIe resuILIng dIIIIcuILIes LIuL IIs posI-
LIon ruIses Ior LIe muILIpIIcILy oI - i-c. We cun ussume LIuL Iud Ie wIsIed Lo uIIow Ior
numerIc muILIpIIcILy oI LIuL-wIIcI-Is, Ie wouId Iuve dedIcuLed u porLIon oI IIs poem Lo
uddressIng sucI un obvIous probIem; LIe IucL LIuL Ie dId noL (In LIe IrugmenLs we pre-
serve und In LIe doxogrupIy) Is sLrong evIdence In Iuvor oI LIe posILIon LIuL PurmenIdes
ucs u numerIcuI monIsL, und noL jusL u 'predIcuLIonuI monIsL` us Curd IoIds.
q
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, 1qb1-1.
;q
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
quunLILy wouId produce ubsurd resuILs, Ior IL wouId be ImpossIbIe Ior u
LIIng Lo growor dImInIsI wIIIe reLuInIng LIe sume 'essence` or descrIpLIon;
IIkewIse, IL wouId be ImpossIbIe Ior someLIIng wIIcI Is bIuck Lo become
wIILe. NeverLIeIess, LIIs Is precIseIy wIuL we observe IuppenIng.
qo
TIus
we cun concIude LIuL -o, oc - yip nc/o no:oc: o:cpc:i -i o/oc:i -,
ycicco,,
q1
und Ience LIere Is u necessILy Ior u dIsLIncL kInd oI i In LIe
cuLegorIes oI quuIILy or quunLILy, sInce Irom LIe beIng oI u subsLunce we
cunnoL derIve LIuL oI LIe supervenIng quuIILy or quunLILy LIuL Is IosLed by
LIe subsLunce.
n LIe cuse oI EmpedocIes, we cun exLend ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL Lo sIow
LIuL oLIer cuLegorIes ure uIso necessury wILIIn IIs LIeory. or InsLunce,
EmpedocIes sLuLes LIuL -o-c ci yp i p(0p ioi cic: cx ncioi . . . xc
-c-' ccoi-c o:cncpc, ooc yc:, o-c ci 1:-p-: coicp_ci' c,
i nci-c, o-c o' c o_' cxcc-c opccic Ncxco, c_0c:.
qz
BuL Ior LIe One
Lo 'sunder` or 'reunILe,` LIere musL be cIunge In LIe cuLegory oI pIuce. And
wIIIe EmpedocIes denIes cIunge wILIInLIe 'rooLs` LIemseIves, LIe eIemenLs
musL be ubIe Lo InLerucL, und LIIs requIres LIe posILIng oI LIe cuLegorIes oI
ucLIon und pussIon.
q
A sImIIur urgumenL cun be mude Ior Anuxugorus`s
'seeds,` wILI LIe uddILIon LIuL sInce Anuxugorus udmILs LIe dIvIsIbIIILy oI
IIs p_c, Ie musL uIso udmIL LIe cuLegory oI quunLILy.
n LIe cuse oI DemocrILus und eucIppus, we cun muke u sImIIur urgu-
menL LodemonsLruLe LIuL LIe cuLegorIes oI subsLunce, pIuce unducLIonJpussIon
qo
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, 1qb1q-1uz.
q1
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, 1qb.
qz
DK1B1;.
q
wIII dIscuss LIIs Issue IurLIer In secLIon z.q.q.
8o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
musL be udmILLed In LIe ALomIsL uccounL. n uddILIon, IL cun be sIown LIuL
Ie uIso needs LIe cuLegory oI quunLILy. WIIIe LIe uLoms ure mInIuLure ver-
sIons oI LIe PurmenIdeun 'One,` us dIscussed In CIupLer 1, und LIus ure
eLernuIIy wIuL LIey ure, Ie Is suId Lo Iuve usserLed u common 'body` or
cc wIIcI Ius u common cIurucLer. ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL LIuL LIIs 'com-
mon body` Is u busIs Ior oLIer wuys oI beIng wIIcI ure noL reducIbIe Lo
cc: dpxp:-o, o' ooci c-cpoi c( c-poo yyicc0c: -i np-o pci '
o, yc c- - xo:ii cc ni-oi cc-i p_, cy0c: xc- p:c xc c_c-:
o:cpoi.
qq
SInce IL Is noL LIe sume Lo be cc us IL Is Lo be u cc oI one
or unoLIer sIze, or u cc oI u gIven IIgure, we cun derIve LIe cuLegorIes us
IrreducIbIe wuys oI beIng wILIIn LIe ALomIsL uccounL, even II LIey ure noL
cuLegorIes In wIIcI cIunge occurs.
.. Conclosions concerning cutegoriul being
n LIIs InvesLIguLIon regurdIng LIe second oI severuI 'wuys oI beIng` LIuL
ArIsLoLIe IdenLIIIes uL Metcphsics V.;, we Iuve sIown LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s cuL-
egorIuI unuIysIs oI beIng uppIIes us mucI Lo LIe uccounLs oI LIe oc:oyo:
us IL does Lo LIe purLIcuIur LIeory LIuL ArIsLoLIe IImseII proposes oI LIe
'eIemenLs` (ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI LIe 'sImpIe bodIes,` wIIcI correspond In u
rougI wuy Lo EmpedocIes`s IourIoId rooLs).
How does LIIs dIscovery uIIecL ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL Ior LIe exIsLence oI
IIgIer cc:,, wIIcI Is LIe Iocus oI LIIs sLudy? An InILIuI response mIgIL be
LIuL IL uIIecLs IL IILLIe, II uL uII-LIe quesLIon Is, uILer uII, wIeLIer In LIe cuL-
qq
Phsics, zou-z.
81
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
egory oI occ LIere ure nuLures IIgIer LIun LIose oI LIe eIemenLs, und LIIs
Is yeL Lo be sIown. NeverLIeIess, ArIsLoLIe cun IegILImuLeIy cIuIm Lo Iuve
demonsLruLed reuI kInds oI beIng wIIcI ure ubove und beyond LIe pIysI-
cuI p_c (I.e. busIc bodIes underIyIng more compIex beIngs) posILed by LIe
oc:oyo:, wIuLever LIe genuIne cIurucLer oI LIose p_c mIgIL be. Huv-
Ing demonsLruLed LIuL LIere ure In IucL oLIer 'wuys oI beIng` LIun eLernuI
seII-IdenLILy, IL becomes Iurder Ior LIe oc:oyo: Lo usserL LIe necessILy oI
eLernuI sImpIe bodIes, wIIcI LIey orIgInuIIy posLuIuLed precIseIy In order
Lo noL IuII vIcLIm Lo LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL proIIbILIng LIuL wIuL 'Is`
mIgIL ceuse Lo be.
q
I 'beIng` Is more LIun necessury seII-IdenLILy, us IL
musL be II we ure Lo udmIL cIunge, LIen we cun no Ionger usserL LIuL LIe
onIy roud oI InquIry Is LIuL ci no, cc-:i -c xc , ox cc-: cic:.
q6
I
ArIsLoLIe Is rIgIL LIuL LIe oc:oyo: bused LIeIr proposuIs oI eLernuI pIys-
q
GuLIrIe noLes LIuL eucIppus Iooked ruLIer Lo PurmenIdes, wIose LIeory Ie mod-
IIIed onIy In LIe mInImuI wuys jusL menLIoned. WIuL exIsLs musL sLIII be ungeneruLed
und ImperIsIubIe, uncIungeubIe, IncupubIe oI beIng udded Lo or subLrucLed Irom, Iomo-
geneous, IInILe und u pIenum, conLInuous und IndIvIsIbIe GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel
Philosoph, p. qz, und NudduI InLerpreLs EmpedocIes In u sImIIur munner: WIen ex-
umInIng EmpedocIes`s poem Peri phuseos, LIe IIrsL LIIng oI noLe Is LIuL Ie cIeurIy wunLs
Lo uccommoduLe LIe consequences oI PurmenIdes`s wuy oI LruLI. n IucL, EmpedocIes uc-
LuuIIy cusLIguLes IIs conLemporurIes und predecessors Ior IuIIIng Lo recognIze LIe newsIne
quu non oI uny peri phuseos uccounL: LIuL noLIIng cun come InLo exIsLence IromwIuL dId
noL prevIousIy exIsL, NudduI, The Greel Concept oj Ncture, p. 1q1.
eszI`s vIew, on LIe conLrury, Is LIuL InLerpreLIng EmpedocIes und eucIppus us uL-
LempLIng Lo reconcIIe LIe new PurmenIdeun IogIc wILI LIe IndIspuLubIe IucL oI cIunge
Is sLIII possIbIe... buL LIIs IypoLIesIs does noL expIuIn LIe greuL dIIIerences beLween
LIeIr posILIons, und does noL provIde LIem wILI u suLIsIucLory repIy Lo PurmenIdes. Even
Lo posLuIuLe u 'combInuLIon` oI ImmuLubIe eIemenLs, wIIcI dId noL exIsL beIore, wouId
go uguInsL IIs excIusIon oI u pussuge Irom noL-beIng Lo beIng, eszI, ArIsLoLIe on LIe
UnILy oI PresocruLIc PIIIosopIy, p. 61. BerLI, on LIe oLIer Iund, upIoIds LIe LrudILIonuI
vIew LIuL LIe posL-PurmenIdeun oc:oyo: Iunno condIvIso Iu concezIone purmenIdeu
deII`essere... oppure Iunno InIrunLo I`unILu deII`essere, conservundo LuLLuvIu I`omogeneILu
e I`ImmuLubIIILu deIIe sue purLI, Iossero quesLe I quuLLro eIemenLI (EmpedocIe), I semI dI
LuLLe Ie cose (Anussugoru) o gII uLomI (eucIppo e DemocrILo), BerLI, 'essere e Ie sue
regIonI, p. q.
q6
DKz8Bz.
8z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IcuI p_c on u modIIIed PurmenIdeun urgumenL,
q;
LIen LIe IuIIure oI LIIs
urgumenL uIso subsLunLIuIIy weukens LIeIr ubIIILy Lo usserL LIe exIsLence oI
sucI p_c.
q8
ndeed, we mIgIL go IurLIer, und noLe LIuL, sInce ArIsLoLIe Ius demon-
sLruLed LIe exIsLence oI deeper p_c LIun LIose wIIcI LIe oc:oyo: pos-
LuIuLed, I.e. LIe IormuI und muLerIuI p_c derIved In Phsics , Ie Ius
uIso undermIned LIe 'eLernuIILy` oI LIe pIysIcuI p_c LIuL LIey propose.
I uII mobIIe beIng Is uILImuLeIy composed oI IormuI und muLerIuI prIncI-
pIes, wILI LIe muLerIuI prIncIpIe beIng LIe poLenLIuI p_, LIen LIe pIysIcuI
p_c proposed by LIe oc:oyo: cunnoL be eLernuI II LIe muLerIuI prIncI-
pIe Is noL sucI us Lo proIIbIL pussIng uwuy. ArIsLoLIe conLends, In Dn the
Hectens .1z (z81uz8-bz) LIuL unIess u conLIngenL beIng Is ubsoIuLeIy In-
desLrucLIbIe, IL musL puss uwuy gIven un InIInILe exLenL oI LIme.
qq
BuL II
In ArIsLoLIe`s vIew LIe ubsoIuLe IndIvIsIbIIILy (und Ience IndesLrucLIbIIILy)
oI LIe pIysIcuI p_c oI LIe oc:oyo: wus derIved Irom LIe PurmenIdeun
urgumenL, us Dn Generction cnd Corruption zuzq-b1z uppeurs Lo sug-
gesL, LIen ArIsLoLIe cun cIuIm LIuL LIe busIs Ior LIe muLerIuIIsL urgumenL
Ior ImmuLubIe 'eIemenLs` wouId sLund or IuII uIong wILI LIe PurmenIdeun
urgumenL ILseII.
TIe IypoLIesIs (IoIIowIng GuLIrIe, NudduI undBerLI) LIuL LIe ALomIsLs,
EmpedocIes und Anuxugorus depend on LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL-LIuL
q;
See LIe dIscussIon In CIupLer 1, p. q.
q8
n LIe IoIIowIng secLIon, on noeLIc und reuI beIng, wIII expIore ArIsLoLIe`s expIunuLIon
oI LIe IundumenLuI PurmenIdeun mIsLuke, so LIuL IL wIII become cIeur wIy 'reuI` beIng Is
noL LIe sume us necessurIIy seII-IdenLIcuI beIng.
qq
c o -: nc:poi _pioi c_c: nc:ioi oic:i, ox cc-:i ci _pi, -o0 c. c-
c -: nc:poi _pioi i 0cp-i cc-:, oic:i c_o: i -o cic:. c o nc:poi _pioi, cc-o np_oi
oic-c:. c p cc-c: -c xc ox cc-c: xc- cipyc:ci, Dn the Hectens, z81b1;-bzz.
8
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
wIuL Is cunnoL cIunge, becuuse LIuL wouId requIre IL noL beIng wIuL IL Is,
wIIcI cunnoL even be LIougIL-wouId uccounL Ior wIy uII oI LIese LIInkers
consIdered LIeIr busIc unILs oI beIng Lo be ImmuLubIe. eucIppus und Dem-
ocrILus, Ior InsLunce, posLuIuLe uLoms wIIcI ure so sImpIe LIuL no dIvIsIon,
und Ience no corrupLIon, cun uIIecL LIem. TIus LIe nume '-oo,.` BuL LIe
uLoms ure noL In IucL compIeLeIy sImpIe, sInce LIey ure posLuIuLed Lo Iuve
sIze und Iorm.
o
WIuL, LIen, uccounLs Ior LIeIr noL beIng ubIe Lo cIunge
Iorm, IIke goId LIuL meILs und reIorms In unoLIer sIupe wILIouL ever be-
Ing dIvIded? TIe IucL LIuL LIe ALomIsLs ussocIuLe LIeIr uLoms wILI BeIng
(und LIe vucuum us Non-BeIng) suggesLs sLrongIy LIuL LIeIr ImmuLubIIILy
Is u Iegucy oI PurmenIdes`s urgumenL, sInce eucI uLom (BeIng) cunnoL be-
come wIuL IL Is noL, sInce IL Is 'unLIInkubIe` LIuL LIIs sIouIdoccur. SImIIurIy
Ior LIe Iour 'rooLs` oI EmpedocIes
1
: LIe reuson LIuL eucI Ius ILs own eLer-
nuI 'oIIIce` und cunnoL cIunge cIurucLerIsLIcs Lo become u dIIIerenL rooL Is
uguIn u sLrong IndIcuLIon LIuL EmpedocIes Is uIso In ugreemenL wILI, und
Is dependenL upon, LIe dIcLum oI PurmenIdes. Anuxugorus Is In u sImIIur
sILuuLIon wILI regurds Lo IIs ImmuLubIe 'seeds` wIIcI cunnoL come Lo be
nor puss uwuy nor cIunge Lo become oLIer.
beIIeve LIuL LIe IypoLIesIs Iuve jusL enumeruLed Is pIuusIbIe, und
wouId sLrengLIen ArIsLoLIe`s posILIon vIs-u-vIs LIe oc:oyo:, sInce II Pur-
menIdes`s urgumenL were Lo IuII, LIe busIs Ior LIe ImmuLubIIILy oI LIeIr bu-
sIc unILs oI beIng wouId be undermIned. TIey wouId LIen be In LIe sume
posILIon us ArIsLoLIe, wIo does Indeed posIL eLernuI (und LIus ubsoIuLeIy
o
CI. Metcphsics, q8boq-z1.
1
CI. DK1B1;, z;-.
8q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IndesLrucLIbIe) pIysIcuI beIngs, I.e. LIe ceIesLIuI objecLs. TIese beIngs ure
eLernuI und IndesLrucLIbIe becuuse oI LIeIr specIuI 'IIILI` muLLer, wIIcI does
noL udmIL oI pussIng uwuy.
z
SImIIurIy, II LIe oc:oyo: wIsI Lo usserL LIe
eLernILy oI LIe 'c-o:_cc` (usIng ArIsLoLIe`s Lerm), us Iur us ArIsLoLIe Is con-
cerned LIey wouId need oLIer urgumenLs, sucI us LIose LIuL Ie IImseII
udduces Ior LIe eLernILy oI LIe ceIesLIuI beIngs.
AguInsL my reudIng oI LIe reIuLIonsIIp beLween PurmenIdes und LIe
oc:oyo: oI LIe succeedIng generuLIon Is LIe IucL LIuL ArIsLoLIe nowIere
urgues expIIcILIy Ior LIe posILIon Iuve IypoLIesIzed us beIng IIs; Dn Gen-
erction cnd Corruption zuzq-b1z Is uL besL suggesLIve oI sucI un urgu-
menL. SecondIy, we Iuve u doxogrupIIc reporL (LIrougI ALIus) oI EpI-
curus`s posILIon on LIe IndesLrucLIbIIILy oI LIe uLoms,

wIereIn Ie posLu-
IuLes LIuL LIere ure no uLoms In LIe sIupe oI un uncIor, or oI u LrIdenL, eLc.,
sInce LIese ure IrugIIe IIgures, und uLoms musL be IncorrupLIbIe, noL be-
Ing subjecL Lo exLernuI Iorces. I we presume LIuL EpIcurus Iud uccess Lo
LIe orIgInuI wrILIngs oI DemocrILus, IL Is sLrunge LIuL Ie does noL menLIon
LIe urgumenL oI PurmenIdes us groundIng Ior LIe IndesLrucLIbIIILy oI LIe
uLoms, InsLeud oI LIeIr mereIy IuvIng sLrong sIupes. AL LIe very IeusL, LIIs
gIves reuson Ior beIIevIng LIuL DemocrILus never expIIcILIy IInked IIs own
urgumenLs wILI LIose oI PurmenIdes, uL IeusL In LIIs regurd. NoneLIeIess,
LIere ure vurIous possIbIIILIes us Lo wIy LIey mIgIL noL Iuve menLIoned
PurmenIdes, In uddILIon Lo possIbIIILy LIuL LIey were noL dependenL upon
IIm.
z
CI. Dn the Hectens, z6qb1q-16.

ALIus , , 18 (Dox. z8-z86; z;o Us.); cILed In urIu, Democrito, p. 1.


8
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
DespILe LIese reservuLIons ubouL my IypoLIesIs, neverLIeIess IoId IL
Lo be u pIuusIbIe one, wIIcI expresses u posILIon ArIsLoLIe mIgIL weII Iuve
Luken In IIs urgumenLs wILI LIe oc:oyo:. L wouId cerLuInIy muke eusIer
IIs Lusk oI deIendIng IIs LIesIs oI 'IIgIer c:,` uguInsL LIese pIIIosopIers,
sInce un ImporLunL supporL Ior LIeIr posILIons ubouL LIe IncorrupLIbIIILy
oI LIeIr vurIous busIc unILs oI beIng wouId be undermIned were LIe Pur-
menIdeun urgumenL Lo be Iound Lo be IuIse. dIscuss u IurLIer ArIsLoLeIIun
crILIque oI PurmenIdes`s posILIon In LIe IoIIowIng secLIon.
. Reul vs. noetic being
n Metcphsics V.;, ArIsLoLIe descrIbes LIe vurIous wuys In wIIcI LIe
Lerm 'i` muy be used, one oI wIIcI Is LIe 'cuLegorIuI` sense LIuL Iuve de-
scrIbed In LIe prevIous secLIon. TIere ure severuI oLIer wuys oI usIng LIIs
Lerm, wIIcI ure LrunsversuI Lo LIe cuLegorIes, In LIuL LIey cun be uppIIed
equuIIy wILIIn uny oI LIe cuLegorIes. TIe oLIer LIree wuys oI usIng LIe Lerm
'i` ure: us 'beIng per cccidens` or us 'beIng per se` (- i - xc- co[c[px,
und - i - xc0' c-), 'beIng In ucL` or 'beIng In poLency` (- i - ooic: or
- i - ci-cc_c), und IInuIIy 'beIng us Lrue` or 'non-beIng us IuIse` (- oc
cic: -: ox p0c, coo,). n LIIs secLIon, wIII dIscuss LIe ImpucL oI
ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI LIe IusL oI LIese 'wuys oI beIng` on LIe urgumenLs oI
LIe oc:oyo:, In purLIcuIur sIowIng wIy, Iromun ArIsLoLeIIun perspecLIve,
PurmenIdes`s urgumenL does noL exLend Lo reuI beIng.
86
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
..1 The churucteristics oI noetic being
ArIsLoLIe expIuIns 'beIng us Lrue or IuIse` InLIe IoIIowIng wuy: c-: - cic:
cpcic: xc - cc-:i -: p0,, - oc cic: -: ox p0c, coo,, oo,
cn xc-ccco, xc nocco,, ooi -: cc-: Zoxp-p, ooc:x,, -: p0c, -o-o,
-: cc-: Zoxp-p, o cox,, -: p0,. - o' ox cc-:i o:c-po, cc-po,,
-: coo,.
q
TIIs sense oI beIng, wIIcI wIII Lerm 'noeLIc,` Ius uIso been
cuIIed 'gnoseoIogIcuI` or 'verILuLIve,` Ior ILs connecLIon Lo knowIedge und Lo
LruLI, respecLIveIy. wIII use LIe Lerm 'noeLIc,` sInce LIIs Lerm IIgIIIgILs
LIe IucL LIuL LIIs kInd oI beIng exIsLs In LIe io, oI u ruLIonuI beIng, und noL
eIsewIere.

WIere Ie InLroduces LIIs sense oI LIe Lerm'i,` Ie descrIbes IL


In Lerms oI judgmenL or predIcuLIon: LIIs kInd oI beIng exIsLs wIen u 'wuy
oI beIng` Is usserLed oI u subjecL, us In suyIng LIuL SocruLes Is wIILe, or LIuL
LIe dIugonuI Is commensuruLe. 'BeIng` Is ussocIuLed wILI Lrue judgmenL,
I.e. usserLIng oI SocruLes LIuL Ie Is wIILe, wIen In IucL Ie Is. 'Non-beIng,`
on LIe oLIer Iund, Is ussocIuLed wILI IuIseIood, I.e. wIen one usserLs LIuL
LIe dIugonuI Is commensuruLe wILI LIe sIde, wIen In IucL IL Is noL.
6
SInce noeLIc beIng perLuIns Lo judgmenLs, LIIs 'wuy oI beIng` Ius cerLuIn
pecuIIurILIes LIuL derIve Irom ILs cIurucLer us someLIIng IuvIng ILs exIs-
Lence In LIe mInd.
;
n purLIcuIur, u judgmenL consIsLs IundumenLuIIy oI u
predIcuLe oI some kInd (LIe predIcuLe wIII IuII InLo one oI LIe '- c_pc-c
q
Metcphsics, 1o1;uq-bq.

o yp cc-: - coo, xc - p0c, ci -o, npycc:iooi - ci yc0i p0c, - oc xcxi


c0, coo, ci o:cio/, Metcphsics, 1oz;bzq-z6.
6
- i - n, cycioi yc-c: noc_,... c-cpoi oc - , p0,, xc - i , -
coo,, Metcphsics, 1oz6u1-b.
;
As BrenLuno puLs IL, judgmenL ILseII Is LIe subjecL Lo wIIcI beIng beIongs us u predI-
cuLe, Dn the Setercl Senses oj ein in Aristotle, p. z.
8;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
-, xc-pyop/c,`
8
) wIIcI Is eILIer composed wILI (vIu xc-cc:,) or dIvIded
Irom(vIu noc:,) u subjecL. TIIs operuLIonoI LIe InLeIIecL operuLes, LIere-
Iore, on predIcuLes und subjecLs, wIIcI LIemseIves Iuve LIe IormoI u yo,
('concepL` or 'uccounL,` dependIng on conLexL) or un coo, (consIdered us
noeLIc Iorm, noL us IormuI ucL).
q
NoeLIc beIng, In Lurn, Is subordInuLe Lo
und derIved Irom 'i xopo,,` LIuL wIIcI LruIy Is-LIe seII-subsIsLenL occ
Lo wIIcI beIng perLuIns prImurIIy, und LIe sepuruLIons und composILIons
Lo be Iound In exIsLIng beIngs.
6o
TIe yo, or 'uccounL` Is LIe noeLIc correIuLe Lo LIe IormuI ucL In LIe
mobIIe beIngs wIIcI we know LIrougI our senses. WIIIe LIe ArIsLoLeIIun
epIsLemoIogy Is Loo compIex Lo LreuL Iere (und Ius been weII LreuLed eIse-
wIere
61
), we cun brIeIIy noLe LIuL 'undersLundIng` oI u beIng In LIe worId
comes ubouL LIrougI u process oI 'sepuruLIon` oI LIe IormuI uspecL oI LIuL
beIng, IIrsL LIrougI recepLIon oI ILs sensIbIe Iorm,
6z
wIIcI LIe io, cun sep-
uruLe Lo derIve InLeIIIgIbIe Iorm.
6
TIe ImporLunL LIIng Lo noLe Is LIuL 'un-
8
CI. Metcphsics, 1oz6u1-b.
q
CI. de Guruy, Los sentidos de lc jormc en Aristteles, p. 6.
6o
cnc oc conox cc-:i xc o:cpcc:, ci o:cio ' ox ci -o, npycc:, - o' o-o, i
c-cpoi i -i xopo, yp - - cc-:i -: no:i -: noci -: o coin-c: c:pc o:io:, -
ci , co[c[px, xc - , p0c, i c-oi- yp c-:oi -o ci p:c-oi -o oc -, o:cioc, -:
n0o,, xc -cpc ncp - o:ni yio, -o i-o,, xc ox c(o opoc:i oci -:ic c:i -o i-o,,
Metcphsics, 1oz;bz-1oz8uz.
61
Iuve Iound JonuLIun eur`s Aristotle: The Desire to Understcnd (CumbrIdge, 1qq)
Lo be useIuI, In purLIcuIur CIupLer q (pp. q6-11).
6z
ci cc0pc/, cc-: - ocx-:xi -i cc0p-i coi ico -, p,, ooi xpp, -o ocx-o/oo
ico -o c:oppoo xc -o _poco o_c-c: - cpcoi, c[ic: oc - _pocoi - _cxoi cpcoi,
o_ _poc, _cx, o/o, oc xc cc0pc:, cxc-oo n -o c_oi-o, _pc _oi
oi nc_c:, o_ cxcc-oi cxc/ioi yc-c:, -o:oio/, xc xc- -i yoi, Dn the Soul,
qzqu1;-zq.
6
c op cc-: - ioci cncp - cc0icc0c:, nc_c:i -: i cp n -o iop-o -: -o:o-oi c-cpoi.
nc0c, pc oc cic:, ocx-:xi oc -o cooo, xc ooic: -o:o-oi -o-o, xc o/o, c_c:i,
cncp - cc0p-:xi np, - cc0p-, o-o -i ioi np, - iop-, Dn the Soul, qzqu1q-1q.
WIIIe LrudILIonuIIy LIIs process Ius been Lermed 'ubsLrucLIon,` J. J. CIeury Ius urgued con-
vIncIngIy LIuL LIe Lerm cpcc:, Ius us ILs core meunIng u IogIcuI meLIod wIIcI uIIows
88
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
dersLundIng` u mobIIe beIng InvoIves u process oI sepuruLIon oI LIe IormuI
uspecL IromLIe muLerIuI; LIuL wIIcI Is LIougIL Is LIe yo, oI LIe LIIng, buL
LIe LIIng ILseII, cs recl, Is noL In LIe mInd.
ProoI oI LIIs cun be seen In LIe dIIIerences beLween beIng In LIe mInd
(noeLIc beIng) und reuI, pIysIcuI beIng. As ArIsLoLIe Ius sIown, pIysIcuI
beIng Is cIurucLerIzed necessurIIy by IuvIng u IormuI und u muLerIuI us-
pecL. TIe IormuI uspecL, sInce IL Is u deLermInuLIon und u 'IImILIng` oI be-
Ing, Is undersLundubIe und LIInkubIe once IL Ius been 'sepuruLed` (_op:,)
In LIe mInd, und LIIs sepuruLIon does noL IuIsIIy LIe LIIng LIougIL
6q
(sInce
LIere Is u reIuLIon oI unuIogy beLween LIe LIIng us LIougIL und LIe LIIng
us reuI, wIIcI uIIows Ior genuIne knowIedge oI LIe objecL
6
). NeverLIe-
Iess, muLLer Is, per se, unInLeIIIgIbIe: o p yioc-o, xc0 c-pi.
66
Our
knowIedge oI muLLer Is onIy by unuIogy, oc noxc:ip c:, cn:c-p- xc-'
icoyci,
6;
Ior muLLer, us sucI, Is LIuL wIIcI Is undeLermIned und uIor-
muI (In poLency Lo receIve Iorm, buL prIor Lo ILs recepLIon). TIus, we cunnoL
know LIe LIIng In uII oI ILs reuIILy, sInce LIe muLerIuI uspecL oI ILs beIng es-
cupes beIng known In ILseII.
urLIer, LIe pIysIcuI worId Is cIurucLerIzed by moLIon und by comIng
Lo be und pussIng uwuy,
68
wIereus Iorms us LIougIL ure neILIer mobIIe
6q
one Lo InLeIIecLuuIIy IsoIuLe LIe prImury subjecL oI u gIven uLLrIbuLe. CI. CIeury, On LIe
TermInoIogy oI 'AbsLrucLIon' In ArIsLoLIe, pp. zz-z.
6q
o: xc _op/c: c0pc-:x,| _op:c- yp - iopcc: x:ipcc, cc-:, xc ooci o:cpc:, ooc
y/yic-c: coo, _op:i-oi, Phsics, 1qbz-.
6
CI. de Guruy, Los sentidos de lc jormc en Aristteles, p. 1z.
66
Metcphsics, 1o6u8-q.
6;
Phsics, 1q1u;-8.
68
CI. Metcphsics, 1o6qu1-bz.
6q
_op:c- yp - iopcc: x:ipcc, cc-:, Phsics, 1qbq.
8q
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
nor generubIe nor corrupLIbIe.
;o
WIIIe one cun LIInk LIIngs wIIcI do noL
exIsL us reuI, one cunnoL LIInk LIemcs motin, sInce LIey musL 'exIsL InucL`
In order Lo move.
;1
TIe Iuck oI moLIon In noeLIc beIng, und LIe unuIogIcuI
dIsLunce beLween beIng In LIe mInd und beIng In pIysIcuI reuIILy, Is uIso
InsInuuLed by ArIsLoLIe`s own LermInoIogy Ior speukIng oI LIe essence or
'quIddILy` oI u beIng-'- - i cic:,` or 'wIuL IL ucs Lo be`-LIe essence us
known Is ImmobIIe und IuIIy deLermIned, us LIe pusL Loo Is ImmobIIe und
IuIIy deLermIned.
;z
TIus, our knowIedge oI mobIIe LIIngs Is quc mobIIe
(Ior LIe essence oI LIe LIIng, us known, IncIudes ILs muLerIuIILy
;
), buL noL
us beIng in motement, Ior InLeIIecLIon und judgmenL Luke pIuce over LIe
LIIngs us known upurL Irom LIeIr moLIon In LIme.
;q
;o
nc o oc/c c-pc, - -c ciooi xc yo, |yo o -: ci o-o, cc-i oc/c, ci -
coic:pio, yo,, o yo, o,, cc: ci oi o-o yoi-c:, -o-oi ci cc-: 0op |xc
yp yicc:,, -o oc yoo ox cc-:i o-o, c-c 0c/pcc0c: |ooc yp yicc:,, o yp y/yic-c: - ox/
cic: - -oc - ox/, ico ycicco, xc 0op, cc xc ox cc/i ooc:x-c: yp -: ooc,
-c-c ycii ooc no:c, Metcphsics, 1oqbzo-o.
;1
ooxc yp cipyc:c :c-c x/ipc:, cic:, o: xc -o, oc:i ox noo:occ: - x:icc0c:,
c, o -:ic, xc-pyop/c,, ooi o:ciop- xc cn:0op- cic: - i-c, x:iocic oc o, -o-o oc
-: ox i-c cicpyc/ ccoi-c: cicpyc/. -i yp i-oi ci:c ooic: cc-/i ox cc-: o, -: ox
ci-cc_c/ cc-/i, Metcphsics, 1oq;uo-b.
;z
CI. de Guruy: De esLe modo, |i consIdered us IndIcuLIng unLerIorILy| seriu unu
reIerencIu u Iu prIorIdud de Iu Iormu en LunLo que Iu esencIu y Io necesurIo unLeceden u Io
concreLo conLIngenLe y uccIdenLuI. EI ImperIecLo 'eru' uIudIriu usi u Iu unLerIorIdud de Iu
Iormu IrenLe u Io que exIsLe dIsLendIdo en eI LIempo y suIre cumbIos. 'Eru' seuIuriu usi unu
prIorIdud no LemporuI de Iu Iormu, prevIu precIsumenLe u Iu dIsLIncIn por eI LIempo. En
esLe senLIdo, L Li n enuI se reIerIriu u uqueI senLIdo de Iormu InmuLubIe por encImu deI
cumbIo, que es eI IIn: cIr. MeL., VI.q, 1oqq u 6-b1 de Guruy, Los sentidos de lc jormc
en Aristteles, 6o-61, n. 81.
;
o0ci, yp ico x:ipcco, yo, c-i, c c_c: pi, Metcphsics, 1oz6uz.
;q
De Guruy sLuLes LIIs us IoIIows: RespecLo u Ius dIIerencIus y deLermInucIones en Ius
cosus nuLuruIes IrenLe u Ios nombres y Io pensudo, busLe por uIoru unu observucIn: 'nIn-
gunu de Ius cosus nuLuruIes puede prescIndIr deI movImIenLo en su enuncIudo, y sIempre
ImpIIcun muLerIu` (MeL. V.1, 1oz6uz-). EI mundo IisIco se curucLerIzu IrenLe u Io pensudo
porque IncIuye movImIenLo y muLerIu. Cuundo se pIensu uIgo IisIco, en cumbIo, se Ie prIvu
de su movIIIdud y de su muLerIu: eI cubuIIo pensudo curece de su ucLIvIdud nuLuruI, de su
peso y Lumuo... Por eso, Ius dIIerencIus y deLermInucIones IisIcus Iun de urLIcuIurse con eI
movImIenLo y Iu muLerIu; y, en consecuencIu, Iu reuIIdud nuLuruI doLudu de movImIenLo y
muLerIu dIIIere de Iu presencIu de Iu mIsmu reuIIdud nuLuruI en LunLo que objeLo pensudo,
qo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
.. The Purmenideun error und the oc:oyo:
TIe PurmenIdeunerror, IromLIe poInL oI vIewoI ArIsLoLIe`s meLupIysIcs,
cun be expIuIned us u consequence oI u subLIe conIusIon beLween noeLIc
beIng-IIrsL oI uII, beIng us LruLI, und secondIy, LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI LIe
componenLs oI beIng us LruLI, I.e. concepLs or yo:-und reuI beIng. Pur-
menIdes gIves LIe IeurL oI IIs urgumenL In IrugmenL
;
oI IIs poem. n
LIIs IrugmenL, Ie LeucIes LIuL LIere ure Lwo wuys oI InquIry LIuL cun be IoI-
Iowed. n IIne Ie gIves LIe IIrsL oI LIese Lwo wuys, numeIy LIuL IL Is und
IL cunnoL be LIuL IL Is noL.
;6
SecondIy, InIIne , Ie sLuLes LIe second puLIoI
InquIry, IL Is noL, und IL Is necessury LIuL IL noL be; Ie quIckIy noLes, In IIne
6, LIuL LIIs Is u puLI wIIcI Is wIoIIy unknowubIe. rom LIIs busIs, Pur-
menIdes Is ubIe Lo deduce LIe uLLrIbuLes oI - ci In IrugmenL V, numeIy
LIuL BeIng Is ungeneruLed und ImperIsIubIe, wIoIe, unIque, ImmovubIe
und compIeLe. L wus noL once nor wIII IL be, sInce IL Is now uILogeLIer, one,
de Guruy, Los sentidos de lc jormc en Aristteles, p. .
;
DKz8Bz.
E o' y' cyi cpo, x:cc: oc c 0oi xocc,,
cncp oo oic: o:c:, cc: iocc:
ci no, cc-:i -c xc , ox cc-: cic:,
Hc:0o, cc-: xco0o, Zp0c yp npoc ,
o' , ox cc-:i -c xc , _pci cc-: cic:,
-i o -o: po ncicnco0c cci -cpni
o-c yp i yiop, - yc ci o yp ioc-i
o-c pcc:,.
;6
Turun`s LrunsIuLIon Ius exIsLs, IoIdIng LIuL LIere Is no ImpIIcIL subjecL: cc-:i und
ox cc-:i In IInes und ure used us ImpersonuIs, und no subjecL Ius Lo be undersLood wILI
LIem, Turun, Pcrmenides, A Text uith Trcnslction, Commentcr cnd Criticcl Esscs,
p. 6. However, In LrunsIuLIng PurmenIdes IoIIowOwen, wIo IoIds (wILI mosL exegeLes)
LIuL LIere Is In IucL un ImpIIcIL subjecL, - ci |wIuL Is|. (Owen Is cILed In GuLIrIe, AHistor
oj Greel Philosoph, p. 1).
q1
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
conLInuous.
;;
TIe rooL cuuse oI PurmenIdes`s subLIe error, Irom un ArIsLoLeIIun per-
specLIve, Is expIuIned by E. AIurcn In LIe IoIIowIng munner.
;8
We noLe
LIuL uL LIe very core oI PurmenIdes's urgumenL, LIere Is un ImpIIcIL usser-
LIon oI LIe PrIncIpIe oI Non-ConLrudIcLIon (PNC), I.e. LIuL wIuL Is cunnoL
noL be. TIIs prIncIpIe, wIIcI ArIsLoLIe deveIops In Book V oI LIe MeLu-
pIysIcs, Is LIe IIrsL prIncIpIe oI knowIedge. n Book , IurLIermore, Ie
sLuLes LIuL LIuL wIIcI Is muxImuIIy Lrue Is cuuse oI LIe Lrue. Hence, Pur-
menIdes's urgumenL ImpIIcILIy resLs on LIe IIgIesL LruLI, on wIIcI uII oLIer
LruLIs depend. However, LIe PNC Is LIe IIgIesL LruLI becuuse IL Is nec-
essury, und LIereIore provIdes IuII cerLuInLy, wIIcI Is u requIremenL Ior
knowIedge In ILs IuII sense. BuL, LIe necessILy oI LIIs judgmenL, wIIcI Is
LIe PNC, provIdes eLernuIILy, und LIIs ussImIIuLes IL Lo LIe uLemporuIILy oI
concepLs (yo:). TIereIore one cun eusIIy undersLund Iow PurmenIdes,
urguIng on LIe busIs oI LIe PNC, couId conIuse LIIs IounduLIonuI prIncIpIe,
wIIcI Is un uLemporuI LruLI, wILI LIe unuIysIs oI LIe noLIon oI beIng, wIIcI
Is noL u judgmenL nor u LruLI nor Is beIng us LruLI, buL wIIcI Is uLempo-
ruI und ImmobIIe, us corresponds Lo LIe sLuLus oI concepLs In LIe mInd, us
dIscussed ubove.
A IurLIer cIue Lo LIe soundness oI LIIs unuIysIs Is Iound In IrugmenL
;;
TrunsIuLIon Irom Turun, Pcrmenides, A Text uith Trcnslction, Commentcr cnd
Criticcl Esscs, p. 8. Turun (1;;) IoIds LIuL LIIs descrIpLIon does noL ImpIy uLempo-
ruIILy, buL IL seems ubundunLIy cIeur Irom LIe denIuI oI Lense ussocIuLed wILI - ci LIuL
PurmenIdes Is noL mereIy denyIng LIuL IL Is ungeneruLed und IncorrupLIbIe, buL LIuL IL ex-
IsLs onIy In u 'now` wILIouL duruLIon. TIIs Is uIso, us Turun (1;6) poInLs ouL, LIe opInIon
oI u mujorILy oI commenLuLors.
;8
PersonuI conversuLIon, MurcI o, zo11.
qz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
, - yp c- ioci cc-i -c xc cic:,
;q
wIere we see LIuL PurmenIdes Is
IdenLIIyIng LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI LIuL wIIcI Is LIougIL und LIuL wIIcI is,
In IIs sLrong sense. TIuL wIIcI Is LIougIL ure concepLs und judgmenLs,
buL onIy one judgmenL cun be LIougIL, cc-i, wIIcI In Lurns poInLs Lo
LIuL wIIcI Is, or - ci. BuL - ci us LIougIL Is u concepL, und IL Is LIIs
concepL Lo wIIcI PurmenIdes uppIIes LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI beIng Iound In
IrugmenL V, cILed ubove. Hence IL becomes cIeur LIuL LIe EIeuLIc Iocused
onbeIng und ILs oneness uL LIe concepLuuI IeveI, wIere InLeIIIgIbIIILy resuILs
Irom IormuIILy: o i -oco-i yc oxci cc-: - ii cxc:. Hcpci/op,
ci yp co:xc -o xc- -i yoi ci, n-cc0c:...
8o
And Indeed, beIng uL LIe
concepLuuI IeveI Is precIseIy cIurucLerIzed by ILs ubsoIuLe ImmobIIILy und
IndIvIsIbIe oneness: Asi pues, cube curucLerIzur u Iu Iormu segn eI prIn-
cIpIo de conLrudIccIn, como esencIu, deIInIcIn, unIcIdud, necesIdud, per-
IeccIn, ucubumIenLo, InmovIIIdud, mIsmIdud, IIjezu, negucIn, deLermInu-
cIn, dIIerencIu, uILerIdud, presencIu.
81
As Curd Ius noLed, LIIs Is Iow
PurmenIdes cIurucLerIzes - ci: |LIere ure| Iour sIgns oI wIuL-Is. L Is
;q
DKz8B
8o
Metcphsics, q86b1q. CI. BoerI, ArIsLLeIes conLru PurmnIdes: eI probIemu deI cum-
bIo y Iu posIbIIIdud de unu cIencIu IisIcu, p. 6: No es cIerLo, por LunLo, que ArIsLLeIes
no Iuyu LenIdo en cuenLu eI IecIo de que eI ser deI que IubIu PurmnIdes es eI ser Inmu-
LubIe que se munIIIesLu en eI pensumIenLo. PrecIsumenLe porque udvIerLe que eI ser deI
que IubIu PurmnIdes es eI ser InmuLubIe que, en cIerLo modo, ImpIIcu Iu no exIsLencIu o
eI no ser de Ios Ienmenos como LuIes es que Iu onLoIogiu de PurmnIdes no se ujusLu uI
verdudero esLudo de cosus.
81
De Guruy, Los sentidos de lc jormc en Aristteles, p. 8. CI. uIso CIernIss, Lc crticc
cristotelicc c lc jilosojc presocrcticc, q, n. zq8: BusLu por eI momenLo comprender
que Ios eIuLus enIuLIzubun Iu reuIIdud InmuLubIe, que se munIIIesLu en eI pensumIenLo y
en Ios objeLos deI pensumIenLo, como opuesLu u Iu InesLubIIIdud de Ios Ienmenos IisIcos,
y que, u Iu muneru de Ios que eIecLun un descubrImIenLo sorprendenLe, reservuron uI
nuevo concepLo eI derecIo excIusIvo u Iu consIderucIn. Pero no es ImposIbIe que, encImu
de eso, IubIerun consIderudo u esLe Ser LruscendenLuI como de uIgn modo IisIco, uun
cuundo sosLuvIeron sIn dudu que eru dIIerenLe de cuuIquIer cosu percepLIbIe.
q
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
(1) ungenerubIe und IndesLrucLIbIe, (z) IndIvIsIbIe, () ImmobIIe, und (q)
compIeLe or perIecL.
8z
BuL LIIs ImmobIIILy, IndIvIsIbIIILy und ubsoIuLe per-
IecLIon und compIeLeness Is u resuIL oI LIe necessILy Ior deLermInuLIon In
LIe concepL or yo,, und IL Is IIIIcIL Lo uppIy Lo reuI beIng LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs
oI - ci quc concepL.
8
L Is noL LIe sume Lo be LIougIL und Lo be, puce Pur-
menIdes.
8q
TIe noLIon oI beIng, mucI IIke our concepL oI 'wIILe,` Is derIved
Iromour experIence und our InLeIIecLIve gruspIng oI LIIngs wIIcI LruIy ure,
und depends on LIose LIIngs Ior ILs meunIng: o yp cc-c: i -: c- cic:, c
no - i cpc/ic: o-o, c-c cic/ -: cxcc-oi.
8
8z
Curd, The Lecc oj Pcrmenides, p. 6q.
8
De CueIo zq8 B z1-zq InIormu que nI |PurmenIdes| nI |MeIIso| creiu en Iu exIsLen-
cIu de uIgo que no Iuese Iu susLuncIu sensIbIe, pero uqui Iu docLrInu eIeuLIcu es expIIcudu
uI decIrse que esos Iombres udvIrLIeron que Ios objeLos deI pensumIenLo deben ser In-
cumbIubIes y eLernos, y upIIcuron esLus curucLerisLIcus uI mundo sensIbIe, CIernIss, Lc
crticc cristotelicc c lc jilosojc presocrcticc, q1, n. 8. As GuIu poInLs ouL, LIIs LexL Irom
De ccelo es ImporLunLe sobre Lodo porque uude eI error que, u juIcIo de ArIsLLeIes,
subyuce en Iu concepcIn eIeuLIcu de Iu reuIIdud: Iu LrunsIerencIu de Io que sIo es verdud
en eI orden InLeIIgIbIe uI orden de Io sensIbIe. o que es verdudero puru eI pensur no nece-
surIumenLe Iu de ser verdudero puru eI ser (sensIbIe), precIsumenLe porque Iu nuLuruIezu
espIrILuuI deI nous Impone unus curucLerisLIcus que no se IuIIun en Iu reuIIdud sensIbIe,
GuIu, u IecLuru de PurmnIdes en Iu Isicc de ArIsLLeIes, p. q.
8q
DKz8B. KuIn poInLs ouL LIuL PurmenIdes Is upIoIdIng u Iorm oI u correspondence
LIeory oI LruLI, und LIuL (IIke ArIsLoLIe) Ie uppIIes Lo LIe reuI LIe IogIcuI Iuws (excIuded
mIddIe, non-conLrudIcLIon, IdenLILy) wIIcI Ie Ius dIscovered In LIougIL und Iunguuge;
uIso IIke ArIsLoLIe, LIese Iuws ure undersLood by IIm us consLILuLIng LIe very sLrucLure oI
LIe reuI, KuIn, TIe TIesIs oI PurmenIdes, p. ;z. TIe dIIIerence Is LIuL unIIke ArIsLoLIe,
PurmenIdes does noL ucknowIedge LIuL LIe correspondence oI LIe noeLIc und LIe reuI In
regurds Lo LIese Iuws does noL ruIe ouL LIe possIbIIILy LIuL In oLIer regurds reuI beIng muy
Iuve cIurucLerIsLIcs LIuL dIIIer Irom LIose oI beIng us LIougIL.
TIe IucL LIuL PurmenIdes does noL dIsLInguIsI LIe exIsLenLIuI und predIcuLIve senses oI
- ci/cic: Is suggesLIve (cI. KIrk und Ruven, The Presocrctic Philosophers, pp. z;o-1):
gIven IIs drumuLIc empIusIs on LIe unIvocILy oI LIese Lerms, IL Is Iess surprIsIng LIuL Ie
wouId Iuve been unubIe or unwIIIIng Lo concede LIe possIbIIILy oI u dIsLIncLIon beLween
noeLIc und reuI beIng, und Ience LIe possIbIIILy oI reuI beIng IuvIng properLIes dIsLIncL
Irom LIuL oI noeLIc beIng. Verbeke noLes LIuL PurmenIdes IeIL jusLIIIed In rejecLIng LIe
consIderuLIon oI sucI properLIes, sucI us cIunge or becomIng, InsoIur us LIey ure noL II-
ubIe Lo uny ruLIonuI InLerpreLuLIon, Verbeke, TIe MeunIng oI PoLency In ArIsLoLIe, p. q.
TIe Lusk oI ArIsLoLIe In LIe Phsics wIII precIseIy be Lo sIowLIuL cIunge und becomIng ure
ubIe Lo be gIven u ruLIonuI InLerpreLuLIon.
8
Phsics, 186b1; see uIso LIe dIscussIon In CIupLer . oI LIe Phsics on LIe dIIIIcuILIes
qq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
GIven LIuL IL Is IIIIcIL Lo uppIy uncrILIcuIIy LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI noeLIc
beIng Lo LIe umbIL oI LIe reuI, LIen II we uccepL GuLIrIe, NudduI und Gru-
Ium`s (und my) IypoLIesIs oI LIe dependence oI mosL oI LIe oc:oyo:
on LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL, us expIuIned In LIe prevIous cIupLer, we
cun see LIuL IL wIII be equuIIy IIIIcIL Ior LIese oc:oyo: Lo deny subsLunLIuI
cIunge (I.e. yipc:, und 0op) wILIIn LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce. SInce IL
Is onIy uL LIe noeLIc IeveI LIuL 'LIuL wIIcI Is` cunnoL ceuse Lo be wIuL IL Is,
LIese oc:oyo: wIII no Ionger Iuve LIeIr jusLIIIcuLIon Ior denyIng subsLun-
LIuI cIunge-comIng Lo be und pussIng uwuy-oI occ:, LIose LIIngs wIIcI
LruIy ure, In LIe prImury sense (LIe muLerIuI 'rooLs` or 'uLoms,` In LIeIr own
LIeorIes). L miht be LIe cuse LIuL LIe pIysIcuIIy exIsLIng occ: neILIer
come Lo be nor puss uwuy (us ArIsLoLIe wIII urgue In LIe cuse oI cerLuIn oLIer
occ:, I.e. LIe ceIesLIuI beIngs), buL LIere wouId no Ionger be uny busIs Ior
usserLIng LIuL LIIs Is u necessury consequence oI LIeIr bein.
86
wILI PurmenIdes`s usserLIon oI LIe unIvocILy oI beIng. JoIn WuLson expresses LIe depen-
dence oI LIe cn:c-p oI LIe prImury noLIons on experIence us IoIIows: Now, 'scIence,`
us we Iuve seen, urIses ouL oI und presupposes 'experIence` (cnc:pc), In wIIcI LIe unI-
versuI Is uppreIended us InvoIved In u number oI InsLunces; buL IL Is onIy In 'scIence` LIuL
LIe unIversuI Is known us LIe unIversuI... TIus, In ILs eurIIer sLuge, InLeIIIgence Is depen-
denL upon sensIbIe experIence, IromwIIcI IL receIves LIe muLerIuI In wIIcI IL dIscerns LIe
unIversuI, WuLson, TIe MeLupIysIc oI ArIsLoLIe, : TIe IrsL PrIncIpIes oI KnowIedge,
p. 1zo.
86
As expIuIned In LIe prevIous cIupLer (p. 6), DemocrILus Is un excepLIon Lo LIIs de-
pendence upon PurmenIdes`s urgumenL. Hence, IIs versIon oI ALomIsm Is noL uIIecLed by
LIe deIecL In LIe EIeuLIc`s urgumenL wIIcI Iuve IdenLIIIed Iere. ArIsLoLIe urgues dIrecLIy
uguInsL DemocrILus In GC .z (1;u1-1). HIs urgumenL Iere Is muLIemuLIcuIIy-bused:
DemocrILus errs In ussumIng LIuL In u conLInuous mugnILude, u poInL Is udjucenL Lo un-
oLIer poInL, sucI LIuL In dIvIdIng LIe mugnILude sImuILuneousIy uL every poInL, LIe mug-
nILude Is LIorougIIy dIvIded, eILIer InLo poInLs or noLIIng (ouL oI neILIer oI wIIcI cun
LIe mugnILude be reconsLrucLed). BuL LIIs Is noL LIe cuse; poInLs ure noL udjucenL Lo eucI
oLIer, Ience gIven uny ucLuuI dIvIsIon oI LIe mugnILude, LIere wIII uIwuys remuIn dIvIsIbIe
mugnILudes beLween uny Lwo gIven poInLs oI LIe dIvIded mugnILude. As D. SedIey sLuLes,
ArIsLoLIe`s uIm In LIIs Is Lo sIow LIuL, eten uith cn injinitel ditisible continuum, dIvI-
sIon uL every poInL wouId be ImpossIbIe, und LIus Lo bIock oII LIe uLomIsL InIerence Irom
LIe ImpossIbIIILy oI dIvIsIon uL every poInL Lo LIe non-exIsLence oI un InIInILeIy dIvIsIbIe
q
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
.. Conclosions on noetic und reul being
Once we Iocus our eIIorLs on LIe pIysIcuI worId us LIe pIuce oI cIunge,
und uLLempL Lo expIuIn Iow LIe IucLs ubouL LIe worId us we know IL cun
be reconcIIed wILI u docLrIne oI beIng, IL becomes necessury Lo posIL LIuL
beIng Is noL unIvocuI; LIuL LIere ure u number oI dIsLIncL wuys Lo suy LIuL
someLIIng 'Is` (or Is u beIng). Up Lo LIIs poInL, we Iuve IdenLIIIed Lwo sucI
'wuys oI beIng`-LIe beIng oI LIe cuLegorIes, und noeLIc beIng-wIIcI ure
LrunsversuI Lo eucI oLIer. AbeIng muy be suId Lo be In both wuys, us u beIng
In one or unoLIer cuLegory, und us beIng noeLIc or reuI. I LIe IypoLIesIs oI
LIe dependence oI LIe oc:oyo: on PurmenIdes`s urgumenL Is vuIId, LIen
ArIsLoLIe Ius LIorougIIy undermIned LIe buses Ior LIe 'eLernuI` pIysIcuI
p_c posLuIuLed by LIe oc:oyo:, by sIowIng LIuL beIng Is suId muILIpIy,
und LIuL LIe ImmobIIILy und necessILy oI PurmenIdeun beIng Is ussocIuLed
wILI noeLIc, und noL reuI, beIng. DemocrILus, us we Iuve seen, Is u dIIIerenL
cuse, und Is dIrecLIy reIuLed by ArIsLoLIe vIu u sepuruLe urgumenL.
L sLIII remuIns Lo be seen, Iowever, houIL cun be LIuL someLIIng wIIcI
LruIy Is wIuL IL Is, cun cIunge Lo be someLIIng oLIer. We see LIuL sucI
cIunge Is no Ionger proIIbILed, sInce LIe proIIbILIon oI cIunge uppIIes Lo
beIng us gruspedby LIe InLeIIecL. NeverLIeIess, IurLIer expIoruLIonIs needed
Lo undersLund Iow cIunge In IucL Lukes pIuce. We Iuve uIreudy, In CIupLer
1, seen LIuL mobIIe beIng Is composed oI u IormuI und u muLerIuI prIncIpIe.
We ure LIus now In u posILIon Lo see Iow LIese prIncIpIes oI mobIIe beIng
provIde LIe key Lo undersLundIng LIe process oI subsLunLIuI cIunge.
conLInuum-or, In oLIer words, Lo LIe exIsLence oI uLoms, GC .z, p. ;q.
q6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
.q The doctrine oI potency und uct
PurmenIdes Iound IImseII compeIIed Lo deny LIe possIbIIILy oI cIunge,
becuuse cIunge ImpIIes 'noL-beIng` In some sense, und noL-beIng precIseIy
cunnoL be: n, o' i xc yio:-o c yp cyci-', ox cc-:, oo' c no-c c:
cccc0c:.
8;
YeL Ie wus uIso unubIe Lo deny LIe pIenomenu enLIreIy, und
ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL Ie wus Iorced Lo posIL Lwo prIncIpIes In order Lo ex-
pIuIn LIe IucLs oI cIunge In sensuLIon.
88
TIese Lwo prIncIpIes Ie cuIIs 'IoL`
und 'coId,` or 'IIre` und 'eurLI,` LIe Iormer oI LIe puIr ussocIuLed wILI beIng,
und LIe IuLLer wILI non-beIng. TIus even PurmenIdes, wIomSocruLes suId
Lo be coo, - o: und oc:i, -c,
8q
Iound IImseII Iorced Lo suy LIuL 'LIuL
wIIcI Is noL` someIow Is.
ArIsLoLIe, Loo, Iud Lo Iuce LIIs cIuIIenge, und IIs response wus LIe deveI-
opmenL oI IIs docLrIne oI poLency und ucL us 'wuys oI beIng` LrunsversuI Lo
cuLegorIuI und noeLIc beIng.
qo
n LIIs secLIon, wIII InvesLIguLe LIe roIe LIuL
8;
DKz8B8, zo.
88
icyxccio, o xooo0ci -o, c:ioio:,, xc - i ci xc- -i yoi nc/o oc xc- -i
cc0pc:i noc[ioi cic:, oo -, c-/c, xc oo -, p_, n:i -/0pc:, 0cpi xc o_pi, ooi
np xc yi yoi -o-oi oc xc- ci - i - 0cpi ---c: 0-cpoi oc xc- - i, Metc-
phsics, q86bzq-.
8q
PIuLo, Thectetus, 18e.
qo
CI. WILL, Wcs oj ein, p. : LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween beIng X poLenLIuIIy und be-
Ing X ucLuuIIy Is noL sImpIy unoLIer vocubuIury Ior descrIbIng enLILIes In LIe cuLegory oI
subsLunce. L Is u cross-cuLegorIcuI onLoIogIcuI dIsLIncLIon. SImIIurIy Ior BrenLuno, LIere
ure us muny modes oI poLenLIuI und ucLuuI beIng us LIere ure cuLegorIes; LIrougI LIe IuL-
Ler we sIuII undersLund LIe number oI, und dIIIerences beLween, LIe Iormer, BrenLuno,
Dn the Setercl Senses oj ein in Aristotle, p. . G. ReuIe, on LIe oLIer Iund, sees LIe
docLrIne oI poLency und ucL connecLed Lo cuLegorIuI beIng vIu LIe docLrIne oI LIe cuuses:
evIdenLe cIe I`IndugIne deIIu poLenzu e deII`uLLo dovru uvere un rupporLo InLrInsecu-
menLe necessurIo uncIe con I`IndugIne deIIe cuuse, deI prIncIp e degII eIemenLI deII`essere
e deIIu sosLunzu, cIo conI`uILIoIogIu. MuLerIu e Iormu, uIIe quuII sI rIducono poLenzu e uLLo,
sono, precIsumenLe: eIemenLo, Iu prImu, e prIncIpIo e cuusu, Iu secondu, deII`essere e deIIe
sosLunze sensIbIII, ReuIe, Il concetto di jilosojic primc, p. zoq. PoLency und ucL, InsoIur
us LIey ure connecLed Lo muLLer und Iorm, ure cross-cuLegorIuI precIseIy In LIe munner
LIuL LIere ure muLLer und Iorm In LIe vurIous cuLegorIes oLIer LIun subsLunce; cI. e.g.,
q;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
beIng us poLency und ucL pIuys In ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI c:,, und LIe con-
cIusIons LIuL we cun druw ubouL LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI c:, und IIs ubIIILy
Lo jusLIIy IIs pIysIcuI docLrIne uguInsL IIs vurIous crILIcs.
TIe docLrIne oI poLency und ucL Is vILuI Lo ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI c:,,
In sIowIng Iow cIunge Is possIbIe, Ior InsoIur us we suy LIuL someLIIng
Is In poLency, we ure suyIng LIuL someLIIng LIuL now Is noL, quu exIsLenL,
Is neverLIeIess reuI, InsoIur us IL ccn be (und Indeed, In some cuses, musL
necessurIIy come Lo be). CerLuIn uspecLs oI LIIs Issue Iuve uIreudy been dIs-
cussed In LIe prevIous cIupLer, wIere we dIscussed ArIsLoLIe`s derIvuLIon oI
LIe IormuI und muLerIuI 'purLs` oI mobIIe beIng; neverLIeIess, LIe docLrIne
oI poLency und ucL goes beyond LIe umbIL oI mobIIe beIng, uppIyIng Lo uII
beIng quc beIng.
q1
Iuve dIvIded LIIs secLIon InLo Lwo overuII purLs. n LIe IIrsL purL oI LIe
secLIon, wIII IIrsL Iocus on LIe docLrIne oI poLency und ucL, und Iow IL re-
IuLes Lo c:,, begInnIng wILI u dIscussIon oI LIe docLrIne oI poLency und
ucL ILseII, wILI un empIusIs on LIose uspecLs wIIcI wIII be oI ImporLunce
Ior undersLundIng c:,. Second, wIII reIuLe poLency und ucL Lo LIe p_c
oI Iorm und muLLer, dIscussed In LIe prevIous cIupLer. TIIrd, wIII exum-
Ine Iow ArIsLoLIe`s dIscussIon (In Book oI LIe Phsics) oI c:, us Iorm
und us muLLer uIIows us Lo undersLund ILs reIuLIon Lo poLency und ucL. n
LIe second purL oI LIIs secLIon, wIII dIscuss LIe 'communIcuLIon` oI Iorm.
Metcphsics, 1oobzz.
q1
CI. Metcphsics, 1oq6u1-z, [ooc0c ii cn noi yp cc-:i oic:, xc cipyc:c
-i ioi cyoioi xc- x/ipc:i. CI. Owens, The Doctrine oj ein in the Aristotelicn
`Metcphsics', p. qo, CIunge, us Iound In sensIbIe LIIngs, serves ... us LIe busIs Ior LIe
sLudy oI ucL und poLency. TIe gouI oI LIe InvesLIguLIon, Iowever, IIes beyond LIe order oI
cIunge.
q8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI moLIon und cIunge depends IeuvIIy on IIs usserLIon
LIuL occ cun be u cuuse oI IormuI ucLuuIIzuLIon In oLIer beIngs, so wIII
exumIne Iow ArIsLoLIe unuIyzes LIIs process. n uddILIon, wIII exumIne
Iow c:, Is IdenLIIIed us u communIcuLor oI Iorm.
.q.1 Potency und uct us 'wuys oI being'
n Phsics .8, ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL LIe dIscussIon oI LIe p_c cun be
Irumed In severuI wuys. IrsL, IL cun be Irumed In Lerms oI LIe conLrurIes
und LIe underIyIng, wIIcI Is LIe munner In wIIcI Ie LreuLs oI LIe quesLIon
In Book . However, Ie suys, c, ci o -pno, o-o,, o, o' -: cio_c-c:
-c- yc:i xc- -i oic:i xc -i cipyc:ci...
qz
He goes on Lo sLuLe LIuL
poLency und ucL Iuve been beLLer LreuLed eIsewIere.
q
n ArIsLoLIe`s cIus-
sIIIcuLIon oI LIe scIences, poLency und ucL perLuIn Lo meLupIysIcs und noL
Lo pIysIcs, sInce LIey ure wuys oI speukIng ubouL beIng quc beIng, und noL
mereIy beIng subjecL Lo cIunge. NeverLIeIess, LIe docLrIne oI poLency und
ucL, InsoIur us IL Is u necessury LruLI druwn IrommeLupIysIcuI specuIuLIon,
Is IundumenLuI Ior undersLundIng c:,, noL IeusL becuuse, us Ie sLuLes In
Metcphsics Book X, xc yp c:, ci -c- yyic-c: ci -c- yp yic: -
ooic:.
qq
UndersLundIng poLency und ucL wIII sIow Iow c:, cun be u
qz
Phsics, 1q1bz8-o. CI. uIso p cc-: ooic:, Metcphsics, 1oou1 und occ
xc - coo, cipyc: cc-:i, Metcphsics, 1oobz- (cILed In ReuIe, Il concetto di jilosojic
primc, p. zoq).
q
AL IIrsL gIunce, LIIs wouId uppeur Lo be u reIerence Lo Book X (6) oI LIe Metcphsics.
NeverLIeIess, Jueger duLes LIe deveIopmenL oI ArIsLoLIe`s pIysIcuI LIeory Lo u IuIrIy eurIy
duLe (perIups sIorLIy uILer IeuvIng LIe Acudemy (cI. Jueger, Aristoteles: Grundleun,
pp. z-6), wIereus Ie unuIyzes LIe Metcphsics us u IuLer work sLrongIy dependenL upon
LIe Phsics (cI. IbId., p. 11). PerIups LIIs reIerence Is u IuLer reducLIon?
qq
Metcphsics, 1oqqb;.
qq
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
source oI moLIon, eILIer In LIe nuLuruI subsLunce ILseII LIuL LIe c:, Iorms
(ci c- c-), or In unoLIer beIng (ci ).
n LIIs book oI LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe Ius uIreudy sIown Iow cIunge
Is possIbIe In nuLuruI subsLunces. WIy does Ie InLroduce, ubove und be-
yond LIe 'purLs` oI mobIIe beIng-coo, und -Lwo new senses oI beIng
quc beIng? TIe unswer Is LIuL uL LIe IeveI oI IIs meLupIysIcuI docLrIne,
LIe noLIon oI cipyc:c poInLs Lo LIe deepesL cIurucLerIzuLIon oI reuIILy, LIuL
wIIcI dIsLInguIsIes IL Irom LIougIL us un uccIdenL oI u ruLIonuI beIng, or
LIe ImmobIIe deuI: Lo be Is In some sense u 'doIng,`
q
u doIng wIIcI per-
LuIns Lo IndIvIduuIs wIIcI ure beIng wIuL LIey ure us subsIsLenL occ:.
q6
n
uddILIon, Ie needs Lo resoIve LIe deepesL PurmenIdeun cIuIIenge: IowLIuL
wIIcI Is cun, In some sense, be oLIer LIun IL currenLIy Is, und LIIs requIres
LIe docLrIne oI poLency. n LIe IoIIowIng secLIon, wIII sIow Iow ArIsLoLIe
urgues Ior LIe necessILy oI posLuIuLIng beIng ooic:, In purLIcuIur uguInsL
LIe MegurIuns, buL uIso uguInsL PurmenIdes.
q
SLrIcLIy speukIng, ucLIvILy or 'doIng` Is un uccIdenL oI u subsLunLIuI beIng. NoneLIeIess,
'doIng` Is u useIuI meLupIor Ior IndIcuLIng LIe dynumIsmwIIcI cIurucLerIzes beIng In ucL.
TIIs Is purLIcuIurIy Lrue due Lo LIe IucL LIuL we knowucL or cipyc:c LIrougImovemenL, one
kInd oI 'doIng`: cpo0c o cipyc:c -oioc, np, -i ci-c_c:ci coi-:0cip, xc cn - c
cx -i x:ipccoi :c-c ooxc yp cipyc:c :c-c x/ipc:, cic:, ArIsLoLIe, Metcphsics,
1oq;uo-b.
q6
CI. rede, LIe |word cipyc:c| Lends generuIIy Lo be used by ArIsLoLIe Ior doIngs,
LIIngs someLIIng does, IIke pusIIng someLIIng, meILIng someLIIng, reudIng u book, cuL-
LIng u Lree, puzzIIng over someLIIng, seeIng someLIIng, und LIe IIke. Hence IL Is uIso Lruns-
IuLed us 'ucLIvILy,` ArIsLoLIe's NoLIon oI PoLenLIuIILy In Metcphsics 6, p. 181.
1oo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
.q. The Meguriuns: Aristotle's urgoment Ior potency in uddi-
tion to uctoulity
n Metcphsics X., ArIsLoLIe presenLs u seL oI urgumenLs uguInsL LIe
Mcycp:xo/, u scIooI oI pIIIosopIers wIo cIuImed LIuL -ci cicpy ioi
oicc0c:, -ci oc cicpy o oicc0c:.
q;
WIy does Ie InLroduce un enLIre
cIupLer oI Book X Lo reIuLe LIe docLrIne oI LIIs scIooI? CIurIoLLe WILL
expIuIns ArIsLoLIe`s InLenLIon us IoIIows:
ArIsLoLIe does noL IIndLIe MegurIunposILIonIudIcrous, becuuse
IL resembIes IIs own In cerLuIn respecLs. BoLI ArIsLoLIe und
LIe MegurIuns ussIgn onLoIogIcuI prIorILy Lo ucLuuIILy In reIuLIon
Lo duncmis. YeL, ArIsLoLIe clso wunLs Lo muInLuIn, uguInsL LIe
MegurIuns, LIuL powers exIsL even wIen LIey ure noL ucLIve or
ucLuuI... |buL| Ie needs Lo expIuIn wIuL Is wrong wILI LIeIr vIew
wILIouL compromIsIng IIs own posILIon LIuL ucLuuIILy Is prIor
Lo duncmis.
q8
WILL IdenLIIIes LIree dIsLIncL urgumenLs In X.: LIe IIrsL purL oI LIe
cIupLer (1oq6bzq-u1o) conLuIns Lwo urgumenLs, wIIcI sIe IdenLIIIes us
LIe 'TecIne ArgumenL` und LIe 'PercepLIon ArgumenL.` TIe IIrsL oI LIese
Iocuses on ugenL powers, In LIIs cuse Iouse-buIIdIng, und urgues LIuL LIe
MegurIun posILs LIe possessIon und Ioss oI LIe cupucILy Ior Iouse buIId-
Ing wILIouL provIdIng un expIunuLIon Ior LIIs cIunge.
qq
TIe 'PercepLIon
ArgumenL,` on LIe oLIer Iund, urgues LIuL LIe MegurIun uccounL oI per-
q;
Metcphsics, 1oq6bzo.
q8
WILL, Wcs oj ein, p. z.
qq
bId.
1o1
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
cepLuuI quuIILIes equuLes LIeIr beIng percepLIbIe wILI LIeIr beIng ucLuuIIy
perceIved. BuL LIIs Is u kInd oI ProLugoreun reIuLIvIsm LIuL ougIL Lo be
rejecLed.
1oo
InuIIy, In LIe second purL oI LIe cIupLer (1oq;u1o-zq), Ie In-
Lroduces wIuL WILL cuIIs LIe 'mmobIIILy ArgumenL,` wIIcI urgues LIuL LIe
MegurIun posILIon eIImInuLes uII movemenL und cIunge, |concIudIng| very
broudIy wILI LIe cIurge LIuL LIe MegurIuns deny LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween
duncmis und ucLuuIILy uILogeLIer.
1o1
TIe IIrsL urgumenL, LIe 'TecIne ArgumenL,` Is InLeresLIng Ior ILs reIu-
LIonsIIpwILIcuusuIILy. ArIsLoLIe sLuLes LIuL, II we IoIIowLIe MegurIunposI-
LIon,-ci nccp-c:, o_ c(c: -i -_ipi. BuL LIen, Iowcun LIe Iouse buIIder
buIId uguIn? n:i o c0, oxooopcc: n, c[i,
1oz
TIe MegurIuns ure
usserLIng LIuL u ruLIonuI cupucILy, I.e. LIe urL oI Iouse-buIIdIng, cun uppeur
wILIouL uny cuuse oI ILs presence In LIe urLIsL.
1o
BuL LIIs Is ImpossIbIe.
PoLency, LIen, musL be usserLed Lo be, even II IL Is noL ucLuuI, so LIuL we
cun expIuIn Iow un urL (or uny oLIer ucLIve poLency, sucI us u rock`s ubIIILy
Lo IuII) cun be exercIsed, despILe noL beIng exercIsed In every momenL. To
1oo
bId.
1o1
bId. Verbeke consIders Lo LIe MegurIuns Lo Iuve upIeId u posILIon sIIgILIy uL vurI-
unce wILILIe rudIcuI posILIonuLLrIbuLedLo LIemIere. TIeIr urgumenL, Ie cIuIms, revoIves
uround LIe unknowubIIILy oI LIuL wIIcI Is In poLency: In LIeIr vIew, IL Is ImpossIbIe Lo
sIow LIe presence oI uny poLency wILIouL LIe process oI ucLuuIIzuLIon, Verbeke, TIe
MeunIng oI PoLency In ArIsLoLIe, p. 66. WIuL Is uL sLuke Is LIe ImpossIbIIILy oI LIe deduc-
LIon oI LIe presence oI u prIor poLenLIuIILy on LIe busIs oI u gIven ucLuuIIzuLIon, und noL
LIe more rudIcuI posILIon LIuL poLency sImpIy does noL exIsL wIen noL ucLuuIIzed.
1oz
Metcphsics, 1oq6b-q.
1o
n reIuLIon Lo LIIs Issue, Verbeke poInLs ouL LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s unswer Lo LIIs MegurIun
posILIon Is cIoseIy reIuLed Lo cerLuIn busIc uspecLs oI IIs pIIIosopIIcuI sysLem. A IubIL
|sucI us LIe cupucILy Lo buIId Iouses| Is noL someLIIng LIuL suddenIy urIses und LIen uILer
u wIIIe LoLuIIy dIsuppeurs. As LIe resuIL oI prevIous ucLIons, und IuvIng been ucquIred
gruduuIIy, IL Is cIurucLerIzed by ILs sLubIIILy und LIe compeLence oI ILs perIormunces... So
LIe unswer gIven by ArIsLoLIe Lo LIe MegurIuns Is LIuL LIe cupucILy oI u cruILsmun neILIer
suddenIy urIses nor suddenIy dIsuppeurs, TIe MeunIng oI PoLency In ArIsLoLIe, p. 6.
1oz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
deny LIe reuIILy oI poLency Is Lo IuII InLo unreuson, by denyIng cuusuIILy.
1oq
TIe need Ior u cuuse Ior cIunge Is ImporLunL Ior c:,, sInce wILIouL c:,
us cuuse oI u deIInILIve kInd oI cIunge, LIere wouId be no expIunuLIon Ior
LIe purLIcuIur kInd oI cIunges LIuL u gIven mobIIe beIng reuIIy undergoes
'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL.` We wIII see Iow LIIs InIIuences ArIsLoLIe`s
urgumenL Ior LIe exIsLence oI nuLuruI LeIeoIogy IuLer, In CIupLer q.
TIe LIIrd urgumenL, LIe 'mmobIIILy ArgumenL,` Is sImIIur Lo urgumenLs
LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius uIreudy mude uguInsL PurmenIdes, InsoIur us IL depends
on cIuImIng LIuL LIe denIuI oI cIunge Is u cIeur ubsurdILy. NeverLIeIess, us
WILL noLes, LIe IundumenLuI cIurge Iere Is noL so mucI LIuL LIe MegurIuns
ure denyIng cIunge, buL ruLIer LIuL LIey musL udmIL u dIsLIncLIon beLween
ucLuuIILy und poLency, In order noL Lo IuII InLo LIe PurmenIdeun Lrup: c-:
c oic-oi - cc-cppioi ooico,, - y:yicioi oic-oi cc-c: ycic0c:...
c-c o-o: o yo: c(c:poc: xc x/ipc:i xc yicc:i.
1o
BuL Lo uvoId LIIs Lrup,
poLency und ucLuuIILy musL be dIsLIncL, und boLI musL be wuys oI 'beIng,`
sInce poLency musL be reuI II IL Is Lo permIL und expIuIn cIunge In LIe reuI.
TIus, LIe 'mmobIIILy ArgumenL` poInLs Lo poLency specIIIcuIIy us un us-
pecL oI LIe reuI (wIIcI PurmenIdes dId noL dIsLInguIsI properIy Irom LIe
noeLIc), compIemenLury Lo und presenL wILIIn LIuL wIIcI Is ucLuuI.
1oq
ArIsLoLIe exLends LIIs urgumenL Lo poLency IngeneruI, noL jusL ruLIonuI poLencIes. Ver-
beke sLuLes LIuL ArIsLoLIe concIudes LIuL LIe deveIopmenL oI u beIng Is noL Irom mere ub-
sence Lo LIe presence oI un ucL, buL Irom u poLenLIuI presence Lo un ucLuuI presence. I LIe
evoIuLIon were Irom mere non-beIng Lo ucLuuIIzuLIon, IL wouId be Iurd Lo expIuIn wIy u
process oI becomIng Is possIbIe In some cuses und noL In oLIers, IbId., p. ;.
1o
Metcphsics, 1oq;u1o-1.
1o
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
.q. Aristotle's dilocidution oI the notions oI potency und uct
PoLency und ucL, LIen, ure Lwo wuys oI speukIng ubouL beIng quc beIng.
n un ImporLunL pussuge oI LIe MeLupIysIcs, ArIsLoLIe sLuLes: c-: - cic:
cpcic: xc - i - ci ooic: p-i - o' ci-cc_c -i cppioi -o-oi.
1o6
TIIs wuy oI suyIng LIuL someLIIng Is u beIng Is LrunsversuI Lo LIe unuIysIs
oI beIng vIu LIe cuLegorIes; u beIng muy vuIIdIy be suId Lo be In poLency or
In ucL In uny oI LIe cuLegorIes In wIIcI moLIon occurs. n LIe cuLegory oI
subsLunce, u boy muy be suId Lo be In poLency Lo be u mun (Ior LIe mun Ius
IIs Iorm IuIIy)
1o;
; In LIe cuLegory oI quuIILy, LIe boy muy be suId Lo be In
poLency Lo beIng sunburned becuuse Ie Is IIgIL-skInned; In LIe cuLegory oI
pIuce, Ie muy be suId Lo be ucLuuIIy uL LIe beucI.
Becuuse LIey ure wuys oI speukIng ubouL beIng, LIe Lerms 'poLency` und
'ucL` ure, sLrIcLIy speukIng, IndeIInubIe. TIey ure umong LIe prImury no-
1o6
Metcphsics, 1o1;u-bz.
1o;
'Z i xc oc yc, np-oi ci -: - - ycicc: c-cpc - coc: xc - oc np-cpc
|ooi ip nc:o, xc i0pono, cnpc-o, - ci yp op c_c: - coo, - o' o, Metcphsics,
1oouq-;. WILL usks, Isn`L u buby uIreudy ucLuuIIy u Iumun beIng? Her response Is LIuL
n Metcphsics X, cIupLer 8, ArIsLoLIe conLrusLs u mun, wIo uIreudy Ius LIe Iorm, wILI
u boy, wIo does noL (1oouq-;). BeIng Iumun udmILs oI degrees, und ArIsLoLIe`s noLIon oI
beIng XpoLenLIuIIy uIIows Ior dIIIerenL degrees oI beIng someLIIng, WILL, Wcs oj ein,
p. . suggesL LIuL WILL`s IormuIuLIon Is IncompIeLe: Irom LIe perspecLIve oI cuLegorIuI
beIng, LIe buby is u Iumun subsLunce, In u sense LIuL does noL udmIL oI degrees, wIereus
IromLIe perspecLIve oI poLency und ucL, LIere ure degrees oI reuIIzuLIonoI ucL. One cunsuy
LIuL LIe buby Is In poLency Lo beIng u mun, Ior Ie Ius noL yeL deveIoped LIe IuII ucLuuIILy
LIuL cIurucLerIzed LIe grown mun. BuL subsLunce, per se, does noL udmIL oI degrees; vIu
LIe Iuw oI ExcIuded MIddIe, u beIng eILIer Is or Is noL u Iumun beIng, Ience IL Is sLrIcLIy
IncorrecL Lo suy LIuL beIng Iumun udmILs oI degrees, us does WILL.
Kosmun puLs LIe poInL us IoIIows: TIe ucLIvILy oI beIng u Iumun beIng, Ior exumpIe, Is
IuIIy reuIIzed by uny IndIvIduuI Iumun beIng uL uII, sImpIy by vIrLue oI ILs beIng Iumun...
|WIIIe| u person muy noL even Iuve ucLuuIIzed LIe rude poLenLIuIILIes Ior deveIoped Iorms
oI dIsposILIon cIurucLerIsLIc oI beIng Iumun, muy noL yeL, Ior exumpIe, Iuve Ieurned Lo
speuk. BuL wIuL LIIs IucL sIows Is LIuL uILIougI subsLunces ure uIwuys ucLIveIy beIng wIuL
LIey ure, wIuL LIey ure need noL be uny sucI sImpIe und IuIIy reuIIzed ucLIvILy, Kosmun,
TIe AcLIvILy oI BeIng In ArIsLoLIe's Metcphsics, pp. zo;-zoq.
1oq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIons LIuL we grusp ImmedIuLeIy upon knowIng beIng, und LIus Iuve no
'p:c,` or deIInILIon In LIe sLrIcL sense (LIere beIng Lrue deIInILIons onIy
oI subsLunce, cI. Metcphsics, 1o1u1-1). NeverLIeIess, we cun gIve In-
dIcuLIve expIunuLIons, sucI LIuL we ure ubIe Lo know LIe condILIons under
wIIcI u beIng Is suId Lo be In poLency or In ucL.
1o8
Act
AcL, or cicpy:c, Is prImurIIy suId Lo be LIe exIsLence oI LIe LIIng.
1oq
BuL, sInce someLIIng cun be suId Lo np_c: even wIen IL Ius noL yeL IuIIy
ucIIeved(or beengIven) ILs Iorm, ArIsLoLIe sLuLes LIuL o-o, cncp yoci
ooic: yoci oc ooic: ooi ci - ( pi xc ci - -i cc:ci, -:
c:pc0cp i.
11o
TIe besL LIuL cun be done Is Lo IndIcuLe cuses, und LIe
reuder, by InducLIon, cun come Lo un undersLundIng oI wIuL Is IndIcuLed
by LIe Lerm cicpy:c.
111
He gIves LIe IoIIowIng IIve cuses us IIIusLruLIng ucL
In compurIson wILI poLency:
... , - oxooooi np, - oxooo:xi, xc - cpypyop, np - xc0cooi,
xc - pi np, - oi ci :i oc c_oi, xc - noxcxp:ioi cx -,
p, np, -i pi, xc - nc:pyccioi np - ipycc-oi. -c-p,
oc -, o:cop, 0c-p op cc-o cipyc:c op:cip 0-p oc
- ooic-i.
11z
1o8
ooi o' cn -i xc0' cxcc-c - ncyoy [ooc0c yc:i, xc o oc nci-, poi p-ci
xc - ioyoi coiopi, Metcphsics, 1oq8u-b1.
1oq
cc-: op cipyc:c - np_c:i - npyc, Metcphsics, 1oq8uz.
11o
Metcphsics, 1oq8u-q.
111
ooi o' cn -i xc0' cxcc-c - ncyoy [ooc0c yc:i, xc o oc nci-, poi p-ci
xc - ioyoi coiopi, Metcphsics, 1oq8u-b1.
11z
Metcphsics, 1oq8b1-b;. SLuLes Owens, LIIs procedure In deLermInIng ucL und po-
Lency Is uccordIng Lo ArIsLoLIe`s usuuI empIrIcuI munner. TIe InsLunces oI ucL ure poInLed
1o
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
TIe Lerm cipyc:c Is derIved Irom 'cpyoi` (work),
11
und LIus IndIcuLes
LIe connecLIon oI cipyc:c wILI moLIon, u sense wIIcI Is reLuIned In LIe
(uLInuLe) EngIIsI Lerm 'ucL.`
11q
AcL Is uIso Lermed 'ci-cc_cc,` und LIIs
LermIs used In u neurIy synonymous IusIIon wILI cipyc:c.
11
NeverLIeIess,
ci-cc_cc Is derIved Irom LIe Lerm '-o,` (IuIIIIImenL, compIeLIon),
116
und
LIus empIusIs LIe sense oI 'perIecLIon,` 'Iuck oI poLency` or 'IuII reuIness.`
11;
Yepes (IoIIowIng MonIIor, CIung-Hwun, TrepunIer, BonILz unde BIond
118
)
IdenLIIIes u LIIrd sense oI cipyc:c or ucL, In uddILIon Lo LIe senses uIreudy
ouL In conLrusL Lo LIe InsLunces oI LIe correspondIng poLency. NeILIer Is deduced Irom
LIe oLIer. DespILe LIe exLernuI uppeurunce oI LIe meLIod, no uLLempL Is mude Lo deIIne
ucL In Lerms oI poLency. BoLI ure IndIcuLed sImpIy by InducLIon, The Doctrine oj ein
in the Aristotelicn `Metcphsics', p. qoq.
11
IddeII und ScoLL, An Intermedicte Greel-Enlish Lexicon, enLry Ior cpyoi.
11q
ArIsLoLIe expIIcILIy connecLs ucL wILI moLIon, by IndIcuLIng LIuL LIe presence oI mo-
LIon Is precIseIy u sIgn oI u LIIng`s beIng In ucL, versus mereIy exIsLIng uL LIe noeLIc IeveI:
cpo0c o cipyc:c -oioc, np, -i ci-c_c:ci coi-:0cip, xc cn - c cx -i x:ipccoi
:c-c ooxc yp cipyc:c :c-c x/ipc:, cic:, Metcphsics, 1oq;uo-b.
11
ndeed, In Book X oI LIe Metcphsics, Ie uses LIe expressIons oic:, xc
cipyc:c und - oc xc- oic:i xc ci-c_c:ci wILIIn LIe sume purugrupI, wIere LIey
cIeurIy IndIcuLe LIe sume busIc puIr oI noLIons; cI. Metcphsics, 1oqbII.
116
IbId., enLry Ior -o,. Owens noLes, Iowever, LIuL LIe orIgInuI ArIsLoLeIIun LermIn LIe
IILerury works seems Lo Iuve been cioc_c:c, meunIng 'permunence`, Owens, The Doc-
trine oj ein in the Aristotelicn `Metcphsics', qoq n. 1q.
11;
AccordIng Lo CIung-Hwun, LIe Lerm cipyc:c Is used noL onIy In reIerence Lo move-
menL, buL uIso Lo sIgnIIy oLIer LIIngs, I.e. besIdes LIIs 'kIneLIc` meunIng IL Ius sLIII oLIer
meunIngs. |NeverLIeIess|, LIe 'kIneLIc` meunIng Is ILs orIgInuI meunIng, und LIe LermorIg-
InuIIy sIgnIIIes movemenL... ILs oLIer meunIngs ure derIvuLIve, CIung-Hwun, TIe ReIu-
LIon beLween LIe Terms cipyc:c und ci-c_c:c In LIe PIIIosopIy oI ArIsLoLIe, p. 1. On
LIe oLIer Iund, LIe Lerm ci-c_c:c Ius u 'sLuLIc' meunIng und sIgnIIIes LIuL In wIIcI u
process LermInuLes, I.e. LIe sLuLe oI IuvIng urrIved uL LIe end, or LIuL mode oI exIsLence
wIIcI Is opposILe Lo poLenLIuIILy, numeIy, ucLuuIILy, IbId., p. 1.
Yepes summurIzes LIe stctus qucestionis us IoIIows: Enereic sIgnIIIc prImero eI mo-
vImIenLo, y Iuego pus u uIudIr uI ucLo en Lodu su pIenILud de senLIdos, y uI ucLo en generuI.
Como yu seuI BonILz, entelecheic Iu seguIdo eI ILInerurIo conLrurIo: desde Iu desIgnu-
cIn deI esLudo de pIenILud de ser propIo de Iu ousc, u Iuerzu de uso y por exLensIn, Iu
pusudo u sIgnIIIcur Ios resLunLos senLIdos de ucLo (operucIn, linesis), y por eIIo en mu-
cIos pusujes deI Corpus ArIsLoLeIIcumsusLILuye u Iu puIubru enereicy usImIIu sus mIsmos
sIgnIIIcudos, Yepes, os senLIdos deI ucLo en ArIsLLeIes, pug. o.
118
IbId., p. qqq.
1o6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IdenLIIIed, oI moLIon und oI perIecLIon. TIIs Is LIe sense oI operuLIon or
np_:,, wIIcI InvoIves un overcomIng oI LIe dIvIsIon beLween ucL us mo-
LIon und ucL us perIecLIon: cipyc:c Is LIuL moLIon In wIIcI ILs proper end Is
uIreudy uccompIIsIed: pruxIs perIecLus son uqueIIus en Ius que Iuy sImuI-
LuneIdud compIeLu enLre Iu uccIn y eI IIn: 'uno pIensu y Iu pensudo`. Son
Ius operucIones cognoscILIvus.
11q
AcL In LIIs LIIrd sense uIIows ArIsLoLIe Lo
expIuIn Iow LIe mInd IuncLIons: LIe conLenL oI LIInkIng Is cuIIed 'ucL,` In-
deed, Ie sLuLes LIuL ipc:, cipyc:c.
1zo
AcL In LIIs sense Is uIso uppIIcubIe
Lo eLernuI LIIngs, In purLIcuIur God, Ior wIom su ucLo es LumbIn pIucer,
enLendImIenLo que se enLIende u sI mIsmo, donde se IdenLIIIcun enLendI-
mIenLo e InLeIIgIbIe, 'y LIene vIdu, pues eI ucLo deI enLendImIenLo es vIdu, y
EI es ucLo,` 'vIdu nobIIisImu y eLernu.`
1z1
TIIs sense oI 'ucL` Is perIups uIso
ILs mosL meLupIysIcuI, InsoIur us cipyc:c In LIIs sense Is LIuL wIIcI ArIsLo-
LIe uses Lo descrIbe LIe Inner IIIe oI God, wIo Is pure ucL, LIInkIng HImseII
eLernuIIy, Indeed, ouLsIde oI LIme.
Potency
PoLency, or 'oic:,,` on LIe oLIer Iund, uIso Ius u number oI possIbIe
uses, one reIerrIng Lo LIe noeLIc or IogIcuI sense oI beIng, und severuI oI
wIIcI reIer Lo reuI beIng. n LIe IogIcuI sense, LIe purLIcIpIuI Iorm oic-oi
Is IrequenLIy used Lo IndIcuLe wIuL Is possIbIe: cc-: oc ooic-i -o-o ci
np( cipyc:c o yc-c: c_c:i -i oic:i, o0ci cc-c: oic-oi.
1zz
TIus, IL
11q
IbId., p. o.
1zo
Metcphsics, 1o1uo.
1z1
Yepes, os senLIdos deI ucLo en ArIsLLeIes, p. 1o.
1zz
Metcphsics, 1oq;uzq-z.
1o;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
Is cerLuInIy possIbIe LIuL LIere be un equIne unImuI wILI u sIngIe Iorn, sInce
noLIIng ImpossIbIe IoIIows Irom supposIng sucI u creuLure Lo be In ucL.
BrenLuno empIusIzes LIuL LIere Is uIso u 'reuI` sense oI ooic-i, meunIng
LIuL wIIcI exIsLs In poLency, us opposed LIuL wIIcI Is mereIy IogIcuIIy non-
conLrudIcLory.
1z
TIe nomInuI Iorm'oic:,` Ius severuI dIsLIncL meunIngs, eucI oI wIIcI
Is undersLundubIe onIy vIu LIe noLIonoI ucLuuIILy.
1zq
AccordIng Lo ArIsLoLIe,
LIe prImury or busIc meunIng Is us p_ c-c[o, ci o.
1z
TIIs
deIInILIon IIdes Lwo senses, LIe IIrsL oI wIIcI Is LIuL oI un ucLIve 'power`
presenL In un ugenL wIIcI mukes IL ubIe Lo eIIecL cIunge In unoLIer beIng,
sucI us IeuL und LIe urL oI buIIdIng.
1z6
A second, cIoseIy reIuLed sense Is
LIuL oI u pussIve power, I.e. u poLency Lo be ucLed upon, by unoLIer beIng or
by ILseII quc oLIer.
1z;
WILL noLes LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s dIscussIon oI ugenL und
pussIve powers sLrongIy suggesLs LIey cun be gIven u dIsposILIonuI unuI-
ysIs... |LIese powers| ure dIsposILIons LIuL u subsLunce Ius Lo ucL upon
unoLIer subsLunce or Lo be ucLed upon by unoLIer subsLunce.
1z8
'DIspo-
sILIon,` In LIIs sense, Ius u necessILuLIng cIurucLer: wIen u non-ruLIonuI
1z
BrenLuno, Dn the Setercl Senses oj ein in Aristotle, p. z8.
1zq
CI. BrenLuno, PoLenLIuI beIng cunnoL be deIIned excepL wILI LIe uId oI LIe concepL oI
ucLuuIILy, Ior LIe IuLLer Is prIor In boLI concepL und subsLunce, us we ure LoId In Met. X.8,
Dn the Setercl Senses oj ein in Aristotle, p. zq. Verbeke IurLIer noLes LIuL wIuL Is In
poLency In u gIven beIng Is onIy knowubIe LIrougI ucLuuIILy: As Ior knowIng wIeLIer u
purLIcuIur poLency Is presenL or noL, one Ius Lo reIy on ILs ucLuuIIzuLIon, Verbeke, TIe
MeunIng oI PoLency In ArIsLoLIe, p. ;; LIIs knowIedge, IurLIer, Is noL dIrecL knowIedge,
buL by unuIogy: SInce poLency Is noL dIrecLIy observubIe, IL musL be known In un unuIog-
IcuI wuy, IbId., p. ;.
1z
Metcphsics, 1oq6u1o-11.
1z6
Metcphsics, 1oq6uz-z;.
1z;
ci yp -o nc0ci cc- oic:,, ci c- - nc_oi-: p_ c-c[o, nc0p-:x, n oo
o, Metcphsics, 1oq6u11-1.
1z8
WILL, Wcs oj ein, p. qz.
1o8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ugenL und puLIenL meeL under LIe proper condILIons, LIe ugenL must ucL
upon LIe puLIenL, und LIe puLIenL must be ucLuuIIzed In LIe correspondIng
wuy.
1zq
or ruLIonuI powers, sucI us LIe oic:, oI Iouse-buIIdIng, LIe con-
dILIons Ior LIe necessILy oI ucLuuIIzuLIon ure more compIex, InvoIvIng LIe
pc(:, oI LIe ruLIonuI beIng. wIII dIscuss LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween ruLIonuI
und non-ruLIonuI powers In greuLer depLI beIow.
AccordIng Lo Kosmun und WILL, LIere Is u IInuI sense oI oic:,, wIIcI
WILL Lerms LIe 'onLoIogIcuI sense.`
1o
n ArIsLoLIe`s IIsL oI IIve puruIIeI cuses
oI ucLuuIILy und poLency, cILed ubove, WILL noLes LIuL LIey ure noL sImpIy
u IIsLIng oI ucLIve und pussIve powers, buL ruLIer u seL oI exumpIes oI Lwo
dIIIerenL wuys oI beIng: beIng In ucLuuIILy und beIng In poLency. urLIer-
more, In Metcphsics XArIsLoLIe dIIIerenLIuLes beLween Lwo busIc meun-
Ings oI duncmis-cuusuI power und poLency.
11
or InsLunce, In regurds
Lo LIe Iouse-buIIdIng oic:,, uILIougI |IL| Is un ugenL power, ArIsLoLIe Is
Iere usIng IL Lo exempIIIy Lwo wuys oI beIng someLIIng. WIen ucLIve, LIe
Iouse-buIIdIng power Is ucLuuIIy; wIen InucLIve, IL Is poLenLIuIIy.
1z
SImI-
IurIy, In LIIs 'onLoIogIcuI` sense, u beIng Is suId Lo be 'In poLency` (ooic:)
In LIe pussIve sense wIen IL cun be brougIL InLo ucLuuI beIng vIu u sIngIe
moLIon or cIunge Irom un ugenL, provIded LIuL noLIIng exLernuI Impedes.
Kosmun sLuLes LIuL LIIs sense oI oic:, poInLs Lo u deeper sLrucLuruI Ieu-
Lure oI beIng, numeIy LIe ubIIILy Lo uppeur uL LImes us InucLIve yeL exIs-
1zq
-, ci -o:c-c, ooic:, iyxp, -ci , oici-c: - no:p-:xi xc - nc0p-:xi npc:oc:,
- ci no:ci - oc nc_c:i, Metcphsics, 1oq8u-6.
1o
WILL, Wcs oj ein, p. ;z. Kosmun does noL gIve u nume Lo LIIs sense oI oic:,,
uILIougI Ie Loo IdenLIIIes IL us dIsLIncL; cI. Kosmun, TIe AcLIvILy oI BeIng In ArIsLoLIe's
Metcphsics, p. zoq.
11
WILL, Wcs oj ein, p. ;z.
1z
IbId., p. q;.
1oq
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
LenL, - c_c:i cicpyci o, In LIe words oI ArIsLoLIe, und uL oLIer LImes
us - cicpyci.
1
BrenLuno, wrILIng In LIe 1qLI cenLury, noLes LIuL ArIsLoLIe IImseII gIves
u IIsLIng oI LIe dIIIerenL 'modes` In wIIcI LIe Lerm oic:, cun be used. No
'onLoIogIcuI` mode (In WILL`s or Kosmun`s sense) Is Iound umong LIem,
1q
buL neverLIeIess, BrenLuno speuks oI LIe sume 'wuys oI beIng` LIuL Kos-
mun und WILL IIgIIIgIL, wIIIe usIng LIe LermInoIogy ArIsLoLIe Ius uIreudy
provIded: ooic: i und cipyc: i.
1
BeIng In poLency Is LIus, uccordIng
Lo BrenLuno, u specIes oI reuI beIng: despILe LIe IucL LIuL u LIIng properIy
speukIng Ius non-beIng, In u munner oI speukIng |IL| exIsLs InsoIur us IL
Is poLenLIuIIy, und IL Is LIIs wIIcI Ieuds |ArIsLoLIe| Lo u specIuI wIde sense
oI reuI beIng, wIIcI comprIses us weII LIuL wIIcI poLenLIuIIy Is.
16
n LIIs
sense c:, Is un InIerenL power (oic:,) wIIcI cun druw someLIIng Irom
ooic: i InLo cipyc: i: someLIIng Is poLenLIuI LIrougI nuLure II IL cun
be Ieud Lo ucLuuIILy by ILs pecuIIur ucLIve prIncIpIe or ILs InIerenL nuLuruI
power, provIded onIy LIuL no exLernuI IIndrunce sLunds In LIe wuy.
1;
rede, on LIe oLIer Iund, denIes LIuL ArIsLoLIe dIsLInguIsIes u sepuruLe
onLoIogIcuI sense oI oic:,. He usserLs LIuL LIe cIuIm... Is noL LIuL besIdes
oic:, InILs busIc sense |oI unorIgInuLIve source oI cIunge InunoLIer LIIng
or In LIe LIIng ILseII quc oLIer (Metcphsics 1oq611-1z)| LIere Is unoLIer
kInd oI oic:,, numeIy, poLenLIuIILy. TIe cIuImIs ruLIer LIuL oic:, In LIe
1
Kosmun, TIe AcLIvILy oI BeIng In ArIsLoLIe's Metcphsics, p. zoq.
1q
BrenLuno, Dnthe Setercl Senses oj eininAristotle, p. 1; cI. Metcphsics, 1o1qu1-
.
1
IbId., p. q.
16
IbId., p. z8.
1;
IbId., p. q.
11o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
sense oI 'poLenLIuIILy` covers oic:, In LIe busIc sense, buL exLends Lo oLIer
kInds oI oic:,.
18
n rede`s esLImuLIon, LIere Is no LexLuuI wurrunL Ior
posLuIuLIng poLenLIuIILy us u IurLIer kIndoI oic:,, sucIus LIe 'onLoIogIcuI`
sense oI WILL. WIIIe ArIsLoLIe sLuLes uL Metcphsics X, 1oq8uz;-zq LIuL
yoci ooic-i... xc c-po, (I.e. In uddILIon Lo ILs busIc sense); In rede`s
reudIng oI LIIs pussuge LIere Is no quesLIonoI u IurLIer kIndoI oic:, beIng
spoken oI, buL ruLIer LIe kInds oI oic:, uIreudy dIsLInguIsIed by ArIsLoLIe
buL Luken In u cerLuIn wuy, numeIy us correspondIng unuIogousIy Lo un
upproprIuLe kInd oI ucLuuIILy und us, LIus conLrusLed, conIerrIng u degree
oI reuIILy,
1q
n my opInIon, uII oI LIese uuLIors ure In ugreemenL on LIe Iundumen-
LuI poInL LIuL ArIsLoLIe dIsLInguIsIes ucLuuIILy Irom unoLIer wuy oI beIng,
one wIIcI sIures IeuLures wILI non-beIng-InsoIur us beIng Is prImurIIy
ucL-buL noneLIeIess Is LruIy reuI InsoIur us IL ccn come Lo be In ucL, gIven
LIe rIgIL condILIons. TIe dIsugreemenLs beLween LIe vurIous pIIIosopIers
IInge upon wIeLIer ArIsLoLIe dIsLInguIsIes LIIs kInd oI beIng by ussocIuL-
Ing IL wILIu dIsLIncL sense oI LIe Lermoic:, equIvuIenL Lo wIuL we nowcuII
'poLenLIuIILy.` TIIs Is u dIIIIcuIL und conLroverLed quesLIon, wIose unswer
IInuIIy Is oI IImILed ImporLunce. TIe more ImporLunL poInL, wIIcI uII oI LIe
pIIIosopIers InvoIved In LIe dIscussIon uppeur Lo udmIL, Is LIuL ArIsLoLIe
dIsLInguIsIes Lwo 'wuys oI beIng,` ooic: i und cipyc: i, und LIuL LIese
wuys oI beIng provIde ArIsLoLIe wILI u meuns oI respondIng Lo u wIde vu-
rIeLy oI probIems wIIcI were nopc: Ior eurIIer pIIIosopIers, sucI us Iow
18
rede, ArIsLoLIe's NoLIon oI PoLenLIuIILy In Metcphsics 6, p. 18q.
1q
IbId., p. 186.
111
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
moLIon Is possIbIe, or wIuL LIe prIncIpIe oI unILy In u composILe subsLunce
Is, or Iow one cun be In possessIon oI knowIedge wIIIe noL exercIsIng IL.
Rutionul und non-rutionul potencies
Asecond ImporLunL uspecL oI ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI oic:, Is LIuL LIere
ure boLI ruLIonuI und non-ruLIonuI poLencIes.
1qo
TIe Iormer poLencIes ure
cIurucLerIsLIc oI beIngs wILI InLeIIecL, und IncIude LIe poLencIes oI urL und
scIence. eurnIng un urL gIves u person more cupucILIes LIun Ie Iud be-
Iore; Ior InsLunce, LIe mun wIo beIore couId noL buIId u bouL ouL oI cerLuIn
muLerIuIs Is now, uILer IeurnIng LIe sIIpbuIIder`s urL, ubIe Lo Lurn LIe mu-
LerIuIs InLo u bouL In ucL. TIus, sInce LIe sIIpbuIIder`s urL Is u source oI
cIunge In unoLIer, IL meeLs LIe deIInILIon LIuL ArIsLoLIe seLs ouL Ior un uc-
LIve poLency. TIe medIcuI urL Is unoLIer exumpIe oI u ruLIonuI poLency. TIe
docLor, Iowever, need noL onIy ucL Lo cure oLIers, buL cun uIso cure IImseII.
NeverLIeIess, Ie Is noL curIng IImseII quc docLor, buL ruLIer quc puLIenL.
TIus, LIe medIcuI urL Is u source oI cIunge ci o.
ArIsLoLIe mukes severuI dIsLIncLIons beLween ruLIonuI und IrruLIonuI po-
LencIes. TIe IIrsL Is LIuL wILI ruLIonuI poLencIes, LIe Iorm oI LIe producL
1qo
nc o' c ci ci -o, _o:, cionp_ooc:i p_c -o:c-c:, c o' ci -o, c_o:, xc ci o_
xc -, o_, ci - yoi c_oi-:, ooi -: xc -i ooicoi c ci ccoi-c: oyo: c oc c- yoo
o: ncc: c -_ic: xc c nop-:xc cn:c-c: ooic:, cci p_c yp c-c[p-:xc cc:i ci
o, Metcphsics, 1oq6u-b. WILL poInLs ouL LIuL ArIsLoLIe does noL druw u rudIcuI
dIsLIncLIon beLween LIese Lwo Lypes oI ooic:,, unIIke muny oLIer pIIIosopIers. BoLI ure
powers Lo produce cIunge In unoLIer beIng or In LIe sume beIng quc oLIer; cI. WILL, Wcs
oj ein, p. q. ndeed, Iur Irom LukIng Ior grunLed LIIs common cIurucLerIsLIc, ArIsLo-
LIe`s urgumenL In Metcphsics X Is Lo ussImIIuLe ruLIonuI powers Lo nonruLIonuI powers
by IormuIuLIng u dIsposILIonuI unuIysIs oI LIem In cIupLer . TIere Ie mukes cIeur LIuL
boLI nonruLIonuI powers cnd ruLIonuI powers ure Lo be deIIned In Lerms oI LIeIr ucLIvuLIon
condILIons, IbId., p. 61.
11z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Is dIIIerenL Irom LIe Iorm oI LIe ugenL. As WILL puLs IL, Iouse buIIders
do noL buIId Iouse buIIders,
1q1
buL ruLIer Iouses. SecondIy, nonruLIonuI
powers ure 'deLermIned Lo one eIIecL,` us AquI-nus puLs IL,
1qz
wIereus ru-
LIonuI powers ure ubIe Lo produce conLrury eIIecLs, c-c: ci yp ncc: c
ci, no:p-:x, cxcic: oc -i cici-oi.
1q
TIIrdIy, ruLIonuI poLencIes ure Iound
onIy In 'ensouIed` beIngs (ci c_), wIereus non-ruLIonuI poLencIes ure
Iound boLI In non-en-souIed und ensouIed beIngs. TIIs Is becuuse LIe o_
oI LIe IuLLer kInd oI beIng muy IncIude u IIerurcIy oI powers, Irom LIe bu-
sIc IucuILy oI nourIsImenL, Lo movemenL In regurd Lo pIuce, sensuLIon, und
IInuIIy LIougIL (io,, LIe IIgIesL power In nuLuruI subsLunces).
1qq
RuLIo-
nuI poLencIes ure open Lo LIe producLIon oI conLrury eIIecLs becuuse, In u
sense, LIe sume uccounL Is oI boLI LIe Iorm und ILs prIvuLIon.
1q
SInce reu-
son cun consIder boLI LIe posILIve eIIecL (I.e. LIe uppIIcuLIon oI LIe Iorm Lo
LIe recepLIve muLLer) und LIe ubsence oI LIIs Iorm, LIe ruLIonuI beIng cun
ucL so us Lo ucIIeve eILIer oI LIese.
1q6
TIIs brIngs In LIe IourLI und IInuI
1q1
IbId., p. 6.
1qz
AquInus, In Metcphsic. IIb. X, IecL. z, q.
1q
Metcphsics, 1oq8uq.
1qq
Ti oc ooicoi -, o_, c c_0ccc: -o, ci np_ooc: ncc:, xc0ncp cnoci, -o, oc
-:ic, c-i, cio:, oc c ip. ooic:, o' cnoci 0pcn-:xi, pcx-:xi, cc0p-:xi, x:ip-:xi
xc- -noi, o:ciop-:xi. np_c: oc -o, ci o-o, - 0pcn-:xi ioi, c-po:, oc -o- -c xc -
cc0p-:xi. c oc - cc0p-:xi, xc - pcx-:xi pc(:, ci yp cn:0oc xc 0o, xc [opc:,,
- oc c ni-' c_ooc: ci yc -i cc0cco,, -i i o' cc0pc:, np_c:, -o- ooi -c xc
np xc - o -c xc onppi, o, oc -c-c, xc cn:0oc -o yp oo, pc(:, c-p... cio:, occ np,
-o-o:, np_c: xc - xc- -noi x:ip-:xi, c-po:, oc xc - o:ciop-:xi -c xc io,, ooi i0pno:,
xc c -: -o:o-oi c-cpi cc-:i xc -::-cpoi, Dn the Soul, q1quz-bzo.
1q
oc yo, c-, opo - npyc xc -i c-ppc:i, ni o_ cc-o,, Metcphsics,
1oq6b-q.
1q6
cnc oc - cici-c ox cyy:yic-c: ci - c-, o' cn:c-p oic:, - yoi c_c:i, xc
o_ x:icco, c_c: p_i, - ci y:c:ii yc:ci ioi no:c xc - 0cpci-:xi 0cp-p-c xc -
ox-:xi o_p-p-c, o' cn:c-oi o. yo, yp cc-:i oi ci, o_ oo, o, xc ci o_
c_c: x:icco,, p_i c-c o n -, c-, p_, x:icc: np, -c- coiccc o: - xc-
yoi ooic- -o, ico yoo ooic-o, no:c -ici-c : yp p_ ncp:_c-c:, - y, Metc-
phsics, 1oq6b1-zq.
11
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
dIIIerence beLween ruLIonuI und nonruLIonuI powers: ruLIonuI powers re-
quIre LIe InLervenLIon oI un uddILIonuI IucLor, cIoIce or desIre, In order Lo
be ucLIvuLed under LIe proper condILIons, wIereus Ior nonruLIonuI powers,
IL Is suIIIcIenL LIuL LIe correspondIng ucLIvuLIon condILIons be IuIIIIIed.
1q;
Two uspecLs oI ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI o_ us dIscussed Iere wIII be key
Lo IIs jusLIIIcuLIon oI LIe exIsLence oI c:,. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, LIose kInds
oI c:, wIIcI ure suId Lo be o_ conLuIn u IIerurcIy oI powers. TIIs
meuns LIuL Iorm us ucL Is ubIe Lo IosL u vurIeLy oI poLencIes, wILI LIe Iesser
poLencIes conLuIned 'vIrLuuIIy` wILIIn LIe IIgIer ones. wIII dIscuss LIIs
more In LIe IoIIowIng secLIon. SecondIy, LIe exIsLence oI powers wIIcI ure
open Lo LIe consIderuLIon und perIormunce oI opposILes Is someLIIng ub-
soIuLeIy unIque Lo ruLIonuI poLencIes. TIIs wIII be ImporLunL In ArIsLoLIe`s
demonsLruLIon oI cc:, oI u IIgIer order LIun LIe eIemenLs, by sIowIng
LIuL IIgIer cc:, ure needed Lo expIuIn LIe exIsLence oI ruLIonuI poLencIes,
sInce LIe sImpIe nuLures proposed by LIe oc:oyo: ure 'deLermIned Lo one
eIIecL.`
.q.q Iorm us uct und Iorm us potency
n CIupLer 1, noLed severuI cIurucLerIsLIcs oI LIe IormuI p_ oI u nuL-
uruI beIng. IrsL, LIe Iorm or coo,, consIdered us u 'purL` oI u mobIIe beIng,
Is LIe ucL oI LIe muLLer oI LIe subsLunce,
1q8
mukIng LIe IuLLer Lo be In ucLu-
uIILy wIuL, quc muLLer, IL onIy wus In poLency. SecondIy, LIe Iorm mukes
LIe nuLuruI beIng Lo be one beIng wILI u sIngIe uccounL or yo,, ruLIer
1q;
WILL, Wcs oj ein, p. 6.
1q8
CI. Metcphsics, 1oou1-1;.
11q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIun u 'Ieup` or sImpIe uggreguLIon: occ i o-o,, ' o_ , yooc
-:ic, ooi oi, -:, occ c-:y, ' ci-c_c:c xc c:, -:, cxc-p.
1qq
I-
nuIIy, LIe Iorm Is wIuL provIdes LIe 'wIuLness` oI LIe beIng: coo, oc yo
- - i cic: cxc-oo xc -i np-pi occi.
1o
TIe Iorm mukes u LIIng Lo be u
unIIIed subsLunce oI ILs gIven kInd.
How LIIs cun be so Is cIurIIIed II we Iook uL Iorm und muLLer Irom LIe
perspecLIve oI poLency und ucL; us ArIsLoLIe suys In Metcphsics V.6, c
o cc-/i, cncp yoci, - ci p - oc opp, xc - ci ooic: - oc cicpyc/,
ox-: nop/c o(c:ci i cic: - p-ocioi.
11
TIIs Is becuuse - ooic: xc -
cicpyc/ ci n, cc-:i.
1z
TIIs mIgIL seem Lo be beggIng LIe quesLIon, Ior we
couId usk In Lurn wIuL mukes poLency und ucL one? I we recuII, Iowever,
LIuL ucL Is u kInd oI 'doIng,`
1
LIe presence oI LIe ucL necessurIIy ImpIIes LIe
presence oI LIe ubIIILy Lo perIormLIuL ucL; sImIIurIy, LIe ubIIILy (or poLency)
Ior u purLIcuIur 'doIng` Is uIwuys presenL us LIe ubIIILy or poLency Lo perIorm
LIe correIuLe ucL. As Kosmun puLs IL,
L Is In LIIs sense In wIIcI oic:, und cipyc:c expIuIn LIe unILy
oI subsLunce... |Ior| ubIIILy und reuIIzuLIon ure LIe sume LIIng,
presenL LogeLIer In LIuL IuII exercIse oI beIng LIuL Is noLIIng
oLIer LIun LIe ucLIvILy oI LIe one enLILy LIuL boLI ure. And IL
Is In LIIs sense LIuL muLLer Is LIe ubIIILy oI wIIcI Iorm, us LIe
beIng wIIcI LIuL muLLer Is, Is noLIIng oLIer LIun LIe IuII reuI-
1qq
Metcphsics, 1oqquq-q. ArIsLoLIe Is Iere urguIng uguInsL LIe PyLIugoreun noLIon oI
subsLunce or occ us u number.
1o
Metcphsics, 1ozb1-z.
11
Metcphsics, 1oquzq-z.
1z
Metcphsics, 1oqbz1.
1
n u meLupIorIcuI sense, us dIscussed ubove.
11
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
IzuLIon.
1q
The 'scuIIolding' or iterutive stroctoring oI Iorms
NeverLIeIess, LIe coo, uIso Ius u sense In wIIcI IL cun be seen us u muLe-
rIuI p_. Once u subsLunce comes InLo beIng, IL brIngs wILI IL severuI kInds
oI poLency.
1
n LIe IIrsL pIuce, In vIrLue oI ILs coo,, u LIIng muy be
Ior oLIer kInds oI Iorm, wIIcI cun eILIer be superImposed upon LIe exIsL-
Ing Iorm (us In LIe cuse oI LIe bow sIuped Irom wood), or eIse LIe exIsLIng
Iorm cun be enLIreIy repIuced by LIe supervenIng Iorm (In LIe cuse oI Iood,
wIIcI Is poLenLIuIIy nourIsIIng due Lo ILs coo,, buL wIIcI becomes IIesI by
un ImposILIon oI u new Iorm).
16
As WIeIund puLs IL,
r den ReIIexIonscIurukLer des -BegrIIIs sprIcIL vor-uIIem
dIe LerIerburkeIL der -coo,-ReIuLIon. Wus unLer dem eInen
AspekL SLoII Ir eIne orm IsL (eLwu dus Erz Ir eIne SLuLue), IsL
unLer eInem underen AspekL orm eInes underen SLoIIes (uIso
dus Erz, InsoIern es uus den EIemenLen besLeIL).
1;
TIIs ILeruLIve reIuLIonsIIp beLween Iorm und muLLer Is prImurIIy suId oI
LIose beIngs wIIcI ure cc:, Ior onIy In LIese cuses Is LIere u Lrue sub-
sLunLIuI Iorm Imposed. n LIe cuse oI LIe bow or LIe Iouse, LIere Is onIy
1q
Kosmun, TIe AcLIvILy oI BeIng In ArIsLoLIe's Metcphsics, p. zo.
1
CI. Kosmun, DeLermInuLe beIng Is LIe condILIon oI LIe openness Lo IurLIer deLermI-
nuLIon LIuL uIone uIIows un enLILy Lo serve us u IogIcuI or onLIc subjecL, IbId., p. 1q;.
16
xc cncp - np cioi -o xcoc-o, o-o, ci - c(cioi xc i-: ci-cc_c ccpx
- cii c(p-:xi npocc0i-o, ooic: ccpx, cnopcci ci-cc_c cpxc, Dn Generction cnd
Corruption, zzu1o-1.
1;
WIeIund, Die cristotelische Phsil, p. zoq. CI. uIso ewIs, A TIIng und ILs MuLLer,
p. zq8.
116
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
reurrungemenL or cIunge oI sIupe; In LIe cuse oI LIe Iumun beIng, Iow-
ever, Ie Is LruIy composed oI IIesI us IIs muLLer; LIe IIesI, In Lurn, LruIy Ius
eurLI us ILs respecLIve muLLer.
18
nDnthe Soul ., ArIsLoLIe dIscusses LIe vurIous Lypes oI souI or 'o_,`
1q
sIowIng Iow LIe vurIous powers or IucuILIes ussocIuLed wILI u purLIcuIur
Lype oI souI ure reIuLed In u IIerurcIIcuI munner. JusL us In muLIemuLIcs,
cerLuIn Iorms ImpIy LIuL wIIcI Is IncIuded In LIe uccounL oI 'Iesser` Iorms.
or InsLunce, jusL us LIe uccounL oI 'quudrIIuLeruI` ImpIIes LIuL oI 'LrIungIe,`
In u sImIIur wuy LIe nuLrILIve IucuILy Is ImpIIed by LIe sensILIve.
16o
TIIs II-
18
VIgo (prIvuLe conversuLIon) poInLs ouL LIuL LIIs ILeruLIve sLrucLure oI muLLer und Iorm
In orgunIsms Is noL Lo be undersLood us u 'IuyerIng` oI more compIex upon sImpIer or-
gunIsms: u IIgIer unImuI, IIke u mun, Is noL composed oI sImpIer unImuIs. RuLIer, LIere
Is onIy one Iorm In u subsLunce, uILIougI LIe powers oI ILs muLerIuI purLs remuIn 'vIr-
LuuIIy` presenL, us ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL In Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z;bzz-o:
nc o cc- - ci ooic: - o cicpyc/ -i i-oi, cio_c-c: - :_0i-c cic/ no, xc cic:...
o-c o:ciooc:i oi cicpyc/ cncp - cc xc - coxi, o-c 0c/poi-c:, o-c 0-cpoi o- o
cc-c: yp oic:, c-i. CI. uIso GIII, In purL becuuse LIe preexIsLIng muLLer survIves
us u seL oI properLIes LIuL modIIy LIe IIgIer objecL, ArIsLoLIe suys LIuL LIe preexIsLIng
muLLer survIves In LIe producL poLenLIuIIy... BuL more ImporLunL, Ie suys LIuL LIe preex-
IsLIng muLLer survIves poLenLIuIIy becuuse LIose sume properLIes, wIIcI mereIy modIIy LIe
IIgIer compIex, ure suIIIcIenL Lo IdenLIIy u sImpIer sLuII |I.e. LIe eIemenLs|. TIus, wIen
LIe IIgIer objecL Is desLroyed, LIe sImpIer sLuII wIII be recreuLed us u sepuruLeIy exIsLIng
enLILy, IdenLIIIed by LIose properLIes, Aristotle on Substcnce, p. 1;. CI. uIso ewIs, wIo
mukes LIe IdenLIcuI poInL (ewIs, A TIIng und ILs MuLLer, p. z;q).
1q
ArIsLoLIe deIInes o_ us beIng LIe Iorm oI LIuL wIIcI Ius IIIe: yoci oi, p_i
c[i-c, -, cxco,, o:opc0c: - co_oi -o _oo - i. ncoic_, oc -o i cyoioo,
xi ci -: -o-oi cionp_ ioi, i c- cci, ooi io,, cc0pc:,, xipc:, xc c-c:, xc- -noi,
c-: xipc:, xc- -poi xc 0c:, -c xc c(pc:,, Dn the Soul, q1uzo-z. n LIIs sLudy, wIII
LreuL o_ us u subLype oI c:, (consIdered us LIe IormuI purL oI u nuLuruI subsLunce), I.e.
LIuL kInd oI c:, cIurucLerIsLIc oI beIngs wIIcI Iuve IIIe; o_ LIereby excIudes LIe sIm-
pIe bodIes (I.e. LIe eIemenLs) und Iomoeomerous subsLunces und IncIudes, In purLIcuIur,
orgunIsms.
16o
|ncpcnpco, o' c_c: - ncp -i c_p-oi xc - xc- o_i c yp ci - cc(, np_c:
ooic: - np-cpoi cn -c -i c_p-oi xc cn -i c_oi, ooi ci -c-pcyi ci -pyoioi, ci
cc0p-:x oc - 0pcn-:xi. c-c xc0' cxcc-oi p-p-oi, -, cxc-oo o_, ooi -, o-o xc -,
i0pnoo 0ppoo. o: -ic o' c-ci - cc(, o-o, c_ooc:, cxcn-oi. ico ci yp -o 0pcn-:xo
- cc0p-:xi ox cc-:i -o o' cc0p-:xo _opc-c: - 0pcn-:xi ci -o, o-o,. n:i o' ico ci
-o n-:xo -i oi cc0ccoi oocc np_c:, o' ico -i oi np_c: no yp -i
oi o-' :i o-' xoi c_ooc:i o-' c, cc0pc:i, Dn the Soul, q1qbz8-q1u;.
11;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
erurcIIcuI subordInuLIon oI powers begIns wILI LIe busIc powers oI growLI
und nuLrILIon, wIIcI beIong Lo sImpIe orgunIsms sucI us uIgue or IungI.
SucI orgunIsms ure ubIe Lo muInLuIn LIemseIves by consumIng nuLrIenLs,
undcunexLendLIemseIves spuLIuIIy vIu growLI(uILIougILIey cunnoL move
LIemseIves Irom pIuce Lo pIuce).
161
A IIgIer orgunIsm, wIose c:, Is en-
dowed wILI greuLer powers, musL Iuve uL IeusL LIese powers: LIus, LIe sen-
sILIve power depends on LIe nuLrILIve und growLI powers (Ior LIe sense
orgun musL be ubIe Lo grow und Lo muInLuIn ILseII vIu nuLrILIon).
16z
TIe uc-
counL or yo, oI IIgIer orgunIsms wIII LIus IncIude or ImpIy LIe uccounLs
oI Iower orgunIsms.
As noLed, LIe reIuLIonsIIp oI u IIgIer c:, Lo u Iower one Is noL u sIm-
pIe one. or u IIgIer c:, does noL 'IncIude` In u dIrecL munner Iower
cc:,: un unImuI Is noL u composILe oI sImpIer unImuIs. EucI c:, Is
uuLonomous wILIIn ILs genus, und Indeed (In u cerLuIn sense, LIougI noL
sLrIcLIy) Is u conLrury oI oLIer cc:,: i0pono, yp nnoo c-cpoi - coc: xc
-ici-c oi.
16
NeverLIeIess, u IIgIer c:, does IncIude cerLuIn oI
LIe powers oI LIe Iower Lypes oI souI. How does LIIs Iuppen? How Is IL
possIbIe Ior u IIgIer c:, Lo someIow IncIude Iower ones, wILIouL beIng
un uggIomeruLIon?
TIe unswer Lo LIIs quesLIon depends on LIe unuIysIs oI c:, us muLerIuI
prIncIpIe. or us we Iuve noLed, LIe exIsLence oI u gIven Iorm us ucL oI ILs
correspondIng muLLer creuLes LIe poLency Ior LIe resuILIng beIng Lo become
161
NuLrILIon ImpIIes LIe communIcuLIon oI Iorm, wIIcI wIII be dIscussed IurLIer beIow,
In secLIon z.q.q.
16z
bId.
16
Phsics, 186uz1.
118
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
muLLer Ior u IIgIer Iorm. JusL us eurLI Is muLLer Ior wood, wIIcI cun LIen
become muLLer Ior u bed or u bow, LIe orguns wIIcI provIde LIe powers
Ior Iower beIngs ure muLLer Ior LIe exIsLence In ucL oI IIgIer c:,. TIus,
LIe 'IIesI` oI sImpIe pIunLs sucI us uIgue, wIIcI Is cupubIe oI ImposIng ILs
Iormupon Iood und LIus InLegruLIng nuLrIenLs Lo ucIIeve muInLenunce und
growLI, Is muLLer Ior IIgIer Iorms, sucI us more compIex pIunLs. A IIower-
Ing pIunL, Ior InsLunce, musL Iuve LIIs 'pIunL IIesI` In order Lo consLrucL ILs
sLuIk, Ieuves und peLuIs. SImIIurIy, In sImpIe unImuIs sucI us gurden sIugs,
LIere Is LIe ubIIILy Ior IocomoLIon, vIu LIe conLrucLIon oI muscIes, u specIuI-
Ized kInd oI IIesI. HIgIer unImuIs, Ior exumpIe, LIose wIIcI IunL Ior LIeIr
prey, musL Iuve LIIs kInd oI IIesI In order Lo do so.
ArIsLoLIe mukes LIIs poInL In Dn the Soul .z, wIere Ie sLuLes: o-o
oc yic-c: xc xc- yoi cxc-oo yp ci-c_c:c ci - ooic: np_oi-: xc -
oxc noxci cyyicc0c:. -: ci oi ci-c_c: -, cc-: xc yo, -o oic:i
c_oi-o, cic: -o:o-oo, cicpi cx -o-oi.
16q
NoL jusL uny muLLer cun IosL u
souI: uIgue cunnoL come Lo be Irom IIre, u gurden sIug cunnoL come Lo be
IromIIesI wILIouL LIe cupucILy Ior muscuIur conLrucLIon, u IunLIng unImuI
cunnoL come Lo be Irom u body wILIouL LIe orguns Ior sIgIL und smeII. TIe
IIgIer c:, wIIcI mukes u woII Lo be wIuL IL Is, Is u prIncIpIe wIIcI gIves
u genuIne unILy Lo muLLer wIIcI, consIdered In ILseII und noL quc purL oI
unoLIer beIng, Ius ILs own c:,. cuII LIIs LIe 'scuIIoIdIng` oI IIgIer Iorms
upon Iower ones; LIIs pIenomenon wIII become ImporLunL Ior ArIsLoLIe Lo
deIend LIe reuIILy oI Iorms LIuL ure IIgIer LIun LIe sImpIe nuLures.
16q
Dn the Soul, q1quz-z8.
11q
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
TIIs Imuge oI LIe 'scuIIoIdIng` oI IIgIer Iorms upon Iower ones cun be
mIsundersLood. Iuve uIreudy poInLed ouL LIuL ArIsLoLIe does noL vIewIIv-
Ing subsLunces us uggIomeruLes oI sImpIer IIvIng subsLunces; u IIgIer unI-
muI IIke u Iorse Is noL un uggIomeruLe oI sImpIer unImuIs wILI Iower Lypes
oI souI. BuL LIere Is unoLIer possIbIe mIsundersLundIng, numeIy u muLerI-
uIIsL vIew wIereby LIe unImuI Is u consLrucLIon oI ILs muLerIuI purLs, wIIcI
conLrIbuLe LIeIr powers Lo LIe wIoIe, LIereby consLILuLIng (und enLIreIy ex-
pIuInIng) LIe exIsLence und uLLrIbuLes oI LIe enLIre unImuI. BuL us AckrIII
poInLs ouL, LIIs cunnoL be LIe cuse under ArIsLoLIe`s uccounL, Ior LIe muLLer
oI un ensouIed beIng cunnoL exIsL upurL Irom LIe beIng oI wIIcI IL Is LIe
muLLer: LIe muLerIuI In LIIs cuse Is not cupubIe oI exIsLIng except us LIe
muLerIuI oI un unImuI, us muLLer so in-jormed.
16
AckrIII sees u dIIIIcuILy wILI ArIsLoLIe`s posILIon Iere: II we IoId LIuL
c_ooc:i pi , c:, -o:c-p c- cio_cc0c: xc cic: xc p,
166
LIenIL wouId
seem LIuL LIe bodIIy purLs oI orgunIsms do noL meeL LIe crILerIon Ior beIng
muLLer, Ior LIey cunnoL boLI be und noL be; LIere Is no 'LIIs someLIIng`
wIIcI, IIke bronze, cun Luke on LIe Iorm oI LIe sLuLue or noL Luke IL on.
or LIe body Is LIIs Ieud, LIese urms, eLc. (or LIIs IIesI, LIese bones, eLc.),
buL LIere wus no sucI LIIng us LIIs Ieud beIore bIrLI und LIere wIII noL be
u Ieud, properIy speukIng, uILer deuLI.
16;
. ewIs uLLempLs Lo provIde un unswer Lo LIe dIIemmu-wIIcI Ack-
rIII IImseII Ieuves unresoIved-In Lerms wIIcI provIde Ior u cerLuIn kInd
oI 'scuIIoIdIng oI Iorm,` us Iuve descrIbed IL ubove. ewIs poInLs ouL LIuL
16
AckrIII, ArIsLoLIe's DeIInILIons oI 'PsucIe', p. 1z6; IIs empIusIs.
166
Metcphsics, 1oqbzq.
16;
AckrIII, ArIsLoLIe's DeIInILIons oI 'PsucIe', p. 1z6.
1zo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
bIood, In ArIsLoLIe`s uccounL, Is cIurucLerIzed by IuvIng ILs prIncIpIe oI uc-
LIvILy exLernuI Lo IL. WIIIe bIood Is nuLuruIIy IoL, IL does noL generuLe ILs
own IeuL, buL receIves ILs IeuL Irom LIe IeurL, wIIcI Is Ience cuIIed p_
-o cc-o,.
168
ewIs LIus cuIIs IeuL LIe jorm cncloue oI bIood; IL Is noL
sLrIcLIy LIe Iorm oI bIood, buL pIuys un unuIogous roIe. He LIen exLends
LIIs uccounL Lo more compIex orguns und LIence Lo LIe body us u wIoIe:
LIe Iorm oI LIe unImuI perIorms In Lwo dIIIerenL roIes: IL Is the constitu-
tite jorm-cncloue oj the cnimcl's bod cnd its tcrious orcns, buL IL Is
uIso the constitutite jormsImpIIcILer oj the uhole litin cnimcl.
16q
TIus,
Ie grunLs u cerLuIn uuLonomy Lo LIe vurIous purLs oI LIe unImuI, uIIowIng
LIem Lo be jusLIy cuIIed muLLer Ior LIe wIoIe (Ior LIey wIII Iuve LIeIr own,
IncompIeLe Iorms, und Ience wIII escupe AckrIII`s dIIemmu, Ior LIere wIII be
u sense In wIIcI LIey cun boLI be und noL be componenLs oI LIe wIoIe, jusL
us bIoodcunboLIbe undnoL be InLIe body
1;o
). urLIermore, LIere wIII sLIII
be u sIngIe Iorm oI LIe wIoIe, so LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s sLrIcLure ubouL LIeIr beIng
onIy u sIngIe Iorm In u sIngIe subsLunce wIII be obeyed. As ewIs puLs IL,
LIe reIuLIon oI LIe souI Lo LIe body Is LIe sume us LIuL oI IeuL Lo bIood-IL Is
essenLIuI Lo LIe body, buL noneLIeIess un exLernuI prIncIpIe oI beIuvIor.
1;1
um noL convInced by ewIs`s proposuI. L Is noL uL uII cIeur Iow ewIs
cunsusLuInLIe posILIonLIuL-Ior ArIsLoLIe-u souI Is boLIunexLernuI Iorm-
unuIogue Lo LIe body und ILs vurIous purLs, und uIso LIe sIngIe subsLunLIuI
168
Pcrts oj Animcls, 666uzq, cILed In ewIs, A TIIng und ILs MuLLer, p. z6q.
16q
IbId., p. z;o.
1;o
TIIs cIurucLerIsLIc oI bIood Is suggesLed by ArIsLoLIe`s denIuI LIuL bIood Is purL oI
LIe body-us ewIs (p. z66 n. q) reuds Pcrts oj Animcls, 66bz1-uIong wILI LIe SLu-
gIrILe`s descrIpLIon oI bIood us beIng 'In u recepLucIe` wILIIn LIe body; cI. Pcrts oj Animcls,
6ouq.
1;1
IbId., p. z;o.
1z1
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
Iorm Ior LIe unImuI us u wIoIe. or ArIsLoLIe mukes IL quILe cIeur LIuL LIe
unILy beLween body und o_ Is oI u muxImuI kInd: o: xc o oc p-ci c i
o_ xc - cc, cncp ooc -i xppi xc - c_c, oo o, -i cxc-oo pi
xc - o p - yp i xc - cic: cnc ncoic_, yc-c:, - xop/o, ci-c_c:
cc-:i.
1;z
TIe SLugIrILe IurLIer mukes IL cIeur LIuL LIe unILy exLends uII LIe
wuy down Lo LIe mosL busIc muLerIuI oI u subsLunce, wIIcI remuIns 'vIr-
LuuIIy` In LIe composILe subsLunce, buL does noL Iuve subsLunLIuIILy oI ILs
own.
1;
ewIs wIsIes Lo uvoId supposIng LIuL u LIIng und u LIIng und ILs
muLLer ure IdenLIcuI,
1;q
Ior LIere musL be some wuy In wIIcI LIey ure dIs-
LIncL. BuL ArIsLoLIe does noL cIuIm LIuL u LIIng und ILs muLLer ure 'IdenLI-
cuI,` buL ruLIer LIuL LIey ure 'one,` wIIIe remuInIng _op:c-i i... xc- -i
yoi.
1;
ewIs`s proposuI, In mukIng bodIIy purLs InLo IncompIeLe beIngs
wIIcI receIve LIeIr prIncIpIes oI IuII ucLuuIILy Irom ouLsIde, breuks down
LIe subsLunLIuI unILy oI LIe orgunIc beIng, und Indeed Is more oI u muLerI-
uIIsL posILIon LIun ewIs seems Lo reuIIze.
I we ure Lo undersLund orgunIsms Lo be someIow 'scuIIoIded,` IL musL
be In LIe sense oI u scuIIoId wIose exIsLenLIuI supporL comes Irom LIe Lop,
I.e. LIe unILury, sImpIe o_ wIIcImukes LIe unImuI be InucL. or icyxcoi
pc -i o_i oc/ci cic: , coo, cc-o, oc:xo ooic: oi c_oi-o,. o
oc/c ci-c_c:c -o:o-oo pc cc-o, ci-c_c:c,
1;6
or LIuL wIIcI Is poLen-
LIuI, I.e. LIe body poLenLIuIIy IuvIng IIIe, Is posLerIor Lo und dependenL upon
1;z
Dn the Soul, q1zb8-q.
1;
cI. Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z;bzz-o.
1;q
ewIs, A TIIng und ILs MuLLer, p. z;o.
1;
Phsics, 1qb-6. CI. Kosmun, AnImuIs und OLIer BeIngs In ArIsLoLIe, p. 6z, TIe
Lerm'muLLer` reIers Lo enLILIes Luken u cerLuIn wuy; muLLer Is u principle oj bein or nuLure,
und noL u ccteor oj entit In nuLure.
1;6
Dn the Soul, q1zuzo-z.
1zz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ucL.
1c:, us p_ oI operutions
Asecondsense InwIIcIcoo, Is 'poLenLIuI` Is LIuL IL Is LIe busIs Ior LIe uc-
LIve poLencIes connuLuruI Lo u gIven c:,.
1;;
AL LIe IowesL IeveI, LIuL oI LIe
eIemenLs, eucI oI LIe Iour LrudILIonuI Greek eIemenLs exercIses Lwo cIur-
ucLerIsLIc ucLIvILIes, correspondIng Lo LIe cici-c wIIcI Iorm LIe gIven eI-
emenL.
1;8
or InsLunce, IIre Is boLI IIgIL und IoL, und LIus boLI rIses und
IeuLs. ProvIded LIuL noLIIng Impedes (und, In some cuses, provIded LIuL
LIey ure In u sILuuLIon oI proxImILy Lo u puLIenL), und LIuL LIey ure noL In
LIeIr nuLuruI IocuLIons,
1;q
LIe eIemenLs uIwuys ucL uccordIng Lo LIeIr nuL-
uruI operuLIons.
18o
TIus, IIre wIII burn wood wIenever IL Is In proxImILy,
ImposIng LIe IormoI IoLness onLIe wood; sImIIurIy, provIdedLIuL uIr (per-
1;;
CI. rede, ArIsLoLIe's NoLIon oI PoLenLIuIILy In Metcphsics 6, p. 1;6: LIougI |com-
posILe subsLunces| ure ucLuuIILIes, LIeIr beIng Is LIed Lo poLenLIuIILy In Lwo cIoseIy reIuLed
wuys: (I) LIey need LIe upproprIuLe muLLer Ior LIeIr reuIIzuLIon; (II) LIey LIemseIves,
LIougI ucLuuIILIes, ure consLILuLed by u seL oI poLenLIuIILIes. or, Lo be u Iorse, Ior ex-
umpIe, Is essenLIuIIy Lo be ubIe Lo do LIe kInds oI LIIngs Iorses do under LIe upproprIuLe
condILIons.
1;8
nc oc ---cpc - c-o:_cc, -i oc -c--poi ( c coc(c:,, - o' cici-c o noxc
coioocc0c: |0cpi yp xc o_pi cic: - c- xc n:i (ppi xc ypi oic-oi, cicpi
-: ---cpc, cc-oic: c -i c-o:_coi coc(c:,, 0cpo xc (ppo, xc 0cpo xc ypo, xc n:i
o_po xc ypo, xc o_po xc (ppo. xc xoo0pxc xc- yoi -o, no, c:ioio:, ccc:,
nop xc p: xc oc-: xc y - ci yp np 0cpi xc ppi, o' p 0cpi xc ypi |ooi -,
yp p, - o' oop o_pi xc yi, oc y o_pi xc (ppi... Dn Generction cnd Corrup-
tion, ouo-b.
1;q
cnc oc - nc:i :c-cioi pc-c: np, - coi, iyxp - nc:i cn:nooi pcc0c:
np, - cc_c-oi -, _pc,, ci no:oi-c: -i xipc:i cici-oi yp - ci coi - c_-, -
o`:c-cioi c - cn:nooi-:. o: xc cyo, - [cp xc xooi oo cc-i xc yp o -no:
oo, - coi xc - cc_c-oi, Dn the Hectens, 1zuq-8.
18o
-: o' cc-: -: n, xooi xc n, [cp, cx -io' cc- cicpi. yo o' n, xooi
c io xc [cp c x-o noxc pcc0c: xoocioi -o:c-c yp cc- -:ic, xc o_ cncp
ooi-c -:ic, ni-' c_c:i [po, [cp ci yp ooxc -:ci cic:, xc c-po:,, xc c pcc0c: np, -
coi, Dn the Hectens, 11b1q-1q.
1z
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
Iups In vIgorous moLIon, e.g. u sLrong wInd) or eurLI (In LIe Iorm oI u cuve
ceIIIng) do noL Impede, LIe IIre wIII rIse.
n regurds Lo poLency und ucL und c:, us p_ oI operuLIons, GIII Iden-
LIIIes Lwo 'modeIs` oI poLenLIuIILy und ucLuuIILy In ArIsLoLIe; under LIe IIrsL
modeI, poLenLIuIILIes, wIeLIer ucLIve or pussIve, ure uIwuys dIrecLed Lo un
end or u gouI-un ucLuuIILy; und LIe poLenLIuIILy Is IdenLIIIed us LIe poLen-
LIuIILy LIuL IL Is wILI reIerence Lo LIe ucLuuIILy. So, Ior exumpIe, u person`s
pussIve poLenLIuIILy Ior IeuILI Is IdenLIIIed us LIuL poLenLIuIILy wILI reIer-
ence Lo IeuILI; LIe docLor`s ucLIve poLenLIuIILy Ior IeuILI Is uIso, LIougI
In u dIIIerenL wuy, IdenLIIIed wILI reIerence Lo IeuILI. AcLIve und pussIve
poLenLIuIILy puIrs correspond becuuse LIey ure reIuLed Lo LIe sume end or
ucLuuIILy.
181
TIIs Is LIe modeI LIuL uppIIes Lo cIunge (xc- xipc:i).
On LIe oLIer Iund, LIe second modeI oI poLenLIuIILy und ucLuuIILy Ius us
ILs Iocus LIe beIng undpersIsLence oI unenLILy unIIIedby meuns oI cIunge
18z
;
und Ience Is LIe sense oI poLency und ucL reIuLed Lo c:,.
18
n LIe sec-
ond modeI, un orgunIsm expresses ILs poLencIes LIrougI cctitities, sucI us
sIgIL or LIougIL, und LIese ucLIvILIes serve Lo preserve LIe orgunIsm In be-
Ing: LIe moLIon proper Lo LIe second modeI resuILs In LIe sume sLuLe LIuL
LIe puLIenL wus prevIousIy In, und Is cuused by un ugenL LIuL ucLs In respecL
oI u properLy IIke LIe InILIuI sLuLe oI LIe puLIenL.
18q
n Book oI LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe sLuLes LIuL c:, Is mosL properIy
suId Lo be Iorm: oi c-p c:, -, p, cxcc-oi yp --c yc-c: -ci
181
GIII, Aristotle on Substcnce, p. 1;q.
18z
cI. IbId., p. z1q.
18
cI. IbId., p. z18.
18q
IbId., p. zz6.
1zq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ci-cc_c , oi -ci ooic:.
18
ndeed, LIe IucL LIuL c:, Is prImurIIy
coo, expIuIns Iow c:, Is suId Lo be boLI Iorm und muLLer, us dIscussed In
CIupLer 1. or c:, gIves Lo u sImpIe beIng, sucI us IIre or wuLer, noL onIy
ILs nuLuruI moLIons, sucI us movIng upwurds or downwurds, or wurmIng
or cooIIng, buL uIso ILs cupucILy Lo be Ior oLIer nuLuruI subsLunces, sucI
us IIesI, wood or bronze. 1c:, us Iorm mukes LIe beIng Lo be wIuL IL Is,
buL IL cun be consIdered us u 'muLerIuI` prIncIpIe InsoIur us IL mukes u beIng
ubIe Lo Luke on oLIer, IIgIer Iorms.
1c:, us u commonicutor oI Iorm
An ImporLunL IuceL oI ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI c:, InvoIves LIe cupucILy
oI nuLuruI subsLunces Lo 'communIcuLe` LIeIr Iorms Lo oLIer beIngs.
186
We
18
Phsics, 1qb-1qb;. We Iuve uIreudy dIscussed InCIupLer 1 LIe sense InwIIcI c:,
Is prImurIIy suId oI coo, us purL oI nuLuruI subsLunces, und LIe sense In wIIcI Is IL prImurIIy
occ. Here LIe quesLIon Is wIeLIer LIe ucLuuI or LIe poLenLIuI purL Is mosL c:,, und IL Is
cIeur LIuL IL musL be LIe Iormer, sInce poLency und muLLer ure dependenL (or 'posLerIor Lo`,
In ArIsLoLIe`s purIunce) upon ucL. Hcp, o -, -o:c-p, npo-pc cc-i cipyc:c xc y xc
- oc/ _pi o cc-: ci ,, cc-: oc , o, Metcphsics, 1oqqbq-1o. CI. WILL, TIe PrIorILy
oI AcLuuIILy In ArIsLoLIe, p. z1;, LIe prIorILy In beIng oI ucLuuIILy meuns LIuL ucLuuIILIes
cun exIsL IndependenLIy oI poLenLIuIILIes, buL poLenLIuIILIes cunnoL exIsL IndependenLIy oI
LIe exIsLence oI ucLuuIILIes.
186
CrubeIIIer, one oI LIe Iew uuLIors Lo wrILe dIrecLIy ubouL LIIs LopIc, uIso empIoys LIe
LermInoIogy oI 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm`: Ior |ArIsLoLIe| u nuLuruI process busIcuIIy con-
sIsLs In some objecL LukIng some Iorm; LIuL Is, In u process oI InIormuLIon... More pre-
cIseIy, wIuL meun by 'InIormuLIon` Iere Is LIe communIcuLIon oI LIe Iorm by un ugenL
Lo LIe uIIecLed LIIng, CrubeIIIer, GC .q, p. z8. NoneLIeIess, LIere Is u LermInoIogIcuI
dIIIIcuILy InvoIved In speukIng oI 'communIcuLIon` oI Iorm, sInce, us we sIuII see beIow, u
nuLuruI subsLunce does noL LruIy impose ILs Iorm upon unoLIer beIng wIIcI wus enLIreIy
IuckIng LIuL Iorm. RuLIer, In order Ior u beIng Lo receIve u new Iorm, us In LIe cuse oI LIe
bronze receIvIng LIe Iorm oI Hermes, LIe poLency Ior LIuL Iorm musL Iuve been presenL.
TIus, Irom one poInL oI vIew, IL wouId be more proper Lo speuk oI 'educLIon` oI Iorm, or
LIe 'ucLuuIIzuLIon` oI poLency, or LIe reIuLIon oI 'ucLIon` und 'pussIon.` NeverLIeIess, LIe
Lerm 'communIcuLIon,` despILe noL beIng un ArIsLoLeIIun Lerm, Ius LIe udvunLuge oI em-
pIusIzIng LIe cuusuLIve roIe oI LIe beIng wIIcI Ius LIe ucLIve poLency (LIe ugenL), und
oI IIgIIIgILIng LIe IucL LIuL LIe very Iorm wIIcI Is 'educed` Is precIseIy LIe Iorm cuused
by LIe ugenL, und noL uny oI LIe oLIer (possIbIy InIInILe) Iorms wIIcI LIe beIng IosLs In
1z
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
Iuve uIreudy encounLered LIIs cupucILy In regurds Lo LIe sImpIe bodIes und
LIe Iomeoomerous subsLunces (sucI us IIesI, meLuI und wood).
18;
ArIsLo-
LIe Ius uIso poInLed LIIs ouL wILI regurds Lo orgunIsms, wIIcI ure ubIe Lo
communIcuLe LIeIr Iorms vIu reproducLIon.
188
TIIs cupucILy Lo reproduce
subsLunLIuI Iorm Is precIseIy wIuL dIsLInguIsIes nuLuruI subsLunces Irom
producLs oI urL: LIe IuLLer cunnoL reproduce LIeIr subsLunLIuI Iorm. TIIs Is
becuuse, sLrIcLIy speukIng, LIey do noL Iuve one; urLIIucLs onIy Iuve Iorm
In one oI LIe oLIer cuLegorIes.
NeverLIeIess, communIcuLIonoI Iormoccurs InuII Lypes oI moLIon: coo,
oc c occ-c -: - x:ioi, -o: -oc -o:ioc -ocioc, cc-c: p_ xc c-:oi -,
x:icco,, -ci x:i, ooi ci-cc_c i0pono, no:c cx -o ooic: i-o, i0pnoo
i0ponoi.
18q
WIIIe u bed cunnoL reproduce ILseII quc bed, IL cun repro-
duce ILs uccIdenLuI Iorm. TIus, II we puL LIe bed on u curpeL, LIe curpeL
wIII quIckIy udopL IndenLuLIons correspondIng Lo LIe sIupe oI LIe IeeL oI
LIe bed. NuLuruI subsLunces cun reproduce LIemseIves by ImposIng LIeIr
Iorm on upproprIuLe muLLer; LIus, u IruIL Lree reproduces ILseII by Impos-
Ing ILs Iorm upon ILs seed. TIe ImposILIon oI Iorm uIso occurs In LIe reuIm
oI LIe senses und InLeIIecL: we know IndIvIduuI LIIngs by ucquIrIng LIeIr
poLency. n uddILIon, IL IIgIIIgILs LIe 'commonuIILy` LIuL comes Lo be us u resuIL oI LIe
ucLIonJpussIon, I.e. LIe sIurIng oI u Iorm wIIcI Is one In uccounL, wIIIe Lwo (or more)
In number. TIus, wIII reLuIn LIe LermInoIogy oI 'communIcuLIon,` Ior LIe rIeLorIcuI ud-
vunLuges menLIoned Iere, wILI LIe cuveuL LIuL Iorm does noL 'communIcuLe` In LIe wuy
ImpIIed by LIe common usuge oI LIe Lerm Loduy, wIIcI Iocuses on IInguIsLIc or proLo-
IInguIsLIc InLerucLIon beLween ensouIed beIngs.
18;
BegInnIng wILI LIe IowesL IeveI, LIuL oI LIe eIemenLs, we see LIuL LIe eIemenLs Lend Lo
communIcuLe LIeIr Iorms Lo oLIer subsLunces. Ire burns by communIcuLIng ILseII, wuLer
dIssoIves by communIcuLIng ILseII, eurLI drIes or cooIs by communIcuLIng ILs own Iorm.
CI. Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zzu1o-16.
188
CI. Phsics, 1qzb16-z.
18q
Phsics, zozu8-zozu1z.
1z6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
essences In our InLeIIecLs.
1qo
And IeurnIng oI LIe urLs und scIences occurs
vIu LIe communIcuLIon oI LIe correspondIng Iorm.
1q1
n IocomoLIon, u sIm-
IIur communIcuLIon occurs: II wIsI Lo move u sLone, musL IIrsL move my
Iund, wIIcI (perIups) moves u sLIck, wIIcI moves u sLone.
1qz
CommunIcuLIon oI Iorm, In ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs, Is IundumenLuIIy un uc-
LuuIIzuLIon oI u poLency presenL In LIe puLIenL, under LIe InIIuence oI LIe
ugenL. Becuuse LIe ugenL Is uIreudy InucL under LIe uccounL InquesLIon, LIe
ugenL Is noL suId Lo be moved ILseII; ruLIer, cc-i xipc:, ci - x:ip-.
1q
L Is Ior LIIs reuson LIuL u nuLuruI subsLunce cun be un c- c- x:ioi
wIIcI sLunds uL LIe Ieud oI u cuusuI cIuIn: LIe mover, InsoIur us IL moves,
Is noL moved.
1qq
Becuuse LIe mover moves by brIngIng InLo ucLuuIILy some
poLency In LIe puLIenL, IL Is possIbIe LIuL LIe puLIenL noL be cupubIe oI IuIIy
receIvIng LIe Iorm oI LIe ugenL, LIus producIng u Iorm wIIcI Is purLIy LIe
sume und purLIy dIIIerenL. n unImuI reproducLIon, Ior InsLunce, LIe seed
oI LIe IuLIer muy be unubIe Lo reproduce ILs specIes In LIe 'cuLumenIu`
1q
oI LIe moLIer, und In sucI cuses we see LIe uppeurunce oI 'monsLers` or
deIecLIve orgunIsms, wIIcI ure neverLIeIess consIdered Lo be oI LIe sume
specIes us LIe purenL-LIe Lwo-Ieuded Iumb Is sLIII u sIeep, und LIe sLerIIe
1qo
cx -c o -o-oi -i yoi i xc -c- o xc- co[c[px, c- cxcc-oi xc - - i cic:, xc
-: yc - cnc-cc0c: cxcc-oi -o- cc-:, - - i cic: cnc-cc0c:, c-c xc xc- -i cx0cc:i iyxp
ci -: cic: o Metcphsics, 1o1b1q-z.
1q1
ArIsLoLIe, Metcphsics, 1oqqbzII.
1qz
c oi x:iocii -: x:ic, iyxp c-ic: xc c, nc:poi ic: c yp [cx-ppc x:ic -
x:icc0c: n -, _c:p,, _cp x:ic -i [cx-ppci c oc xc -c- o x:ic, xc -c-pi c-cpi -:
- x:ioi. -ci o -:i: x:i c c-cpoi, iyxp cic: np-cpoi - c- c- x:ioi. c oi x:ic-c: ci
-o-o, o oc - x:ioi c-, iyxp c- c- x:ici c-c xc xc- -o-oi -i yoi -o: c0,
- x:iocioi n -o c- x:ioi-o, x:ic-c:, cp_c-c no-c c, - -o:o-oi Phsics, z6uzq-bz.
1q
Phsics, zozu1
1qq
wIII exumIne LIe Issue oI seII-moLIon und LIe reIuLIon oI mover Lo moved In seII-
movers more exLensIveIy In CIupLer .
1q
CI. Generction oj Animcls, ;6;b1-zq.
1z;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
pIg Is sLIII u pIg.
1q6
n oLIer cuses, u beIng wIIcI Is nuLuruIIy cupubIe oI be-
Ing ucLuuIIzed In u purLIcuIur wuy-sucI us u bIIIIurd buII, wIIcI Is Iormed
so us Lo be eusIIy ubIe Lo roII-muy be bIocked Irom respondIng uccordIng
Lo ILs nuLure. n LIese cuses LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` muy be equitoccl,
In LIe sense LIuL LIe Iorm brougIL InLo beIng In LIe puLIenL Is oI u dIIIerenL
specIes LIun LIuL oI LIe ugenL. I LIe bIIIIurd buII Is sLruck by LIe cue buII
wIIIe IL Is unubIe Lo move, wIuL Is produced Is noL IocomoLIon, buL IeuL.
TIIs 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` Is someLIIng mysLerIous, und ArIsLoLIe
does noL seem Lo specIIy exucLIy Iow IL occurs. TIe cIosesL Ie comes Lo
un expIunuLIon Is In Dn Generction cnd Corruption .;-q, wIere Ie eIubo-
ruLes onLIe noLIons oI ucLIonundpussIon. However, us M. CrubeIIIer noLes,
wIIIe ArIsLoLIe usks severuI LImes In LIese cIupLers n wIuL wuy cun LIese
processes occur? Ie spends mosL oI IIs LIme expIuInIng und crILIquIng LIe
posILIons oI IIs 'uLomIsL` opponenLs, I.e. DemocrILus undeucIppus (us weII
us EmpedocIes und PIuLo, wIomIe ussImIIuLes Lo LIe uLomIsL modeI).
1q;
n
CIupLers 6-;, Ie does seL ouL some preIImInury condILIons Ior LIe commu-
nIcuLIon oI Iorm, numeIy LIuL LIe mover und LIe moved be In conLucL, LIuL
LIey be oI LIe sume 'genus` (I.e. cuLegory), und LIuL wILIIn LIuL genus LIey
be opposILes. GIven LIese condILIons, IL Is 'necessury` LIuL LIe ugenL ucL
und LIe puLIenL suIIer.
1q8
He uIso specIIIes u IurLIer ImporLunL condILIon,
numeIy LIuL LIe body beIng uIIecLed be uIIecLed 'LIougI und LIrougI`: E
yp cc-: - ci ooic: - o ci-cc_c/ -o:o-oi, noxci o - ci - o o nc_c:i,
1q6
CI. Generction oj Animcls, ;6qb1o-18.
1q;
CrubeIIIer, GC .q, p. z;1.
1q8
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zb16-zqu1q. ndeed, ArIsLoLIe Lukes IL us u 'IuwoI
nuLure` LIuL xc c ooic:, oyo:... -ci , oici-c: - no:p-:xi xc - nc0p-:xi npc:oc:,
- ci no:ci - oc nc_c:i, Metcphsics, 1oq8uq-6.
1z8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ni- xc0 coi cc- -o:o-oi.
1qq
romone poInL oI vIew, u modern reuder (or uncIenL oc:oyo,) mIgIL
be dIsuppoInLed In ArIsLoLIe`s expIunuLIon, Ior IL goes InLo very IILLIe deLuII
us Iow und wIy one beIng mIgIL be uIIecLed by unoLIer. NeverLIeIess, IL Is
noL Loo dIIIIcuIL Lo see wIy IIs posILIon Is wIuL IL Is. GIven LIuL u beIng Is
mude Lo be u sIngIe InsLunce oI ILs kInd by ILs possessIng u sIngIe Iorm,
zoo
II IL Is uIIecLed In ILs body, IL musL be uIIecLed LIrougI und LIrougI, oLI-
erwIse, us CrubeIIIer noLes, IL wouId noL be reuIIy one body, or ILs nume
wouId be equIvocuI.
zo1
ArIsLoLIe`s posILIon Is compIeLed by LIe docLrIne oI
poLency und ucL: one body Iucks LIe ucLuuIILy possessed by LIe oLIer, und
Ience Is suscepLIbIe Lo undergoIng cIunge cuused by LIe oLIer, vIu LIe com-
munIcuLIon oI IormIromone body In ILs enLIreLy Lo LIe oLIer, 'LIrougI und
LIrougI.`
L Is worLI noLIng LIuL even LIe modeIs oI nuLure proposed by ArIsLo-
LIe`s muLerIuIIsL opponenLs IuII vIcLIm Lo LIe sume necessILy oI posLuIuLIng
communIcuLIon oI Iorm. TIe 'uLoms` oI DemocrILus und eucIppus, wIIcI
move In u voId, ucL upon eucI oLIer by conLucL, und InsoIur us one uLom
Is ubIe Lo move unoLIer, IL musL 'communIcuLe` ILs ucLIvILy.
zoz
TIus, LIe
1qq
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z;bo-z.
zoo
c-: o' cc-: ci , -:oi ci cci cic: i noci xc coic_,, cc-: o' , o, i -: oi ,
-o-o oc i - coo, c_ ci. ooi ox i cci oo, i oi-c, nocoi - pp coyxccic -o
nooc-o,, ci o: -i coi_c:ci, ' ci o-o, c-c nopc cic: xc co, -: c_c:i op ci,
Metcphsics, 1o16b1z-16.
zo1
CrubeIIIer, GC .q, p. z8q.
zoz
Zcx:nno, o c_c:i p0p yoo, o -:ic, np, -i cc0pc:i ooyocic yoi-c, ox
ic:ppcooc:i o-c yicc:i o-c 0opi o-c x/ipc:i xc - n0o, -i i-oi. ooypcc, oc -c-c
ci -o, c:ioio:,, -o, oc - i xc-ccxcoooc:i , ox i x/ipc:i occi ico xcio - -c xcii
i, xc -o i-o, o0ci i pc:i cic:. - yp xop/o, i ncnpc, i cic: - -o:o-oi
o_ ci, nc:pc - n0o, xc pc-c o: c:xp-p-c -i yxoi. -c-c o ci - xci pcc0c:
|xcii yp cic:, xc coi:c-cic ci yicc:i no:ci, o:cocic oc 0opi. no:ci oc xc nc_c:i
-oy_iooc:i n-cic -c- yp o_ i cic:. xc coi-:0cic oc xc ncp:ncxcic yciii, Dn
1zq
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
ALomIsLs, In udmILLIng LIuL uLoms suIIer by one unoLIer upon mukIng con-
LucL, requIre LIuL uL IeusL uccIdenLuI Iorm (sucI us dIrecLIon und speed oI
movemenL) be ubIe Lo be communIcuLedbeLweenLIe 'IndIvIsIbIes` LIey pos-
LuIuLe.
zo
urLIermore, ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL LIuL DemocrILus uppeurs Lo
uIso uIIow Ior communIcuLIon oI LIe Iorm oI 'IoLness,` or uL IeusL LIe pre-
supposILIons oI IIs LIeory demund LIuL Ie do.
zoq
Hence, we see LIuL LIe
'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` Is purL und purceI oI LIe ALomIsL LIeory oI nuLure.
TIe LIeory oI EmpedocIes presenLs u sImIIur cIuIIenge LoArIsLoLIe`s LIe-
ory oI c:,. wIII reserve LIe buIk oI my dIscussIon oI EmpedocIes`s po-
sILIon Ior CIupLer q, wIere wIII dIscuss ArIsLoLIe`s reIuLuLIon oI Empedo-
cIes`s denIuI oI nuLuruI IInuIILy. NeverLIeIess, In LIe conLexL oI InvesLIguLIng
LIe communIcuLIon oI Iorm, IL wIII be worLIwIIIe Lo see Iow ArIsLoLIe`s ur-
gumenLs Ior Iorms ubIe Lo communIcuLe LIemseIves uppIy uIso Lo Empedo-
cIes`s pIysIcuI LIeory. n purLIcuIur, EmpedocIes`s unuIysIs oI LIe eIemenLs
wouId seem Lo requIre un unuIysIs In Lerms oI c:,. IrsL, eucI oI IIs eIe-
menLs or 'rooLs` Ius u gIven 'oIIIce` or 'Ionor` (-:) und 'cIurucLer` (0o,);
uII oI LIem, Iowever, occupy spuce und ure bodIes. TIus, even more LIun
LIe 'uLoms` oI eucIppus undDemocrILus, LIe eIemenLs oI EmpedocIes Iuve
u - -: i cic:, und u noxc:ioi wIIcI Is In poLency Lo receIve LIe 'wIuL IL
wus Lo be` oI LIe gIven eIemenL. WIuL EmpedocIes`s eIemenLs do not up-
peur Lo Iuve Is LIeIr own proper moLIons, us In LIe LIeory oI ArIsLoLIe,
zo
und LIus EmpedocIes posLuIuLes LIe ucLIon oI ove und SLrIIe Lo uccounL
Generction cnd Corruption, zuz-.
zo
CI. Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z6bz-.
zoq
CI. Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z6u1o-1.
zo
Dn the Hectens, o;b1;-zq.
1o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Ior LIe IucL LIuL LIe eIemenLs do In IucL move, Iorm mIxLures und sepuruLe.
NeverLIeIess, EmpedocIes Is sLIII vuInerubIe Lo LIe need Ior posLuIuLIng
LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` ('ucLIon` und 'pussIon` In ArIsLoLIe`s LermInoI-
ogy), In order Lo uccounL Ior observed InLerucLIons beLween LIe eIemenLs.
or sInce EmpedocIes`s eIemenLs do noL move LIemseIves, c-: oc -/ - x:ioi,
c ci yp c-cpoi, nc0p-:xi c o c- c- cxcc-oi, o:c:pc-i cc-c:, xc- o ci
x:ioi xc- o oc x:iocioi, xc- -c- -ici-/c np(c:, xc p o ioi
p:0 cc-c: /c xc ooic:.
zo6
EmpedocIes reIIes onu LIeory oI 'pores`
Lo expIuIn LIe pIenomenu oI 'InLerucLIon,` wIIIe muInLuInIng LIe ImpussIv-
ILy oI LIe eIemenLs. ArIsLoLIe demonsLruLes LIuL LIIs Is no escupe Irom LIe
necessILy Lo posLuIuLe ucLIon und pussIon: o, oc - npoo, no:ci ncpcpyoi
c ci yp poci no:c xc- -i i, ooc o: -i npooi no:cc: o::i c oc -
n-cc0c:, xc npoi i-oi - ci nccc-c: - oc no:cc: -i np, pc -o-oi
-i -pnoi ncox-oi.
zo;
We cun muke u sImIIur urgumenL regurdIng LIe InLerucLIon oI LIe 'op-
posILes` posLuIuLed by EmpedocIes.
zo8
ArIsLoLIe uIso posLuIuLed LIe cici-c;
LIe Iormer`s LIeory, Iowever, posLuIuLes LIuL onIy liles InLerucL, noL oppo-
sILes: , yox ci yox pn-c, n:xpi o' cn n:xpi poocci, ( o' cn' (
c[p, occpi o' cno_c-o ocpp:.
zoq
n order, Iowever, Ior u quunLILy oI one
eIemenL Lo reucL neguLIveIy Lo unoLIer (us do wuLer und oII, Ior InsLunce
z1o
)
LIe eIemenLs musL eILIer Iuve nuLuruI moLIons LIuL ure dIsLIncL, or eIse
LIe eIemenLs musL someIow 'communIcuLe` LIeIr 'wIuLness,` so LIuL LIere
zo6
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z6b-;.
zo;
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z6bzz-z.
zo8
DK1Bzz.
zoq
DK1Bqo.
z1o
oio: . . . oi cip0:oi, c-p cco: ox c0c:, DK1Bq1.
11
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
cun be u reucLIon oI rejecLIon or uccepLunce. or presumubIy 'ove` ucLs
equuIIy on LIe combIned body oI wuLer und wIne, us on LIe wuLer und oII.
n LIe Iormer cuse, LIere Is mIxLure, In LIe IuLLer, sepuruLIon, LIe onIy dII-
Ierence beIng LIe 'wIuLness` oI eucI componenL. We see InsLunces oI Lrue
non-InLerucLIon In cuses wIere LIe cuLegorIes oI LIe LIIngs ure dIIIerenL:
Ior InsLunce, IL mukes no dIIIerence Lo LIe wIILe LIuL LIe mun In wIom IL
exIsLs Is Iere or LIere, or Iurge or smuII. BuL InIucL we do see InLerucLIonbe-
Lween LIe EmpedocIeun eIemenLs, wIIcI rejecL eucI oLIer, bused on LIeIr
essences.
EmpedocIes does uppeur Lo recognIze LIe IucL LIuL Iorm musL be ubIe
Lo communIcuLe ILseII, In order Lo uccounL Ior observed duLu. or InsLunce,
Ie posLuIuLes LIuL uII LIIngs Iuve 'eIIIuences` LIuL IIow ouL Irom u gIven
body, und ImpucL oLIer bodIes (LIrougI pores), Lo u degree dependenL on
LIe sImIIurILy beLween LIe eIemenLuI mIxLures oI LIe bodIes concerned.
z11
n IIs unuIysIs oI vIsIon, LIe IIre oI IIgIL goes ouL IromLIe eyes LIrougI LIny
pores, mIxIng wILI LIe IIre oI LIIngs observed.
z1z
BuL Ior LIe IIre oI LIe eye
Lo be ubIe Lo 'meeL` wILI correspondIng IIre ouLsIde LIe eye, und LIus reucL
In sympuLIy, producIng vIsIon, LIere musL be some 'communIcuLIon` oI LIe
'wIuLness` oI IIre.
z1
TIus, we ure IeIL wILI LIe necessILy Ior posLuIuLIng LIe communIcuLIon
oI Iorm uL LIe IeveI oI LIe eIemenLs, sInce some sucI communIcuLIon be-
z11
yio, -: ni-oi cci noppoc, cc' cyioi-o... DK1B8q.
z1z
, oc --' ci i:y(:i ccpyioi yy:oi np cn-:ci -'| 0ip:c: o_c-o xxonc
xoppi, c| _oip:c: oci-c -c-pc-o 0ccnccp:c:i c o' oc-o, ci [i0o, nc-cyoi :ici-o,,
np o' c(o o:ccxoi, coi -cic-cpoi ci, DK1B8q.
z1
Zoxp-p,. oxoi yc-c noppo, -:ic, -i i-oi xc- ncooxc, ... cx -o-oi o cic,
-o: yo cp Hiocpo,. cc-:i yp _pc noppo c_p-oi c: cc-po, xc cc0p-,, PIuLo,
Meno, p. ;6c.
1z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lween beIngs Is LIe onIy non-occusIonuIIsL expIunuLIon wIIcI cun uccounL
Ior LIe reuIILy oI InLerucLIon beLween mobIIe beIngs. urLIer, II ArIsLoLIe`s
unuIysIs oI LIe p_c succeeds, LIenu cIunge InLIe sLuLe oI one beIng cuused
by LIe ucLIon oI unoLIer wIII Iuve Lo be u cIunge In LIe IormuI p_ In one
oI LIe cuLegorIes. n sIorL, EmpedocIes Is subjecL Lo LIe busIc uspecLs oI LIe
unuIysIs oI c:, posLuIuLed by ArIsLoLIe (us ure LIe ALomIsLs, us dIscussed
ubove), uILIougI LIe purLIcuIurs oI IIs LIeory muy dIIIer Irom LIose oI LIe
SLugIrILe.
.g Conclosion: c:, und the 'wuys oI being'
n LIIs expIoruLIon oI LIe senses oI i und LIeIr reIuLIon Lo ArIsLoLIe`s
docLrIne oI c:,, we Iuve ucIIeved u number oI ImporLunL objecLIves. TIe
ArIsLoLeIIun unuIysIs oI 'beIng` or i us un unuIogIcuI Lerm Is boLI u neces-
sury unuIysIs, us weII us one wIIcI uIIows Ior LIe resoIuLIon oI u number oI
mujor Issues reIuLed Lo beIng und cIunge wIIcI wenL unresoIved In LIe LIe-
orIes oI LIe oc:oyo: und oLIer Pre-SocruLIcs, sucI us PurmenIdes. ArIs-
LoLIe`s ubIIILy Lo resoIve LIese nopc: vIu un eIegunL, sImpIe unuIysIs uL LIe
meLupIysIcuI IeveI provIdes IIs LIeory wILI un expIunuLory power LIuL goes
Iur beyond LIuL oI IIs opponenLs` LIeorIes.
n LIe IIrsL secLIon oI LIIs cIupLer, expIored LIe usuge oI LIe Lerm
i In LIe Pre-SocruLIcs, sIowIng Iow LIe Lerm Iud severuI senses In pre-
pIIIosopIIcuI usuge: un exIsLenLIuI sense ('u LIIng LIuL exIsLs or occurs`), u
predIcuLIve sense (uLLrIbuLIng sucI-und-sucI properLIes Lo u subjecL) und,
In pIuruI Iorm, u verIdIcuI sense ('LIe LruLI` or 'LIe IucLs`). Our eurIIesL Les-
1
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
LImony Lo u pIIIosopIIcuI use oI LIe Lerm-In AnuxImunder-sees LIe Lerm
beIng used non-LecInIcuIIy, In ILs exIsLenLIuI sense, reIerrIng Lo 'u LIIng
LIuL exIsLs or occurs,` consIdered IndependenLIy oI ILs purLIcuIur deLermI-
nuLIons. Some Lwo generuLIons IuLer, wIen PurmenIdes wrILes IIs revoIu-
LIonury poem, we see LIe verIdIcuI und exIsLenLIuI senses mergIng, so LIuL
ci Is used In LIe sense oI 'LIuL wIIcI trul or necessurIIy Is.`
n LIIs regurd, PurmenIdes uppeurs Lo Iuve u Lremendous ImpucL upon
succeedIng pIIIosopIers, Ior ciJi become IrequenLIy used In pIIIosopI-
IcuI conLexLs. or LIose wIo were convInced by PurmenIdes`s urgumenL,
LIese Lerms reLuInLIeIr LecInIcuI sense oI 'LIuL wIIcInecessurIIyJImmuLubIyJLruIy
Is` (uIbeIL wILIouL LIe PurmenIdeun monIsm); oLIer pIIIosopIers uncon-
vInced by EIeuLIc urgumenLs used ciJi In LIe sense oI 'someLIIng wIIcI
Is,` u 'beIng,` buL IndependenL oI reIerence Lo purLIcuIur deLermInuLIons.
TIus by LIe LIme oI ArIsLoLIe, ciJi Iud become u Lerm oI urL umongsL
pIIIosopIers, wIIcI seL LIe sLuge Ior IIs own eIuboruLIon oI ILs vurIous
senses In Metcphsics V.;.
n LIe second secLIon, descrIbed 'beIng` us unuIyzed In Lerms oI ArIsLo-
LIe`s 'cuLegorIes`; Iooked brIeIIy uL ArIsLoLIe`s descrIpLIon oI LIe docLrIne us
gIvenInIIs Ccteories, uIong wILIvurIous LIeorIes concernIng LIe orIgInoI
LIe docLrIne oI LIe cuLegorIes. TIIs wus IoIIowed by un unuIysIs oI LIe eIIecL
oI LIe docLrIne oI LIe cuLegorIes on PurmenIdes und LIe oc:oyo:. Accord-
Ing Lo LIe cuLegorIuI unuIysIs oI beIng, we ussIgn 'i` In ILs mosL prImury
sense Lo LIe beIng oI occ np-oi: LIose beIngs wIIcI ure seII-subsIsLenL
subjecLs, or subsLunces, und Lo wIIcI uII oLIer senses oI beIng ure reIerred.
ArIsLoLIe urgues LIuL LIe cuLegorIuI unuIysIs oI beIng musL be uppIIcubIe Lo
1q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIe kInds oI beIng posLuIuLed by LIe oc:oyo:; Ie gIves un expIIcIL urgu-
menL Ior LIIs In LIe cuse oI LIe cuLegorIes oI quunLILy und quuIILy, und sIm-
IIur urgumenLs ure eusIIy derIvubIe Ior LIe oLIer cuLegorIes oI beIng. TIe
derIvuLIon oI LIe cuLegorIes oI beIng Ius severuI eIIecLs on ArIsLoLIe`s LIe-
ory oI IIgIer c:,. n purLIcuIur, by demonsLruLIng LIuL beIng musL be
suId muILIpIy, uL IeusL uL LIe IeveI oI cuLegorIuI unuIysIs, ArIsLoLIe sIows LIuL
PurmenIdes wus wrong Lo usserL u sIngIe meunIng Ior cic: und i, und LIuL
LIereIore LIe oc:oyo:-usIde Irom DemocrILus-were IncorrecL In LukIng
PurmenIdes`s urgumenL us u suIIIcIenL busIs Ior usserLIng uncIungIng, eLer-
nuI 'eIemenLs` or p_c. SecondIy, IL sIows Iow we cun reconcIIe cIunge
wILI sLubIIILy, LIus uvoIdIng LIe 'HerucIILeun` Lrup oI usserLIng consLunL und
LoLuI IIux In order Lo uccounL Ior LIe reuIILy oI movemenL und cIunge.
n LIe LIIrd secLIon, on LIe unuIysIs oI beIng us 'noeLIc` or 'reuI,` be-
gun by InvesLIguLIng LIe munner In wIIcI ArIsLoLIe mukes LIIs dIsLIncLIon
In IIs Metcphsics, sIowIng LIuL 'beIng us LruLI` (or noeLIc beIng, us Iuve
cuIIed IL), regurds LIe beIng wIIcI Is suId oI Lrue judgmenLs (wIIIe IuIse
judgmenLs ure suId Lo be 'non-beIng`). TIe componenLs oI judgmenLs ure
noLIons or concepLs, wIIcI-us cocc In LIougIL-ure ImmobIIe, necessury
und perIecLIy compIeLe. NoeLIc beIng Is u subsIdIury wuy oI beIng, depen-
denL upon LIe 'reuI` beIng cIurucLerIsLIc oI exIsLIng subsLunces, Irom LIe
gruspIng oI wIIcI we derIve our prImury noLIons. TIe reuI beIng LIuL we
know In LIIs wuy Is cIurucLerIzed by moLIon und by composILIon oI Iorm
wILI muLLer, wILI LIe purLIuI unInLeIIIgIbIIILy LIuL resuILs Irom LIIs compo-
sILIon.
NexL, InvesLIguLed LIe rooLs oI LIe PurmenIdeun error. cILed AIur-
1
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
cn`s urgumenL, wIIcI expIuIns Iow PurmenIdes conIuses LIe uLemporuI-
ILy oI LIe IIgIesL LruLI, numeIy LIe PrIncIpIe oI Non-ConLrudIcLIon, wILI
LIe unuIysIs oI LIe noLIon oI beIng, wIIcI, us u concepL, Is uLemporuI und
ImmobIIe. BuL concepLs ure componenLs oI noeLIc beIng, und sInce IL Is
IIIIcIL Lo resLrIcL LIe purLIcuIur cIurucLerIsLIcs oI LIe prImury sense oI be-
Ing-LIe reuI-Lo LIose oI u derIved sense oI beIng-LIe noeLIc und ILs com-
ponenLs-we see LIuL PurmenIdes Is unjusLIIIed In cIuImIng LIuL reuI beIng
Is ImmobIIe In LIe wuy LIuL concepLs ure. Iuve IypoLIesIzed LIuL LIIs
error, In Lurn, removes LIe jusLIIIcuLIon LIuL muny umong LIe oc:oyo:
LIougIL LIey Iud Ior denyIng subsLunLIuI cIunge umong LIeIr 'eIemenLs,`
und opens LIe wuy Ior ArIsLoLIe Lo posIL genuIne comIng Lo be und pussIng
uwuy, noL onIy uL LIe IeveI oI LIe eIemenLs, buL uIso uL LIe IeveI oI IIgIer
beIngs.
nLIe IourLIsecLIon dIscussedLIe docLrIne oI poLency und ucL. begun
by descrIbIng LIe ArIsLoLeIIun docLrIne, IIgIIIgILIng ILs connecLIon Lo IIs
pIIIosopIy oI nuLure, InsoIur us IL sIows Iow cIunge Is possIbIe, us u Lrun-
sILIon IromLIuL wIIcI Is In poLency-I.e. noL nowexIsLenL buL neverLIeIess
reuI-Lo LIuL wIIcI Is In ucL-I.e. u 'doIng` or ucLIvILy oI un IndIvIduuI, eI-
LIer quc deLermIned uccIdenLuIIy, or quc beIng LIe Lype oI subsLunce LIuL
IL Is. IoIIowed wILI un expIoruLIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL Ior dIsLInguIsI-
Ing poLency Irom ucL, In response Lo LIe MegurIun usserLIon LIuL u LIIng Is
'poLenL` onIy wIen IL Is In ucL. TIe MegurIun urgumenL uIIowed ArIsLoLIe
Lo sIow LIe necessILy Ior poLency us u dIsLIncL noLIon, In order Lo noL vIo-
IuLe cuusuIILy. n LIIs connecLIon, noLed LIuL c:, us u prIncIpIe wILIIn
LIe genus oI poLency wIII be necessury Lo udequuLeIy expIuIn LIe specIes-
16
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
specIIIc operuLIons oI purLIcuIur kInds oI beIngs. TIe MegurIun urgumenL
uIso uIIows ArIsLoLIe Lo cIeurIy dIsLInguIsI poLency IromucL, wIIIe sIowIng
LIuL boLI oI LIem ure wuys oI beIng wILIIn LIe umbIL oI LIe 'reuI.`
oIIowIng my exposILIonoI LIe MegurIunurgumenL, summurIzed ArIs-
LoLIe`s 'dIIucIduLIon` oI LIe noLIons oI poLency und ucL (sInce, sLrIcLIy speuk-
Ing, LIere Is no deIInILIon oI LIese prImury noLIons). AcL, wIIcI Is LIe prI-
mury oI LIe Lwo noLIons, reIers In LIe IIrsL pIuce Lo LIe 'exIsLence oI LIe
LIIng.` L Is u noLIon derIved Irom our experIence oI moLIon, buL wIIcI we
ure ubIe Lo exLend unuIogIcuIIy Lo LIe cIurucLer oI exIsLence us u 'doIng.`
PoLency, wIIIe unuIyzubIe uL LIe noeLIc IeveI us reIerrIng Lo LIuL wIIcI Is
'possIbIe,` Is prImurIIy oI InLeresL In LIe conLexL oI LIIs sLudy In Lerms oI
ILs 'reuI` uppIIcuLIon. n reIerrIng Lo LIe reuI, poLency cun Iuve un ucLIve or
pussIve sense, dependIng on wIeLIer LIe beIng 'In poLency` Is cupubIe oI
beIng LIe ugenL or recIpIenL oI u gIven cIunge. urLIermore, LIe conLrusL
(us IIIusLruLed by ArIsLoLIe In Metcphsics X.6) beLween poLency und ucL
IIIumInuLes LIe 'onLoIogIcuI` dImensIon oI LIese Lerms: LIere ure Lwo 'wuys
oI beIng,` ooic: i und cipyc: i, LIe IIrsL oI wIIcI reIers Lo LIuL LIIng
wIIcI Is properIy suId Iuve non-beIng, buL wIIcI In u broud sense exIsLs
InsoIur us IL Is poLenLIuIIy, und LIe IuLLer oI wIIcI reIers Lo wIuL Is suId Lo
Iuve beIng In LIe prImury und IuII sense oI un ucLIve 'doIng` oI some kInd.
TIe ImporLunL LIIng ubouL demonsLruLIng LIe reuIILy oI beIng us po-
Lency und ucL Is LIuL IL sIows us u wuy ouL oI LIe PurmenIdeun Lrup oI suy-
Ing LIuL 'wIuL Is` cunnoL ceuse Lo be wIuL IL Is. TIe uppurenL ImpossIbIIILy
oI comIng Lo be Is cuused by udopLIng u unILury sense oI beIng, und LIIs Is
precIseIy LIe conundrum LIuL sIuckIed PurmenIdes Lo LIe concIusIon LIuL
1;
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
one cun onIy suy LIuL 'IL Is` und LIuL IL cunnoL be suId In uny wuy LIuL 'IL Is
noL.` BuL In processes oI cIunge, u LIIng Is noL suId Lo be wIuL IL Is noL sim-
pliciter, buL ruLIer uccordIng Lo u dImensIon oI beIng LIuL remuIned IIdden
Lo PurmenIdes, numeIy LIe beIng oI 'cun be` (ooic: i).
TIe ArIsLoLeIIun unuIysIs oI beIng In Lerms oI ucL und poLency wIII pIuy
un ImporLunL roIe In IIs ubIIILy Lo jusLIIy IIgIer c:,, Ior severuI reusons.
n LIe IIrsL pIuce, IL provIdes u meLupIysIcuI expIunuLIon oI Iow cIunge Is
possIbIe, sIowIng LIuL LIe reuI Is cIurucLerIzed by beIng In ucL, buL uIso us
'IosLIng` wILIIn LIuL ucL u genuIne cupucILy Lo 'be oLIer.` SecondIy, LIe ex-
IsLence oI ruLIonuI poLencIes opens LIe door Lo ArIsLoLIe Lo sIow LIuL LIere
exIsL poLencIes wIIcI ure InescupubIy dependenL upon IIgIer nuLures, be-
Ing LIorougIIy InexpIIcubIe In Lerms oI LIe operuLIons oI LIe 'sImpIe bod-
Ies.` TIIs Is due Lo LIe IucL LIuL LIe ucLIve quuIILIes oI LIe sImpIe bodIes musL
ucLIvuLe gIven LIe upproprIuLe pIysIcuI condILIons, wIereus ruLIonuI poLen-
cIes need noL ucLIvuLe due Lo LIe InLeIIecL`s beIng ubIe Lo consIder boLI LIe
ucLuuIIzuLIon us weII us LIe correspondIng prIvuLIon: bused on LIe ruLIo-
nuI poLency oI LIe urL oI medIcIne, LIe pIysIcIun cun IeuI, IuII Lo IeuI, or
even do Iurm. TIIrdIy, sInce IormuI ucL Is LIe IosL oI ucLIve und pussIve
poLencIes, LIuL wIIcI Is 'Iorm` under one descrIpLIon Is 'muLLer` und poLen-
LIuI under unoLIer descrIpLIon. TIIs cuII LIe 'scuIIoIdIng` oI Iorms, und
expIuIns Iow Lrue IIgIer beIngs cun come ubouL: u IIgIer c:, Is LIe Ior-
muI ucL oI muLLer wIIcI, consIdered us ILseII IormuI und ucLuuI, provIdes
LIe Iower-IeveI poLencIes necessury Ior u IIgIer-order subsLunce Lo be In
ucL.
InuIIy, under LIe IeudIng oI LIe dIscussIon oI poLency und ucL, dIs-
18
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
cussed LIe Issue oI LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm,` sIowIng LIuL IormuI ucL,
In mukIng u nuLuruI subsLunce Lo be reuI, does noL IsoIuLe LIuL beIng Irom
oLIers, seuIIng IL oII IermeLIcuIIy. RuLIer, LIe IucL oI moLIon und cIunge re-
quIres LIuL we recognIze LIe cupucILy oI IormLobe 'communIcuLed,` LIrougI
LIe reIuLIon oI ugenL und puLIenL, sucI LIuL u beIng wIIcI Is In pussIve
poLency Lo ucLuuIIze u gIven Iorm, muy, under LIe cuusuLIve ucLIon oI LIe
ugenL, come Lo be In ucL In u gIven IormuI wuy. TIIs 'communIcuLIon` oI
Iorm Is u necessury posLuIuLe In uny pIysIcuI LIeory LIuL purporLs Lo ex-
pIuIn LIe pIenomenon oI InLerucLIon; ArIsLoLIe IImseII demonsLruLes LIIs
In LIe course oI IIs crILIque oI EmpedocIes`s LIeory oI pores, und u sImIIur
demonsLruLIon cun be derIved Ior LIe LIeorIes posLuIuLed by LIe ALomIsLs.
To summurIze LIe resuILs oI my InvesLIguLIon up Lo LIIs poInL, beIIeve
LIe IoIIowIng cIuIms cun be jusLIIIubIy mude. IrsL, LIuL LIe urgumenLs oI
LIe mujorILy oI LIe oc:oyo: ure sLrongIy undermIned by ArIsLoLIe`s reIu-
LuLIon oI PurmenIdes, wIIcI Ie mukes LIrougI IIs cureIuI unuIysIs oI LIe
vurIous senses oI LIe Lerms i und cic:; DemocrILus Is reIuLed by u sepuruLe
urgumenL. TIe wuy Is wIde open Ior ArIsLoLIe Lo demonsLruLe LIe exIsLence
oI generubIe und corrupLIbIe cc:, uL LIe eIemenLuI IeveI, und once we Iuve
genuIne 'comIng Lo be` uL LIe eIemenLuI IeveI, IL becomes reusonubIe Lo posIL
IL uL IIgIer IeveIs us weII. SecondIy, Ie Ius derIved u LIeory oI poLency und
ucL LIuL goes IurLIer LIun mereIy sIowIng LIuL cIunge musL be reuI; IL uIso
sIows Iow LIe sLrucLure oI LIe reuI IncIudes u 'cupucILy Lo be` In uddILIon
Lo LIe prImury mode oI 'ucLuuIIy beIng.` TIIs dIscovery opens LIe wuy Ior
ArIsLoLIe Lo sIow LIuL LIere exIsL IIgIer beIngs wILI compIex IIerurcIIes
oI 'powers,` IncIudIng ruLIonuI powers, wIIcI cunnoL be expIuIned wILIouL
1q
Chcpter z. 1c:, cnd Wcs oj ein
posLuIuLIng cc:, oI u IIgIer order LIun LIe eIemenLs. InuIIy, LIe doc-
LrIne oI poLency und ucL sIows us Iow c:, cun be u 'prIncIpIe oI cIunge`
In LIe beIng ILseII (Ior c:, us source oI poLency Is LIe cuuse oI LIe operu-
LIons oI LIe beIng), und LIuL LIrougI LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` IL cun be
u prIncIpIe oI cIunge In oLIer beIngs.
AL LIIs poInL, we sLIII Iuck un unuIysIs oI cIunge und moLIon LIuL wIII
enubIe Lo us undersLund Iowu IormuI prIncIpIe, us we Iuve derIved IL Iere,
could communIcuLe Iorm und LIereby cuuse cIunge In oLIer beIngs. TIere
ure severuI nopc: remuInIng In regurds Lo moLIon und cIunge LIuL musL
be resoIved, beIore we cun derIve LIe IuII ArIsLoLeIIun docLrIne oI c:, us
prIncIpIe oI moLIon und resL In u subsLunce. n CIupLer , wIII unuIyze
ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI moLIon, sIowIng Iow c:, Is u prIncIpIe oI moLIon
under LIIs LIeory.
TIere ure severuI oLIer uspecLs IuckIng In u compIeLe jusLIIIcuLIon oI LIe
docLrIne oI c:, us ArIsLoLIe Ius deveIoped IL. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, we need Lo
sIow LIuL u gIven c:, wIII be cIurucLerIzed by cerLuIn 'operuLIons` wIIcI
IL wIII uIwuys perIorm, provIded LIuL noLIIng Impedes. TIIs uspecL wIII be
dIscussed In CIupLer q, wIIcI Iocuses on nuLuruI IInuIILy und LIe muLerIuI-
IsL docLrIne oI cIunce. InuIIy, we sLIII Iuck u IuII jusLIIIcuLIon Ior LIe exIs-
Lence oI kInds oI c:, IIgIer LIun LIe eIemenLs. Up Lo now, Iuve Iocused
on sIowIng LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s docLrInes oI LIe p_c und poLency und ucL uppIy
equuIIy us mucI Lo LIe muLerIuIIsL pIIIosopIers wILI wIom Ie Is urguIng,
us Lo LIe IIgIer beIngs (especIuIIy orgunIsms) wIIcI ure oI prImury InLeresL
Lo ArIsLoLIe. Iuve Luken LIIs upproucI, becuuse LIe 'reuIILy` oI LIese IIgIer
beIngs Is one oI LIe mujor Issues under cIuIIenge by LIe muLerIuIIsLs; Ior u
1qo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
convIncIng deIense uguInsL LIe oc:oyo:, ArIsLoLIe wIII Iuve Lo sIow wIy
IIs posLuIuLIon oI IIgIer subsLunLIuI Iorms Is necessury, und LIe muLerIuIIsL
unuIysIs IuIse In LIIs regurd. TIIs Issue wIII be Luken up In CIupLer .
1q1
. 1c:, us Principle oI Motion
n LIIs cIupLer, wIII dIscuss LIe ArIsLoLeIIun unuIysIs oI moLIon und
cIunge, In order Lo sIow Iow c:, cun be un 'p_ x:icco, xc c-cco,,`
und Iow sucI un p_ Is In IucL necessury Lo expIuIn observed pIenomenu.
dIvIde LIIs cIupLer InLo LIree mujor secLIons.
TIe IIrsL oI LIese secLIons wIII dIscuss ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI moLIon In
generuI, und us IL uppIIes Lo LIe moLIon oI beIngs wIIcI Iuve u c:,. n
LIIs secLIon, wIII IIrsL gIve u brIeI descrIpLIon oI LIe mujor poInLs oI LIe
ArIsLoLeIIun LIeory oI moLIon und cIunge, us buckground Ior LIe dIscus-
sIon Lo IoIIow. n LIe second secLIon, wIII InvesLIguLe LIe dIIIIcuIL LopIc oI
ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI LIe reIuLIon beLween LIe mover und LIe moved, In pur-
LIcuIur LIe cuse oI seII-movers. n LIe LIIrd mujor secLIon oI LIIs cIupLer,
wIII Iook uL IowLIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm`
1
occurs In moLIon und cIunge,
sucI LIuL seII-movers cun be seen Lo be genuIne InILIuLors oI cIunge In be-
Ings oLIer LIun LIemseIves. n LIIs secLIon, wIII InvesLIguLe LIe condILIons
Ior LIIs communIcuLIon oI Iorm (In purLIcuIur LoucI or conLucL), LIe dIIIer-
enL wuys In wIIcI LIIs LrunsmIssIon cun occur, und IInuIIy wIII udvunce
u poLenLIuI soIuLIon Lo LIe dIIIIcuILIes reIuLIng Lo LIIs Issue. InuIIy, In LIe
cIupLer`s concIusIon, wIII summurIze Iow LIe dIscoverIes oI LIIs cIupLer
uId In provIdIng un uddILIonuI 'Ieg` Ior ArIsLoLIe`s jusLIIIcuLIon oI LIe exIs-
1
See CIupLer z, puge 1z, Ior cIurIIIcuLIons on my LermInoIogy In LIIs regurd.
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lence oI c:,.
.1 The Aristoteliun unulysis oI motion und chunge
ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI moLIon und cIunge Is one oI IIs mosL InnovuLIve
und ImporLunL conLrIbuLIons Lo LIe pIIIosopIIcuI debuLes oI IIs LIme, us
Ie IImseII poInLs ouL: -: oc oic_, o-o c-c: xc -i p_coi nopc,
yoci c- -c-c. p-oi-c, yp o xc- :ococi np-o: -i 0c:ci xc
-i c:i -i i-oi c(c-pnpcci ooi oi -:ic pi noc0i-c, n nc:pc,...
z
HIs unuIysIs oI moLIon wIII be crILIcuI Ior undersLundIng Iowu nuLuruI sub-
sLunce cun be u mover, boLI oI ILseII und oI oLIers; LIus, In LIIs secLIon, Iuy
ouL u brIeI skeLcI oI IIs LIeory oI moLIon, prIor Lo movIng on LIe unuIysIs
oI LIe possIbIIILy oI seII-moLIon.
.1.1 A brieI look ut Aristotle's theory
A subsLunLIuI mujorILy oI LIe Phsics Is Luken up by ArIsLoLIe`s dIscus-
sIon oI moLIon und cIunge, reIuLed concepLs-sucI us pIuce, LIme, conLInu-
ILy und LIe InIInILe-und LIe resoIuLIon oI severuI nopc: reIuLIng Lo mo-
LIon, sucI us wIeLIer LIere Is un ubsoIuLe IrsL Mover, und LIe resoIuLIon
oI Zeno`s purudoxes. GIven LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius deIIned c:, us u prIncIpIe
oI moLIon und resL, und gIven LIuL LIe possIbIIILy oI moLIon und ILs expIu-
nuLIon were LopIcs oI InLense debuLe durIng IIs LIme, IL Is undersLundubIe
LIuL Ie wouId dedIcuLe sucI u subsLunLIuI porLIon oI IIs work on LIe scIence
oI pIysIcs Lo un expIunuLIon und unuIysIs oI LIIs pIenomenon. As ArIsLoLIe
z
Phsics, 1q1uz-z.
1q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
puLs IL uL LIe begInnIng oI Book oI LIe Phsics, nc o' c:, i cc-:i
p_ x:icco, xc c-c[o,, oc 0ooo, i ncp cc, cc-:, oc ci0ic:i
- cc-: xipc:, icyxcoi yp yioooip, c-, yiocc0c: xc -i c:i.

As noLed In CIupLer 1, ArIsLoLIe proposed IIs LIeory oI LIe 'p_c` In


order Lo uccounL Ior LIe IucL oI cIunge, u IucL eusIIy demonsLruLed by In-
ducLIon: i o' noxcc0o - cc: ni-c ci:c x:iocic cic: ooi o' cx
-, cncyoy,.
q
n order Ior someLIIng Lo come Lo be or puss uwuy, wILIouL
posLuIuLIng comIng Lo be or pussIng uwuy In un ubsoIuLe sense, ArIsLoLIe
posLuIuLed LIuL LIe muLerIuI p_ remuIned InLucL LIrougIouL LIe cIunge,
sucI LIuL someLIIng one In number mIgIL 'move` Irom beIng In u cerLuIn
wuy Lo beIng In unoLIer wuy. ComIng Lo be und pussIng uwuy ure LIus ud-
mILLed, buL onIy In LIe sense oI 'un underIyIng someLIIng comIng Lo be In
some new wuy.` A cerLuIn wuy oI beIng comes Lo be uL LIe IeveI oI LIe Ior-
muI p_, In u beIng In wIIcI LIIs new wuy oI beIng prevIousIy 'exIsLed`
(np_c:) In poLency. TIere Is LIus no rudIcuI comIng Lo be or pussIng uwuy
oI someLIIng Irom noLIIng, buL Irom 'beIng-In-poLency` Lo 'beIng-In-ucL.`
.1. The deIinition oI motion
ArIsLoLIe deIInes moLIonus IoIIows: -o ooic: i-o, ci-c_c:c, -o:o-oi,
xipc, cc-:i...

TIIs concIse deIInILIon oI moLIon Is u mIneIIeId oI dIIIIcuI-


LIes, despILe uppeurunces Lo LIe conLrury. As ArIsLoLIe IImseII Ius suId,
moLIon Is _ccni ci oci, cioc_oipi o cic:.
6
TIe mosL common wuy oI

Phsics, zoob1z-1.
q
Phsics, 18u1-16.

Phsics, zo1u1z.
6
Phsics, zozu1-z.
1qq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
expIuInIng LIe deIInILIonoI moLIonIs Lo IoId LIuL LIe Lermci-c_c:c meuns
'ucLuuIIzuLIon`; LIIs Is LIe InLerpreLuLIon oI Ross, Ior InsLunce. Hence, Ior
Ross und LIose wIo IoIIow IIs Ieud,
;
moLIon Is 'LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI LIuL
wIIcI Is poLenLIuIIy, us sucI.` .e. II LIere Is someLIIng wIIcI Is ucLuuIIy x
und poLenLIuIIy y, moLIon Is LIe mukIng ucLuuI oI ILs y-ness.
8
TIIs InLerpreLuLIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s deIInILIon Ius been cIuIIenged by Kos-
mun, wIo noLes LIuL Ross (und LIose wIo IoIIowIIm) Iuve InLerpreLed LIe
deIInILIon In sucI u wuy us Lo muke IL vucuous, becuuse 'ucLuuIIzuLIon` Is uI-
reudy u process or kInd oI moLIon, und Ience LIe deIInIens uIreudy IncIudes
LIe deIInIendum. Kosmun noLes LIuL AquI-nus mukes u sImIIur uccusuLIon
oI LIose wIo wouId deIIne cIunge us exILus de poLenLIu In ucLum... QuI
In deIInIendo errusse InvenIunLur, eo quod In deIInILIone moLus posuerunL
quuedumquue sunL posLerIoru moLu: exILus enImesL quuedumspecIes mo-
Lus.
q
WuLerIow sImIIurIy crILIcIzes Ross Ior InLerpreLIng ArIsLoLIe us pro-
ducIng u bIuLunLIy cIrcuIur deIInILIon oI moLIon, Ior LIe sume reusons us
Kosmun.
1o
I we ure noL Lo LrunsIuLe ci-c_c:c us 'ucLuuIIzuLIon,` we uppeur Lo run
InLo u conundrum. TIe oLIer possIbIe LrunsIuLIon oI ci-c_c:c Is us 'ucLuu-
IILy,` wIIcI In CIupLer z (p. 1o6) we noLed wus LIe prImury meunIng oI
LIe Lerm, uIong wILI senses meunIng 'perIecLIon,` 'Iuck oI poLency` or 'IuII
;
SucI us E. ZeIIer, P. WIcksLeed und . M. CornIord; cI. WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne,
cnd Aenc, p. 11z.
8
Ross, Aristotle, p. 81; cILed In Kosmun, ArIsLoLIe's DeIInILIon oI MoLIon, p. q1. TIIs
InLerpreLuLIon Is uIso IoIIowed by eur; cI. eur, Aristotle: The Desire to Understcnd,
p. 6o.
q
AquInus, In Phsicorum, Ib. , IecL. z, n. z.
1o
WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, p. 11z.
1q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
reuIness.`
11
BuL us boLI WuLerIow und Kosmun poInL ouL, wIIIe LIe Lerms
'ucLuuIIzuLIon` und 'reuIIzuLIon` cupLure LIe dynumIsmoI cIunge, 'ucLuuIILy`
uppeurs Lo Ieuve IL ouL.
1z
By LrunsIuLIng ci-c_c:c us 'ucLuuIILy`, Iowever,
we obLuIn u deIInILIon oI moLIon LIuL uppeurs Lo deIIne LIe end producL
oI LIe process, und noL LIe process ILseII. or LIe ucLuuIILy oI u pIece oI
bronze`s ubIIILy Lo be u sLuLue Is u sLuLue. L uIso mukes mysLerIous LIe II-
nuI porLIon oI LIe deIInILIon, -o:o-oi. WIuL wouId IL meun Lo be LIe
ucLuuIILy oI u poLency quc poLency, II LIe ucLuuIILy oI u poLency Is jusL LIe
end producL ILseII? TIIs Is LIe dIIIIcuILy wIIcI Ross eL uI. Iud InLended Lo
uvoId by LrunsIuLIng ci-c_c:c us 'ucLuuIIzuLIon,` uL LIe prIce oI mukIng LIe
deIInILIon cIrcuIur.
Ross
1
noLes LIuL ArIsLoLIe uLLempLs Lo cIurIIy LIIs Issue uL LIe end oI
Phsics .1, wIere Ie sLuLes
cio_c-c: yp cxcc-oi -c ci cicpyci -c oc p, ooi - oxooop-i,
xc -o oxooop-o cipyc:c, oxooop-i, oxoopc/, cc-:i | yp
oxoopc:, cipyc:c -o oxooop-o| ox/c -ci ox/c , ox-
oxooop-i cc-:i oxoooc-c: oc - oxooop-i.
1q
Here ArIsLoLIe cIurIIIes LIe meunIng oI (LrunsIuLed InLo EngIIsI eILIer us
'us sucI` or us 'quc`) In reIerence Lo LIe deIInILIon oI moLIon, und In doIng
so resoIves LIe probIems ussocIuLed wILI LrunsIuLIng ci-c_c:c us 'ucLuuII-
Ly` In LIe deIInILIon oI moLIon. or LIe buIIdubIe In poLency Is poLenLIuI,
11
CI. uIso Kosmun, ArIsLoLIe's DeIInILIon oI MoLIon, p. qz.
1z
WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, p. 11; Kosmun, ArIsLoLIe's DeIInILIon oI
MoLIon, p. qq.
1
Ross, CommenLury on ArIsLoLIe's PIysIcs, p. 6.
1q
Phsics, zo1b8-1.
1q6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIe buIIdubIe In ucLuuIILy Is LIe Iouse, buL LIe ucLuuIILy oI LIe buIIdubIe In
poLency quc In poLency meuns we ure reIerrIng Lo noL Lo eILIer oI LIe ex-
Lremes, buL Lo LIe buIIdubIe us IncompIeLe ucLuuIILy, I.e. us sLIII reLuInIng u
purL oI ILs poLency Ior beIng buIIL. AquInus puLs LIe poInL us IoIIows:
Unde neque esL poLenLIu exIsLenLIs In poLenLIu, neque esL ucLus
exIsLenLIs In ucLu, sed esL ucLus exIsLenLIs In poLenLIu: uL per Id
quod dIcILur ucLus, desIgneLur ordo eIus ud unLerIorem poLen-
LIum, eL per Id quod dIcILur In poLenLIu exIsLenLIs, desIgneLur
ordo eIus ud uILerIorem ucLum.
1
TIIs 'ucLuuIILy` oI u poLency quc poLency occurs wILIIn LIe vurIous cu-
LegorIes: ooi -o ci o:o-o, o:o-i, ooc:,, -o oc c(p-o xc -o
i-:xc:ioo 0:-o |ooci yp ioc xo:ii cn' oi c(pc:, xc 0c:,, -o oc
ycip-o xc 0cp-o yicc:, xc 0op, -o oc opp-o op.
16
TIe unuIysIs oI
beIng In Lerms oI poLency und ucL Is LrunsversuI Lo LIe cuLegorIes; us noLed
In CIupLer z, u beIng cun be suId Lo be In ucL or In poLency In severuI oI
LIe cuLegorIes. TIus, ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL moLIon ox cc-: oc xipc:, ncp -
npyc-c c-c[c: yp c - c-c[oi xc-' occi xc- noci xc-
no:i xc- -noi.
1;
n LIIs conLexL, ArIsLoLIe InLroduces severuI ImporLunL Lerms Lo descrIbe
LIe Lwo beIngs InvoIved In LIe moLIon (Ior ArIsLoLIe uIwuys unuIyzes moLIon
In Lerms oI puIrs: LIe mover und LIe moved). IrsL, we cun speuk In Lerms
oI 'ugenL` und 'puLIenL` (no:p-:xi und nc0p-:xi), wIIcI reIer Lo LIe kInds
1
AquInus, In Phsicorum, Ib. , IecL. z, n. . CI. uIso eur, Aristotle: The Desire to
Understcnd, p. 61 Ior u sImIIur expIunuLIon oI LIe directionclit oI moLIon.
16
Phsics, zo1u1-1q.
1;
Phsics, zoob-.
1q;
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
oI poLency exIsLIng In LIe beIngs InvoIved. TIe 'ugenL` Is LIe beIng wIIcI
Ius un ucLIve poLency, I.e. wIIcI currenLIy Ius LIe Iorm In ucL, und LIe 'pu-
LIenL` Is LIe beIng wILI u pussIve poLency, LIe beIng In wIIcI LIe poLency Is
beIng brougIL InLo ucL. Second, we cun speuk In Lerms oI 'mover` und 'mo-
ved` (x:ioi und x:ip-i). TIIs wuy oI speukIng IIgIIIgILs LIe IucL LIuL LIe
cIunge Is occurrIng In LIe 'moved`; In ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs, LIe 'mover` does
noL move under LIe sume uccounL: cc-i xipc:, ci - x:ip- ci-c_c:c
yp cc-: -o-oo xc| n -o x:ip-:xo.
18
. SelI movers und things thut move themselves
n LIIs secLIon oI my LIesIs, wIII dIscuss LIe Issues LIuL urIse Irom ArI-
sLoLIe`s dIscussIon oI movers und moLIon In Books V und V oI LIe Ph-
sics, us weII us LexLs IromDe motu cnimclium, De cnimc und LIe Nicomc-
checn Ethics. wIII begIn wILI u Iook uL wIeLIer ArIsLoLIe udmILs LIe pos-
sIbIIILy oI seII-movers, IoIIowed by un exumInuLIon oI Iow ArIsLoLIe In IucL
deIends LIe exIsLence oI nuLuruI seII-movers. conLInue by dIscussIng wIuL
IL meuns, In ArIsLoLeIIun Lerms, Lo be u seII-mover, und Iow unImuIs ure Lo
be consIdered us seII-movers, In purLIcuIur IocusIng on possIbIe resoIuLIons
Ior probIemuLIc uspecLs oI LIe ArIsLoLeIIun LIeory.
TIe exIsLence (or non-exIsLence) oI seII-movers Is purLIcuIurIy Impor-
LunL Ior LIe cuse uguInsL LIe c:ooyo:. ArIsLoLIe`s muLerIuIIsL opponen-
Ls, In purLIcuIur DemocrILus und EmpedocIes, usserL LIuL LIese uppurenLIy
seII-movIng orgunIsms ure noL movers per se, buL ruLIer LIuL LIe IorLuILous
18
Phsics, zozu1-1q. TIe mover muy Indeed be moved, us LIe sLIck wIIcI moves LIe
sLone Is moved by LIe Iund, buL IL Is noL moved quc mover, buL ruLIer quc mobIIe.
1q8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
combInuLIonoI LIe busIc eIemenLs (or uLoms) resuILs InIurge-scuIe uggregu-
Les LIuL move In wuys cIurucLerIsLIc oI orgunIsms, buL wILIouL LIere beIng
uny purLIcuIur 'wIuLness` presenL LIuL couId serve us u genuIne mover. TIe
uLoms (or, Ior EmpedocIes, LIe eIemenLs, moved by 'ove` und 'SLrIIe`) ure
LIe onIy genuIne movers, und cIunce Is LIe cuuse oI LIe uppurenL 'nuLuruI`
orderIIness we observe In LIe worId: cc oc -:ic, o xc -opcio -ooc xc -i
xcoi ni-oi c-:i-c: - c-c-oi n -c-o-oo yp ycic0c: -i oipi
xc -i xipc:i -i o:cxpiccci c, -c-pi -i -(:i - ni.
1q
TIus, seen Irom
LIe perspecLIve oI LIe oc:oyo:, ArIsLoLIe wIII Iuve LIe burden oI provIng
LIuL LIere exIsL IInILe, subIunur seII-movers LIuL ure noL mereIy uggregu-
Les oI eIemenLs. HIs prooI oI LIeIr exIsLence wIII be un ImporLunL sLep In
demonsLruLIng LIuL LIere ure IIgIer cc:, LIun jusL LIe eIemenLs. I, Ior
InsLunce, LIe c:, oI Iorse Is genuIneIy un InILIuLor oI LIe moLIons cIuruc-
LerIsLIc oI Iorses (wIen LIIs c:, Is ucLuuIIzIng u body so us Lo compose un
ucLuuI, IndIvIduuI Iorse-Lype subsLunce) LIen we Iuve un InsLunce oI u Lrue
subsIsLIng IIgIer unILy LIuL cunnoL be reduced Lo LIe ucLIons oI eIemenLs
In uggreguLe.
..1 Are selI-movers possible?
The urgoment oI 3K\VLFV VII.1
TIe IIrsL quesLIon LIuL needs Lo be unswered Is wIeLIer In IucL ArIsLoLIe
needs, or In IucL uIIows Ior, seII-movers In IIs sysLem. or wIIIe Ie speuks
IrequenLIy ubouL - c- c- x:ioi und x:ic c- cco- In LIe Phsics
1q
Phsics, 1q6uz-z8.
1qq
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
und eIsewIere, LIere ure uIso LexLs wIIcI uppeur Lo demonsLruLe LIe Incon-
sIsLency oI LIe very noLIon oI seII-movers. As Wurdy puLs IL In The Chcin
oj Chcne,
nu preIImInury secLIon|oI Phsics V.1| (zq1bq-qq J zq1bz;-
), ArIsLoLIe wurns us oII uscrIbIng seII-moLIon Lo unyLIIng jusL
becuuse IL moves us u wIoIe und noL us u resuIL oI unyLIIng
exLernuI. SInce seII-moLIon couId IurdIy be oLIerwIse descrI-
bed, LIIs dIrecLIon umounLs Lo ArIsLoLIe's IIrmIy wILIdruwIng
LIe concepL IromcIrcuIuLIon, IorbIddIng IL uny uppIIcuLIon wIu-
Lsoever. n IucL, perIups Ie goes IurLIer, noL jusL denyIng LIuL
unyLIIng cun be properIy descrIbed us u seII-mover, buL uIso Im-
pIyIng LIuL LIe Ideu Is IncoIerenL: LIere Is no wuy oI descrIbIng
un ImugInubIe movemenL wIIcI does noL LreuL IL us un InLeruc-
LIon beLween purLs.
zo
TIe urgumenL Lo wIIcI Wurdy Is reIerrIng Is LIuL expounded In Phsics
V.1, wIIcI uppeurs Lo eIImInuLe uII possIbIIILy oI bodIes LIuL move LIem-
seIves per se. ArIsLoLIe urgues LIuL, gIven u supposed seII-mover AB, wIIcI
Is movIng xc0' c-, und noL by u purL oI IL movIng, AB cun be dIvIded, be-
cuuse uII mobIIes ure conLInuous und LIus dIvIsIbIe. BuL suppose we dIvIde
LIe mover uL C, sucI LIuL we Iuve LIe purLs ACund CB. I CBresLs, ABmusL
uIso resL (becuuse AB wus posILed us movIng us u wIoIe, und LIe wIoIe cun-
noL move wIIIe u purL does noL). BuL II LIe wIoIe musL resL becuuse u purL
resLs, LIe wIoIe cunnoL be movIng xc0' c-, buL Is dependenL uponLIe purL
zo
Wurdy, The Chcin oj Chcne, p. qq.
1o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Ior ILs moLIon. AguIn, II we posIL LIuL one purL (CB) Is u mover und unoLIer
(AC) Is moved, LIen LIe mover Is eILIer unmoved or moved; II CBIs moved,
LIen us mover IL Is noL un unmoved mover, und Is moved by unoLIer, und
LIe wIoIe Is noL u genuIne seII-mover. BuL II CB Is noL moved, LIen IL musL
eILIer be u seII mover, or be resLIng. I IL Is resLIng, AB cunnoL move eILIer,
Ior LIe wIoIe cunnoL move wIen LIe purL resLs (per LIe posLuIuLe ubove).
BuL II IL Is u seII-mover, IL Is suscepLIbIe Lo LIe sume unuIysIs, Ior us u mo-
bIIe, IL Is dIvIsIbIe, und we Iuve un InIInILe cIuIn oI 'seII-movers,` none oI
wIIcI moves ILseII. TIus, no dIvIsIbIe beIng cun move ILseII xc0' c-. BuL
uII body Is dIvIsIbIe; ergo, no body cun move ILseII quc body.
Wurdy`s LIesIs Is LIuL book V Is un InLegruI purL oI LIe Phsics, LIuL IL
beIongs wIere IL does, und Is sLrongIy IInked boLI Lo book V und Lo boo-
ks V-V.
z1
Hence, LIe docLrIne oI LIe ImpossIbIIILy oI genuIne seII-movers
musL uIso underIIe ArIsLoLIe`s dIscussIon In Phsics V.q-6. SorubjI IoI-
Iows Wurdy In LIIs InLerpreLuLIon: ...In uppurenL seII-movers wIuL Is mo-
ved Is moved by someLIIng eIse.
zz
ArIsLoLIe`s use oI LIe Lerms - c- c-
x:ioi und x:ic c- cco- wouId Iuve Lo be Luken Lo reIer Lo mereIy
cppcrent seII-movers, und LIe prooIs wIIcI Iuve been LrudILIonuIIy LIou-
gIL Lo prove LIe exIsLence oI subIunur (I.e. unImuI) seII-movers musL be
sImpIy preIImInury sLeps In LIe process oI provIng LIe exIsLence oI u sIn-
z1
bId., p. 8q; cI. uIso OIsIewsky, SeII-Movers und Unmoved Movers, p. qo.
zz
SorubjI, nLroducLIon Lo Dn Aristotle Phsics ;, p. 1. Here, SorubjI Is purupIrusIng
LIe [ versIon oI LIe LexL oI Phsics V.1-, wIIcI druws u sIurper concIusIon ubouL LIe
necessILy Ior supposed 'seII-movers` Lo be moved by someLIIng else: cnc oc - x:iocioi
n -:io, x:ic-c:, iyxp xc - x:iocioi ni ci -n x:icc0c: n' oo, PIysIcs V, ,
zqzu1-1;. TIe c versIon sImpIy sLuLes LIuL ni iyxp - x:iocioi no -:io, x:icc0c:,
PIysIcs V, , zqzuq6. GuLIrIe uIso InLerpreLs ArIsLoLIe us denyIng LIe possIbIIILy oI
seII-movers; cI. GuLIrIe, nLroducLIon Lo Dn the Hectens, p. xxI.
11
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
gIe IIrsL mover, wILIouL purLs or mugnILude, wIIcI ArIsLoLIe underLukes Lo
demonsLruLe concIusIveIy In Phsics V.1o.
OLIer uuLIors Iuve unuIyzed LIe sLuLus oI Phsics V dIIIerenLIy. or
InsLunce, Ross IoIds LIuL LIere ure severuI IndIcuLIons LIuL LIe book Is noL
un InLegruI purL oI LIe Phsics, buL Is, even II IL be by ArIsLoLIe, un excre-
scence on LIe muIn pIun.
z
nsoIur us duLIng Phsics V, Ross mukes LIe
suggesLIon LIuL IL muy be u composILIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s Assos perIod, sIorLIy
uILer IeuvIng LIe Acudemy uL ALIens.
zq
Jueger noLes LIe presence oI oLIer
members oI LIe PIuLonIc Acudemy uL Assos,
z
wIIcI wouId uccounL Ior LIe
sLrong PIuLonIc InIIuences OIsIewsky noLes In Phsics V, wIere (uccor-
dIng Lo boLI OIsIewsky`s und Ross`s uccounLs) ArIsLoLIe Is sLIII enguged In u
cIose dIuIogue wILI LIe docLrInes oI PIuLo.
z6
urLIermore, OIsIewsky IoIds
LIuL, due Lo ILs eurIy composILIon, we ougIL noL Lo be surprIsed Lo IInd mu-
ny uspecLs oI IuLer ArIsLoLeIIun docLrIne ubsenL In Phsics V, In purLIcuIur
IIs sLundurd uccounL oI nuLuruI moLIon, LIe docLrIne oI LIe IyIomorpIIc
consLILuLIon oI nuLuruI beIngs, und LIe noLIons oI poLency und ucL LIuL un-
z
Ross, PIysIcs, nLroducLIon., p. 1.
zq
IbId., p. 18; cI. Jueger, Aristoteles: Grundleun, p. 116.
z
IbId., p. 11;.
z6
OIsIewsky, SeII-Movers und Unmoved Movers, pp. qq-qo; cI. uIso Ross, PIy-
sIcs, nLroducLIon., p. 1;. OIsIewsky IIsLs oLIer eIemenLs oI PIuLonIc InIIuence, sucI us
LIe dIscussIon oI IocomoLIon us combInuLIon und sepuruLIon ([, zqbzq), und LIe unuIysIs
oI LIe vIrLues oI bodIes us mIxLure und symmeLry oI prImury quuIILIes (c, zq6b-6). L Is
ucudemIcs, noL perIpuLeLIcs, LIuL LuIked In Lerms oI mIxLures und proporLIons, und oI com-
bInuLIon und sepuruLIon, OIsIewsky, SeII-Movers und Unmoved Movers, pp. qq-qoo.
He concIudes LIuL LIe concerns ubouL uILeruLIon Iere mIgIL pIuusIbIy Iuve been promp-
Led by LIe uccounLs oI LIe properLy unuIysIs oI comIng Lo be us presenLed In LIe Timceus.
UndersLood In LIIs conLexL, uILer LIe Sophist, und uILer LIe Ccteories, we couId see LIe
sLruggIes wILI uILeruLIon In V- us ArIsLoLIe`s uLLempL Lo come Lo Lerms wILI cIunge In re-
IuLIon Lo IIs own LreuLmenL oI cuLegorIzuLIon on LIe one Iund und wILI PIuLo`s new-Iound
eIIorLs Lo uccounL Ior LIe nuLure oI cIunge on LIe oLIer, IbId., p. qoo.
1z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
derIIe LIese docLrInes.
z;
TIus unuIyzed, IL Is no surprIse LIuL, us Ross sLuLes,
book vII remuIns wILIIn LIe regIon oI LIe muLerIuI und does noL unIoId LIe
noLIon oI un unmoved mover wIIcI moves In u non-pIysIcuI wuy.
z8
I OIsIewsky`s und Ross`s uccounL oI LIe eurIy orIgIn und PIuLonIc orIen-
LuLIon oI Phsics V Is correcL, we cun undersLund wIy LIe cIupLer 1 ur-
gumenL (especIuIIy In LIe [ versIon) concIudes LIuL seII-movers (InLerpre-
Led us LIIngs wIIcI move LIemseIves us u wIoIe) ure ImpossIbIe. ArIsLoLIe
Is uLLuckIng LIe PIuLonIc docLrIne oI LIe souI us u seII-mover wIIcI boLI
moves ILseII us u wIoIe und Is moved us u wIoIe.
zq
ArIsLoLIe does noL In-
Lroduce, In LIe Phsics V.1 urgumenL, LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween Iorm und
muLLer LIuL wouId Iuve uIIowed IIm Lo resoIve LIe Issue oI Iow - c_c
cun be consIdered us genuIne seII-movers, wILI LIe souI-Iorm us unmoved
mover und LIe body-muLLer us LIuL wIIcI Is moved. Hence, ruLIer LIun IoI-
IowIng Wurdy eL uI. In InLerpreLIng Phsics V.1 us exposIng LIe docLrIne
oI seII-moLIon us IncoIerenL simpliciter, we need mereIy InLerpreL IL us un
eurIy sLuge on LIe wuy Lo LIe muLure ArIsLoLeIIun docLrIne oI IyIomorpII-
cuIIy composed seII-movers LIuL move und ure moved, buL noL In LIe sume
respecL und uL LIe sume LIme.
z;
bId., p. qoq. AccordIng Lo OIsIewsky (IbId.), LIe c versIon oI Phsics V Lukes sLeps
Lowurds u IyIomorpIIc concepLIon oI LIe composILIon oI nuLuruI objecLs, buL remuIns very
poorIy deveIoped.
z8
Ross, PIysIcs, nLroducLIon., pp. 16-1;.
zq
Ross, CommenLury on ArIsLoLIe's PIysIcs, p. 668; OIsIewsky, SeII-Movers und Un-
moved Movers, pp. qoq-. CI. PIuLo, Phcedrus, zqc-d, ioi o - c- x:ioi, -c ox
nocnoi cco-, ono-c pyc: x:iocioi, xc -o, o:, cc x:ic-c: -o-o npy xc p_
x:ipcco,.
1
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
Redoction to the Iirst Lnmoved Mover?
TIe quesLIon mIgIL urIse us Lo wIy ArIsLoLIe beIIeves LIuL uII moLIon
Is noL uILImuLeIy LruceubIe Lo LIe one IrsL Mover us LIe InILIuLor, und In-
sLeud beIIeves LIuL Ie musL posLuIuLe InLermedIuLe seII-movers. L wouId be
LempLIng Lo sImpIy sLuLe LIuL, wIIIe IL Is Lrue LIuL LIere Is Indeed u IIrsL mo-
ver Ior every moLIon we observe, LIuL LIIs IIrsL mover Is none oLIer LIun LIe
uILImuLe IrsL Mover oI everyLIIng, und LIuL beIngs sucI us men und unI-
muIs ure no more genuIne orIgInuLors oI moLIonLIunIs LIe sLIck InLIe Iund
oI LIe mun, or LIe wuII LIuL cuuses u buII Lo rebound. ndeed, LIIs wouId
uppeur Lo be LIe posILIon LIuL ArIsLoLIe Lukes In Phsics V.6, wIere Ie
usserLs LIuL unImuIs, In movIng, ure In IucL moved by exLernuI, envIron-
menLuI IucLors.
o
I uII moLIons oI supposed seII-movers, sucI us unImuIs,
ure In IucL LIe resuIL oI envIronmenLuI movemenL (wIIcI Is In Lurn Lruceu-
bIe Lo LIe moLIons oI LIe ceIesLIuI spIeres), LIen IL wouId uppeur Lo be more
proper Lo suy LIuL LIere Is onIy one Lrue IrsL Mover, und LIuL 'seII-movers`
ure onIy uppurenLIy movers oI LIemseIves. TIIs wouId be u kInd oI 'Demo-
crILeun` reducLIon oI seII-moLIon: uL LIe IeveI oI superIIcIuI uppeurunces,
we see LIIngs LIuL move LIemseIves; uL u deeper IeveI oI unuIysIs, Iowever,
LIere ure conjuncLIons oI numerous envIronmenLuI IucLors LIuL ure LIe Lrue
expIunuLIons oI wIuLever moLIon uppeurs Lo be u 'seII-moLIon.`
1
o
-o-o o oc c[ci, -: ci xipc:i c- x:ic, xc -: -c-pi o xopo,. o yp c( c-o -
c-:oi, ' cic:c:i c: x:icc:, oc:xc -o, o:,, , o x:ioi-c: o:' c-i, ooi c(pc:, 0c:,
icnio, c x:ic-c: -i oi cxcc-oi pcoi xc o x:iocioi -i ' c-o xipc:i, Phsics,
zqbq-1.
1
TIIs possIbIIILy becomes uII LIe more cogenL, sInce ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI moLIon Im-
pIIes LIe sImuILuneILy oI ucLIon und pussIon, und LIus LIuL uny gIven cuusuI cIuIn Is In
sImuILuneous moLIon us un enLIreLy. SInce LIe exIsLence oI moLIon In LIe unIverse uL uny
gIven momenL In LIme Is uIwuys LruceubIe Lo LIe IrsL Mover, IL wouId LIus seem possI-
1q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ArIsLoLIe, Iowever, does noL seek Lo perIorm u reducLIon oI LIIs sorL.
z
nsLeud, Ie cIuIms LIuL cerLuIn nuLuruI subsLunces, specIIIcuIIy LIose wIIcI
Iuve IIIe, ure genuIne InILIuLors oI cerLuInkInds oI cIunge InLIemseIves und
In oLIer beIngs, und ure noL sImpIy InLermedIury movers (us Is LIe sLIck,
wIen move LIe sLone by meuns oI LIe sLIck), nor uccIdenLuIIy moved, us
LIe componenLs oI u dusL cIoud move LogeLIer, wILIouL LIere beIng u c:,
oI dusL-cIoud needed Lo expIuIn LIe uppurenL unILy oI moLIon. ArIsLoLIe
IdenLIIIes LIese seII-movers wILI - -i c_oi xc - -i oi yio,.

He usserLs LIuL IL Is cIeur LIuL LIere sucI beIngs exIsL, ooi -oioi -:, c
xc op:x:, ci:c p_c| -i x:i-oi ci x:ioi-oi o, xc no -i c- cco-
x:ioi-oi, 0cpc-c:...
q
buL LIIs Is noL un usserLIon LIuL wus unconLesLed by
IIs conLemporurIes.
ArIsLoLIe wIII Iuve Lo urgue Ior IIs posILIon, Ior LIe Issue InquesLIon-Ior
LIe oc:oyo:-Is precIseIy uhether LIere exIsL sucI beIngs wILI souIs ubIe
Lo move LIem. WIIIe ArIsLoLIe Ius cIuImed LIuL IL Is cIeurIy LIe cuse LIuL
LIere ure sucI beIngs,

u oc:oyo, mIgIL respond by remIndIng ArIsLoLIe


bIe Lo perIorm sucI u 'DemocrILeun reducLIon` by eIImInuLIng uny reIerence Lo purLIcuIur
seII-movers.
z
TIIs Is becuuse LIere Is u dIsLIncLIon In LIe Lypes oI cuusuIILy InvoIved: LIe IrsL Mover
Is un ImmobIIe IInuI cuuse; unImuIs, on LIe oLIer Iund, ure noL ImmobIIe IInuI cuuses,
wIIIe LIey cun be ImmobIIe movers In regurds Lo LIe movIng or eIIIcIenL cuuse.

Phsics, zqb-. NoLe LIuL noL uII moLIons by orgunIsms ure seII-moLIons; ArIsLo-
LIe sees muny oI LIeIr moLIons us beIng cuused by exLernuI IucLors: -c-c oc xc o(ci
ncpc_c no-c cio_c-c: xipc:i cyyyicc0c: occi o,, o: - ci -o-o:, pi , -o-o
co[cioi |xip-c yp no-c i-c x:ic-c: n:i, , ooxc, -o-o o oc c[ci, -: ci xipc:i c-
x:ic, xc -: -c-pi o xopo, o yp c( c-o - c-:oi, ' cic:c:i c: x:icc:, oc:xc -o,
o:,, , o x:ioi-c: o:' c-i, ooi c(pc:, 0c:, icnio, c x:ic-c: -i oi cxcc-oi pcoi
xc o x:iocioi -i ' c-o xipc:i. -o-oo o' c-:oi - ncp:_oi xc no -i cc:i-oi, ooi
cioi -po nc--oip, ci yp xc0coooc:i, o:cxp:ioip, o' cycpoi-c: xc x:ioc:i cco-o,,
-, np-p, p_, c(o0ci ocp,, o: ox c x:ioi-c: coic_, ' c-i o yp - x:ioi, c-
x:iocioi xc c-c[oi np, cxcc-oi -i x:ioi-oi cco-. ArIsLoLIe, Phsics, zqbq-b18.
q
Phsics, z8bo-.

pci oc xc cicp, i-c -o:c-c x:ic c- cco-, ooi - -i c_oi xc - -i oi


1
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
LIuL muny LIIngs cppecr Lo be cIeur, unLII u cIoser Iook Is Luken uL LIe Issue.
PerIups we ure sImpIy unubIe, us yeL, Lo IdenLIIy LIe precIse IucLors wIIcI
cuuse moLIon In LIe so-cuIIed 'seII-movers`; LIIs does noL, by uny meuns,
provIde prooI LIuL sucI IucLors do noL exIsL. TIereIore, IL wouId be useIuI
Lo Iuve u demonsLruLIon LIuL LIere ure kInds oI IInILe moLIons-produced
by IInILe subIunur beIngs-wIIcIure noL reducIbIe Lo LIe uILImuLe cuusuLIve
source In LIe nuLuruI worId: LIe ceIesLIuI moLIons, In purLIcuIur LIe move-
menL oI LIe sun uIong LIe ecIIpLIc, wIIcI Is responsIbIe Ior LIe comIng Lo be
und pussIng uwuy oI LIe eIemenLs, us weII us LIe comIng Lo be und pussIng
uwuy oI orgunIsms In LIeIr IIIe cycIes.
6
n LIe IoIIowIng secLIon, wIII de-
scrIbe ArIsLoLIe`s uLLempLs Lo prove LIe exIsLence oI unImuI (und oI course
Iumun) seII-moLIon.
.. A prooI Ior the existence oI selI-movers
A IIrsL sLep In provIng LIe exIsLence oI seII-movers Is by sIowIng LIuL
uII IndIvIduuI moLIons musL LermInuLe In un unmoved mover.
;
ArIsLoLIe
gIves u number oI dIIIerenL urgumenLs Ior LIIs posILIon. n Phsics V.1
(zqzuqq-zqu1), Ie urgues LIuL II LIere Is no IIrsL mover, LIere wIII be
InIInILe moLIon In IInILe LIme, wIIcI Is ImpossIbIe.
8
SInce ArIsLoLIe posLu-
yio,, Phsics, zqb-.
6
d: xc ox np-p op c-c cc- ycicco, xc 0op,, ' xc- -i o(i xxoi ci
-c- yp xc - coic_, cc-: xc - x:icc0c: oo x:icc:, iyxp yp, c yc c cc-c: coic_,
yicc:, xc 0op, c i -: x:icc0c:, ic cn:cnoc:i c-c: c c-c[oc, oo o', no,
0-cpoi co[ci ioi, ArIsLoLIe, Dn Generction cnd Corruption, 6uz-b.
;
TIIs unmoved mover need noL be LIe ubsoIuLe IrsL Mover, Ior seII-movers ure unmo-
ved quc InILIuLors oI moLIon, buL cun be moved In muny oLIer wuys; cI. ArIsLoLIe, Phsics,
zqbq-bzo, wIere ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL unImuIs ure noL orIgInuLors oI moLIon ex nihilo.
8
cnc oc ni - x:iocioi iyxp x:icc0c: n -:io,, ci y -: x:i-c: -i ci -n xipc:i n'
oo x:iooioo, xc n:i - x:ioi n' oo x:iooioo x:i-c: xxcio ' c-poo xc c o-o,,
16
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IuLes sImuILuneous moLIon (I.e. wIen A moves B, und B moves C, A und C
ure movIng uL LIe exucL sume LIme),
q
Ie cun sIow LIuL II LIere Is u moLIon
M
0
, wIIcI Lukes LIme t, und LIere Is un InIInILe number oI movers M
1
...M

sLreLcIIng buck uIong LIe cuusuI cIuIn wIIcI ends uL M


0
, uII oI LIese mo-
vers wIII be movIng uL LIme t. BuL LIere cun be no ucLuuI InIInILy, us Ie Ius
uIreudy sIown In Book .
qo
TIus uII cuusuI cIuIns musL be IInILe, endIng
In someLIIng wIIcI moves buL Is noL ILseII moved. WIIIe LIIs prooI does
noL dIrecLIy uddress seII-movers, IL does sIow LIe necessILy Ior un unmo-
ved mover uL LIe Ieud oI uny cuusuI cIuIn, u crILIcuI sLep In IIs evenLuuI
demonsLruLIon oI LIe o_ us LIe unmoved mover oI unImuI bodIes.
A second ImporLunL poInL regurdIng moLIon In LIe ArIsLoLeIIun LIeory
InvoIves LIe IucL LIuL LIe mover (quc mover) does noL, und cunnoL, move
ILseII. SInce LIuL wIIcI communIcuLes Iorm musL Iuve LIuL Iorm ILseII In
ucL,
q1
und LIuL wIIcIIs InucL under one uccounL cunnoL be InpoLency under
LIe sume uccounL, LIe mover musL be, under some uccounL, dIsLIncL Irom
LIe LIIng moved:
oic-oi o - c- c- x:ioi ni- x:ici c- c- po:-o yp i
oi xc po: -i c-i opi, i i xc -ooi - coc:, xc o:o-o
iyxp cic -: - np-oi x:ioi, xc [coc:i c, nc:poi... cp i nc:po, ci ncncpcci, -o-o
o' oic-oi, IbId., zqzu1;-b1;.
q
CI. VIgo, ArIsLLeIes y Iu IInILud exLensIve deI LIempo, p. 18: Ar. concIbe dIcIu Lo-
LuIIdud de cuusus o condIcIones (tr. Ios moLores y Io movIdo en cudu cuso por eIIos) como
un sIsLemu dudo todo cl mismo tiempo, en cudu InsLunLe de Iu sucesIn LemporuI, y no co-
mo unu cudenu de cuusus o condIcIones sucesIvus que, en LunLo cuusudus o condIcIonudus,
remILIerun, u su vez, en cudu cuso, u unu cuusu o condIcIn unLerIor en eI LIempo.
qo
' oic-oi - ci-cc_c i nc:poi noci yp -: cic: icyxcoi. xc- co[c[px, pc
np_c: - nc:poi. ' c o-o,, cpp-c: -: ox cio_c-c: c- yc:i p_i, ' co[[pxc,
-i pc - p-:oi, Phsics, zoquz-zq.
q1
coo, oc c occ-c -: - x:ioi, -o: -oc -o:ioc -ocioc, cc-c: p_ xc c-:oi -,
x:icco,, -ci x:i, ooi ci-cc_c i0pono, no:c cx -o ooic: i-o, i0pnoo i0ponoi,
Phsics, zozuq-1z.
1;
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
xc o:o, c-c o:ocxo: i xc ci0io: c, xc y:o: xc y:o:-o
-i c-i yc:ci. c-: o:p:c-c: -: x:ic-c: - x:ip-i -o-o o' cc-i
ooic: x:iocioi, ox ci-cc_c, - oc ooic: c, ci-c_c:ci [coc:,
cc-:i o' xipc:, ci-c_c:c x:ip-o -c,. - oc x:ioi op cicpyc
cc-:i, ooi 0cpcic: - 0cpi xc o, ycii - c_oi - coo,. c0'
c - c- xc- - c- 0cpi cc-c: xc o 0cpi.
qz
TIIs ImpIIes LIuL In uny possIbIe seII-mover, LIuL wIIcI Is moved musL be
In some wuy dIsLIncL Irom LIuL wIIcI moves.
Bused on LIese Lwo premIses, In Phsics V. z6uzq-b ArIsLoLIe IIrsL
dIrecLIy urgues In Iuvor oI LIe exIsLence oI seII-movers, derIvIng LIe neces-
sILy Ior un c- c- x:ioi, by noLIng LIuL un InIInILe cuusuI cIuIn wIII noL
Iuve unyLIIng LIuL begIns LIe moLIon, und LIus LIe moLIon wIII noL begIn.
TIereIore, u seII-mover musL be uL LIe IeudoI u cuusuI cIuIn, undLIIs cIuIn
musL be IInILe:
c oi x:iocii -: x:ic, iyxp c-ic: xc c, nc:poi ic: c yp
[cx-ppc x:ic - x:icc0c: n -, _c:p,, _cp x:ic -i [cx-ppci
c oc xc -c- o x:ic, xc -c-pi c-cpi -: - x:ioi. -ci o -:i:
x:i c c-cpoi, iyxp cic: np-cpoi - c- c- x:ioi. c oi x:ic-c:
ci -o-o, o oc - x:ioi c-, iyxp c- c- x:ici c-c xc
xc- -o-oi -i yoi -o: c0, - x:iocioi n -o c- x:ioi-o,
x:ic-c:, cp_c-c no-c c, - -o:o-oi.
q
ArIsLoLIe cIuIms LIuL LIIs urgumenL, Iowever, dIrecLIy jusLIIIes LIe need Lo
posLuIuLe u seII-mover (LIe penuILImuLe mover In LIe cIuIn Is moved n
qz
Phsics, z;bz-b1o.
q
bId., z6uz-b1.
18
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
-o c- x:ioi-o, x:ic-c:). BuL seII-movers ure noL LIe sume us LIe eLernuI
IrsL Mover, Ior seII-movers ure dIvIded InLo u purL LIuL moves und u purL
LIuL Is moved, und LIus LIey musL be bodIIy (Ior LIuL wIIcI Is moved musL
be un InIInILeIy dIvIsIbIe body
qq
) TIus, Ie cun cIuIm Iere Lo Iuve dIrecLIy
proven LIe exIsLence oI IInILe seII-movers.
ArIsLoLIe provIdes u second, reIuLed prooI uL V., z6bz;-z;-uz;.
Suppose LIuL In order Lo move, u mover musL ILseII be In moLIon. TIIs gI-
ves us Lwo possIbIIILIes: LIe mover Is beIng moved by LIe sume moLIon wILI
wIIcI IL moves, or eIse IL Is beIng moved by unoLIer kInd oI moLIon. EILIer
uILernuLIve Ieuds Lo ubsurdILIes. n LIe IIrsL cuse, we wIII be Iorced Lo IoId
LIuL LIe LeucIer, wIIIe LeucIIng, Is beIng LuugIL LIe very sume Iesson Ie
ImpurLs, or LIuL Ie wIo LIrows Is uIso beIng LIrown. TIIs Is cIeurIy un ub-
surdILy. BuL so Is LIe oLIer possIbIIILy: LIuL LIe mover Is beIng moved by
unoLIer specIes oI moLIon; e.g. LIe mover LIuL cuuses IocomoLIon Is ILseII
In Increuse, und so on In LIe sume munner. TIe ubsurdILy urIses becuu-
se LIe Iorms oI moLIon ure IImILed In number, so LIuL we wIII evenLuuIIy
cIrcIe buck Lo LIe orIgInuI Lype oI moLIon by wIIcI LIe mover moves, und
cc- xi c c0, cp - poi pcc0c: xc o:ocxcc0c: - o:ocxoi.
q
As u re-
suIL, we ure obIIged Lo udmIL LIuL LIe IIrsL LIIng wIIcI Is In moLIon musL
derIve ILs moLIon Irom eILIer someLIIng wIIcI Is uL resL, or Irom ILseII.
q6
ArIsLoLIe concIudes by sLuLIng LIuL II IL were necessury Lo consIder wIeLIer
qq
icyxcoi o - x:iocioi nci cic: o:c:pc-i c, c o:c:pc- -o-o yp ooc:x-c: np-cpoi
ci -o, xc0oo -o, ncp cco,, -: ni - xc0' c- x:iocioi coic_,, ArIsLoLIe, Phsics,
z;bz-b1o.
q
Phsics, z;uq-1o.
q6
c-c -o: n pcoi-o, x:ipcc-c: - x:iocioi np-oi, c- cco- x:ipcc:, Phsics,
z;uz;-z8.
1q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
u LIIng wIIcI wus moved by unoLIer or u seII-mover wus LIe cuuse und
prIncIpIe oI moLIon, uII wouId decIde Ior LIe seII-mover, sInce LIuL wIIcI
Is IndependenLIy u cuuse Is uIwuys prIor Lo LIuL wIIcI Is dependenL upon
unoLIer.
q;
urIey noLes LIuL LIese Lwo prooIs Iuve someLIIng In common: LIey
begIn Irom LIe proposILIon LIuL we cun dIsLInguIsI cIuIns oI movers, I.e.
wIere A Is moved by B wIIcI Is moved by C. GIven LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius uIreu-
dy demonsLruLed LIuL IL Is ImpossIbIe Ior un InIInILe cuusuI cIuIn Lo be In
moLIon uL u sIngIe LIme, LIe cuusuI cIuIn musL come Lo u sLop, wILI u mo-
ver wIIcI Is noL moved by unoLIer buL by ILseII. urIey expresses surprIse
uL LIe IucL LIuL ArIsLoLIe wouId summurIze LIe resuILs oI LIese prooIs wILI
LIe dIsjuncLIve expressIon c-c -o: n pcoi-o, x:ipcc-c: - x:iocioi
np-oi, c- cco- x:ipcc:,
q8
sInce LIe IIrsL dIsjuncL couId be Luken Lo re-
Ier Lo LIe uILImuLe Unmoved Mover oI LIe unIverse. He sLuLes, Iowever,
LIuL LIe reuson wIy ArIsLoLIe cun regurd LIIs dIsjuncLIve concIusIon us LIe
sume us LIe oLIer Is cIeur Irom ILs conLexL In cIupLers q und , In wIIcI
LIe concepL oI u seII-mover Is unuIyzed. As u wIoIe, u LIIng muy be suId Lo
move ILseII; buL wILIIn LIe wIoIe IL musL uIwuys be possIbIe Lo dIsLInguIsI
u mover und u moved.
qq
q;
CI. Phsics, z;uz8-.
q8
Phsics, z;uz;-z8.
qq
urIey, SeII-Movers, p. q.
16o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
.. HowselI-motion occors
HuvIng descrIbed ArIsLoLIe`s prooIs Ior seII-moLIon, we Iuve now Lo de-
scrIbe Iow seII-moLIon Lukes pIuce: wIuL do we meun wIen we suy LIuL
u mover seII-moves? BeIngs wIIcI move by o_p ure movIng by un Inner
IormuI prIncIpIe, wIIcI quc IormuI prIncIpIe does noL move
o
; ruLIer, LIe
beIng quc LIuL wIIcI Is mude Lo be In ucL by LIe Iorm, I.e. ILs muLLer, Is wIuL
moves.
1
Or, udopLIng LIe LermInoIogy oI Dn the Soul, we cun suy LIuL LIe
souI moves ILs body;
z
LIe souI does noL ILseII move, excepL uccIdenLuIIy,
InsoIur us IL Is LIe souI oI u body wIIcI In IucL does move.

ArIsLoLIe ex-
cIudes Irom LIe cIuss oI seII-movers uny beIng wIIcI Is noL ensouIed, und
In purLIcuIur Ie empIusIzes LIuL LIe eIemenLs ure noL seII-movers. SeII-
moLIon, Ie suys, Is u cIurucLerIsLIc oI IIvIng LIIngs, und LIe sImpIe bodIes
ure empIuLIcuIIy noL IIvIng.
q
SInce, us p_, LIe Iorm Is noL IdenLIcuI wILI LIe muLLer (und LIereIore
LIe muLLer, or LIe 'underIyIng,` Is ubIe Lo ceuse Lo be In one wuy und come
Lo be In unoLIer), we cun unuIyze seII-moLIon In u nuLuruI beIng In Lerms oI
LIe p_c

: LIe IormuI p_, us u prIncIpIe or source oI moLIon, cuuses LIe


o
CI. Phsics, 1q8u-bq und Dn Generction cnd Corruption, b-6uz.
1
CI. Dn Generction cnd Corruption, bo-z, cILed In Suuv Meyer, SeII-
MovemenL und ExLernuI CuusuLIon, ;z, n. 11.
z
i xc 0ci np-oi xc- -noi x/ipc:,, o_p, Dn the Soul, q1bzo.

cnc o' cc- xc cc xc -o:ioc, oi yp c_oi, ox i cp cc o_ o yp cc-: -i


xc0' noxc:ioo - cc, oi o' , noxccioi xc p. icyxcoi pc -i o_i occi
cic: , coo, cc-o, oc:xo ooic: oi c_oi-o,. o' occ ci-c_c:c -o:o-oo pc cc-o,
ci-c_c:c, Dn the Soul, q1zu16-zo. SImpIIcIus sLuLes LIIs us IoIIows: ooyc-c: oc n
-, o_, - cc x:icc0c:. -:, - x:icc0c: - cc coyx:ic-c: c-, SImpIIcIus, In Phs.
zqzrq6-q;.
q
Phsics, zu-16.

TIIs unuIysIs Is IegILImuLed by ArIsLoLIe`s own equuLIon oI LIe souI wILI LIe IormuI
p_: icyxcoi pc -i o_i occi cic: , coo, cc-o, oc:xo ooic: oi c_oi-o,. o'
occ ci-c_c:c -o:o-oo pc cc-o, ci-c_c:c, Dn the Soul, q1zu18-z1. CI. uIso Dn the
161
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
ucLuuIIzuLIon oI some wuy oI beIng wIIcI Is IuLenL In LIe muLLer us poLency.
SInce LIe muLLer beIng ucLuuIIzed beIongs Lo LIe sume beIng wIIcI LIe Iorm
ucLuuIIzes, LIe moLIon comes Lo be In LIuL sume beIng, und seII-moLIon oc-
curs. ArIsLoLIe Is very cureIuI Lo specIIy Iow LIIs occurs, so us Lo uvoId LIe
concIusIon LIuL LIe sume LIIng Is movIng ILseII jusL us IL Is movIng. urIey
summurIzes LIe urgumenL us IoIIows: As u wIoIe, u LIIng muy be suId Lo
move ILseII; buL wILIIn LIe wIoIe IL musL uIwuys be possIbIe Lo dIsLInguIsI
u mover und u moved.
6
ArIsLoLIe uppIIes LIe sume unuIysIs LoIIvIng creuLures IncIupLer q(zqb1q-
). WIIIe LIIs mIgIL seem superIIuous on IIs purL, gIven LIuL Ie denIes
seII-moLIon Lo unyLIIng wILIouL u souI (I.e. conLInuous, sImpIe subsLun-
ces), we soon dIscover LIuL Ie Ius good reuson Ior IookIng IurLIer InLo
LIe quesLIon oI seII-moLIon In IIvIng beIngs. or, us urIey sLuLes, LIere
cun be no doubL LIuL u dIsLIncLIon exIsLs beLween LIe mover und LIe mo-
ved; noneLIeIess, IL Is Iur Irom obvIous Iow Lo druw LIe dIsLIncLIon.
;
ArI-
sLoLIe sLuLes, co:xci yp cncp ci -o, noo:, xc -o, cc: coi:c-cio:,,
o-o xc ci -o, o:, cic: o:ppioi - x:ioi xc - x:iocioi, xc o-o - nci
c- c- x:ici.
8
TIIs sLuLemenL, uIong wILI wIuL Ie sLuLes In Dn the Soul
q1u8-c-: oc opoi c o-o, ci-c_c:c -o cc-o, o_ cncp no-p
Soul, q1zb1o-1z: xc0oo ci oi cpp-c: -/ cc-:i o_p oc/c yp xc- -i yoi. -o-o oc -
-/ i cic: - -o:o cc-:. TIe body, In Lurn, Is IdenLIIIed wILI LIe muLerIuI p_: cnc o
cc- xc cc xc -o:ioc, oi yp c_oi, ox i cp cc o_p o yp cc-: -i xc0 noxc:ioo
- cc, oi o , noxc/cioi xc p, Dn the Soul, q1zu1;-z1.
6
urIey, SeII-Movers, p. q. CI. ooi o -: - ni c- cco- x:ic o - c-o -: cic:
-o:o-oi ooi c- c- x:ici, oi x:ic c- cco-, x:iocii -c xc x:ioi - c-o -: cic: -
x:ioi xc - x:iocioi. o yp oi x:ic oo oi x:ic-c:, x:ic ci - Z, x:ic-c: oc - B
ioi, Phsics, z8uzz-z;.
;
IbId., pp. q-.
8
Phsics, zqbo-.
16z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
no/oo -mukes IL uppeur LIuL ArIsLoLIe Is movIng buck Lo LIe souI In LIe
body buL noL oj LIe body concepLIon oI PIuLo.
urIey, Iowever, quesLIons LIIs unuIysIs oI ArIsLoLIe`s posILIon, IoIdIng
InsLeud LIuL SImpIIcIus`s InLerpreLuLIon geLs LIe rIgIL nuunce. WIIIe IL Is
obvIous LIuL IIvIng creuLures ure moved by LIeIr souIs, IL Is noL uL uII cIeur
Iow LIe mover-souI Is Lo be dIsLInguIsIed Irom LIe body wIIcI IL moves.
SeII-moLIon, conLInues SImpIIcIus, Is In uppeurunce IIke LIe moLIon oI ve-
IIcIes IIke bouLs und cIurIoLs, wIere LIe cuuse oI LIe moLIon Is LIe pIIoL or
LIe cIurIoLeer. However, LIese Iuve spuLIuI IndIvIduuIILy und u nuLure LIuL
Is dIsLIncL Irom LIuL wIIcI LIey move, und LIere Is doubL us Lo wIeLIer LIe
souI Is InunIndIvIduuI InLIIs IusIIon.
q
BuL LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s cIosensoIuLIon
Is noL LIuL oI LIe sepuruLed bouLmun or cIurIoLeer Is cIeur Irompussuges In
Dn the Soul sucI us xc0oo ci oi cpp-c: -/ cc-:i o_p oc/c yp xc-
-i yoi. -o-o oc - -/ i cic: - -o:o cc-:,
6o
und -: ci oi ci-c_c:
-, cc-: xc yo, -o oic:i c_oi-o, cic: -o:o-oo, cicpi cx -o-oi,
61
wIIcI
ure compuLIbIe wILI LIe muIn IInes oI ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne on LIe souI, us
deveIoped In Dn the Soul und eIsewIere.
n LIe cuse oI beIngs wIIcI move LIemseIves, LIe IormwIIcI ucLuuIIzes
LIe muLLer oI LIe beIng, mukIng IL Lo be sImpIIcILer, cun uIso cuuse LIe muL-
Ler (or body) oI LIe beIng Lo come Lo be In u purLIcuIur (uccIdenLuI) wuy.
6z
or InsLunce, LIe body oI LIe Iorse Is InpoLency Lo move IncerLuInwuys, Ior
q
CI. SImpIIcIus, In Phs. 1zo8.oII, cILed In urIey, SeII-Movers, p. .
6o
Dn the Soul, q1zb1o-1z.
61
Dn the Soul, q1quz;-z8.
6z
-: ci oi o0 poi/ci oi - cic: -i o_i o-c xx ncp:pcc0c:, ooi cx -i
cppioi. xc- co[c[px, oc x:icc0c:, xc0ncp cnoci, cc-:, xc x:ici cco-pi, ooi x:icc0c:
ci ci cc-:, -o-o oc x:icc0c: n -, o_, o, o o_ oi -c x:icc0c: xc- -noi c-pi, Dn
the Soul, qo8u1-.
16
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
InsLunce by movIng ILs Iegs. TIe IormuI ucL oI LIe Iorse, wIIcI Is ILs o_,
Is uIreudy ucLuuIIzIng LIe muLLer oI LIe Iorse, ILs body, und LIus LIere Is
no InLernuI ImpedImenL Lo LIe druwIng InLo beIng oI u cIunge In posILIon
In LIe Iorse`s Iegs.
6
TIe ImpedImenL, II LIere Is one, muy be exLernuI: Ior
InsLunce, LIe Iorse muy be LIed und LIus unubIe Lo move ILs Iegs uL wIII. Or,
LIere muy be un InLernuI ImpedImenL, sucI us dIseuse In LIe Ieg, wIIcI wIII
Impede LIe o_ oI Iorse Irom ucLIng upon LIe body.
6q
TIIs wIII noL be
quc nuLure oI Iorse nor quc body oI Iorse, buL due Lo u deIecL In LIe IndI-
vIduuI muLLer oI LIe IndIvIduuI Iorse. TIus, LIe cuusuLIon oI seII-moLIon In
u nuLuruI subsLunce Is dIrecLIy unuIogous Lo cuusIng moLIon In unoLIer; In
LIIs cuse, Iowever, LIere Is no need Ior conLucL, sInce LIere uIreudy exIsLs u
genuIne unILy mude ucLuuI by LIe IormoI LIe nuLuruI subsLunce ILseII. wIII
6
WIIIe ArIsLoLIe uImosL uIwuys sLuLes LIuL LIe o_ moves LIe body, IL Is cIeur Irom IIs
unuIysIs oI LIe souI LIuL IL Is u Lype oI c:,, I.e. u kInd oI nuLure wIIcI mukes LIe subsLunce
Lo be u IIvIng beIng, und ubIe Lo be u seII-mover Lo some degree. We see, LIereIore, LIuL
occusIonuIIy ArIsLoLIe wIII dIrecLIy reIer Lo LIe c:, us u mover; Ior InsLunce, uL Phsics
V., zqb16-1;, Ie cun suy LIuL coi o p_ ci c-o, -, x:ipcco,, -c-c cc: cci
x:icc0c:, und uL Pcrts oj Animcls, 6q1u18-, o, -c xc -, cco, o:_, cyoip,
xc ocp,, -, ci , p,, -, o' , x:iocc xc , - -o,. NoneLIeIess, upurL Irom LIese
Iew cILuLIons, ArIsLoLIe Is remurkubIy consIsLenL In cuIIIng LIe souI, und noL LIe nuLure,
u mover. beIIeve LIIs Lo be due Lo LIe IucL LIuL Ie does noL wIsI Lo conIuse LIe sImpIe
bodIes, wIIcI ure cc:, wILI IIvIng beIngs, - c_c, wIIcI ure seII-movers In u wuy LIuL
LIe sImpIe bodIes cunnoL be.
6q
TIIs IIgIIIgILs un ImporLunL uspecL oI ArIsLoLIe`s concepLIon oI o_: LIe IormuI ucL
LIuL Is LIe nuLure oI LIe Iorse Is noL onIy ubIe Lo druwmuLLer (wIIcI Is In poLency u Iorse`s
body) InLo beIng u Iorse`s body In ucL, LIus ucLIng In LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce, buL In
uddILIon, IL cun ucL In LIe oLIer cuLegorIes. or LIe o_ oI Iorse cuuses growLI In LIe
body, quuIILuLIve cIunges In LIe body (e.g. LIe coIor or densILy oI LIe Iorse`s couL muy
cIunge wILI LIe seuson), IocomoLIon, und reIuLIonsIIps oI ucLIon-pussIon (e.g. LIe Iorse
muy euL gruss or LIrow ILs rIder). TIus, we muy suy LIuL o_ Is 'pIurIpoLenL`; IL Is noL
mereIy u cuuse oI comIng Lo be und conLInued exIsLence In LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce, buL
uIso oI comIng Lo be In LIe oLIer cuLegorIes us weII. ArIsLoLIe mukes LIIs poInL In LIe De
cnimc: cc-: oc xc o/oc:, xc c(pc:, xc- o_pi ci yp cc0pc:, o/oc/, -:, cic: ooxc,
cc0ic-c: o o0ci c-_c: o_,, o/o, oc xc ncp c(pcc, -c xc 0/cco, c_c: ooci yp
0/ic: oo c(c-c: oc:x, -pccioi, -pc-c: o o0ci xo:ioic o,, Dn the Soul,
q1bz1-z;.
16q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
dIscuss exLernuI cuusuLIon In SecLIon ., on LIe communIcuLIon oI Iorm.
Two poInLs remuIn Lo be mude concernIng IowseII-movers move LIem-
seIves. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, seII-moLIon prImurIIy reIuLes Lo IocomoLIon, un-
der ArIsLoLIe`s uccounL.
6
NoL uII cIunge LIuL comes ubouL In uccordunce
wILI LIe c:, oI un unImuI Is seII-moLIon, Ior Lo counL us u seII-moLIon, LIe
unImuI musL be ubIe Lo boLI InILIuLe und IuIL ILs moLIon, wIIcI LIe sIm-
pIe bodIes cunnoL do. SecondIy, In Dn the Soul, und purLIcuIurIy In Dn the
Motion oj Animcls, Ie IIgIIIgILs LIe roIe oI LIe exLernuI desIred LIIng (LIe
pcx-i) us LIe 'unmoved` mover wIIcI moves LIe uppeLILe, wIIcI Is LIe
uILImuLe InLernuI moved mover, sInce mInd never moves excepL LIrougI
uppeLILe.
66
..q Tensions concerning the notion oI selI-movement
Toduy, LIe mujorILy oI commenLuLors ugree LIuL ArIsLoLIe IoIds LIuL uL
IeusL LIe IIgIer unImuIs ure seII-movers. NoneLIeIess, we cun dIsLInguIsI
beLween sLrong und weuk uccounLs oI seII-movers. TIose wIo ure purLI-
suns oI u sLrong uccounL, sucI us Susun Suuv, IoId LIuL In cIuImIng LIuL
we ure LIe orIgIns oI our ucLIons, ArIsLoLIe ImpIIes LIuL we ure seII-movers,
und LIIs In Lurn ImpIIes LIuL noLIIng exLernuI Lo us moves us Lo Iuve LIe
6
:c-c oc ooi -: - x:ioi c- c- :c-c -c-pi x:ic xop/o,, -i xc- -noi xc/-o:
cci -o-o cic: -i x:iooioi xc x:ioi-oi p_i xc np-oi -o, x:iooio:,, - c- c-
x:ioi. -: ci -o/ioi -i x:ipccoi op np-p, cicpi cx -o-oi, Phsics, z61uzz-z;. CI.
uIso WoIIson, TIe PIuruIILy oI mmovubIe Movers In ArIsLoLIe und Averros, p. z;.
66
i op -: - x:ioi, - pcx-:xi. c yp oo, io, xc pc(:,, cx/iooi, xc- xo:ii i -: cx/iooi coo,
ii oc ci io, o c/ic-c: x:ii ico p(co, | yp [opc:, pc(:,, -ci oc xc- -i oy:ci
x:i-c:, xc xc- [opc:i x:ic-c:, o pc(:, x:ic xc ncp -i oy:ci yp cn:0o/c pc(/,
-/, cc-:i, Dn the Soul, quzz-z6.
16
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
desIres by meuns oI wIIcI we move ourseIves.
6;
On LIIs reudIng LIere Is
u probIem wILI Iow Lo uccounL Ior LIe IucL LIuL objecLs oI LIe senses ure
pcx- und Ience muke ArIsLoLIe uppeur Lo uccepL LIe prIncIpIe LIuL In
seII-moLIon, LIe unmoved mover Is In u sense ouLsIde LIe unImuI. Suu-
v pIuces LIe empIusIs on eIIIcIenL cuusuLIon, und IoIds LIuL u seII-mover
genuIneIy moves ILseII becuuse LIere Is no oLIer eIIIcIenL mover LIuL cuuses
IL Lo move.
68
ProponenLs oI u weuker uccounL oI seII-movers, sucI us M. . GIII, D.
urIey und mosL oLIer commenLuLors, IoId LIuL cerLuIn uspecLs oI un unI-
muI`s envIronmenL serve Lo expIuIn LIe LrIggerIng oI moLIon, or even LIuL
LIe perceIved exLernuI objecL Is LIe Lrue 'unmoved mover` In LIe cuusuI
cIuIn. or InsLunce, GIII muInLuIns LIuL seII-movers, despILe noL beIng gen-
uIneIy unmoved movers-becuuse LIey reucL Lo exLernuI sLImuII In decIdIng
Lo move or noL-neverLIeIess deserve LIeIr specIuI sLuLus becuuse, unIIke
oLIer objecLs LIuL undergo moLIon, LIey conLuIn un ucLIve source-u prIn-
cIpIe oI moLIon und resL-und so, unIIke commonpIuce objecLs LIuL expe-
rIence moLIon, LIey cun susLuIn und dIrecL LIeIr own, oILen InLrIcuLe, beIu-
vIor.
6q
NoneLIeIess, LIe ImpeLus Ior LIe seII-mover`s ucLIvILy musL come
Irom LIe envIronmenL, sInce LIe InLernuI ucLIve prIncIpIe cunnoL LrIgger ILs
own moLIon. GIII LIus sees u cooperuLIon beLween InLernuI und exLernuI
IucLors In expIuInIng seII-moLIon. n order Lo expIuIn wIy u gIven moLIon
6;
Suuv Meyer, SeII-MovemenL und ExLernuI CuusuLIon, p. 68.
68
AseII-mover Ius LIIs specIuI cuusuI sLuLus becuuse, unIIke u moved mover, IL does noL
cuuse movemenL (x:ici) by ILseII beIng moved Lo do so by unyLIIng eIse... n oLIer words,
u seII-mover Is properIy cuIIed LIe orIgIn oI ILs movemenL becuuse IL Is LIe eIIIcIenL cuuse
oI LIuL movemenL, und noLIIng eIse Is LIe eIIIcIenL cuuse oI ILs cuusIng LIuL movemenL,
IbId., p. 66.
6q
GIII, ArIsLoLIe on SeII-MoLIon, p. z8.
166
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lukes one Iorm und noL unoLIer, one need noL seek ouL un InIInILe number
oI prIor cIunges, buL ruLIer one muy uppeuI dIrecLIy Lo LIe unImuI`s nuLu-
re-ILs Inner ucLIve prIncIpIe-Lo expIuIn hou IL moves (Ience preservIng
ILs sLuLus us u seII-mover), wIIIe LIe IucL LIuL LIe unImuI`s moLIon occurs
Iere und now Is expIuIned by LrIggerIng IucLors due Lo LIe envIronmenL,
uILImuLeIy LruceubIe Lo LIe moLIon oI LIe sun.
;o
WIy does ArIsLoLIe consIder IL ImporLunL LIuL seII-movers be In some
wuy moved by LIeIr envIronmenL? As GIII Ius noLed, LIere Is LIe quesLIon
oI expIuInIng Iow u purLIcuIur seII-moLIon Is LrIggered. n uddILIon, ur-
Iey IoIds LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius u IurLIer concern, connecLed wILI LIe prooI Ior
LIe IrsL Unmoved Mover oI LIe unIverse wIIcI LIe SLugIrILe seeks Lo de-
monsLruLe over LIe course oI Phsics V. On LIe one Iund, Ie wIsIes Lo
muInLuIn our InLuILIon LIuL seII-moLIon In unImuIs Is noL cuused by exLernuI
ugenLs In LIe wuy LIuL moLIon In InunImuLe objecLs Is. SecondIy, Ie wIsIes
Lo uvoId LIe concIusIon LIuL II IInILe seII-movers (I.e. unImuIs) cun be re-
sponsIbIe Ior LIe LrIggerIng or InILIuLIon oI LIeIr own moLIon, wILIouL uny
prIor moLIon IuvIng Luken pIuce, LIen moLIon mIgIL noL be eLernuI In LIe
unIverse. AnImuIs couId Iuve begun Lo move In u sysLem wIere no prIor
moLIon Look pIuce, LIus reIuLIng IIs u prIorI urgumenL In Phsics V.1
LIuL demonsLruLes LIuL LIme und moLIon musL be eLernuI, wILIouL uny sLur-
LIng poInL.
;1
Hence, LIe compromIse posILIon LIuL unImuIs ure noL rudI-
;o
IbId., p. z8.
;1
urIey, SeII-Movers, pp. ;-8. CI. uIso MorIson, SeII-MoLIon In PIysIcs V, p. ;,
No wonder Ie LIougIL LIuL IL wus so ImporLunL Lo grusp LIuL unImuIs do noL move LIe-
mseIves sLrIcLIy speukIng becuuse one purL moves unoLIer-IL Is precIseIy LIIs IucL wIIcI
meuns LIuL IIs urgumenL In Phsics V cun proceed uccordIng Lo pIun. TIe seII-moLIon
oI unImuIs Is noL properIy speukIng seII-moLIon, becuuse one purL oI LIe unImuI moves
unoLIer, und LIIs meuns LIuL LIe unmoved movers wILIIn LIe unImuIs-LIeIr souIs-ure
16;
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
cuI sLurLIng poInLs Ior moLIon, buL LIuL LIey depend on beIng purLs oI un
envIronmenL uIreudy In moLIon.
ArIsLoLIe does noL specIIy precIseIy Iow Lo undersLund LIe dynumIc In-
LerreIuLIonsIIp oI LIe seII-mover wILI ILs envIronmenL. n purLIcuIur, IIs
posILIon In Dn the Motion oj Animcls uppeurs Lo undermIne LIe Ideu Ie de-
veIoped In Phsics V.q- LIuL u seII-mover consIsLs oI un unmoved purL
(LIe Iorm or o_) und u moved purL wIIcI LIe Iormer moves. AL Dn the
Motion oj Animcls ;oobz-z6, Ie sLuLes LIuL LIe mover Is In IucL LIe objecL
oI desIre (und uIso oI LIougIL),
;z
und LIuL LIe IIrsL mover (I.e. LIe LIIng de-
sIred) ImpurLs movemenL wILIouL beIng moved, wIIIe desIre ImpurLs mo-
LIon wIIIe beIng ILseII moved.
;
n uddILIon, LIere ure LexLs sucI us Phsics
zqbq-bzo, wIIcI IndIcuLe LIuL seII-movers ure moved uIso by LIeIr envI-
ronmenLs. Hence LIe dIIemmu urIses: do ArIsLoLeIIun seII-movers move
LIemseIves In uny ImporLunL sense, or do LIey sImpIy respond Lo exLernuI
IucLors In LIe envIronmenL, sucI LIuL LIey ure In IucL mere moved movers?
Numerous LIeorIes Iuve been deveIoped wIIcI uLLempL Lo sIow Iow ArI-
sLoLIe cun 'escupe` Irom LIe dIIemmu Ie seems Lo Iuve creuLed Ior IImseII.
wIII dIscuss Lwo oI LIe mosL promInenL LIeorIes Iere.
ucLuuIIy moved uccIdenLuIIy, LIus ruIIng LIemouL us cuuses oI LIe conLInuuI moLIon oI LIe
unIverse.
;z
c-c x:ic np-oi - pcx-i xc o:ciop-i.
;
- ci oi np-oi o x:iocioi x:ic, o' pc(:, xc - pcx-:xi x:iocioi x:ic. Dn the
Motion oj Animcls, ;oob6-;o1u1.
168
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
The Intentionulity Iscupe
TIe so-cuIIed 'nLenLIonuIILy Escupe,`
;q
deIended IndependenLIy by D.
urIey und M. Nussbuum, empIusIzes LIe roIe oI InLenLIonuI sLuLes (In pur-
LIcuIur, ci-ccc) In LIe InILIuLIon oI movemenL In seII-movers. n order
LIuL pc(:, muy IuncLIon us u mover, LIe unImuI musL IIrsL Iuve u ci-ccc
wIIcI presenLs u gIven objecL (eILIer oI sensuLIon or oI LIougIL) us u pos-
sIbIe good.
;
I IL Is perceIved us u good, LIe pcx-i cun urouse desIre und
LIereby movemenL. Hence, LIe ImporLunce oI un objecL`s beIng perceIved
(or undersLood, In LIe cuse oI Iumuns) cs ood In order Lo produce LIe InI-
LIuLIon oI moLIon. Dn the Motion oj Animcls puLs LIIs process us IoIIows:
- ci yp pyci:x pp ncpccxcoc: cn:-poco, - n0p, o' pc(:, - n0p,
-i o' pc(:i ci-ccc c-p oc yic-c: o: iocco, o:' cc0cco,.
;6
ArIsLoLIe begIns IIs dIscussIon oI Iow LIe souI moves LIe body by no-
LIng LIuL IIvIng creuLures ure responsIbIe Ior u vusL swuLI oI LIe moLIons we
encounLer In LIe pIysIcuI worId: -i yp oi ncp -i -o oo xipc:i
- co_c c-:c -, x:icco,, cc x:ic-c: n' oi o: - npocxn-c:i
o:,.
;;
And Iere Ie udmILs LIuL, In u sense, LIe unImuI us seII-mover
Is Indeed moved, buL by LIe objecL oI desIre (LIrougI LIe medIuLIon oI
ci-ccc und o:io:c): c-c x:ic np-oi - pcx-i xc o:ciop-i.
;8
ndeed,
IL seems Lo be undenIubIe LIuL unImuIs und Iumuns ucL Ior reusons,
;q
Ior
;q
See reeIund, ArIsLoLIe on PercepLIon, p. ;.
;
|1ci-ccc| Is cIoseIy IInked Lo LIe operuLIons oI desIre und someIow presenLs LIe
objecL oI desIre Lo LIe unImuI In sucI us wuy LIuL IL cun be moved Lo ucLIon, Nussbuum,
TIe RoIe oI PIunLusIu, p. zqo.
;6
Dn the Motion oj Animcls, ;ozu18-zo
;;
Dn the Motion oj Animcls, ;oob-1.
;8
Dn the Motion oj Animcls, ;oobzz.
;q
TIIs Is LopIc LIuL wIII dIscuss IurLIer In LIe IoIIowIng cIupLers, sInce IL Is key Lo dIIIe-
16q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
LIere ure muny LIIngs wIIcI cunnoL cuuse unImuI or Iumun moLIon excepL
vIu u gruspIng oI LIe LIIng desIred us u good.
TIIs Is mosL obvIousIy Lrue In LIe cuse oI Iumuns, sInce In muny cuses
LIere Is no pIysIcuIIsL expIunuLIon Ior un ucLIon, wILIouL uppeuIIng Lo un
uccounL In Lerms oI u reusoned 'wIy.` cun go Lo u used book IuIr, und puss
over u number oI uLLrucLIve und InLeresLIng books, onIy Lo IInuIIy purcIuse
un oId, dusLy, moLI-euLen voIume, wIIcI cun IurdIy be opened due Lo ILs
uge, becuuse IL Is u IIrsL edILIon. TIe vuIue udded by LIe concepL 'IIrsL edI-
LIon` Ius no convIncIng reducLIon Lo pIysIcuI or muLerIuI expIunuLIons, buL
ruLIer IndIcuLes u 'good` onIy uL LIe pureIy noeLIc IeveI.
SImIIurIy, operuLIon on LIe busIs oI someLIIng unuIogous Lo yo, cun
be seen umongsL unImuIs us weII, even II we do noL wIsI Lo usserL LIuL io, Is
genuIneIy Iound umongsL non-Iumun unImuIs. ArIsLoLIe Is very cIeur LIuL
umong unImuIs, onIy Iumun beIngs possess 'mInd` or io,.
8o
AnImuIs, on
LIe one Iund, Iuve uL mosL 'experIence` or cnc:p/c,, und oI LIuL IILLIe: -
ci oi c -c, ci-cc/c:, xc -c, ipc:,, cnc:p/c, oc c-_c: :xpi.
81
Humun beIngs, on LIe oLIer Iund, ucL LIrougI urL und reusonIng: - oc -i
i0pnoi yio, xc -_i xc oy:co,.
8z
TIus, wIIIe unImuIs cun cerLuInIy
grusp LIuL objecLs beIong Lo cerLuIn cuLegorIes, und perIorm InIerences In
order Lo urrIve uL desIred ends, LIe IucuILy LIuL LIey possess does noL exLend
Lo 'cn:c-pp,` wIIcI requIres LIe cupucILy Ior unIversuI judgmenL, wIIcI
renLIuLIng genuIne 'operuLIons` und 'ucLIons` currIed ouL by ensouIed beIngs IromLIe mere
ucLuuIIzuLIon oI ucLIve quuIILIes umong LIe sImpIe nuLures und Iomoeomerous bodIes.
8o
He Ieuves openwIeLIer LIere muy uIso be IIgIer beIngs wIIcIuIso possess io,: cio:,
occ np, -o-o:, np_c: xc - xc- -noi x:ip-:xi, c-po:, oc xc - o:ciop-:xi -c xc io,, ooi
i0pno:, xc c -: -o:o-oi c-cpi cc-:i xc -::-cpoi, Dn the Soul, q1quz-bzo.
81
Metcphsics, q8obz-z6.
8z
bId.
1;o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ArIsLoLIe denIes LIuL unImuIs possess.
NeverLIeIess, ArIsLoLIe cIuIms LIuL unImuIs sIure ci-ccc wILIIumuns,
und LIIs gIves LIem LIe ubIIILy Lo perIorm someLIIng IIke 'LIInkIng`: c -:,
-i ci-cc/ci -:0c/p , ipc/i -:ic.
8
n unImuIs, IL Is ci-ccc LIuL moves
pc(:,, wIIcI produces moLIon us u resuIL oI some gruspIng oI LIe LIIng
desIred us u good (uILIougI In unImuIs, due Lo LIeIr IuckIng oy:c,, LIIs
muy onIy be un uppurenL good). G. WuLson expIuIns LIe dIIIerence beLween
unImuI und Iumun ucLIon us IoIIows:
WIen creuLures ure ucLIng In LIeIr own rIgIL, LIey do LIIngs be-
cuuse LIey wunL Lo do LIem. An unImuI Is cupubIe oI movIng IL-
seII In so Iur us IL Is cupubIe oI desIre. BuL IL cunnoL Iuve desIre
unIess IL Ius pIunLusIu. AII pIunLusIu Is connecLed wILI eILIer
reusonIng or percepLIon, ci-ccc oc ncc oy:c-:x cc0c-:x,
und wIIIe reusonIng Is conIIned Lo mun, LIe unImuIs oLIer LIun
mun sIure In LIe pIunLusIu LIuL Is connecLed wILI percepLIon
(De AnImu q bz;-o).
8q
AccordIng Lo urIey, LIe InLroducLIon oI ci-ccc us u IundumenLuI purL
oI LIe process oI moLIon, IIrsL In Dn the Soul und IuLer In Dn the Motion
oj Animcls, wIII uIIow ArIsLoLIe Lo preserve LIe dIsLIncLIons Ie Ius mude
In Phsics V concernIng LIe necessILy Ior un unmoved purL und u moved
purL In uny seII-mover, In uddILIon Lo un exLernuI InIIuence LIuL LrIggers LIe
moLIon. BoLI unImuLe und InunImuLe movers requIre exLernuI movers Lo
expIuIn LIe InILIuLIon oI LIeIr moLIon, buL onIy unImuLe seII-movers requI-
8
Dn the Soul, quq.
8q
WuLson, In ArIsLoLIe, De AnImu ., p. 1oz.
1;1
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
re LIe percepLIon oI exLernuI LIIngs us IuvIng meunIng Ior LIem.
8
SLuLes
urIey, |u|n unImuI Is correcLIy descrIbed us u seII-mover, becuuse wIen
IL moves, ILs souI moves ILs body, und LIe exLernuI cuuse oI LIe moLIon (LIe
pcx-i) Is u cuuse oI moLIon onIy becuuse IL Is 'seen` us sucI by u IucuILy oI
LIe souI.
86
He noLes LIuL LIere musL noneLIeIess be un exLernuI objecL per-
ceIved us good In order LIuL moLIon occur, und LIus LIe seII-mover Is noL u
LoLuIIy uuLonomous orIgIn oI moLIon.
8;
WIIIe IL Is LIe cuse LIuL unImuI mo-
LIon musL be LrIggered exLernuIIy, und LIe objecL oI desIre musL be perceI-
ved vIu u ci-ccc, LIe lind oI moLIon LIus LrIggered Is enLIreIy dependenL
upon LIe c:, oI LIe unImuI In quesLIon.
88
urIey noneLIeIess poInLs ouL LIuL LIIs uccounL oI Iow seII-moLIon oc-
8
CI. Nussbuum, ArIsLoLIe on TeIeoIogIcuI ExpIunuLIon, pp. 86-8;. Nussbuum dIIIers
Irom urIey, Iowever, In denyIng LIuL LIere Is uny cuusuI-eIIIcIenL expIunuLIon oI LIe roIe
oI desIres und beIIeIs In LIe producLIon oI moLIon In u seII-mover: TIere Is... no gen-
uIneIy eIIIcIenL-cuusuI expIunuLIon oI InLenLIonuI ucLIvILy LIuL remuIns on LIe IormuI or
IuncLIonuI IeveI, IbId., p. 88. TIIs Is becuuse, Ior Nussbuum, IormuI und IInuI cuuses ure
LIe explcnctions LIuL serve besL Lo expIuIn LIe ucLIvILIes oI orgunIsms, buL sIe does noL
meunLo ImpIy LIuL LIere ure necessurIIy eIIIcIenL 'Humeun` cuuses InoperuLIonLIuL uIwuys
correspond Lo LIe sume IuncLIonuI or IInuI expIunuLIons (IbId.).
86
urIey, SeII-Movers, p. 1.
8;
TIIs Is un ImporLunL poInL Ior ArIsLoLIe`s cosmoIogy, us menLIoned ubove, InsoIur us
LIe exIsLence oI seII-movers LIuL couId uuLonomousIy orIgInuLe moLIon wouId puL InLo
perII IIs urgumenL Ior LIe necessILy oI LIe eLernuI moLIon oI LIe unIverse; cI. IbId., p. ;.
88
CI. LIe expIunuLIon oIIered by GIII on LIe roIe LIuL c:, pIuys In expIuInIng unImuI
moLIon: Even II seII-moLIons IuII Lo be IuIIy expIuIned by uppeuI Lo un InLernuI cuuse,
seII-movers merIL LIeIr specIuI sLuLus becuuse LIey conLuIn un ucLIve source-u prIncIpIe
oI moLIon und resL-und so, unIIke commonpIuce objecLs LIuL experIence moLIon, LIey cun
susLuIn und dIrecL LIeIr own, oILen InLrIcuLe, beIuvIor. Even so, sInce LIe InLernuI ucLIve
prIncIpIe cunnoL LrIgger LIe moLIon, LIe ImpeLus derIves IromLIe creuLure's envIronmenL.
Does LIIs reIIunce on exLernuI IucLors undermIne ArIsLoLIe's urgumenL In PIys. V.?
LIInk noL... An unImuI responds Lo some sLImuIunLs und noL oLIers becuuse oI ILs nuLure
(c:,)-ILs Inner ucLIve prIncIpIe-wIIcI sIouId uIso deLermIne Iow LIe response Is mu-
nIIesLed. TIereIore, In expIuInIng wIy un unImuI sLurLs movIng on u purLIcuIur occusIon,
one need noL Lruck down un InIInILe number oI prevIous cIunges; InsLeud one cun uppeuI,
IIrsL, Lo LIe unImuI's nuLure, wIIcI deLermInes wIy u sLImuIus oI u purLIcuIur sorL urouses
u response oI u purLIcuIur kInd, und second, Lo LIe sun's moLIon, wIIcI uccounLs Ior LIe
puLLerns oI InLerucLIon In LIe subIunury regIon, GIII, ArIsLoLIe on SeII-MoLIon, p. z8.
1;z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
curs, bused on un exLernuIIy perceIved objecL oI desIre, Is noL wILIouL ILs
dIIIIcuILIes. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, In Dn the Soul . ArIsLoLIe mukes IL quILe
cIeur LIuL Ie denIes LIuL LIe souI Is moved.
8q
How Is IL possIbIe, LIen, LIuL
IL sIouId be uIIecLed or moved by un pcx-i vIu u ci-ccc LIuL moves LIe
pcx-:xi? or LIe pcx-:xi Is cerLuInIy u purL oI LIe souI; Indeed, IuLer In
Dn the Soul (.1o) IL Is descrIbed deIIberuLeIy, empIuLIcuIIy und repeu-
LedIy us u moted mover.
qo
UILImuLeIy, Lo respond Lo LIIs Issue, ArIsLoLIe
uppeuIs Lo u specIuI sense oI uILeruLIon or ooc:,, wIIcI corresponds Lo
LIe ucLIvuLIon oI u IIrsL ucLuuIILy, us wIen, Ior InsLunce, u knower In poLency
becomes u knower In LIe IuII sense oI ucLIveIy exercIsIng LIuL knowIedge.
TIIs, LIen, Is LIe onIy kInd oI moLIon LIuL LIe souI suIIers In IuvIng un
cc0pc:,. TIIs soIuLIon Is noL enLIreIy suLIsIucLory, Ior ArIsLoLIe Is Iorced Lo
udmIL LIuL In IuvIng u percepLIon LIe souI undergoes moLIon oI u specIuI
kInd, und Ience Is noL unmoved In un ubsoIuLe sense.
q1
The 'Iinul Cuose' Iscupe
CynLIIu reeIund, InIer urLIcIe ArIsLoLIe onPercepLIon, AppeLILIonund
SeII-MoLIon, IoIds LIuL LIe 'nLenLIonuIILy Escupe,` us descrIbed by urIey
und Nussbuum, Ius severuI IIuws LIuL muke IL unubIe Lo properIy express
LIe LoLuIILy oI ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne concernIng unImuI seII-movers. n LIe
IIrsL pIuce, IL requIres LIe druwIng oI dIvIsIons beLween kInds oI unImuI mo-
8q
n:cxcn-oi oc np-oi ci ncp x:ipcco, co, yp o ioi co, cc-: - -i oc/ci c-,
-o:c-pi cic: oci cci o yoi-c, o_i cic: - x:ioi cco- ooicioi x:ici, ci -: -i
ooi-oi - np_c:i c- x/ipc:i, Dn the Soul, qobz-qo6uz.
qo
urIey, SeII-Movers, p. q.
q1
ci yp cc0pc:, o/oc/, -:, cic: ooxc, cc0ic-c: o o0ci c-_c: o_,, Dn the
Soul, q1bzq-z.
1;
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
vemenLs, sucI LIuL one seL oI sucI movemenLs Is represenLuLIve oI 'ucLIons`
(wIIcI enjoy LIe sLuLus oI seII-moLIons), und unoLIer seL Is represenLuLI-
ve oI 'mere movemenLs` (wIIcI do noL) n LIIs wuy, urIey
qz
descrIbes LIe
emergence oI perIodIcuI cIcudus us u cuse oI LIe resuIL oI u deLermInIsLIc
cIuIn oI eIIIcIenL-mecIunIcuI cuuses, und wIIcI does noL rIse Lo LIe IeveI oI
beIng seII-moLIon. reeIund sees IL us probIemuLIc LIuL ArIsLoLIe wouId uc-
cepL LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween seII-moLIon und necessILuLed moLIon us urIey
Ius proposed IL, sucI LIuL IL excIudes u Iurge swuLI oI unImuI moLIons Irom
beIng cIussIIIed us seII-moLIon.
q
urLIermore, reeIund sees LIe nLenLIonuIILy Escupe us represenLIng
ArIsLoLIe`s puzzIe In Phsics V us LIougI IL concerned LIe Issues oI Iree
wIII undcuusuI deLermInIsm. AnunImuI wIII noL be 'deLermIned` Lo pursue,
suy, Iood In ILs envIronmenL unIess IL perceIves IL cs Iood.
qq
nLenLIonuIILy
LIus InserLs u 'gup` InLo LIe deLermInIsLIc cIuIn oI eIIIcIenL cuuses. TIIs gup
Is especIuIIy promInenL In LIe cuse oI Iumun beIngs, wIose moruI respon-
sIbIIILy Ior LIeIr ucLIons Is IIgIIIgILed In LIe secLIons oI LIe Nicomcchecn
Ethics wIIcI urIey cILes. n LIe EN mun Is presenLed us LIe musLer oI IIs
cIurucLer, sucI LIuL Ie Is responsIbIe Ior IIs ucLs In regurds Lo exLernuI ob-
jecLs perceIved us goods, In uddILIon Lo ucLs underLuken due Lo cIurucLer,
Ior men creuLe LIeIr cIurucLer by meuns oI repeuLed good or bud ucLIons.
q
Hence, Iumun ucLIons seemLo provIde u purLIcuIurIy ucuLe dIIemmu, sInce
In order Ior us Lo be moruIIy responsIbIe Ior wIuL we do, we cunnoL uppeuI
qz
urIey, SeII-Movers, p. 8.
q
reeIund, ArIsLoLIe on PercepLIon, pp. 8-q.
qq
bId., p. q; cI. uIso Nussbuum, ArIsLoLIe on TeIeoIogIcuI ExpIunuLIon, p. 8;.
q
Nicomcchecn Ethics, 111qu-q.
1;q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lo LIe InIIuence oI objecLs oI pIeusure or Lo deIecLIve cIurucLer Lo excuI-
puLe ourseIves. YeL us Iuve menLIoned ubove, ArIsLoLIe remuIns wedded
Lo LIe posILIon LIuL uII movers, excepLIng LIe uILImuLe Unmoved Mover,
ure moved movers, eILIer due Lo eIIIcIenL cuusuIILy, or due LIe pcx-i LIuL
moves LIe uppeLILe, In order Lo uvoId LIe cosmoIogIcuI probIem oI movers
LIuL ure rudIcuI InILIuLors oI cuusuI cIuIns. TIus, LIe nLenLIonuIILy Escupe
InudverLenLIy brIngs LIIs underIyIng uporIu InLo sIurp Iocus.
InuIIy, reeIundcrILIques LIe nLenLIonuIILy Escupe Ior IocusIng onude-
quuLe expIunuLIons, und noL suIIIcIenLIy on reuI cuusuLIon. Nussbuum Is
purLIcuIurIy cIeur ubouL Ier posILIon LIuL ArIsLoLeIIun 'cuuses` ure In reuII-
Ly meLIods Ior provIdIng LIe besL possIbIe expIunuLIon, und In purLIcuIur
LIuL LIe IInuI cuuse Is mereIy u more synLIeLIc, InIormuLIve wuy oI sLuLIng
wIuL wouId oLIerwIse Iuve Lo be sLuLed vIu u bewIIderIng urruy oI muLerIuI-
eIIIcIenL cuuses.
q6
urIey Is sImIIurIy crILIqued: someLImes Ie uppeurs Lo
recognIze LIe need Ior expIunuLIons LIuL ure genuIneIy reIIecLIve oI LIe reuI
cuusuI order. SomeLImes, on LIe oLIer Iund, Ie uppeurs Lo be In ugreemenL
wILILIose LIInkers wIo IoIdLIuL ArIsLoLIe`s Iour cuuses ure jusL Iour Lypes
oI expIunuLIon.
q;
L Is In regurd Lo IInuI cuusuLIon LIuL reeIund mukes Ier mosL cogenL
crILIque oI LIe nLenLIonuIILy Escupe, proposIng wIuL sIe Lerms LIe InuI
Cuuse Escupe. Under LIIs modeI, unImuIs ure seII-movers, despILe LIere
beIng eIIIcIenL cuuses oI LIeIr moLIons, II LIose moLIons Iuve u IInuI cuuse,
q6
CI. IbId., p. 6o und IbId., p. ;.
q;
reeIund, ArIsLoLIe on PercepLIon, p. qo. reeIund cILes MoruvcsIk (1q;q), Annus
(1q8z), SorubjI (1q8o) und Ine (1q8;) us beIng proponenLs oI LIIs wuy oI unuIyzIng LIe
Iour cuuses In ArIsLoLIe.
1;
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
or ure perIormed In pursuunce oI some good. or reeIund, IL Is LIe gouI-
dIrecLness oI unImuI ucLIvILy, ruLIer LIun LIe necessury presence oI InLen-
LIonuI sLuLes, wIIcI Is wIuL murks oII seII-moLIon IromexLernuIIy-Imposed
movemenL, or movemenL underLukenby LIe sImpIe bodIes. Hence, unImuIs
wIIcI ure IeId Lo Iuck InLenLIonuIILy muy noneLIeIess be seII-movers, Inso-
Iur us LIey ure enguged In movemenL wIIcI Is 'Ior someLIIng` (cicx -oo).
q8
TIIs Is becuuse, uccordIng Lo reeIund, objecLIve LeIeoIogy Is more busIc Ior
ArIsLoLIe LIun subjecLIve percepLIon oI exLernuI objecLs quc goods Ior un In-
dIvIduuI. Any uccounL oI objecLIve goods musL be gIven In Lerms oI wIuL Is
good Ior LIe specIes
qq
ArIsLoLIe expIuIns LIe ucLIons oI IndIvIduuI unImuIs
us purposIve beIuvIor dIrecLed Lo LIe good Ior LIuL unImuI`s kInd. n ree-
Iund's scIeme, LIere Is u cuusuI dependence oI InLenLIonuI sLuLes upon LIe
IInuI cuuses operuLIve In u gIven kInd oI unImuI, sucI LIuL LIe mosL busIc
cuusuI cIuIn begIns wILI LIe unImuI seekIng ILs good, und nuLure provIdIng
LIe cupucILIes requIred Ior LIe pursuIL und uLLuInmenL oI LIuL good.
AccordIng Lo ArIsLoLIe, unImuIs Iuve seII-moLIon becuuse IL Is necessu-
ry Ior LIe uLLuInmenL oI u good Ior u gIven unImuI Lype. TIe expIunuLIon oI
wIy u IummIngbIrd Iovers neur u IIbIscus Is LIuL IL Is seekIng Iood, u good
Ior ILs specIes. More generuIIy, unImuIs Iuve IocomoLIon becuuse IL conLrI-
buLes Lo LIeIr beIng (I.e. survIvuI) or Lo LIeIr IIvIng beLLer.
1oo
nLenLIonuIILy
Is IIke LIIs us weII: In u gIven unImuI IL Is InIerred by LIe unImuI`s cupucILy
Lo reucL Lo ILs envIronmenL uccordIng Lo sensIbIe InpuL. BuL InLenLIonuIILy
q8
bId., p. q1.
qq
bId., p. qz.
1oo
bId., p. q.
1;6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Is possessed becuuse IL provIdes u good Ior LIe unImuI.
1o1
reeIund propo-
ses LIuL cuusuI descrIpLIons In Lerms oI IInuI cuuses ure more InIormuLIve
LIun descrIpLIons In Lerms oI unImuI percepLIon und ci-ccc, becuuse II-
nuI cuuses ure more busIc; Indeed, wIen descrIbIng unImuI beIuvIor In Ler-
ms oI IInuI cuuses, one Is LoucIIng upon reuI cuusuI connecLIons, Ior IInuI
cuusuIILy Is IndubILubIy reuI Ior ArIsLoLIe.
reeIundIs quILe wIIIIng Lo udmIL LIuL percepLIonundImugInuLIonure In
operuLIon In InsLunces oI seII-moLIon, und even LIuL LIey muy be necessury.
WIere sIe purLs wILI urIey und Nussbuum Is In regurds Lo LIe suIIIcIency
oI LIe presence oI InLenLIonuIILy Lo muke u gIven unImuI u seII-mover. n-
LenLIonuIILy Is onIy one oI severuI IucLors LIuL musL be presenL Ior un unImuI
Lo be suId Lo be u seII-mover. n uddILIon, LIe Lendency Lo seek u gIven good
musL be 'buIIL-In` Lo LIe unImuI. or InsLunce, In order Ior LIe IoverIng oI
u IummIngbIrd neur u IIower Lo be un InsLunce oI seII-moLIon, ILs ucLIvILy
musL be dIrecLed Lowurds u gouI LIuL Is objecLIveIy good Ior IummIngbIrds
(In LIIs cuse IIower necLur, wIIcI Is objecLIveIy Iood Ior IummIngbIrds).
InuIIy, IL musL be LIe cuse LIuL IL Is noL LIe perceIved objecL oI desIre LIuL
moves LIe unImuI, In u cuusuI-eIIIcIenL sense; ruLIer, IL musL be LIe souI
oI LIe unImuI ILseII.
1oz
AnImuIs, sLuLes reeIund, Iuve LIe ubIIILy Lo seL und
pursue LIeIr own gouIs,
1o
wIIcI ure gIven by nuLure und ure Ience InLernuI
Lo LIe unImuI. WIen LIe spIder spIns ILs web, IL works Lowurd un end; IL
Is seII-movIng becuuse LIIs Is un end posILed by ILs very own nuLure, und
1o1
bId., p. q;.
1oz
bId., p. 1.
1o
bId., p. z. TIIs Is wIuL dIsLInguIsIes LIem Irom LIe eIemenLs, wIIcI ure moved
by LIIngs ouLsIde LIemseIves: LIeIr generuLor, wIIcI brIngs LIem InLo beIng, und LIeIr
nuLuruI pIuces, wIIcI druw LIem InLo ucLIvILy.
1;;
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
becuuse ILs moLIons ure ucLuuIIzed by u prIncIpIe Irom wILIIn LIe spIder's
own souI.
1oq
..g Conclosions on soblonur selI-movers
n LIIs secLIon, Iuve dIscussed LIe conLroversIuI Issue oI seII-movers
In ArIsLoLIe`s sysLemoI nuLuruI pIIIosopIy. n LIe IIrsL subsecLIon dIscus-
sed LIe Issues surroundIng LIe very possIbIIILy oI seII-movers, sIowIng LIuL
LexLs sucI us Phsics V.1 need noL be Luken us u denIuI oI LIe possIbIIILy.
uIso exumIned LIe quesLIon oI wIeLIer or noL IL wouId be possIbIe Lo eII-
mInuLe IInILe seII-movers und sImpIy reduce uII subIunur moLIon Lo beIng
LIe resuIL oI LIe moLIon oI LIe IIrsL Unmoved Mover. Second, descrIbed
ArIsLoLIe`s vurIous 'prooIs` wIIcI esLubIIsI LIe exIsLence oI seII-movers (uI-
LIougI noL uII ure presenLed IormuIIy us prooIs), presenLed In Book V oI
LIe Phsics und In Dn the Motion oj Animcls. TIese urgumenLs esLubIIsI u
number oI poInLs: 1) LIuL uny cuusuI cIuIn musL be IInILe, LermInuLIng In un
unmoved IIrsL mover; z) un unImuI wIIcI Is u genuIne seII-mover cunnoL be
moved xc0' c- by u purL oI ILs body, buL ruLIer LIe moLIon musL proceed
IromLIe souI; ) unImuIs cun be Lrue seII-movers despILe noL InILIuLIng mo-
LIon ex nihilo, und q) LIuL cerLuIn cuusuI cIuIns must In IucL LermInuLe In un
unImuI seII-mover us movIng cuuse. Bused on LIese urgumenLs, ArIsLoLIe
Ius provIdedImporLunL groundIng Ior IIs LIeory oI IIgIer c:,, boLIInLIe
sense oI sIowIng hou o_, us u Lype oI c:,, cun be u genuIne ImmunenL
prIncIpIe oI moLIon, und by sIowIng LIuL c:, In LIIs sense Is u necessury
1oq
bId., p. .
1;8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
posLuIuLe Ior uny LIeory LIuL wIsIes Lo expIuIn observed pIenomenu.
oIIowIng dIscussIon oI LIe prooIs LIuL ArIsLoLIe oIIers, dIscussed LIe
quesLIon oI Iow seII-moLIon occurs, sIowIng LIuL beIngs wIIcI move by
o_p ure movIng by un Inner IormuI prIncIpIe, wIIcI quc IormuI prIncIpIe
does noL move. SLuLed In unoLIer wuy, LIe souI moves LIe body. uIso
exumIned LIe dIIIIcuIL quesLIon oI Iow Lo druw LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween LIe
mover und LIe moved, so LIuL ArIsLoLIe Is noL InLerpreLed us IoIdIng LIe
souI In LIe body buL noL oj LIe body concepLIon oI PIuLo. noLed severuI
pussuges Irom ArIsLoLIe wIIcI cIeurIy sLuLe LIuL LIe souI Is LIe Iorm und
essence oI LIe body, noL mereIy u bouL pIIoL wIo Is borne uIong wILI LIe
sIIp Ie sLeers, buL oI wIIcI Ie Iorms no consLILuLIve purL. GIven LIIs vIew
oI LIe souI, sIowed LIuL LIe o_, us ucL oI LIe body wIIcI IL mukes Lo
be, Is normuIIy ubIe Lo ucL wILIouL ImpedImenL In movIng LIe body In LIe
vurIous cuLegorIes, I.e. LIuL o_ Is 'pIurIpoLenL.`
DespILe ArIsLoLIe`s cIeur usserLIons LIuL IL Is LIe souI wIIcI moves LIe
body, compIIcuLIons urIse Ior sucI u sImpIe uccounL oI seII-moLIon. IrsL oI
uII, ArIsLoLIe does noL wIsI Lo muke unImuI seII-movers un ubsoIuLeIy un-
moved source oI moLIon, In order Lo uvoId LIe cosmoIogIcuI consequences
oI posLuIuLIng rudIcuI InILIuLors oI moLIon In LIe cosmos wIIcI ure dIsLIncL
IromLIe one, prImury UnmovedMover oI LIe unIverse. nconsequence, Ie
empIusIzes LIuL Ior muny, II noL uII, cuses oI uppurenL seII-movemenL, LIe-
re Is u sLImuIus wIIcI enLers IromwILIouL, eILIer someLIIng pIysIcuI, sucI
us Iood, or someLIIng 'InLenLIonuI,` sucI us u percepLIon oI u desIred objecL;
LIese sLImuII uccounL Ior LIe InILIuLIng oI LIe moLIon In LIe unImuI. HowLo
undersLund, LIen, LIe 'seII-mover` us possessIng un unmoved mover wIIcI
1;q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
serves Lo InILIuLe cIunge, eILIer In unoLIer or In ILseII quc oLIer?
Numerous soIuLIons Lo LIIs dIIemmu Iuve been proposed, rungIng Irom
denyIng LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius uny roomIn IIs docLrIne Ior genuIne seII-movers
(Wurdy und SorubjI), Lo Suuv`s sLrong posILIon LIuL noLIIng exLernuI Lo us
moves us Lo Iuve LIe desIres by wIIcI we move ourseIves. A consensus,
Iowever, Ius Iormed uround LIe posILIon LIuL LIere Is u cooperuLIon be-
Lween InLernuI und exLernuI IucLors In expIuInIng seII-moLIon. or GIII, one
muy uppeuI dIrecLIy Lo LIe unImuI's nuLure In order Lo expIuIn wIy u gI-
ven moLIon Lukes one Iorm und noL unoLIer. or urIey und Nussbuum,
proponenLs oI LIe so-cuIIed 'nLenLIonuIILy Escupe,` LIe key IIes In LIe ex-
LernuI objecL oI percepLIon seen us u good, wIIcI moves LIe pcx-:xi wII-
Ie remuInIng ILseII unmoved. InuIIy, reeIund deIends LIe 'InuI Cuuse
Escupe,` wIereby LIe empIusIs Is pIuced on LIe objecLIve cuusuIILy oI LIe
IInuI cuuses wIIcI ure connuLuruI Lo LIe unImuI, sucI LIuL un unImuI cun
be suId Lo be u seII-mover II IL moves In uccordunce wILI LIese cuuses (wILI
LIe InLernuI mecIunIsms oI percepLIon und InLenLIonuIILy us subservIenL Lo
LIe IInuI cuuse). AccordIng Lo boLI LIe nLenLIonuIILy Escupe und LIe InuI
Cuuse Escupe, LIe souI remuIns LIe prImury prIncIpIe oI moLIon, und Ien-
ce unImuIs cun be suId Lo be selj -movers, despILe LIere beIng InILIuLIon oI
moLIon Irom wILIouL.
How do LIese concIusIons uIIecL ArIsLoLIe`s crILIque oI PresocruLIc mu-
LerIuIIsm und LIe deIense oI IIs LIeory oI nuLure? GIven LIe IucL LIuL over
LIe course oI IIs dIscussIon oI LIe Issue oI seII-movers begInnIng In Book
V, ArIsLoLIe Is noL debuLIng LIe muLerIuIIsLs per se, buL ruLIer PIuLonIc
docLrInes ubouL LIe souI us seII-mover und LIe DemIurge us InILIuLor oI mo-
18o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIon (und Ience LIme) In LIe unIverse,
1o
we do noL Iuve LexLs LIuL dIrecLIy
uddress LIese quesLIons.
NeverLIeIess, see Lwo ureus wIere LIe ArIsLoLeIIun urgumenL Ior seII-
movers und LIeIr properLIes ImpucLs IIs overuII urgumenL uguInsL Demo-
crILus, EmpedocIes und Anuxugorus. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, In demonsLruLIng
LIe exIsLence, In Phsics V.q-, oI IInILe unmoved movers (I.e. unImuI
souIs), Ie uIso demonsLruLes LIe exIsLence oI u non-eLernuI prIncIpIe wII-
cI, noL beIng muLerIuI, Is noneLIeIess ubIe Lo dIrecL LIe moLIon oI LIe mu-
LerIuI componenLs oI u gIven body. Hence, InsoIur us LIe souI moves LIe
body, noL uII moLIon cun be reduced Lo muLerIuI necessILy. n LIe second
pIuce, In IIs urgumenL Ior LIe key roIe oI InLenLIonuI sLuLes, In purLIcuIur
ci-ccc, In LIe producLIon oI seII-moLIon, Ie sIows LIe need Lo posIL LIe
cupucILy oI souI Lo ussess u gIven objecL oI sensuLIon In Lerms oI ILs beneIIL
Lo LIe unImuI-I.e. Lo deLermIne LIuL LIe objecL oI sensuLIon Is u good (or
noL). TIe key uspecL Iere Is LIuL LIere muy be no convIncIng reducLIon Lo
pIysIcuI or muLerIuI expIunuLIon Ior wIeLIer u gIven objecL Is u good or noL,
sInce LIere ure goods wIIcI ure onIy sucI uL LIe 'noeLIc` IeveI. Hence, Ie
Ius demonsLruLed LIe necessILy Ior u non-reducIbIe oic:, wIIcI mukes
unImuIs ubIe Lo muke cIoIces bused on experIence und Ieurned sLruLegIes,
und mukes Iumuns ubIe Lo consIder objecLs oI percepLIon vIu oycc-c.
1o
CI. Phsics, zq1b;-zqzuqq und Phsics, z1b16-18.
181
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
. Commonicution oI Iorm in motion und chunge
AL LIIs poInL, wIII cIunge LIe Iocus oI InvesLIguLIonLo Iook more cIoseIy
uL LIe Issue oI IownuLuruI subsLunces ure ubIe Lo be LIe IIrsL movers In u II-
nILe cuusuI cIuIn InvoIvIng oLIer pIysIcuI beIngs. TIIs InvoIves wIuL Iuve
eurIIer Lermed LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm,` wIIcI Is u dIIIIcuIL Issue, und
uppeurs Lo provoke nopc: Ior ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI c:,. n LIIs secLIon,
wIII Iook uL LIe dIIIIcuILIes InvoIved, IoIIowed by un expIoruLIon oI reIe-
vunL LexLs LIuL cun IeIp In reucIIng u soIuLIon. wIII propose u soIuLIon Lo
LIe probIem, IndIcuLIng Iow ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI conLucL cun expIuIn Iow
IormuI ucL cun communIcuLe ILseII Lo oLIer beIngs wIIcI ure In poLency Lo
ucquIre LIe gIven Iorm In ucL. InuIIy, wIII druw some concIusIons ubouL
LIe cIurucLer oI c:, wIIcI we cun derIve IromILs beIng u 'communIcuLor`
oI Iorm.
..1 The diIIicolty oI the 'commonicution oI Iorm'
TIe dIIIIcuILy urIses becuuse cerLuIn uspecLs oI ArIsLoLIe`s pIysIcuI und
meLupIysIcuI LIeorIes uppeur LomIIILuLe uguInsL LIe possIbIIILy oI Iorm'spreu-
dIng` or 'communIcuLIng` ILseII. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, ArIsLoLIe proposes LIuL u
IormIs LIe ucLuuIILy oI ILs muLLer,
1o6
und LIe muLLer or body LIus ucLuuIIzed
musL be conLInuous, I.e. undIvIded In ucL,
1o;
uILIougI IL Is poLenLIuIIy InII-
nILeIy dIvIsIbIe.
1o8
TIe Iorm (us ucL) mukes wIuL Is poLenLIuIIy muILIpIe Lo
1o6
CI. Dn the Soul, q1zu16-.
1o;
CI. Metcphsics, 1o16b1z-16.
1o8
- o' nc:poi o -c-i ci cy0c: xc x:icc: xc _pi, , c -:, c:,, - c-cpoi
yc-c: xc- - np-cpoi, ooi xipc:, ci -: - yc0o, c' o x:ic-c: o:o-c: c(ic-c:,
_pio, oc o: -i xipc:i. ii ci oi _pc0c -o-o:,, c-cpoi oc cpoci xc - cc-:i cxcc-oi, xc
18z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
be u genuIne unILy; LIus IL uIso cun be suId LIuL wIere LIere Is noL u genuIne
unILy, LIere cunnoL be u sIngIe c:, (In LIe sense oI InsLunce) ucLuuIIzIng
boLI. RuLIer, wIere LIere Is muILIpIIcILy oI muLLer, LIere wIII be muILIpII-
cILy oI Iorm.
1oq
TIus, IL wouId seem Lo IoIIow LIuL IL Is ImpossIbIe LIuL u
gIven Iorm (In Lerms oI c:,) be In ucL beyond LIe bounds oI LIe muLLer IL
ucLuuIIzes.
NeverLIeIess, LIIs Is cIeurIy noL wIuL ArIsLoLIe observes IuppenIng. or
c:, Is dynumIc: IIre exLends ILseII und mukes wood burn, IIesI grows by
InLegruLIng Iood, men reproduce by cuusIng LIeIr 'seed` Lo Luke on LIe cupu-
cILy Ior reproducIng Iumun c:, In LIe menses In LIe womun`s womb. n
ArIsLoLIe`s unIverse, nuLuruI beIngs ure noL IsoIuLed one IromunoLIer In LIe
munner oI eIbnIz`s monuds; ruLIer, u beIng wIIcI Ius u c:, Is nuLuruIIy
open Lo oLIer beIngs, boLI In LIe sense oI beIng ubIe Lo receIve Iorms (vIu
pussIve oic:,) or Impose u Iorm IL currIes onLo unoLIer beIng (vIu ucLIve
oic:,). ndeed, so 'conLugIous` Is coo, (In LIe sense oI IormuI ucLuuIILy)
LIuL IL necesscril communIcuLes ILseII wIen In proxImILy Lo u beIng wIIcI
Is In poLency Lo receIve IL (provIded LIuL noLIIng Impedes). He sLuLes In
regurds Lo non-ruLIonuI poLencIes, -, ci -o:c-c, ooic:, iyxp, -ci ,
oici-c: - no:p-:xi xc - nc0p-:xi npc:oc:, - ci no:ci - oc nc_c:i.
11o
As MeeIun poInLs ouL, ArIsLoLIe wus uwure oI severuI oLIer uppurenL ub-
surdILIes LIuL uppeur Lo urIse IromIIs LIeory oI LIe communIcuLIonoI Iorm:
1) LIuL LIe ucLuuIILy Ior eucI purLIcIpunL In LIe eIIIcIenL-cuusuI reIuLIon wIII
noL be in boLI purLIcIpunLs; z) LIere wIII be u sIngIe IdenLIcuI ucLuuIIzuLIon
o:-: ni yc0o, c, cy0p o:c:pc-i, Phsics, zo;bz1-z6.
1oq
Metcphsics, 1o16bo-1o1;uz.
11o
Metcphsics, 1oq8u-o;.
18
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
Ior Lwo LIIngs wIIcI ure LIougIL Lo be dIIIerenL; und LIus ) ucLIon und
pussIon ure noL dIIIerenL In reuIILy, und Ience Lo ucL Is LIe sume us Lo suI-
Ier, buIIdIng LIe sume us beIng buIIL.
111
ArIsLoLIe unswers LIese Issues us
IoIIows. 1) L Is noL ubsurd, us IIs crILIcs usserL, LIuL LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI
one LIIng sIouId be In unoLIer.
11z
TIe cuse oI LeucIIng Is IIIusLruLIve: LIe
ucLIon oI LeucIIng Is noL one becuuse IL Is someLIIng IsoIuLed, cuL oII Irom
ILs subjecL, buL ruLIer Is LIe ucLIon oI LIe LeucIer upon LIe sLudenL. L Is suId
Lo be 'In LIe sLudenL` becuuse IL Is LIe sLudenL`s ucLIvILy LIuL Is deIInILIve oI
wIeLIer or noL LeucIIng Is goIng on... II Ie Is noL IeurnIng us u resuIL oI LIe
LeucIer`s ucLIvILy, LIen LIe LeucIer Is noL In IucL LeucIIng. z) ProvIded LIuL
LIe ucLuuIIzuLIons ure noL descrIbed In LIe sume wuy, LIere Is noLIIng Lo
prevenL Lwo LIIngs Irom IuvIng LIe sume ucLuuIIzuLIon; LIey musL sImpIy
be reIuLed us wIuL cun ucL Lo wIuL Is ucLIng.
11
And ) LIe ugenL need noL be
ucLed upon by LIe puLIenL, Lo ucL Is noL LIe sume LIIng us Lo suIIer, becuuse,
us MeeIun sLuLes, ArIsLoLIe IoIds LIuL wIIIe LeucIIng und IeurnIng ure LIe
sume ucLIvILy muLerIuIIy consIdered, eucI Ius u IormuIILy LIuL mukes LIem
boLI exLrumenLuIIy und concepLuuIIy dIIIerenL.
11q
L does noL IoIIowLIuL Lo
Ieurn Is LIe sume us Lo LeucI, uny more LIun LIe IucL LIuL u sIngIe dIsLunce
exIsLs beLween Lwo LIIngs meuns LIuL LIere Is no dIIIerence beLween LIe
Lwo vecLors AB und BA.
11
111
MeeIun, Ejjicient ccusclit, p. 6z.
11z
o-c - -i oo cipyc:ci ci c-p cic: -onoi |cc-: yp o/oc(:, cipyc:c -o
o:occxc:xo, ci -:i: i-o:, xc ox no-c-pip, -ooc ci -oc, Phsics, zozb-;.
11
o-c /ci oooi xoc: o0ci -i c-i cic: | , - cic: - c-, , np_c: - ooic:
i np, - cicpyoi, Phsics, zozb8-1o.
11q
MeeIun, Ejjicient ccusclit, p. 6.
11
o i oo c o/oc(:, - c0pcc: - c-, xc - ci0ic:i - o:ocxc:i, cncp oo c
o:c-cc:, /c -i o:cc-px-oi, xc - o:/c-cc0c: ci0i0c cxccc xxc0ci ocpo i xc - c-.
Phsics, zozb1-18.
18q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
.. The conditions Ior commonicution oI Iorm
HuvIng sIown LIuL LIe communIcuLIon oI Iorm Irom ugenL Lo puLIenL
Is noL ImpossIbIe nor ubsurd, ArIsLoLIe gIves u number oI necessury condI-
LIons Ior LIIs communIcuLIonoI ucLuuIILy Lo occur. As menLIonedubove, LIe
ugenL und LIe puLIenL musL be In sucI u reIuLIon LIuL LIe cIunge Is possIbIe;
LIIs meuns LIuL LIe puLIenL musL Iuve LIe correspondIng pussIve poLency
Lo be brougIL InLo ucLuuI beIng uccordIng Lo LIe ucLuuIILy possessed by LIe
ugenL.
116
TIIs meuns LIuL LIe puLIenL musL be In u conLrury munner Lo LIe
Iorm Lo be Imposed, Ior uII cIunge Is beLween conLrurIes.
11;
urLIer, LIe
puLIenL musL be In u sLuLe sucI LIuL, wILI u sIngIe ucLIon, LIe poLency IL
IosLs cun be brougIL InLo ucLuuIILy by LIe ugenL.
118
or InsLunce, unreIIned
goId ore cunnoL be mude InLo u goId sLuLue; LIe ore musL IIrsL be reIIned so
LIuL LIe subjecL Is ucLuuIIy, und noL mereIy remoLeIy, goId. SecondIy, LIere
musL be un ubsence oI ImpedImenL, sucI LIuL LIere Is no obsLrucLIon Lo LIe
operuLIon oI LIe ugenL upon LIe puLIenL.
11q
InuIIy, LIere musL be proxImILy
beLween LIe ugenL und LIe puLIenL. SLrIcLIy speukIng, LIIs meuns LIuL LIere
musL be conLucL beLween LIeIr bodIes; even In cuses sucI us IIre IeuLIng uL
u dIsLunce, wIuL Is IuppenIng Is LIuL LIe uIr Is In conLucL wILI LIe IIre, und
LIe IeuLed uIr LIen IeuLs LIe puLIenL.
1zo
116
Metcphsics, 1oq6uzo-o.
11;
yp c( cici-oo c, cici-oi xipc, cc-:i... Phsics, zz6b.
118
Metcphsics, 1oq8b-1oqqu1z.
11q
MeeIun poInLs ouL LIuL LIIs ImpIIes more LIun jusL LIe ubsence or deIIcIency oI un
ucLIve or pussIve poLency on LIe purL oI LIe beIngs InvoIved; ruLIer, LIe word 'ImpedI-
menL`... Is uppIIed Lo LIuL cIrcumsLunce or group oI LIem, exLrInsIc Lo LIe poLenLIuI cuuse
und LIe poLenLIuI subjecL wIIcI prevenL boLI oI LIese poLencIes Irom beIng ucLuuIIzed,
IbId., ;z, n. qq.
1zo
yo o' ooi o ioi n-cioi 0cpcic: - np, xi no0ci -i ci yp pc - np,
o' p - cc 0cpcic:, ncox, no:ci xc nc_c:i, Dn Generction cnd Corruption, z;u-
18
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
ConLucL pIuys u crucIuI roIe In cIunge und moLIon. ArIsLoLIe InsIsLs LIuL
ucLIon uL u dIsLunce Is ImpossIbIe, und LIuL conLucL Is even presenL In cu-
ses wIere no uppurenL LoucI Is occurrIng.
1z1
SeeIng LIuL LoucI or conLucL
Is essenLIuI Ior one beIng Lo druw unoLIer Irom poLency InLo ucL, IL beIoo-
ves us Lo deLermIne more cureIuIIy wIuL LoucI InvoIves, und wIy IL mukes
possIbIe LIe 'communIcuLIon` oI Iorm. As LIe SLugIrILe IImseII suys,
i c ncp -o no:ci xc nc_c:i xc ncp (co, 0copp-oi,
iyxp xc ncp , o-c yp no:ci -c-c xc nc_c:i oic-c: xopo,
oi -c cc0c: oi, o-c ci no, cio_c-c: :_0ic:
np-oi. c-c ncp -p:i -o-oi o:op:c-oi, - xc - (:, xc -
nopc:,.
1zz
BeIng In conLucL meuns Lo be LoucIIng, wIIcI ArIsLoLIe deIInes us Iu-
vIng LIe exLremes LogeLIer.
1z
TIIs Is dIsLInguIsIedIrom'conLInuous` (coic_,),
wIIcI Is deIIned us 'IuvIng LIe exLremes be one.`
1zq
BeIng In conLucL Is Iur-
LIer dIsLInguIsIed Irom 'beIng In successIon,` wIIcI Is deIIned us 'IuvIng
noLIIng oI LIe sume kInd beLween.`
1z
TIose LIIngs wIIcI ure LogeLIer ure
In successIon, IuvIng noLIIng oI LIe sume kInd beLween, buL LIere Is uIso
noLIIng oI unoLIer kInd beLween, eILIer. TIIs beIng LIe cuse, LIe dIvIsIon
beLween LIe Lwo Is dImensIonIess und ILseII IndIvIsIbIe. TIIs sILuuLIon Is
o6.
1z1
CI. Dn Drecms, cI. z: ncpcnc:oi yp - n0o, cn -c -o-oi xc cn -i cpoioi
co:xci cic:. xc yp cn -i cpoioi -o x:icci-o, ox-: 0:yyioi-o, x:ic-c: - yp x:icci
cxipcci pc -:i, xc n:i o-o, x:iocio, c-cpoi xc -o -oi o -i -pnoi, co, i c-, no:c-c:
-i xipc:i xc ci p: xc ci -o, ypo,, On Dreums, qquz-b.
1zz
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zzbzz-z;.
1z
...coic_ ci i - cc_c-c ci, n-cic o' i c, Phsics, z1uzz-z.
1zq
bId.
1z
bId.
186
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
sImIIur Lo LIuL oI u conLInuum, I.e. oI u body undIvIded In ucL. or In u con-
LInuum, IL Is uIso Lrue LIuL LIe purLs Iuve noLIIng sepuruLIng LIem. WIuL
Is IuckIng wIen Lwo beIngs LoucI Is precIseIy u sIngIe unIIyIng IormuI ucL
wIIcI mukes LIe Lwo purLs one.
.. Kinds oI motions und chunges resolting Irom commoni-
cution oI Iorm
A number oI dIIIerenL moLIons or cIunges cun occur wIen conLucL oc-
curs beLween Lwo beIngs. ArIsLoLIe gIves LIe exumpIes oI IIre spreudIng
Lo dry Iogs,
1z6
wIIcI Is unuIogous Lo Iow IIesI grows by LIe ubsorpLIon oI
Iood:
1z;
IL cun be eILIer comIng Lo be or growLI. I LIe IIre Increuses by
spreudIng Lo oLIer Iogs, wIIIe muInLuInIng conLInuILy, LIIs Is growLI; II LIe
IIre cuuses sepuruLe IIume In LIe Iogs, LIIs Is comIng Lo be. n LIe cuse oI
Iood beIng ubsorbed In IIesI, LIIs cun be growLI (II buIk Is udded) or nuLrI-
LIon, II LIe Iood mereIy keeps uIIve wIuL Is uIreudy LIere.
1z8
n uddILIon, we
Iuve Iumun generuLIon, Ior LIe mun generuLes LIe cIIId by ImposIng LIe
Iorm oI mun on LIe seed (I.e. sperm) wIIcI cun In Lurn ucL us u proxy Lo
Impose LIe Iorm oI mun upon LIe embryo In LIe womb.
1zq
n LIe cuses oI
generuLIon, wIuL wus LemporurIIy In conLucL or LoucIIng, uILer LIe IormuI
cIunge occurs, LIe newIy Iormed beIng sepuruLes und conLInues u dIsLIncL
exIsLence, wIereus In LIe cuse oI growLI, wIuL wus once sepuruLe becomes
1z6
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zzu1o-16.
1z;
bId.
1z8
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zzu1;-z8.
1zq
H-c oc ooic: cc-:i cxcc-oi xc n-c o, o:op:c-oi o yp no-coi. ooi y p' cc-
ooic: i0pono, o, oi -ci op yic-c: cnpc, xc ooc --c co,... Metcphsics,
1oq8b-1oqquq.
18;
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
one wILI LIe movIng cuuse oI LIe cIunge. OLIer kInds oI moLIon do noL
InvoIve modIIIcuLIon oI LIe essence oI LIe beIng wIIcI Is In poLency Lo be
modIIIed. n IocomoLIon, LIe beIng wIIcI cuuses LIe moLIon musL be In
conLucL wILI LIe LIIng Lo be moved, buL LIe LIIng moved remuIns wIuL IL
Is: u soccer buII kIcked by u pIuyer does noL ceuse Lo be u soccer buII, Ior LIe
cIunge Is noL In LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce. NeverLIeIess, LIe pIuyer Ius u
moLIon wIIcI Is ImpurLed Lo LIe buII vIu LoucI. SImIIurIy, we Iuve cIunges
(more specIIIcuIIy, moLIon or xipc:,) In LIe cuLegorIes oI quunLILy und quu-
IILy, wIere LIe mover ImpurLs some Iorm wILIouL cIungIng LIe essence oI
LIe LIIng wIIcI Is moved. or InsLunce, Ice ImpurLs coId Lo LIe Iund LIuL
IoIds IL, wILIouL cIungIng LIe subsLunce oI LIe Iund, und rubber muy be
sLreLcIed wILIouL ceusIng Lo be rubber.
wIII dIscuss LIese Lypes oI 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` sepuruLeIy. IrsL
wIII Iook uL LIe cuse oI essenLIuI cIunge, IoIIowed by un InvesLIguLIon oI
cIunge In LIe oLIer cuLegorIes. WILI essenLIuI cIunge, we Iuve Lwo beIngs,
one oI wIIcI Is In poLency Lo receIve u subsLunLIuI Iorm (u c:,) ImpurLed
by LIe oLIer. Here, LIe unILy
1o
generuLed by conLucL beLween LIe bodIes oI
LIe Lwo beIngs provIdes LIe sILuuLIon necessury Ior LIere Lo be poLency Lo
Lrue unILy. OnIy u sIngIe ucLIon Is necessury Lo brIng LIIs unILy InLo beIng.
11
n LIe cuse oI growLI und nuLrILIon, LIuL Is precIseIy LIe ucLIon LIuL oc-
curs wIen Iood becomes ubsorbed InLo IIesI, or wood Is udded Lo u IIre.
1o
-i oc xc0' cco- i cyoioi - ci yc-c: - coic_ cic:, ooi xco, occ xc (c
x. xc ypc, xi xcxcip , coic_, o, c yc-c:, cncp xc -i cpi cxcc-oi, ooi
cxo, xc [pc_oi. c-i oc -o-oi oi i - cc: coic_ -_i, Metcphsics, 1o1b-
1o16u.
11
CI. LIe deIInILIon oI poLency, Metcphsics, 1oq8b-1oqqu1z.
188
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
TIe unILy cuused by conLucL Is u Iesser kInd oI unILy,
1z
buL IL Is u suIIIcIenL
unILy sucI LIuL wIuL orIgInuIIy wus onIy remoLeIy In poLency (I.e. LIIs Iood
Is In remoLe poLency Lo be LrunsIormed und mude purL oI LIIs IIesI, wIen
LIe Lwo ure weII sepuruLed) Is nowIn poLency In LIe IuII sense, us LIe Iouse
Is In poLency wIen uII LIe muLerIuIs ure presenL und LIe buIIder Ius urrIved.
TIe c:, oI LIe ugenL need mereIy druw InLo ucLuuIILy LIe unILy poLenLIuI-
Iy presenL In LIe IIesI-Iood (or wood-IIre) puIr wIIcI ure joIned LIrougI
LoucI. or wood Is muLLer Ior IIre, und Iood Is muLLer Ior IIesI; LIuL wIIcI
exIsLs In poLency Is druwn Lo be In ucLuuIILy In LIe puLIenL.
n LIe cuse oI comIng Lo be, LIe process Is somewIuL dIIIerenL, In LIuL
once u poLenLIuI c:, Is druwn InLo beIng In LIe puLIenL by LIe ucLIon oI LIe
ugenL, LIe puLIenL does noL become u unILy wILI LIe ugenL. or InsLunce, In
LIe cuse oI IIre, u cundIe cunbe usedLo IIgIL u IIre Inu IIrepIuce, undonce LIe
kIndIIng Ius cuugIL IIre, LIe cundIe Is puL buck on LIe munLeI. TIe IIre LIuL
conLInues In LIe IIrepIuce Is suId Lo Iuve 'come Lo be` und noL Lo be u cuse
oI growLI.
1
TIus, we do noL Iuve u cuse oI u poLenLIuI unILy beLween Lwo
beIngs beIng brougIL Lo be u Lrue unILy; ruLIer, LIe c:, oI LIe ugenL Is ubIe
Lo druw un IdenLIcuI c:, Irom poLency InLo ucL In LIe puLIenL, despILe no
genuIne unILy ever IuvIng exIsLed beLween LIe ugenL und puLIenL. ConLucL
wILIouL unILy InLIe IuII sense, LIereIore, Is someIowsuIIIcIenL Ior un ugenL
Lo druw wIuL Is In poLency In LIe puLIenL InLo ucL.
1z
.e. sImIIur Lo LIuL produced by urL, cI. op cIL., 1o16u.
1
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zzu16.
18q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
..q A possible solotion to the diIIicolty
WIuL Is IL ubouL conLucL LIuL Is so specIuI, LIuL mukes IL boLI u necessury
condILIon (und In LIe correcL sILuuLIon, u suIIIcIenL condILIon) Ior cIunge or
moLIon Lo occur? And In regurds Lo ArIsLoLIe`s deIInILIon oI c:, us u prIn-
cIpIe oI moLIon or resL (prImurIIy In LIe beIng wIIcI Ius u nuLure, buL uIso
In oLIer beIngs), Iow Is IL possIbIe LIuL one beIng, I.e. LIe puLIenL, wIIcI Is
u unILy und reuIIy dIsLIncL Irom LIe ugenL, sIouId be uIIecLed by un ugenL,
wIIcI Is genuIneIy oLIer? or II we cunnoL sIow LIuL communIcuLIon oI
IormbeLween Lwo beIngs Is possIbIe, LIen LIIs wIII cuuse u sLrong dIIIIcuILy
Ior ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI c:,.
ApurL oI LIe dIIIIcuILy cun be resoIved by noLIng LIuL moLIon und cIunge
do noL reuIIy InvoIve 'LrunsmILLIng` Iorm In u sLrIcL sense. or LIuL wIIcI
comes InLo beIng (eILIer us u comIng-Lo-be or yicc:,, or us u moLIon or
xipc:,) Is uIreudy presenL, us u poLency, In LIe puLIenL. L Is noL LIe cuse
LIuL LIe puLIenL Is ubsoIuLeIy oLIer LIun LIuL wIIcI IL comes Lo be, buL In
u sense IL uIreudy is wIuL IL wIII be, us LIe Hermes Is suId Lo 'be` In LIe
bronze.
1q
TIus, IL Is more properIy suId Lo be u 'druwIng InLo ucL` LIun u
LrunsmIssIon.
n LIe second pIuce, we cun noLe LIuL quc ILseII Iorm Is noL IImILed by
pIuce, nor Is IL LruIy In cn pIuce.
1
TIe IormuI ucL wIIcI mukes u nuLuruI
subsLunce Lo be, on LIe oLIer Iund, is IocuIIzed (sInce LIe body wIIcI IL
1q
CI. Metcphsics, 1o1;bq-o.
1
cc-: oc x:iocioi - ci xc0' c- cicpyc, - oc xc- co[c[px, xc- co[c[px, oc
- ci cioc_cioi x:icc0c: xc0' c-, ooi - p:c -o cc-o, xc ci - no o,, -
o' ox cioc_cic ' cc xc- co[c[px,, ooi cox-p, xc cn:c-p -c-c yp o-o
c-c[[pxc -i -noi, -: ci np_ooc: c-c[c:, Phsics, z11u18-zq.
1qo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
mukes Lo be Ius pIuce). BuL IL Is noL dIsLunce or spuce LIuL Is prIncIpuIIy
LIe dIIIIcuILy, Ior LIe Iorm oI mun Is presenL In every purL oI LIe mun, us
ucL oI LIe body wIIcI Ius LIuL purL, und LIere Is noL Iess 'Iumunness` In LIe
IInger Ior beIng dIsLunL IromLIe 'cenLer` oI LIe mun. TIus LIe eIIecLIveness
oI LoucI or conLucL Is noL due Lo proxImILy per se, und LIe IucL LIuL LIe
puLIenL Is In u dIIIerenL pIuce Is noL un obsLucIe, Ior LIe c:, LIuL Is In LIe
ugenL Is noL IImILed by pIuce, us IL Is noL body, buL LIe ucL oI u IocuIIzed body.
PIuce und LoucI ure ImporLunL, ruLIer, becuuse juxLuposILIon und conLucL
ure requIred Ior u unILy (oI conLIguILy) Lo come ubouL.
RuLIer, IL uppeurs LIuL c:, Is IImILed by other beins wILI LIeIr own
c:,, wIIcI presenL ImpedImenLs Lo LIe c:, brIngIng LIem InLo ucL.
16
SInce LIere Is no voId, every nuLuruI subsLunce Is surrounded by oLIer sub-
sLunces, wIIcI muy Impede ILs 'LrunsmILLIng` oI ILs c:,. TIIs ImpedImenL
cun be oI Lwo kInds. IrsL, LIere Is LIe ImpedImenL oI Iuck oI poLency In LIe
oLIer beIng. TIe ugenL cunnoL ucL unIess LIe puLIenL Is conLrury Lo (or 'un-
IIke`) LIe puLIenL In LIe correcL genus: ' cnc o - -o_i noxc nc_c:i
xc no:ci, ' cc cici-c cc-i cici-oc:i c_c:, iyxp xc - no:oi xc -
nc_oi - yic: ci o:oi cic: xc -c-, - o' coc: io:oi xc cici-oi.
1;
or InsLunce, u IIre Is kepL wILIIn LIe IIrepIuce becuuse LIe brIcks (mude
oI eurLI) ure noL In poLency Lo be burned. A second kInd oI ImpedImenL
Is u beIng wIIcI Is In poLency Lo be unoLIer (I.e. wuLer, wIIcI cun be Lur-
ned InLo wIne), buL wIIcI 'resIsLs` LIe ucLIve poLency oI LIe ugenL, due Lo ILs
16
ArIsLoLIe noLes, Ior InsLunce, In regurds Lo nuLuruI subsLunces LIuL oxoi , np--c-c:,
o-o noxc, xc , ncoxci, o-o np--c-c: cxcc-oi, i -: cnoo, Phsics, 1qqu8-1.
1;
Dn Generction cnd Corruption, zbo-.
1q1
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
greuLer sLrengLI.
18
TIe roIe oI conLucL In LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` Ius Lo do wILI Impe-
dImenLs. Once LIe Lwo beIngs Iuve been brougIL InLo conLucL, LIere Is no
spuce beLween LIem (LIeIr ends ure LogeLIer, uILIougI LIey ure noL one).
TIus, wIIIe LIere Is u dIvIsIon In ucL beLween LIe ugenL und LIe puLIenL, LIIs
dIvIsIonIs dImensIonIess, undLIus no body cunexIsL beLweenLIe ugenL und
puLIenL (Ior uII body Ius dImensIon
1q
). Once LIe ugenL und puLIenL ure In
conLucL, LIere Is precIseIy nothinbeLweenLIem, undLIuL wIIcIIs noL uny-
LIIng cunnoL ucL us un ImpedImenL: LIere Is noLIIng beLween LIuL wIIcI Is
In ucL und LIuL wIIcI cun be In ucL. And sInce c:, Is sucI LIuL IL uIwuys
ucLs wIen LIere Is no ImpedImenL, IL musL ucL In LIIs sILuuLIon. ormbeIng
non-spuLIuI, LIe coo, oI LIe nuLuruI subsLunce cun brIng LIe muLLer oI LIe
puLIenL InLo beIng us eIIorLIessIy us IL mukes LIe muLLer oI LIe ugenL be wIuL
IL Is. And IL wIII do LIIs wILIouL IuII, provIded LIuL ILs c:, Is 'domInunL`
(- xpc-oi).
..g Wuterlow's onitury sobject theory
WuLerIowudvunces u LIeory uIong sImIIur IInes Inorder Lo expIuIncIun-
ge wILIInLIe conLexL oI unugenL-puLIenL reIuLIonsIIp, und wIIcI, II correcL,
18
-i oc no:p-:xi xc nc0p-:xi cc co:cpc-c, no ci yo:, xc cyc :xpo,
coi-:0cic o no:c (:i, 'c(pc:i -o xpc-oi-o, c-c[c: yp 0-cpoi c, - xpc-oi,
ooi c-ccy, oioo opo:, _occ:i oc-o, o yi0-c: c-c: yp - coo, xc c-c[c: c, -
ni oop. -ci oc -c, ooicc:i c no,, --c c-c[c: ci x-cpoi c, - xpc-oi cx -,
c-o cco,, o yic-c: o`0-cpoi, c-c( xc xo:ii, Dn Generction cnd Corruption,
z8uzq-z.
1q
o i ' c_c: yc nopci, c cc-:, - cc-:, n-cpoi yxo, -:, cc-o, -:, c-pc c:,
p-p-oi yp - yio, c-o np-oi. o:cc-c-c ci oi c_c: -pc, xo, xc n-o, xc [0o,, o,
pc-c: cc ni. oic-oi oc cc cic: -i -noi ci -c- yp i cp oo cc-c, Phsics,
zoqu-;.
1qz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
wouId resoIve LIe conundrum oI LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm.` SIe begIns
by sLuLIng LIuL, In Phsics ., ucLIon J pussIon Is LreuLed oI us LIougI IL
were u sIngIe evenL, oI wIIcI LIe ugency oI one IndIvIduuI und LIe puLIency
oI unoLIer ure dIsLInguIsIubIe buL InsepurubIe uspecLs.
1qo
SIe LIen pro-
ceeds Lo usk wIuL our jusLIIIcuLIon wouId be Ior suyIng LIuL LIere ure Lwo
IndIvIduuIs InvoIved, prIor Lo unuIyzIng LIe evenL InLo ugenL und puLIenL
reIuLIons. ConsIdered prIor Lo LIIs unuIysIs, sIe IoIds LIuL InsLeud oI Lwo
subjecLs, we wIII Iuve u sinle subject, wIIcI onIy reveuIs dIIIerenL IucLors,
I.e. LIe ugenL und LIe puLIenL, uILer un unuIysIs Is perIormed. WuLerIow
usks,
|A|ILIougI ArIsLoLIe`s unuIogIes In Book beLween nuLuruI und
urLIIIcIuI cIunge ure InLended Lo IIIusLruLe LIe Iormer by LIe IuL-
Ler, wIy sIouId we noL reverse LIe unuIogy, und regurd LIe ur-
LIIex und IIs muLerIuI us IormIng, In LIe cIunge, u concreLe or-
gunIc unILy, us II LIe muLerIuI were un exLensIon oI IIs own bo-
dy?
1q1
TIe cIunge, In LIIs cuse LIuL oI Iouse-buIIdIng, wouId LermInuLe wILI LIe
dIssoIuLIonoI LIe sIngIe subjecL InLoLwodIsLIncL unILIes, eucIu Iree-sLundIng
subsLunce.
Awure LIuL LIIs Is u counLerInLuILIve InLerpreLuLIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s docLrI-
ne oI ucLIon und pussIon, und Indeed oI subsLunce, sIe sLuLes LIuL LIe onIy
reusonLIuL we wouIdsuspecL LIe presence oI Lwo dIsLIncL subjecLs wIIIe LIe
1qo
WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, pp. zoo-1.
1q1
IbId., p. zo1. SIe cILes us jusLIIIcuLIon ArIsLoLIe`s compurIson oI u sLIck moved by LIe
Iund Lo un exLru IImb; cI. Dn the Motion oj Animcls, ;ozu1-b11.
1q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
ucLIon und pussIon ure underwuy Is LIuL LIe Lwo IndIvIduuIs were presenL
beIore und uILer LIe cIunge. DurIng LIe cIunge ILseII, LIere Is no reuson Lo
suppose LIuL LIere ure Lwo dIIIerenL beIngs InvoIved, uny more LIun LIe-
re Is reuson Lo IoId LIuL LIe sImpIe bodIes-LIe eIemenLs-were presenL us
IuII subsLunces durIng LIe LIme oI exIsLence oI u subsLunce, jusL becuuse
LIey were presenL beIore und uILer LIe generuLIon und IuLer corrupLIon oI
LIuL subsLunce. TIe udvunLuge Lo WuLerIow`s InLerpreLuLIon Is LIuL IL remo-
ves uII need Ior 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm,` sInce durIng u cIunge InvoIvIng
Lwo beIngs, LIere Is onIy one 'subsLunce,` so Lo speuk, durIng LIe process oI
cIunge, und Ience cIunge uppurenLIy InvoIvIng Lwo beIngs Is reuIIy u seII-
cIunge, und LIere Is no ucLuuI ugency und puLIency... SInce LIere ure noL
Lwo beIngs Lo connecL, LIere cun be neILIer probIemnor soIuLIon ubouL LIe
nuLure und sLuLus oI LIe connecLIon.
1qz
WuLerIow udmILs LIuL LIIs InLerpreLuLIon wouId be counLerInLuILIve Ior
boLI us und Ior ArIsLoLIe, und LIuL Indeed LIuL ArIsLoLIe... never IoIIows
ouL LIe IIne oI LIougIL jusL skeLcIed.
1q
suggesL LIuL, wIIIe Ier soIuLIon
Is InLrIguIng, LIere ure soIId reusons wIy LIe SLugIrILe never deveIoped sucI
u response Lo LIe probIem oI ugency und puLIency. TIe mosL cogenL reuson
Ius Lo do wILI ArIsLoLIe`s own meLupIysIcs. n order Lo Iorm u unILy, even
u Lemporury one, oI LIe sorL LIuL WuLerIow speuks oI, sucI LIuL ucLIon und
pussIon couId be reduced Lo seII-cIunge, LIere musL be u unILury Iorm LIuL
mukes LIe subjecL Lo be one.
1qq
BuL LIe unILy LIuL Is Iormed beLween ugenL
1qz
WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, p. zoz.
1q
IbId., p. zo.
1qq
o, oc i ipc:, o:cpc-o, ioocc - - i cic:, xc oic-c: _opcc: -c _pi -c
-n -c y, :c-c -c-c ci, xc -o-oi cc occ:, Metcphsics, 1o16b1-.
1qq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
und puLIenL Is un uccIdenLuI unILy, Ior LIe Iorm wIIcI 'unILes` LIe ugenL
und LIe puLIenL, under WuLerIow`s proposuI, Is un uccIdenLuI Iorm oI some
kInd: LIe ugenL Imposes u Iorm wILIIn LIe cuLegorIes oI quuIILy, quunLILy,
or pIuce.
urLIermore, LIere Is no suggesLIon by ArIsLoLIe LIuL durIng un occu-
sIon oI LrunsmIssIon oI Iorm (or ucLIon und pussIon), LIe subsLunLIuI Iorms
oI LIe Lwo objecLs ure someIow IosL, onIy Lo reconsLILuLe LIemseIves upon
LermInuLIon oI LIe cIunge. ndeed, LIIs wouId be ImpossIbIe, Ior LIe pos-
sIbIIILy oI ucLIon und pussIon depends upon LIere beIng Lwo beIngs, one In
ucLIve poLency und LIe oLIer In pussIve poLency, sucI LIuL conLucL und LIe
correcL envIronmenLuI condILIons cun brIng ubouL LIe cIunge In quesLIon.
ArIsLoLIe even exLends LIIs 'duuIILy` modeI Lo InsLunces oI seII-cIunge, wIe-
reIn LIe cIungIng beIng Is unuIyzed us beIng dIsLInguIsIubIe InLo u mover
und u moved (I.e. souI und body), und LIe seII-mover moves ILseII noL quc
undIIIerenLIuLed unILy, buL quc oLIer.
1q
My own posILIon, us sLuLed ubove, Is LIuL LIe roIe oI conLucL In LIe Lruns-
mIssIon oI IormIs noL LIuL oI IormIng u unILy LIuL wouId sLund over und su-
persede LIe IndIvIduuI unILIes oI LIe ugenL und LIe puLIenL, buL ruLIer LIuL
oI eIImInuLIng ImpedImenLs. TIIs uppeurs Lo be us Iur us ArIsLoLIe IImseII
Ius gone, on LIe IewoccusIons LIuL Ie Ius dIscussed LIe Issue (purLIcuIurIy
In Dn Generction cnd Corruption .6-1o).
1q
WuLerIow IerseII noLes LIuL LIIs Is LIe dIrecLIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s LIougIL: He Iooks Ior
dIsLIncL ugenLs und puLIenLs even In LIe uppurenLIy InLrunsILIve nuLuruI cIunges oI sIn-
gIe IIvIng orgunIsms, wIIcI Ior IIm ure unILury noL by some sLreLcI oI LIe concepLuuI
ImugInuLIon, buL IundumenLuIIy und purudIgmuLIcuIIy so, IbId., p. zo.
1q
Chcpter . 1c:, cs Principle oj Motion
.q Conclosions regurding motion und chunge
n LIIs cIupLer we Iuve exumIned severuI Issues regurdIng ArIsLoLIe`s
LIeory oI moLIon und cIunge und ILs reIuLIon Lo IIs docLrIne oI c:,. Spe-
cIIIcuIIy, we Iuve deLermIned LIree LIIngs. IrsL, we Iuve sIown Iow, und
In wIuL sense, un orgunIc subsLunce cun move ILseII, sInce we Iuve sIown
LIuL LIe 'coo,` (I.e. LIe o_) oI LIe subsLunce ucLs us un ImmobIIe mover
wILI respecL Lo ILs body. SecondIy, we Iuve sIown LIuL IL Is necessury LIuL
LIere be subIunur ImmobIIe movers (I.e. subsLunces wIIcI exIsL by c:,),
In order Lo uccounL Ior LIe exIsLence oI kInds oI moLIon oLIer LIun cycIIcuI
IocomoLIon.
1q6
InuIIy, we Iuve sIown Iow, In uddILIon Lo beIng u sour-
ce oI moLIon Ior ILseII, u nuLuruI subsLunce cun 'communIcuLe` ILs Iorm, by
druwIng oLIer beIngs InLo ucL In u deLermInuLe munner, vIu conLucL.
rom LIIs busIs, we now Iuve u more compIeLe jusLIIIcuLIon Ior LIe exI-
sLence oI IIgIer cc:,. We Iuve seen LIuL, gIven LIe demonsLruLIon oI LIe
dIvIsIon oI mobIIe beIng InLo ILs p_c oI coo, und , LIe IormuI 'purL` oI
LIe nuLuruI subsLunce cun ucL us un ImmobIIe mover (vIu LIe ucLIve poLen-
cIes LIuL LIe IormuI p_ IosLs). urLIer, LIuL c:, us un ImmobIIe mover
In u nuLuruI subsLunce mukes LIuL subsLunce Lo be u seII-mover, und LIuL
sucI nuLuruI seII-movers movers ure requIred Lo expIuIn observed InsLun-
ces oI moLIon. InuIIy, we Iuve InvesLIguLed Iow nuLuruI subsLunces, us
seII-movers, cun produce moLIon In oLIer beIngs LIrougI bodIIy conLucL.
1q6
TukIng InLo uccounL ArIsLoLIe`s modeI oI LIe unIverse, wIereby LIe ceIesLIuI bodIes
ure In consLunL cIrcuIur moLIon, IncIudIng LIe spIere oI LIe sun, wIIcI movIng uIong LIe
ecIIpLIc, produces LIe cycIIcuI cIunges oI LIe seusons. or ArIsLoLIe, LIe sun`s moLIon Is uI-
so responsIbIe Ior LIe generuLIon und corrupLIon oI LIe eIemenLs, In u cycIe wIIcI ImILuLes
LIuL oI LIe ceIesLIuI bodIes, buL wILIIn LIe subIunur worId oI cIunge.
1q6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
TIIs IuLLer sLep gIves ArIsLoLIe LIe jusLIIIcuLIon Ior usserLIng LIuL nuLuruI
subsLunces cun ucL In LIe worId LIrougI LIe operuLIons Ior wIIcI LIey ure
upL (noxci).
L remuIns now Lo dIscuss ArIsLoLIe`s jusLIIIcuLIon oI IInuIILy In nuLuruI
subsLunces, und oI LIe exIsLence oI cc:, IIgIer LIun LIe sImpIe nuLures
(or eIemenLs), wIIcI wIII dIscuss In LIe IoIIowIng Lwo cIupLers. We wIII
IInd LIuL u good purL oI LIe necessury buses Ior IIs jusLIIIcuLIon oI LIese
posILIons Ius uIreudy been IuId In LIe urgumenLuLIon we Iuve dIscussed up
Lo now.
1q;
q. The Argoments Ior Nutorul Iinulity
AL LIIs poInL Iuve sIown Iow ArIsLoLIe provIdes jusLIIIcuLIon Ior u
number oI 'Iegs` supporLIng IIs LIeory oI c:,. n purLIcuIur, Iuve sIown
Iow IIs unuIysIs oI LIe prIncIpIes oI mobIIe beIng, II correcL, noL onIy pro-
vIdes us wILI un undersLundIng oI IowcIunge und moLIon cun come ubouL,
buL uIso uppIIes equuIIy Lo LIe LIeorIes oI LIe Greek muLerIuIIsLs. SecondIy,
Iuve sIown Iow c:, cun be u prIncIpIe oI ucLIve poLency, despILe beIng
prImurIIy suId Lo be u IormuI prIncIpIe. TIIrdIy, Iuve sIown Iow seII-
movers cun be suId Lo exIsL, und descrIbed un urgumenL, derIved IromArIs-
LoLIe`s urgumenLs Ior LIe exIsLence oI u IrsL MoLor, LIuL sIows LIuL LIere
musL be IInILe sub-Iunur seII-movers. n uddILIon, Iuve sIown Iow con-
LucL mukes IL possIbIe Ior LIese seII-movers Lo exercIse LIeIr cIurucLerIsLIc
operuLIons In LIe worId.
n LIIs cIupLer, wIII dIscuss u mujor objecLIon LIuL LIe uncIenL muLe-
rIuIIsLs mude Lo ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory,
1
und one wIIcI Is sLIII mude Loduy. TIe
oc:oyo: wIsI Lo suy LIuL LIey cun oIIer expIunuLIons wIIcI need none oI
LIe SLugIrILe`s 'IIgIer` cc:,: sucI IIgIer cc:, wouId Iuve Lo be subjecL Lo
genuIne comIng-Lo-be und pussIng-uwuy, LIus vIoIuLIng LIe PurmenIdeun
sLrIcLure uguInsL cIunge; IurLIer, LIe sImpIer LIeorIes LIuL LIey oIIer ure
1
TIe oc:oyo: menLIoned expIIcILIy In ArIsLoLIe`s works were deud by LIe LIme LIe SLu-
gIrILe jloruit (wILILIe possIbIe excepLIonoI DemocrILus); neverLIeIess, muLerIuIIsL scIooIs
oI pIIIosopIy conLInued Lo prosper In ArIsLoLIe`s LIme, und Ie gIves LIe ImpressIon oI Iuv-
Ing been In dIuIogue wILI LIose wIo muInLuIned LIe docLrInes oI LIese eurIIer oc:oyo:.
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
preIerubIe Lo ArIsLoLIe`s Ior LIeIr sImpIIcILy, needIng onIy u Iew busIc p_c
Lo expIuIn u vusL urruy oI wIdeIy vuryIng pIenomenu.
z
TIus c:,, In LIe
ImporLunL sense oI compIex nuLures IrreducIbIe Lo eIemenLuI prIncIpIes, Is
jusL un IIIusIon, und LIuL wIuL uppeurs Lo be un 'InnuLe prIncIpIe oI moLIon
und resL` Is mereIy LIe resuIL oI LIe workIngs oI cIunce.
I LIe oc:oyo: cun buck up LIeIr usserLIon LIuL LIe pIenomenu un-
der consIderuLIon, I.e. LIe comIng-Lo-be und beIuvIor oI orgunIsms, cun
be expIuIned by LIeIr busIc muLerIuI p_c und cIunce workIng over LIme,
LIen LIey cun pIuusIbIy cIuImLIuL ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory ougIL Lo be rejecLed. L
wouId be needIessIy compIIcuLed, und IncorrecLIy cIuIms LIuL someLIIng Is
u Lrue reuIILy (I.e. u genuIne IIgIer c:,) wIIcI Is In IucL mereIy un IIIusIon
creuLed by cIunce, IIke u Iuce uppeurIng In u IouI oI buked breud. ArIsLoLIe,
LIereIore, needs Lo sIow LIuL LIe kInds oI pIenomenu LIuL Ie uLLrIbuLes
Lo c:, (In purLIcuIur, uppurenLIy purposeIuI buL non-ruLIonuI ucLIvILy In
LIe nuLuruI worId) cunnoL In IucL be expIuIned by 'cIunce,` us LIe oc:oyo:
cIuIm. I cIunce cunnoL be used us un expIunuLIon Ior LIese pIenomenu,
LIe muLerIuIIsL uLLuck on LIe docLrIne oI c:, wIII IuII, und ArIsLoLIe cun
cIuIm, wILI jusLIce, LIuL IIs LIeory Is LIe onIy one LIuL LruIy expIuIns LIe
pIenomenu.
wIII sLrucLure LIIs cIupLer In LIe IoIIowIng wuy. n LIe IIrsL secLIon,
wIII descrIbe LIe LIeory oI EmpedocIes LIuL ArIsLoLIe presenLs In Phsics
z
wIII ussume, Ior LIe suke oI urgumenL, LIuL LIe oc:oyo: wouId be conLenL wILI
udmILLIng LIe ArIsLoLeIIun unuIysIs oI LIe p_c oI muLLer und Iorm, uIong wILI IIs unuIysIs
oI LIe 'wuys oI beIng` und IIs expIunuLIon oI moLIon, buL resLrIcLIng LIe uppIIcuLIon oI IIs
LIeory Lo LIe umbIL oI LIe 'sImpIe nuLures,` und denyIng LIuL LIere couId be occ oI uny
IIgIer order LIun LIe eIemenLs. Meyer uIso InLerpreLs LIe posILIons oI LIe oc:oyo: us
InvoIvIng u denIuI oI IIgIer nuLures In LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce; cI. Meyer, ArIsLoLIe,
TeIeoIogy, und ReducLIon, p. ;qq.
1qq
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
.8, IoIIowed by un unuIysIs oI ArIsLoLIe`s crILIque oI LIIs urgumenL. n LIe
second secLIon, wIII descrIbe LIe objecLIon Lo nuLuruI IInuIILy wIIcI vIews
'end-dIrecLedness` us someLIIng necessurIIy ruLIonuI, und LIus noL presenL
In non-ruLIonuI beIngs. AguIn, IoIIowed by u presenLuLIon oI LIe urgumenL,
wIII sIow Iow ArIsLoLIe responds Lo LIIs objecLIon. NexL, wIII exumIne u
number oI Issues reIuLed Lo IInuIILy In more compIex sysLems, sIowIng Iow
ArIsLoLIe`s pIIIosopIy conLuIns resources LIuL cun expIuIn IowLIere cun be
end-dIrecLedness wILIIn sysLems wIose purLs ure noL, per se, dIrecLed Lo-
wurds LIe purpose LIuL LIey In IucL serve In LIe overuII sysLem. InuIIy,
wIII dIscuss LIe Issue oI wIeLIer ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI LeIeoIogIcuI expIunu-
LIon Is compuLIbIe wILI reducLIonIsm us uppIIed Lo LIe underIyIng pIysIcuI
processes oI orgunIc deveIopmenL.
q.1 Impedocles's 'evolotionury' theory
n Phsics .8, ArIsLoLIe InLroduces u compeLIng LIeory, LIe 'LIeory oI
muLerIuI necessILy`

mosL IIkeIy deveIoped In ILs IuIIesL Iorm by Empedo-


cIes.
q
TIIs LIeory InLends Lo expIuIn LIe exIsLence oI uppurenLIy purpose-
IuI ucLIvILy or beIngs In Lerms wIIcI do noL InvoIve purpose or 'desIgn.` TIe
urgumenL begIns by sLuLIng LIuL muLerIuI necessILy Is suIIIcIenL Lo expIuIn

CI. Meyer, ArIsLoLIe, TeIeoIogy, und ReducLIon, p. ;qz.


q
WIIIe ArIsLoLIe does noL muke cIeur wIo Is LIe orIgInuLor oI LIe LIeory Ie descrIbes
Iere, IL uppeurs mosL IIkeIy LIuL IL Is EmpedocIes, und wIII ussume IIs uuLIorsIIp Iere. n
regurds Lo LIe busIc 'LIeory oI muLerIuI necessILy,` Meyer (;qz, noLe z) sLuLes LIuL Empe-
docIes Is LIe onIy numed opponenL In PI. II 8, buL ArIsLoLIe eIsewIere uLLrIbuLes sucI uI-
IIrmuLIons oI necessILy Lo DemocrILus (GA ;8qbz-;) und Lo Anuxugorus (MeL. q8u18-z1)
In conLexLs In wIIcI Ie crILIcIzes LIeIr negIecL oI LeIeoIogy. He uLLrIbuLes LIese posILIons
Lo LIe pIusIoIogoI In generuI uL GA ;;81;-1o; cI. PA 6qo1q-1;. On LIe oLIer Iund, LIe
'evoIuLIonury` uspecL oI LIe LIeory, us descrIbed In LIe Phsics, uppeurs Lo be oI Empedo-
cIes`s own InvenLIon; cI. MunsIon, Introduction c lc Phsique cristotelicienne, p. zz.
zoo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIe IucL LIuL ruIn IuIIs In LIe summer und wuLers LIe wIeuL. 'MuLerIuI ne-
cessILy` Iere meuns LIuL LIe nuLuruI beIuvIor oI LIe Iour eIemenLs und LIeIr
InLerucLIons ure suIIIcIenL Lo expIuIn nuLuruI pIenomenu, wILIouL recourse
Lo oLIer sucI cuusuI IucLors us IormuI or IInuI cuusuIILy.

ArIsLoLIe expIuIns EmpedocIes`s versIon oI LIe 'LIesIs oI necessILy` us


IoIIows:
BuL LIere Is u dIIIIcuILy: wIuL prevenLs nuLure Irom ucLIng noL
Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng nor becuuse IL Is beLLer so, buL us Zeus
sends LIe ruIn, noL so LIe gruIn mIgIL grow, buL by necessILy?
or wIuL rIses musL cooI, und LIe cooIed comIng Lo be wuLer,
musL IuII down. BuL, wIen LIIs comes Lo be, growLI occurs In
LIe gruIn. So Loo, II LIe gruIn on LIe LIresIIng-IIoor Is desLroyed
by LIIs, IL dId noL ruIn Ior LIe suke oI LIIs, LIuL IL mIgIL be de-
sLroyed, buL LIIs jusL Iuppened. So wIuL prevenLs LIe purLs In
wIuL Is by nuLure IrombeIng IIke LIIs, Ior exumpIe, LeeLI urIsIng
by necessILy, LIe IronL ones sIurp und IILLed Ior cuLLIng, LIe mo-
Iurs IIuL und useIuI Ior grIndIng Iood sInce LIey dId noL come Lo
be Ior LIe suke oI LIIs, buL LIey jusL IeII LogeLIer |IIke LIIs|? And
so Loo In LIe cuses oI LIe oLIer purLs In LIose In wIIcI LIuL Ior
LIe suke oI wIIcI seems Lo beIong. WIerever, LIen, everyLIIng

ArIsLoLIe does noL use LIe pIruse 'muLerIuI necessILy` Iere, buL mereIy 'c( iyxp,.`
However, EmpedocIes usserLs LIuL muLLer (I.e. IIs Iour 'eIemenLs`) und LIe movIng cuuses
oI ove und SLrIIe ure cll LIuL ure needed Ior expIuInIng IIgIer-order pIenomenu, sucI
us LIe growLI oI gruIn In summer, or LIe IucL LIuL bIrds buIId nesLs: Zcx-oi o np-oi
ci o:-: c:, -i cicx -oo c-oi, cnc:-c ncp -o icyxcoo, n, c_c: ci -o, oc:xo, c, yp
-c-pi -i c-ci iyooc: ni-c,, -: cnc:o - 0cpi -o:oio noxci xc - o_pi xc cxcc-oi
o -i -o:o-oi, -co c( iyxp, cc- xc yyic-c:, Phsics, 1q8b1o-b1q. TIus IL Is cIeur LIuL
LIe necessILy Ie Is speukIng oI reIers Lo LIIngs wIIcI resuIL Irom LIe necessury ucLIon oI
LIe eIemenLs under LIe moLIve Iorces oI ove und SLrIIe.
zo1
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
cume LogeLIer us II IL cume Lo be Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng, LIese
were suved beIng suILubIy consLILuLed by cIunce. BuL wIuLever
wus noL oI LIIs sorL wus desLroyed und Is desLroyed, us Empe-
docIes suys mun-Iuced ox-progeny wus.
6
TIIs urgumenL cIeurIy depends onLIe more compIeLe LIeory oI LIe orIgIn oI
LIe cosmos deveIoped by EmpedocIes, In wIIcI LIe currenL sLuLe oI LIIngs
(IncIudIng LIe cycIe oI LIe seusons und ruIn LIuL IuIIs durIng LIe wInLer, und
noL durIng LIe IeIgIL oI summer) Is u resuIL oI u Iurger cosmIc process gov-
erned by 'ove` und 'SLrIIe` operuLIng on LIe eLernuIIy-exIsLIng eIemenLs.
;
n LIe deveIopmenL oI LIe cosmos, uppurenL 'unILIes` IIke LIe EurLI und
ILs orgunIsms ure mereIy by-producLs oI LIe wurrIng Iorces oI ove und
SLrIIe, wIIcI do noL Iuve LIese LIIngs us LIeIr end.
8
n LIIs Iurger con-
LexL, EmpedocIes wouId IIkeIy urgue LIuL sucI LIIngs us wInLer ruIn, wIIcI
cuuses wIeuL Lo sprouL In LIe sprIng, beur no reIuLIon oI purpose Lo LIe
wIeuL (or uny oLIer pIunLs LIuL mIgIL Iuppen Lo sprouL In LIe ruIny seu-
6
Phsics, 1q8b1;-bq. CILed In EngIIsI (CougIIIn`s LrunsIuLIon), due Lo LIe IengLI oI
LIe quoLe. CI. uIso IrugmenL 61 In DIeIs und Krunz: no ci :npconc xc c-cpic
cc0c:, [ooyci iopnpo:pc, - o' cnc:i c(cic-c:i iopoo [oxpcic, cc:yic -: ci
n' iopi -: oc yoic:xoo, cx:cpo, cxpic yoo:,, DK1B61. NoLe LIuL ArIsLoLIe InILIuIIy
cILes IIs opponenLs us IoIdIng LIuL LIese LIIngs come ubouL by 'necessILy` (c( iyxp,),
wIIIe LIe resuIL Ior LIe suke oI wIIcI LIe process uIIegedIy occurs Is, on LIe conLrury,
sImpIy un uccIdenL. CI. Meyer, ArIsLoLIe, TeIeoIogy, und ReducLIon, p. ;q6, Here LIe
opponenLs do cIuIm LIuL LIe resuIL In quesLIon occurs oI necessILy (bzq), buL LIe reuson
LIey gIve Ior denyIng LIuL LIe deveIopmenL Is LeIeoIogIcuI Is LIuL LIe resuIL Is un uccIdenL
(sumpesein, bz;). ArIsLoLIe's IInuI sLuLemenL oI IIs opponenLs` posILIon, wIIcI generuI-
Izes LIe objecLIon Lo uppIy Lo uII LIe purLs oI unImuIs und pIunLs, does noL even menLIon
necessILy. He sLuLes LIe rIvuI Lo LIe LIesIs oI nuLuruI LeIeoIogy sImpIy us u cIuIm ubouL un
uccIdenLuI occurrence.
;
CI. IrugmenL 1;, on' cpo -o-c ci yp i p(0p ioi cic: cx ncioi... DK1B1;:1
und IrugmenL z1, ' yc, -io' poi npo-poi cn:p-opc opxco... DK1Bz1.
8
CI. IrugmenL zo: -o-o ci i [po-oi coi p:ocxc-oi yxoi o-c ci 1:-p-:
coicp_ci' c, i nci-c yoc, - cc oy_c, [oo 0c0oi-o, ci x: o-c o' c-c xcx:c:
o:c-p0i-' poccc: nc-c: io:_' cxcc-c ncppppyi: [o:o. DK1Bzo.
zoz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
son). TIe ruIn does noL IuII Ior LIe suke oI LIe wIeuL, buL ruLIer IL mereIy
IuIIs (us u resuIL oI LIe cIunce IormuLIon oI LIe pIuneL und LIe nuLuruI ucLIv-
ILIes oI LIe eIemenLs) und LIe wIeuL Ius deveIoped us un orgunIsm wIIcI
cun Luke udvunLuge oI LIIs source oI nuLrIenLs. L jusL Iuppens LIuL LIe ruIn
IuIIs In LIe wInLer, und IL muy (uIso by cIunce) occusIonuIIy Iuppen LIuL LIe
ruIn IuIIs durIng LIe LIresIIng seuson In LIe IuII, LIereby ruInIng LIe crops.
BuL neILIer Is 'Ior LIe suke oI` LIe resuIL, becuuse LIere Is no 'Ior LIe suke
oI` In LIe ruIn uL uII.
q
EmpedocIes Lukes ruIn us u prIme exumpIe oI u reguIur pIenomen-on
LIuL obvIousIy Ius no reIuLIon oI purpose wILI LIIngs IuppenIng on LIe
EurLI, und usks wIy we cunnoL expIuIn oLIer pIenomenu oI 'comIng Lo
be` In u sImIIur IusIIon. or InsLunce, LIe deveIopmenL oI sucI uppurenLIy
purposeIuI orguns us LIe LeeLI oI unImuIs. TeeLI, sucI us LIose oI omnI-
vores und curnIvores, ure dIIIerenLIuLed In sIupe, und LIus serve dIsLIncL
purposes In LIe uIImenLuLIon oI LIe unImuI: LIe sIurp IncIsors Leur IIesI,
wIereus LIe IIuLLer moIurs grInd vegeLubIe muLLer or smuII bones. Never-
LIeIess, ussIgnIng 'purpose` Lo LeeLIwouIdbe unerror, InEmpedocIes`s LIe-
ory. TIrougI cIunce combInuLIons, LIere urose cerLuIn unImuIs wILI LeeLI
urrunged In un upproprIuLe wuy, und gIven LIIs IorLuILous urrungemenL, LIe
useIuIness oI LIese LeeLI IoIIowed nuLuruIIy. PresumubIy, LIose orgunIsms
wILIouL upproprIuLe LeeLIwouId dIe, us Iuppened Lo LIe Iumun-Iuced oxen
Ie uIso menLIons.
1o
q
n rugmenL z1, EmpedocIes specIIIcuIIy menLIons ruIn us occurrIng due Lo LIe 'wur`
beLween ove und SLrIIe: [poi o' ci nc: oioci- -c :ycoi -c cx o' cp, npopooc:
0oi -c xc c-cpcon. ci oc K-o: o:opc xc io:_c ni-c noi-c:, ci o' c[p ci 1:-p-:
xc o:c: no0c-c:, DK1Bz1:q-6.
1o
We cun IInd evIdence oI LIIs LIeory In severuI IrugmenLs oI EmpedocIes: In IrugmenL
zo
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
q. Accident, chunce und lock
ArIsLoLIe responds by suyIng oic-oi oc -o-oi c_c:i -i -pnoi. -c-c
ci yp xc ni-c - cc: cc o-o yyic-c: , cn - no, -i o' n -_p,
xc -o c-o-oo ooi.
11
TIIs response Is bused on IIs unuIysIs oI cIunce
(o-oc-i) und Iuck (-_p) In cIupLers q, und 6 oI Book . n purLIcuIur,
In ., Ie deIIneuLes wILI greuL precIsIon wIuL LIIngs ure consIdered Lo be
by Iuck und cIunce, und wIIcI LIIngs ure noL. n order, Iowever, Lo IuIIy
undersLund ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI Iuck und cIunce, IL Is necessury Lo IIrsL
undersLund IIs docLrIne oI uccIdenLuI beIng.
q..1 - i xc- co[c[px,: Accidentul being
AccIdenLuI beIng Is one oI LIe Iour senses oI beIng LIuL ArIsLoLIe dIsLIn-
guIsIes In Metcphsics V.;.
1z
TIe dIsLIncLIon beLween beIng per se (xc0'
c-) und beIng per cccidens (xc- co[c[px,) Is LIe mosL generuI und uII-
encompussIng urLIcuIuLIon oI LIe senses oI beIng, sInce LogeLIer LIese Lwo
senses cover LIe enLIre runge oI wuys oI beIng: cuLegorIuI beIng, beIng us
;, Ie speuks oI LIe InILIuI sLuLe oI 'jumbIed purLs` wIIcI sprouLed Irom LIe eurLI:
noc ci xpcc: ic_cic, c[c-pcci, yoio o' cnoi-o [pc_oic, ci:oc, oi, c- -'
o|c cnci-o ncip-coi-c c-noi. n IrugmenL q, Ie sLuLes LIuL LIese 'jumbIed purLs`
sprouL mIx rundomIy wILI one unoLIer: c-p cnc xc- xcoi ccyc-o ocoi: ocoi,
-c- -c conn-ccxoi, np: coixopcci cxcc-c, c -c np, -o, no o:picx c(cyioi-o (IoI-
IowIng O`BrIen`s reudIng, cILed uL WrIgIL, Empedocles: the Extcnt Ircments, p. z1z).
n IrugmenL 61, Ie posILs LIuL LIese 'jumbIed purLs` combIned InLo neurIy-Iumun creu-
Lures: no ci :-pconc xc c-cpic cc0c:, [ooyci iopnpo:pc, - o' cnc:i
c(cic-c:i iopoo [oxpcic, cc:yic -: ci n' iopi -: oc yoic:xoo cx:cpo,
cxpic yoo:,.
11
Phsics, 1q8b.
1z
Metcphsics 1o1;u;-z.
zoq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lrue und beIng us poLency und ucL ure uII Lypes oI beIng xc0' c-.
1
TIe prImury dIsLIncLIonbeLweenbeIng xc0' c- undbeIng xc- co[c[px,
Is LIuL LIe Iormer Is uIwuys cIurucLerIzed by LIe possessIon oI un essence
beIongIng Lo IL In vIrLue oI ILs own nuLure, wIereus LIe IuLLer Ius no essence
oI ILs own.
1q
TIose LIIngs wIIcI ure suId Lo be xc- co[c[px, Iuve no In-
LrInsIc unILy; LIey ure cuIIed 'one` onIy vIu predIcuLIon. or InsLunce, LIere
Is no essenLIuI unILy connecLIng LIe predIcuLe Lo LIe subjecL In LIe predI-
cuLIon LIe musIcuI (mun) Is IeLLered. As AquInus sLuLes, nuIIu generuLIo
LermInuLur ud Ioc quod esL grummuLIcum esse musIcum; sed unu ud Ioc
quod esL grummuLIcum esse, uIIu ud Ioc quod esL musIcum esse.
1
TIe
'unILy` oI musIcuI und IeLLered Is pureIy IorLuILous, und cIose Lo non-beIng.
16
L IoIIows IromLIIs LIuL LIere cun be no generuLIon or corrupLIon oI LIe uc-
cIdenLuI, sInce LIere Is no unILy Lowurds wIIcI u generuLIon mIgIL proceed,
or Irom wIIcI u corrupLIon mIgIL occur. Nor Is LIere uny deLermInuLe urL
or IucuILy wIIcI mIgIL Iuve us ILs end LIe generuLIon oI uccIdenLuI beIng,
Ior uII urLs und IucuILIes Iuve us LIeIr end someLIIng wIIcIIs brougIL ubouL
uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL.
1;
L musL be noLed Iere LIuL beIng xc- co[c[px,, or uccIdenLuI beIng,
1
CI. Quevedo, Ens per cccidens, pp. z-z;. Quevedo noLes Iere LIuL wIIIe LIe urLIcu-
IuLIon oI beIng us xc0' c- vs. xc- co[c[px, Is LIe mosL generuI, LIe mosL IundumenLuI
sucI urLIcuIuLIon Is LIuL oI beIng In poLency und beIng In ucL, sInce IL exLends onIy (In
unuIogous Iorm) Lo LIose senses oI beIng InscrIbed wILIIn LIe umbIL oI reuI beIng. IbId.,
p. z.
1q
CI. MunsIon, Le juement d'existence chez Aristote, p. zzo: ArIsLoLe n`expIIque pus
en quoI consIsLe I`i xc0' c-, II se conLenLe de Iu dIInIr comme Iu nguLIon de I`i xc-
co[c[px,. C`esL donc que Iu copuIe du jugemenL xc0' c- IndIque pIus qu`une concI-
dence. EIIe u Ie sens d` Lre en verLu de su nuLure .
1
AquInus, In Metcphsic. Ib. V, IecL. z, n. 8.
16
bId.
1;
Metcphsics, 1oz;u-6.
zo
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
Is noL Lo be IdenLIIIed wILI LIe beIng oI LIe cuLegorIuI uccIdenLs (wIuL ArIs-
LoLIe Lerms - c_pc-c -, xc-pyop/c,), I.e. quuIILy, quunLILy, pIuce, LIme,
eLc. Nor Is IL Lo be IdenLIIIed wILI LIe IogIcuI uccIdenL umongsL LIe 'pred-
IcubIes.` TIe vurIous cuLegorIuI uccIdenLs ure beIngs xc0' c-; wIen we
suy LIuL LIe mun Is musIcuI, LIere Is un essence oI mun und un essence
oI musIcuI, wIIcI InIeres (inest) In LIe mun. A cuLegorIuI uccIdenL Ius
un essence wIIcI InvoIves beIng In u subjecL. A beIng xc- co[c[px,,
on LIe oLIer Iund, IuvIng no essence, Is IurdIy u beIng uL uII; ArIsLoLIe
sLuLes LIuL cncp yp io -: ioi - co[c[px, cc-:i,
18
und c/ic-c: yp
- co[c[px, cyy, -: -o i-o,.
1q
BeIng xc- co[c[px,, despILe beIng prucLIcuIIy u mere nume, und ukIn
Lo non-beIng, Is noneLIeIess someLIIng. Were LIIs noL LIe cuse, uII LIIngs
wouIdbe oI necessILy (Ior noLIIng wouIdbe uccIdenLuI or conLIngenL). ArIs-
LoLIe urgues Ior LIIs poInL usIng IIs weII-known dIsLIncLIon beLween wIuL
Is necessury (I.e. LIuL wIIcI occurs uIwuys) und LIuL wIIcI occurs Ior LIe
mosL purL. He suys oI LIese Lwo cIusses LIuL c-p p_ xc c-p c-/c cc- -o
cic: - co[c[px, yp i p- c p0 , cn - no, -o- cci co[c[px,
cic:.
zo
BuL LIuL wIIcI occurs neILIer uIwuys nor Ior LIe mosL purL exIsLs,
und Ience so does LIe uccIdenLuI. Hence, IL becomes cIeur LIuL LIere cun be
no scIence oI LIe uccIdenLuI, sInce scIence LreuLs oI LIuL wIIcIoccurs uIwuys
or Ior LIe mosL purL.
z1
SImIIurIy, wIIIe ArIsLoLIe Ius cIurucLerIzed LIe uc-
cIdenLuI by excIusIon, Ie cunnoL gIve u deIInILIon oI beIng xc- co[c[px,.
18
Metcphsics, 1oz6b1.
1q
Metcphsics, 1oz6bzo-z1.
zo
Metcphsics, 1oz6bo-z.
z1
CI. Metcphsics, 1oz;uzo-z.
zo6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
nsoIur us uccIdenLuI beIng Is noL properIy u beIng or one, IL cunnoL be de-
IIned,
zz
Ior yp p:c, yo, -/, cc-:i c, xc oc/c,, c-c ci, -:io, oc c-i
cic: yoi xc yp oc/c ci -: xc -oc -: cpc/ic:, , ci.
z
To sum up,
uccIdenLuI beIng Is un undeIInubIe 'someLIIng` wIIcI musL exIsL, despILe
beIng neurIy u non-beIng.
zq
We see LIuL In Metcphsics V.; und V.o Lwo generuI Lypes oI uccIden-
LuI beIng ure dIscussed. n LIe IIrsL LexL, ArIsLoLIe gIves LIree exumpIes oI
uccIdenLuI predIcuLIons: LIe jusL Is musIcuI, LIe mun Is musIcuI und LIe
musIcuI Is u mun.
z
n LIe IIrsL cuse, we Iuve u predIcuLIon oI one uccIdenL
oI unoLIer; In LIe second cuse, LIe uccIdenL Is predIcuLed oI LIe subjecL; und
In LIe LIIrd cuse, LIe subjecL Is predIcuLed oI LIe uccIdenL.
z6
AII oI LIese
IuII under LIe cIussIIIcuLIon oI uccIdenLs In reIerence Lo beIng ('quunLumud
esse`
z;
), Ior LIey uII reIer Lo LIe beIng oI u subjecL. A second Lype oI exum-
pIe Is gIven In Metcphsics V.o, wIere ArIsLoLIe dIscusses u mun dIggIng u
IoIe wIo IInds u Lreusure. TIIs Is unevenL xc- co[c[px,, Ior LIe munwus
dIggIng u IoIe Lo seL ouL u pIunL; LIe IIndIng oI LIe Lreusure wus IncIdenLuI
Lo LIIs purpose, und neILIer occurs uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. AquInus
reIers Lo LIIs Lype oI uccIdenLuI beIng us quunLum ud IIerI
z8
(In reIerence
Lo becomIng), Ior LIe uccIdenL Is LIe resuIL oI some process wIIcI dId noL
Iuve LIe uccIdenLuI eIIecL us ILs end.
zq
zz
CI. Quevedo, Ens per cccidens, p. ;q.
z
Metcphsics, 1o;bz6-z8.
zq
CI. AquInus, In Metcphsic. Ib. V, IecL. z, n. z: uL quod mInus IubeL de ruLIone
enLIs, prImo u consIderuLIone IuIus scIenLIue |meLupIysIcue| excIuduLur.
z
CI. Metcphsics, 1o1;u8-1o.
z6
CI. Quevedo, Ens per cccidens, p. 8.
z;
AquInus, In Metcphsic. Ib. V, IecL. zz, n. z1
z8
bId.
zq
We wIII see IuLer, In LIe dIscussIon oI cIunce und Iuck, LIuL LIey Iuve prImurIIy Lo do
zo;
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
TIere remuIns Lo be dIscussed LIe c-:oi xc- co[c[px,, wIIcI wIII be
oI purLIcuIur ImporLunce In LIe dIscussIon oI cIunce und Iuck, wIIcI-us
we wIII see-ure uccIdenLuI cuuses. An uccIdenLuI cuuse occurs wIen LIere
Is u xc0' c- cuse oI eIIIcIenL cuusuLIon, upon wIose movIng cuuse LIere
supervenes un uccIdenLuI composILIon, or upon wIose IInuI cuuse LIere su-
pervenes un IncIdenLuI resuIL.
o
Judson, IoIIowIng Ross,
1
dIvIdes LIe Lypes
oI uccIdenLuI cuusuLIon InLo Lwo 'scIemus,` us IoIIows: n LIIs dIugrum, 'E
i
`
TubIe q.1: Judson`s scIemuLu oI uccIdenLuI cuuses
ScIemu ScIemu
E
1
E
1
E
2
+ +
E
2
E
3
E
3
corresponds Lo un evenL, + IndIcuLes uccIdenLuI concurrence In u subjecL,
und IndIcuLes xc0' c- cuusuLIon.
z
TIus, In ScIemu , E
1
Is LIe uccI-
denLuI cuuse oI E
3
becuuse IL Iorms u beIng xc- co[c[px, wILI E
2
, wIIcI
Is LIe xc0' c- cuuse oI E
3
. On LIe conLrury, In ScIemu , E
1
Is uIso LIe
uccIdenLuI cuuse oI E
3
, buL onIy becuuse IL Is LIe xc0' c- cuuse oI E
2
, upon
wIIcI E
3
supervenes us u beIng xc- co[c[px,.
RossI correcLs Judson und Ross In mukIng concreLe enLILIes LIe compo-
nenLs oI LIe scIemuLu, ruLIer LIun evenLs: eI senLIdo busIco y generuI de
cuusu que puede reconocerse en eI pIunLeo urIsLoLIIco remILe u unu relc-
wILI uccIdenLuI beIng 'quunLumud IIerI.` TIIs Is becuuse Iuck und cIunce ure umong LIose
LIIngs wIIcI couId Iuve been Ior un end, I.e. cicx -oo, und IInuIILy ImpIIes 'jieri.`
o
CI. MunsIon, Introduction c lc Phsique cristotelicienne, p. zq.
1
Ross, CommenLury on LIe MeLupIysIcs, pp. 18-1q. CILed In RossI, El czcr sen
Aristteles, p. 18;.
z
Judson, CIunce und 'AIwuys or or LIe MosL PurL' In ArIsLoLIe, p. ;q.
zo8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
cin de dependencIu entre dos entidcdes, Iu cuusu y Io cuusudo, y no nece-
surIumenLe (y nI sIquIeru LipIcumenLe) u unu reIucIn enLre dos evenLos.

SIe revIses Judson`s scIemu Lo IndIcuLe LIuL IL Is beIngs, und noL evenLs,
LIuL ure LIe componenLs oI u reIuLIon oI uccIdenLuI cuusuIILy (see TubIe q.z,
beIow).
q
Here, LIe symboIs ure sIIgILIy dIIIerenL. nsLeud oI usIng 'E
i
` Lo
TubIe q.z: RossI`s scIemuLu oI uccIdenLuI cuuses
ScIemu 1 ScIemu z
C B A C
] ]
A B
IndIcuLe un evenL, RossI uses IeLLers (A, B und C) Lo IndIcuLe dIIIerenL enLI-
LIes InvoIved In u reIuLIon oI uccIdenLuI cuusuIILy, und LIe verLIcuI bur ']` Lo
IndIcuLe u reIuLIon oI uccIdenLuI unILy umong Lwo sucI enLILIes (wIere LIe
boLLom enLILy Is u cuLegorIuI deLermInuLIon oI LIe Lop enLILy).
ArIsLoLIe gIves exumpIes correspondIng Lo eucI oI LIe Lwo scIemuLu. As
unexumpIe oI ScIemu 1, one cunsuy LIuL wIIIe PoIycIILus Is LIe scuIpLor oI u
gIven sLuLue, LIe xc0' c- cuuse Is LIe scuIpLor (or LIe urL oI scuIpLIng), und
IL Is uccIdenLuI LIuL LIe scuIpLor Iuppens Lo be PoIycIILus.

TIIs scIemu oI
uccIdenLuI cuusuIILy corresponds rougIIy Lo uccIdenLuI beIng quunLum ud
esse, Ior LIe uccIdenLuIILy derIves Irom LIe beIng oI LIe movIng cuuse: LIe
scuIpLor is Indeed PoIycIILus, buL need noL Iuve been so.
6
TIe superve-

RossI, El czcr sen Aristteles, p. 18q.


q
IbId., p. 18;.

Phsics, 1qu-.
6
ArIsLoLIe gIves u number oI oLIer exumpIes oI LIIs sorL oI uccIdenLuI cuusuIILy, e.g.
Phsics 1q6bz6-z; und Metcphsics 1oz6b;-1oz;uz, wIIcI ure coIIecLed und dIscussed
In RossI, El czcr sen Aristteles, p. 18.
zoq
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
nIence oI u cIurucLerIsLIc (e.g. beIng PoIycIILus) on u xc0' c- cuuse (LIe
scuIpLor or IIs urL) Is noL LIe onIy noLe LIuL murks u gIvenInsLunce oI cuusuI-
ILy us beIng uccIdenLuI; us RossI sLuLes, eI oLro IucLor que Iuce que Iu des-
crIpcIn pongu de munIIIesLo unu cuusu uccIdenLuI y no por si es eI IecIo
de que Io mencIonudo como cuusu no es Io que 'por nuLuruIezu` produce Io
cuusudo.
;
As dIscussed ubove, onIy LIuL wIIcI Is noL 'uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL` cun be consIdered uccIdenLuI.
AccIdenLuI cuusuIILy wIIcI IuIIs wILIIn ScIemu z occurs wIen LIe resuIL
uLLuIned by LIe movIng cuuse Is noL LIe sume us LIuL wIIcI wus InLended
xc0' c-. An exumpIe oI LIIs Is gIven uL Metcphsics 1ozu-, wIere LIe
cook, InLendIng Lo prepure u dIsI LIuL wus pIeusIng Lo LIe puIuLe, Iuppened
IorLuILousIy Lo creuLe u dIsI LIuL wus uIso IeuILIy, even LIougI IeuILI Is noL
LIe xc0' c- end oI LIe urL oI cookIng, nor LIe InLenLIon oI LIe cook. TIIs Is
u cuse oI un uccIdenLuI cuuse wIIcI corresponds Lo uccIdenLuI beIng quun-
Lum ud IIerI, In AquInus`s LermInoIogy, sInce LIe IeuILIIness oI LIe dIsI
supervenes upon LIe LIIng wIIcI comes Lo be us u xc0' c- resuIL oI LIe
cook`s ucLIon (wIIcI wus Lo cook u dIsI LIuL wus LusLy). RossI noLes severuI
oLIer exumpIes oI LIIs sorL oI uccIdenLuI cuusuIILy, sucIus LIe munwIo dIgs
u IoIe Lo pIunL u Lree und encounLers u Lreusure (Metcphsics 1ozu16-1q),
und LIe sIIp cupLuIn wIo urrIved uL AegInu IorLuILousIy, IuvIng been drIven
LIere by u sLorm or cupLured by pIruLes, despILe IuvIng seL ouL InILIuIIy und
xc0' c- Ior unoLIer desLInuLIon (Metcphsics 1ozuz-o).
8
We cun druw Irom LIe ubove severuI concIusIons.
q
IrsL oI uII, we cun
;
RossI, El czcr sen Aristteles, p. 188.
8
CI. IbId., pp. 18-86.
q
oIIowIng Judson, CIunce und 'AIwuys or or LIe MosL PurL' In ArIsLoLIe, p. ;q, buL
z1o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
nowundersLundwIy ArIsLoLIe cuIIs uccIdenLuI cuusuLIonopoi undp:c-oi.
qo
I we Luke enLILy C In RossI`s ScIemu 1, LIere ure un InIInILe number oI cuL-
egorIuI deLermInuLIons LIuL cun supervene on C, Ience we cun suy LIuL LIe
number oI cuuses oI B Is p:c-c. SImIIurIy In LIe cuse oI ScIemu z: A cun
be consIdered un uccIdenLuI cuuse oI un InIInILe number oI condILIons LIuL
supervene upon C (I.e. uny number oI enLILIes muy Luke LIe pIuce oI D).
BuL LIe InIInILe cunnoL be LIe objecL oI knowIedge, und Ience no scIence
cun LreuL oI uccIdenLuI cuuses.
n LIe second pIuce, we cun noLe LIuL wIIIe ArIsLoLIe sLuLes cIeurIy LIuL
LIe uccIdenLuI 'mode` oI cuusuLIonuppIIes Louny oI LIe Iour xc0' c- cuuses,
q1
Ie neverLIeIess IoIds LIuL In cuses oI cIunce und Iuck, wIIcI we wIII unu-
Iyze nexL, IL Is unuccIdenLuI ejjicient cuuse LIuL Is InvoIved
qz
: -/ ci oi cc-:i
- c-c-oi xc -/ -_p, cpp-c:, xc -/ o:cpooc:i poi. -i oc -pnoi -,
c-/c, ci -o, 0ci p_ -, x:ipcco, cx-cpoi c-i.
q
TIIs Is becuuse In uny
descrIpLIon oI u scenurIo oI uccIdenLuI cuusuLIon, LIere Is uIwuys u xc0' c-
InsLunce oI eIIIcIenL cuusuLIon Lo wIIcI un uccIdenLuI unILy uLLucIes, eILIer
us un cuLegorIuI uLLrIbuLe oI LIe mover, or eIse us un IncIdenLuI resuIL oI LIuL
wIIcI Is cuused.
udupLIng LIe exumpIes Lo RossI`s revIsed scIemuLu.
qo
CI. Phsics, 1q6bz;-zq und Phsics, 1q;u8-1q.
q1
Phsics, 1qu II.
qz
Judson, CIunce und 'AIwuys or or LIe MosL PurL' In ArIsLoLIe, pp. ;q-8o.
q
Phsics, 1q8u1-.
z11
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
q.. Aristotle's unulysis oI chunce und lock
We ure now In u posILIon Lo undersLund ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI cIunce
und Iuck. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, us RossI noLes,
qq
LIe docLrIne Ie deveIops Is
bused uImosL enLIreIy on cioo(c, or popuIur opInIon und prepIIIosopIIcuI
experIence. RossI uIso mukes IL cIeur LIuL LIere Is u dIsLIncLIon beLween LIe
kInd oI prepIIIosopIIcuI experIence LIuL LIe docLrIne oI cIunce Is bused on,
und LIuL upon wIIcI our knowIedge oI movemenL sLunds. n boLI cuses
we ure deuIIng wILI c:icic, buL In LIe cuse oI movemenL our knowIedge
sLems Irom cncyoy. En eIecLo, Iu exIsLencIu deI movImIenLo es InmedI-
uLumenLe evIdenLe u purLIr de Iu senso-percepcIn, pues uquI se Iuce pre-
senLe en eIIu.
q
TIe busIs Ior LIe docLrIne oI cIunce wIIcI ArIsLoLIe wIII
eIuboruLe Is noL ImmedIuLeIy evIdenL In LIe wuy movemenL Is, sInce cIunce
Is bused on u sIured opInIon, someLIIng wIIcI everyone suys ubouL u gIven
Lype oI evenL.
q6
TIIs munner oI proceedIng In LIe unuIysIs oI cIunce Is Ie-
gILImuLe, In RossI`s vIew, precIseIy becuuse wIIIe ArIsLoLIe muInLuIns LIuL
cIunce 'Is someLIIng,` noneLIeIess IL Is noL 'someLIIng` In LIe sume meLu-
pIysIcuIIy sLrong sense LIuL u subsLunce wouId be, or LIe PIuLonIc Ideus
were InLended Lo be; ruLIer, ArIsLoLIe perIorms u desubstcnticlizction oI
LIe Ideu oI cIunce: wIIIe IL muy be 'someLIIng,` IL Is noL u beIng or u prIn-
cIpIe oI beIngs. He cun IoId LIuL cIunce Is someLIIng becuuse IL Is Irre-
qq
CI. RossI, El czcr sen Aristteles, p. 11: LumbIn unLe oLrus LesIs IIIosIIcus,
que son purudjIcus puru Iu experIencIu preIIIosIIcu generuImenLe compurLIdu, ArIsLLe-
Ies procede dundo crdILo InIcIuImenLe u Iu segundu, recIuzundo usi eI LIpo de uproxImu-
cIones 'IgIcus` u Ios probIemus que IIevun u concIusIones reIdus con Iu experIencIu, se
LruLe de Iu experIencIu senso-percepLIvu o bIen de Ius opInIones compurLIdus.
q
IbId., p. 11.
q6
IbId., p. 11.
z1z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ducIbIe... LIe exIsLence oI u cerLuIn Lype oI evenL or LIIng or sLuLe oI LIIngs
LIuL we suy Is due Lo cIunce Is noL eIImInubIe by 'unuIyzIng IL uwuy` us u
subjecLIve IIIusIon LIuL Iucks uny Lype oI reuIILy.
q;
n order Lo deIIne wIuL Is consIdered Lo be by 'Iuck`
q8
LIe SLugIrILe pro-
ceeds usIng IIs sLundurd meLIod oI presenLIng genus und dIIIerenLIu. He
begIns IIs deIInILIon wILI LIe LopmosL genus oI 'LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be`
(- y:yicic),
qq
wILI LIe IIrsL dIIIerenLIu dIsLInguIsIIng beLween - ci c
cc-o, y:yicic - oc , cn - no, on LIe one Iund, und uII oLIer In-
sLunces oI comIng Lo be, on LIe oLIer (I.e. LIose LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be
'Ior LIe Iesser purL`
o
). OI LIe Lwo 'specIes` oI y:yicic IndIcuLed Iere, Iuck
und cIunce ure Iound In LIe IuLLer.
1
TIe nexL dIsLIncLIon LIuL ArIsLoLIe mukes Is beLween LIose LIIngs wIIcI
come Lo be 'Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng,` und LIose wIIcI do noL.
z
He IuLer
q;
IbId., p. 1z. SImpIIcIus IoIds unuILernuLIve opInIonubouL ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL, wIIcI
reIIeves LIe SLugIrILe oI LIe cIurge LIuL Ie Is IoIdIng LIuL Iuck und cIunce ure someLIIng
sImpIy becuuse oI cioo(c. AccordIng Lo IIm, ArIsLoLIe urgues LIuL cuusuIILy requIres LIuL
everyLIIng LIuL comes Lo be Ius u cuuse; II LIere ure LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be 'Ior LIe Iesser
purL`, und we suy LIuL LIese LIIngs come Lo be by Iuck or cIunce, LIen IL IoIIows LIuL Iuck
und cIunce ure someLIIng. SImpIIcIus, Dn Aristotle Phsics z, pp. q,1-11.
q8
DespILe LIe IucL LIuL - c-c-oi cn nci cc-: (Phsics, 1q6b1o), ArIsLoLIe IrequenLIy
uses '-_p` us u generIc Lerm Ior boLI Iuck und cIunce.
qq
'ComIng Lobe,` InLIe sense beIng usedIere, cunoccur InseveruI oI LIe cuLegorIes: -i
oc y:yioioi ... yo xc0' cxc-pi xc-pyopci. yp -oc noci no:i no, Metcphsics,
1ozu1z-16.
o
oIIowIng CougIIIn`s commenLury In IIs LrunsIuLIon enLILIed Phsics, or Ncturcl
Hecrin, p. 6.
1
np-oi ci oi, cnc:o pci - ci c cc-o, y:yicic - oc , cn - no, cicpi -:
ooc-poo -o-oi c-c -_p yc-c: ooc - n -_p,, o-c -o c( iyxp, xc cc o-c -o ,
cn - no. ' cnc:o cc-:i yyic-c: xc ncp -c-c, xc -c-c ni-c, cci cic: n -_p,,
cicpi -: cc-: -: -_p xc - c-c-oi, Phsics, 1q6b1o-b16. CI. uIso RossI, El czcr sen
Aristteles, p. 1z.
z
-i oc y:yioioi - ci cicx -oo yyic-c: - o' o |-o-oi oc - ci xc- npocpcc:i, - o'
o xc- npocpcc:i, o o' ci -o, cicx -oo, c-c ooi -: xc ci -o, ncp - icyxcoi xc -
, cn - no cc-:i ci:c ncp cio_c-c: np_c:i - cicx -oo. cc-: o' cicx -oo cc -c n o:cioc,
i npc_0cp xc cc n cco, Phsics, 1q6b16-bzz.
z1
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
expIuIns wIuL Ie meuns by '- cicx -oo yyic-c:,` u Lerm wIIcI Ie uses In u
noL-so-obvIous sense InLIIs conLexL. To be 'cicx -oo,` InLIe sense LIuL ArIs-
LoLIe empIoys LIe Lerm Iere, does noL enLuII IuvIng un InLended purpose,
buL ruLIer sImpIy beIng someLIIng LIuL could be done by LIougIL or by nu-
Lure: cc-: o' cicx -oo cc -c n o:cioc, i npc_0cp xc cc n cco,.

He gIves LIe IoIIowIng exumpIe oI un evenL LIuL, despILe noL IuvIng come
ubouL Ior u purpose, neverLIeIess mIgIL Iuve done so:
ooi cicxc -o noc[ci - pyp:oi 0ci i xo:oioo -i cpcioi,
c oc: 0c o' o -o-oo cicxc, coi[p c- c0ci, xc no:cc:
-o-o -o xoccc0c: cicxc -o-o oc o0' , cn - no o:-i c, -
_opoi o-' c( iyxp, cc-: oc - -o,, xo:o, o -i ci c- c-oi,
-i npoc:pc-i xc n o:cioc, xc yc-c yc --c n -_p,
c0ci, c oc npoccio, xc -o-oo cicxc c o:-i , cn - no
xo:cio,|, ox n -_p,. ooi pc -: -_p c-c xc- co[c[p
x, ci -o, xc- npocpcc:i -i cicx -oo.
q
n LIIs cuse, LIe mun wouId Iuve gone Lo u cerLuIn pIuce Lo coIIecL money,
Iud Ie known LIuL u debLor Iuppened Lo be LIere. He wenL Ior unoLIer

bId. As Meyer noLes, In u broud sense evenLs ure 'Ior someLIIng` II LIey 'udmIL oI
beIng Ior someLIIng`, Meyer, ArIsLoLIe, TeIeoIogy, und ReducLIon, p. 8o8. A. MunsIon
expresses LIe sume poInL: ||I runge expressmenL Ie Iusurd duns Ie genre des cuuses
eIIIcIenLes; II nous upprend qu`II esL cuuse des vnemenLs donL I`InLeIIIgence ou Iu nuLure
peuvenL Lre cuuse guIemenL eL Ie sonL mme en IuIL, sI I`on consIdre Ies cIoses u un
poInL dIIIerenL, MunsIon, Introduction c lc Phsique cristotelicienne, p. zz;. As u resuIL,
LIe concepLs oI cIunce und Iuck ure In IucL dependent upon on LIuL wIIcI Is cicx -oo In
u sLrong sense, us beIng LIe producL oI nuLure or InLeIIIgence. CI. RossI, El czcr sen
Aristteles, p. 1q; uIso Phsics, 1q8u-1o, cnc o cc- - c-c-oi xc -_p c-:c i i
io, yio:-o c-:o, c:,, -ci xc- co[c[px, c-:i -: yip-c: -o-oi c-i, ooci oc xc-
co[c[px, cc-: np-cpoi -i xc0 c-, ooi -: ooc - xc- co[c[px, c-:oi np-cpoi -o xc0
c-. c-cpoi pc - c-c-oi xc -_p xc io xc cco,.
q
Phsics, 1q6b-1q;uq.
z1q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
reuson, und LIus coIIecLed LIe money 'by cIunce.` TIIs Is u kInd oI evenL
LIuL occurs 'Ior LIe Iesser purL,` cerLuInIy, und dId noL In IucL come ubouL
us u resuIL oI u deIIberuLe ucLIon Lo uLLuIn un end. NeverLIeIess, becuuse
IL could hcte been done 'by LIougIL or nuLure,` we cun suy LIuL IL Is 'cicx
-oo.`

TIere Is unoLIer sense oI cicx -oo, wIIcIRossI cuIIs LIe 'sLrong sense` oI
LIe Lerm, wIIcI Is onIy uppIIcubIe Lo LIose cuses wIere LIere Is u reuI IInuI
cuuse In operuLIon, und wIere LIe pIenomenon occurs uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL.
6
GoLLIeII uIso IdenLIIIes LIIs sense us IormIng LIe core meunIng
oI LIe Lermcicx -oo, und sees IL us derIvIng IromArIsLoLIe`s deveIopmenLuI
bIoIogy.
;
TIIs 'sLrong sense` Is not LIe sense oI cicx -oo wIIcI ArIsLoLIe
empIoys In LIe TreuLIse on CIunce (Phsics .q-6).
8
WILIIn LIe conIInes
oI LIIs TreuLIse, RossI dIscerns Lwo uddILIonuI senses oI LIe Lerm 'Ior LIe
suke oI someLIIng.` IrsL oI uII, LIere Is LIe 'broud sense,` wIIcI ArIsLoLIe
uses In LIe InILIuI pussuges oI Phsics .. n LIIs sense, Is 'Ior LIe suke oI

PresumubIy, LIere Is u cIuss oI LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be wIIcI ure uncble Lo Iuve
been done by LIougIL or nuLure. ArIsLoLIe does noL expIuIn exucLIy wIuL LIIs cuLegory
consIsLs In, buL u IIkeIy unswer wouId be 'IrruLIonuI` evenLs IuvIng no dIscernubIe (or reuI)
connecLIon, sucI us LIe connecLIon beLween my buyIng u bununu Loduy, und LomorrowLIe
sLock murkeL IuIIIng Lwo poInLs. SImpIIcIus, cILed In RossI (p. 16o), gIves cIewIng one's
nuIIs wIen LIey ure uIreudy sIorL, or pIckIng one`s nose, us exumpIes oI ucLIvILIes currIed
ouL wILIouL u purpose; noneLIeIess, LIese ure ucLIvILIes wIIcI cun be currIed 'uIwuys or
Ior LIe mosL purL` by someone, und Ience ure ouLsIde LIe reuIm oI cIunce evenLs wIIcI
ArIsLoLIe Is dIscussIng. CI. SImpIIcIus, Dn Aristotle Phsics z, ,1z-16.
6
RossI, El czcr sen Aristteles, p. 161.
;
GoLLIeII`s IormuIuLIon oI LIe condILIons Ior cuIIIng u gIven deveIopmenLuI sLuge cicx
-oo Is us IoIIows: A sLuge In deveIopmenL, A, comes Lo be Ior LIe suke oI LIe muLure,
IuncLIonIng orgunIsm wIIcI resuILs Irom LIe deveIopmenL, , II und onIy II: (1) A Is u
necessury (or 'besL possIbIe`) sLuge In u conLInuous cIunge resuILIng In , und (z) LIIs
cIunge Is (In purL) LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u poLenLIuI Ior wIIcI Is noL reducIbIe Lo u sum
oI ucLuuIIsuLIons oI eIemenL-poLenLIuIs wIose IdenLIIIcuLIon does noL menLIon LIe Iorm oI
, GoLLIeII, ArIsLoLIe's ConcepLIon oI InuI CuusuIILy, p. z1.
8
CI. uIso SImpIIcIus, Dn Aristotle Phsics z, ,1q-z.
z1
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
x` II Is IuvorubIe Ior, propILIous Ior or u meuns Lo x, IndependenLIy oI LIe
cuuse due Lo wIIcI In IucL occurred. SecondIy, RossI IdenLIIIes u 'derIved
sense` oI cicx -oo wIIcIIs used InLIe resL oI LIe TreuLIse, wIIcI Is LIe sense
wIIcI Iuve descrIbed ubove: LIIngs ubIe Lo be done by LIougIL or nuLure
In order Lo ucIIeve x, buL wIere x wus noL In IucL LIeIr IInuI cuuse.
q
TIe IInuI dIsLIncLIon LIuL ArIsLoLIe enuncIuLes Is beLween LIuL wIIcI
comes Lo be 'In vIrLue oI ILseII` (xc0' c-) und LIuL wIIcI Is 'uccIdenLuI`
(xc- co[c[px,). He gIves LIe exumpIe oI LIe IousebuIIder und IIs urL:
xc0' c- LIe urL oI LIe IousebuIIder Is LIe cuuse oI LIe Iouse, wIereus xc-
co[c[px, LIe 'wIILe` or 'musIcuI` Is.
6o
JusL us LIe 'wIILe` or LIe 'musIcuI`
Ius ubsoIuLeIy no dIrecL reIuLIon (quc wIILe or quc musIcuI) wILI LIe eIIecL
cuused (LIe Iouse LIuL wus buIIL), LIe evenL descrIbed us 'LIe wIILe buIIL
LIe Iouse` Is un evenL wIIcI, despILe IuvIng reuIIy occurred, Iucks uny xc0'
c- cuuse. SImIIurIy, LIe evenL descrIbed us 'LIe Iender wenL Lo LIe mur-
keL und coIIecLed IIs money Irom IIs debLor` Is IuckIng u xc0' c- cuuse,
q
RossI, El czcr sen Aristteles, pp. 16z-. RossI Is more subLIe In Ier druwIng oI
dIsLIncLIons LIunIs ennox, wIo sImpIy dIsLInguIsIes beLweenu 'cuusuI` undu 'descrIpLIve`
sense oI cicx -oo, wIere LIe Iormer corresponds Lo RossI`s 'sLrong sense,` und LIe IuLLer
sense IncIudes boLI RossI`s 'broud sense` und 'derIved sense`; cI. ennox, ArIsLoLIe on
CIunce, p. 6o.
6o
GIven LIe dIvIsIons LIuL Ie Ius uIreudy mude, ArIsLoLIe muy be usserLIng LIuL LIere cun
be LIIngs wIIcI occur xc0' c-, buL noL uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. L Is noL ImmedIuLeIy
cIeur wIuL kInds oI LIIngs couId IuII InLo LIIs specIes oI evenLs; Iowever, gIven LIuL uII non-
ruLIonuI powers musL ucL In LIe presence oI LIe correspondIng pussIve poLency, wouId
venLure LIuL LIIs cuLegory wouId correspond Lo operuLIons oI ruLIonuI powers, sInce LIe
possessor oI LIese powers cun cIoose noL Lo exercIse LIem. See Metcphsics, 1oq8u1-
q: cnc oc - ooic-i - ooic-i xc no-c xc n, xc cc c iyxp npoccic: ci - o:op:c,
xc - ci xc- yoi oic-c: x:ici xc c ooic:, c-i c- yoo, - oc oyc xc c ooic:,
oyo:, xxcic, ci iyxp ci c_ cic: -c-c, oc ci oi, -, ci -o:c-c, ooic:, iyxp,
-ci , oici-c: - no:p-:xi xc - nc0p-:xi npc:oc:, - ci no:ci - oc nc_c:i, cxcic, o'
ox iyxp c-c: ci yp ncc: c ci, no:p-:x, cxcic: oc -i cici-oi, c-c c no:cc: -
cici-c -o-o oc oic-oi. iyxp pc c-cpi -: c:ic: - xp:oi yo oc -o-o pc(:i npocpcc:i.
TIus, u ruLIonuI power cun be exercIsed xc0' c-, cicx -oo und 'Ior LIe Iesser purL,` wIIIe
sLIII noL beIng by cIunce or Iuck.
z16
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Ior neILIer LIe debLor nor LIe Iender wenL Lo LIe murkeL Ior LIe purpose oI
coIIecLIng or puyIng LIe debL.
61
AL LIIs poInL, ArIsLoLIe Is nowubIe LoIormu deIInILIonoI Iuck undcIunce:
-_p c-c xc- co[c[px, ci -o, xc- npocpcc:i -i cicx -oo.
6z
He LIus
deIInes -_p us u xc- co[c[px, cuuse. AILer gIvIng LIIs deIInILIon, Ie
uIso udds u coroIIury: o: ncp - c- o:io:c xc -_p yp npocpcc:, ox
ico o:cioc,. He LIus IdenLIIIes un ImporLunL cIurucLerIsLIc oI '-_p` und
- c-c-oi: Iuck und cIunce ure noL synonymous wILI LIe IrruLIonuI und
cIuoLIc, buL ruLIer IuII wILIIn LIe cuLegory oI LIIngs knowubIe und cIoos-
ubIe, und LIus cicx -oo.
6
TIus, despILe LIeIr IuckIng xc0' c- cuusuIILy,
LIe sLrucLure oI uccIdenLuI evenLs Is neverLIeIess LIuL oI someLIIng wIIcI
Is ruLIonuI und cIoosubIe (despILe noL beIng cIosen ruLIonuIIy).
6q
61
RossI noLes LIuL cuusuI expIunuLIons LIuL InvoIve u xc- co[c[px, cuuse musL uIwuys
be expIunuLIons oI u deLermInuLe sILuuLIon; IuckIng u xc0' c- cuuse, LIey cunnoL provIde
expIunuLIons LIuL uppIy 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL`: |A dIIerencIu de Iu cuusu por si,|
Iu cuusu uccIdenLuI (y eI uzur por Io LunLo) remILe sIempre u un conLexLo deLermInudo, es
decIr: se LruLu de unu proposIcIn cuusuI que InvoIucru unu descrIpcIn LuI de Iu cuusu y
de Io cuusudo que resuILu expIIcuLIvu sIo en cIerLo conLexLo de uso. En oLrus puIubrus,
se LruLu de unu proposIcIn que es verduderu en eI cuso purLIcuIur, pero no sIempre nI
Iu muyoriu de Ius veces, RossI, EnLre Io uccIdenLuI y Io upurenLe, p. 161. SImpIIcIus,
Iowever, reIInes LIIs posILIon, noLIng LIuL In LIe cuse oI LIIngs wIIcI Iuppen by Iuck or
cIunce, LIey ure boLI In u sense xc0' c- und xc- co[c[px,: In LIe cuse oI one wIo dIgs
und IInds u Lreusure, dIggIng Is LIe xc0' c- cuuse oI pIunLIng, buL LIe xc- co[c[px,
cuuse oI IIndIng LIe Lreusure; SImpIIcIus, Dn Aristotle Phsics z, ;,z1-zz.
6z
Phsics, 1q;u6. WIIIe Ie specIIIcuIIy menLIons 'Iuck` or -_p Iere, IL Is cIeur LIuL In LIIs
conLexL Ie Is speukIng ubouL boLI Iuck und cIunce. A Iew purugrupIs eurIIer (1q6bo II.)
Ie sLuLes IIs InLenLIon oI speukIng oI boLI generIcuIIy, IeuvIng LIe quesLIon oI Iow Iuck
und cIunce dIIIer unLII IuLer; Ie Lukes up LIIs quesLIon In CIupLer 6, wIere Ie noLes LIuL
'cIunce` or - c-c-oi dIIIers Irom'Iuck` or -_p us genus Lo specIes: -_p Is properIy suId
oI un uccIdenLuI evenL occurrIng Lo u beIng (or beIngs) ubIe Lo cIoose or underLuke genuIne
ucLIon; Phsics, 1q;b1.
6
TIIs Is even Lrue In LIe cuse oI evenLs occurrIng Lo beIngs LIuL Iuck reuson, sucI us
LIe Iorse LIuL wus suved becuuse IL urrIved uL u cerLuIn LIme: cI. Phsics, 1q;b1-z. n
sucI u cuse, we do noL suy LIuL LIe unImuI 'cIose,` buL ruLIer LIuL LIe evenL Is 'cIoosubIe`
(npoc:pc-,).
6q
CI. ennox, ArIsLoLIe on CIunce, p. 8, TIe suggesLIon Iuve mude Is LIuL ArIsLoLIe
Is wIIIIng Lo descrIbe cIunce processes us Ior LIe suke oI LIeIr resuLs provIded cerLuIn
z1;
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
TIIs puruIIeIIsmbeLween LIuL wIIcI Is eILIer cIoosubIe or by nuLure, on
LIe one Iund, undLIuL wIIcIIs by cIunce, onLIe oLIer, provIdes eucIoI LIe
InLerIocuLors In LIe urgumenL wILI ummunILIon Ior LIeIr urgumenL. or In-
sLunce, EmpedocIes cun uccuse ArIsLoLIe oI IuIIIng InLo LIe Lrup oI reudIng
purpose InLo LIe uccIdenLuI urIsIng oI compIex beIngs, sInce boLI cIunce
und InLenLIon produce LIIngs wIIcI ure cicx -oo In LIe broud sense. ArIs-
LoLIe, on LIe oLIer Iund, cun uccuse EmpedocIes oI uLLempLIng Lo expIuIn
LIe resuILs oI c:,, wIIcI ure uIso cicx -oo, LIrougI uccIdenLuI cuuses, Ior-
geLLIng LIuL LIuL wIIcI Is uccIdenLuI cunnoL be 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL.`
q. Aristotle's responses to Impedocles
ArIsLoLIe presenLs u number oI dIsLIncL urgumenLs In supporL oI IIs po-
sILIon. TIe IIrsL oI LIese InLends Lo sIow LIuL EmpedocIes`s posILIon Is, In
IucL, mIsLuken uL u very busIc IeveI, und LIuL 'uccIdenL` und 'cIunce` cunnoL
possIbIy be used us expIunuLIons oI reguIurIy occurrIng pIenomenu. OLIer
urgumenLs Iuve LIe purpose oI eIImInuLIng objecLIons Lo LIe Ideu oI 'nuL-
uruI IInuIILy.` TIIs secLIon wIII expIuIn ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs und evuIuuLe
LIeIr success In ucIIevIng LIeIr InLended uIm.
condILIons ure meL. WIen Ie suys LIey ure Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng wILIouL quuIIIIcuLIon,
buL noL Ior LIe suke oI wIuL ucLuuIIy resuILs, suggesL Ie meuns LIIs: LIe resuIL wus noL
responsIbIe Ior (noL un c-c oI) LIe process LIuL Ieud Lo IL; noneLIeIess, LIe resuL wus
vuIuubIe Ior LIe ugenL, und wus LIe sorL oI LIIng LIuL Is LypIcuIIy ucIIeved by gouI-dIrecLed
ucLIvILy.
z18
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
q..1 1c:, us ucting 'ulwuys or Ior the most purt'
n Phsics .8, uILer summurIzIng EmpedocIes`s urgumenL, ArIsLoLIe
sLuLes LIuL oic-oi oc -o-oi c_c:i -i -pnoi.
6
TIe reuson Is LIuL LIe pIe-
nomenu wIIcI LIe oc:oyo:, IncIudIng EmpedocIes, ure LryIng Lo expIuIn
vIu 'c-c-oi` Iuppen uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. As LIe SLugIrILe poInLs
ouL, o yp n -_p, oo' n con-c-o, ooxc c:i nox:, -o _cpio,,
' ci n xic.
66
BuL Ie Ius uIreudy deIIned 'Iuck` und 'cIunce` us excIud-
Ing LIose LIIngs wIIcI Iuppen uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. He nexL sLuLes
LIuL LIese pIenomenu, sucI us unImuIs IuvIng LeeLI, und LIe ruIn IuIIIng In
LIe wInLer, musL be cicx -oo, sInce wIuLever Is noL by Iuck or cIunce musL
be Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng. TIIs Is un InLeresLIng sLep In LIe urgumenL,
sInce In ., ArIsLoLIe Ius sLuLed LIuL LIose LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be by Iuck
und cIunce musL uIso be cicx -oo.
6;
suggesL, Iowever, LIuL Ie Is conLrusL-
Ing Iere LIose LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be cicx -oo In LIe sLronger sense, I.e.
wIere u xc0' c- cuuse wus workIng Lo produce precIseIy LIe resuIL LIuL
cume ubouL. or LIe ruIn IuIIs us IL does quc ruIn, und LeeLI growIn LIe juw
quc LeeLI.
HuvIng mude LIese poInLs, Ie concIudes LIuL cc-:i pc - cicx -oo ci -o,
cc: y:yioio:, xc oc:i.
68
HIs opponenLs cIuImLIuL c:, (In LIe sense oI
6
Phsics, 1q8b.
66
Phsics, 1q8u1-.
6;
Phsics, 1q;u6.
68
Phsics, 1qqu8. A. VIgo (personuI conversuLIon, June 1q, zo1o) Ius noLed LIuL IL Is
currenLIy LIe prucLIce Lo dIsLInguIsI beLween teleonom, on LIe one Iund, und teleolo
on LIe oLIer. n LIe IIrsL oI LIese Lwo cuses, one speuks oI LeIeonomy wIere u IInuIIsLIc
sLrucLure Is observed. TeIeoIogy, on LIe oLIer Iund, Is reserved us u Lerm Ior LIose Lypes
oI LeIeonomy wIIcI come ubouL LIrougI LIe use oI reuson. n LIIs LIesIs wIII generuIIy
use LIe Lerm 'LeIeoIogy,` becuuse uII oI LIe secondury IILeruLure LIuL wIII be dIscussIng
uses LIe Lerm Lo IncIude boLI LeIeonomy und LeIeoIogy (In VIgo`s sense). AL u IuLer poInL
z1q
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
muLerIuI p_) ImpIIes comIng Lo be by cIunce, wIereus ArIsLoLIe beIIeves
Ie Ius sIown LIuL LIIs Is excIuded by LIe IucL LIuL LIese LIIngs come Lo be
uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL, reIyIng on IIs deIInILIon oI Iuck und cIunce.
6q
TIIs Is u deeper urgumenL LIunIL Ius uppeured Lo some crILIcs.
;o
L reIIes on
LIe nuLure oI cuusuIILy: wIIIe LIose LIIngs wIIcI genuIneIy come Lo be xc-
co[c[px, Iuck u proper cuuse (Ior LIe beIngs InvoIved In LIe comIng-Lo-be
ure In dIIIerenL cuLegorIes, e.g. 'LIe wIILe LIuL buIIds`), Ior u LIIng Lo come
Lo be xc0' c-, LIere musL be u cuuse oI IL doIng so. BuL Lo Iuve u proper
cuuse InvoIves comIng-Lo-be Ior LIe end Lo wIIcI LIuL cuuse Is dIrecLed.
In LIIs cIupLer, wIII reLurn Lo LIe quesLIon oI LIe LeIeonomyJLeIeoIogy dIsLIncLIon (cI. p.
zzq, n. 8;).
6q
DuvId CIurIes suggesLs LIuL ArIsLoLIe musL be urguIng uguInsL un opponenL wIo Ius
oIIered cIunce und comIng Lo be cicx -oo us LIe onIy possIbIe uILernuLIves Ior expIuInIng
LIe comIng Lo be oI compIex orgunIsms (und wIo IoIds LIuL cIunce Is LIe onIy vIubIe uILer-
nuLIve); oLIerwIse, LIe eIImInuLIon oI cIunce us u possIbIe expIunuLIon wouId noL Iuve LIe
eIIecL oI IorcIng LIe opponenL Lo uccepL u LeIeoIogIcuI expIunuLIon us LIe onIy uILernuLIve;
cI. CIurIes, TeIeoIogIcuI CuusuLIon In LIe Phsics, p. 11. ndeed, on LIIs ussumpLIon,
ArIsLoLIe Is noL oIIerIng u generuIIy uppIIcubIe urgumenL Lo deIend LIe presence oI LeIeoI-
ogy In nuLure, buL ruLIer LIe urgumenL Is desIgned Lo sIow LIuL cIunce cunnoL pIuy LIe
roIe posLuIuLed In IIs opponenL`s LIeory; IbId. BuL IL Is unIIkeIy LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius sucI
u resLrIcLed objecLIve In mInd. or uIreudy In Phsics ., Ie Ius mude un exIuusLIve dI-
vIsIon oI 'LIIngs LIuL come Lo be` InLo LIose LIuL come Lo be uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL,
und LIose wIIcI come Lo be 'Ior LIe Iesser purL,` LIe IuLLer oI wIIcI ure IeId Lo occur by
cIunce. TIus IL seems cIeur LIuL In Phsics .8 LIuL ArIsLoLIe Is noL mereIy urguIng uguInsL
u purLIcuIur opponenL wIo IoIds Lo LIe cIunceJcicx -oo dIcIoLomy, buL LIuL Ie Is usIng
LIe urgumenL gIven by LIe unnumed opponenL Lo muke u more generuI poInL ubouL LIe
ImpossIbIIILy oI orgunIsms comIng Lo be by cIunce, und LIe necessILy Lo posLuIuLe LeIeo-
IogIcuI nuLuruI processes us LIe onIy wuy Lo expIuIn LIe comIng Lo be oI LIose orgunIsms
uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL.
;o
CI. CIurILon, Aristotle's Phsics, p. 1zz Ior u neguLIve evuIuuLIon oI LIIs urgumenL.
Cooper (ArIsLoLIe on NuLuruI TeIeoIogy, pp. zo;-8), on LIe oLIer Iund, IoIds LIuL LIIs
urgumenL, bused on LIe excIusIveness oI LIe cuLegorIes oI wIuL comes Lo be by cIunce und
wIuL comes Lo be uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL, Is more soIId LIuL IL Ius seemed Lo muny
commenLuLors. He noLes, Iowever, LIuL LIe urgumenL depends on LIe ArIsLoLeIIun posI-
LIon oI LIe eLernILy oI pIunL und unImuI specIes. Under LIe EmpedocIeun or DemocrILeun
LIeorIes (oI u greuL cosmIc cycIe, In LIe cuse oI EmpedocIes, or un InIInILy oI worIds, In
LIe cuse oI DemocrILus), our currenL unIverse wILI ILs pIunLs und unImuIs Is dIsLIncLIy LIe
excepLIon und noL LIe ruIe, und Ience pIunL und unImuI generuLIon couId be consIdered Lo
be 'Ior LIe Iesser purL` sub specie ceternitctis; cI. Cooper, ArIsLoLIe on NuLuruI TeIeoIogy,
p. zoq.
zzo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
TIus, LIese pIenomenu, sucI us ruIn In LIe wInLer, und LeeLI sprouLIng
Irom juws, wIIcI come Lo be uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL, musL come Lo be
Ior un end.
TIe sume concIusIon cun be derIved IromArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI poLency
und ucL. or u LIIng Lo be ubIe Lo come Lo be xc0' c-, LIere musL be u cor-
respondIng poLency In LIe beIng Lo come Lo be In LIuL wuy.
;1
BuL u poLency
Lo come Lo be Is uIwuys u poLency to somethin, I.e. Lo u gIven ucLuuIILy.
;z
TIus, InsoIur us LIe ruIn IuIIs, IL does so Ior un end, sInce IuIIIng Is LIe uc-
LuuIILy oI LIe poLency wIIcI LIe wuLer Iurbors wIen IL Is sLIII suspended In
LIe cIouds.
;
SImIIurIy, wIen LIe LeeLI sprouL Irom LIe juw, LIey do so In
;1
I LIe poLency Is IuckIng, LIe LIIng wIII be suId Lo be 'IncupubIe,` und unubIe Lo come
Lo be: c-: c oic-oi - cc-cppioi ooico,, - y:yicioi oic-oi cc-c: ycic0c:. -
o' oic-oi ycic0c: yoi cic: cccc0c: ccc-c: - yp oic-oi -o-o ccc:ic, Metc-
phsics, 1oq;u11-1z.
;z
nci cn' p_i [coc: - y:yicioi xc -o, |p_ yp - o cicxc, -o -oo, oc cicxc
yicc:,, -o, o' cipyc:c, xc -o-oo _p:i oic:, c[ic-c:, Metcphsics, 1oou8-1o.
;
L Is uncIeur us Lo wIeLIer ArIsLoLIe wIsIes Lo IoId LIuL In LIe cuse oI ruInIuII, LIere Is
u sLronger kInd oI IInuIILy presenL LIun mereIy LIuL oI poLency beIng reuIIzed us ILs corre-
spondIng ucL. On LIe one Iund, D. urIey (TIe RuInIuII ExumpIe In PIysIcs 8, p. 1;q.)
urgues LIuL wInLer ruInIuII und summer IeuL ure InsLunces oI IuII-bIown IInuI cuusuIILy In
ucLIon. ArguIng Irom un unuIysIs oI Phsics, 1q8bq-1qqu8, Ie sIows LIuL wInLer ruInIuII
Is IeId Lo be someLIIng wIIcI Is cicx -oo (In RossI`s 'sLrong sense` oI LIe Lerm; cI. RossI, El
czcr sen Aristteles, p. 161). ndeed, Ie IoIds LIuL IL Is Ior LIe growLI oI pIunLs brougIL
ubouL by suILubIe ruInIuII (urIey, TIe RuInIuII ExumpIe In PIysIcs 8, p. 18o). Wurdy,
on LIe oLIer Iund, concedes LIuL LIere Is no guInsuyIng LIe concIusIon LIuL wInLer ruIn
IuIIs wILIIn LIe scope oI ni-c - cc: (1q8b). RuIn IuIIs (uImosL) uIwuys In LIe wInLer,
LIus neILIer Irom Iuck nor coIncIdence, so Ior u nuLuruI purpose, (Wurdy, ArIsLoLeIIun
RuInIuII or LIe ore oI Averuges, p. 1q). NeverLIeIess, Ie IoIds LIuL LIe purpose oI ruIn`s
IuIIIng Is sImpIy Ior LIe wuLer Lo reLurn Lo ILs nuLuruI pIuce. TeIeoIogy, Ie sLuLes, Is IImILed
Lo IndIvIduuI nuLuruI kInds, sucI us unImuIs, pIunLs, und LIe sImpIe bodIes (IbId., p. z;),
und LIuL LIere Is noL pIuusIbIy presenL In ArIsLoLIe uny kInd oI cosmIc LeIeoIogy. IoId
LIuL LIere Is someLIIng more Lo ArIsLoLIe`s exumpIe LIun LIe sImpIe IuIIIng oI wuLer Lo ILs
nuLuruI pIuce; IL Is precIseIy LIe IucL LIuL ruIn IuIIs durIng LIe wInLer LIuL Is oI InLeresL, Ior
LIuL Is wIen crops Iuve been pIunLed und ure In need oI wuLer. TIe LexL suggesLs sLrongIy
LIuL ruInIuII Is Ior LIe suke oI crops, und Indeed suggesLs u cerLuIn LeIeoIogIcuI cosmIc or-
der, sucI us LIuL wIIcI Is brIeIIy IInLed uL In Metcphsics, 1o;u1z-z (und urgued Ior
by SedIey; cI. s ArIsLoLIe's TeIeoIogy AnLIropocenLrIc?, p. 18q). TIe Issue oI wIeLIer
ArIsLoLIe genuIneIy IoIds LIuL LIere exIsLs u Lrue cosmIc LeIeoIogy, unLIropocenLrIc or noL,
Iowever, IIes beyond LIe scope oI LIIs LIesIs.
zz1
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
vIrLue oI LIe poLency Iurbored In LIe bones oI LIe juw, wIIcI ure cupubIe
oI IormIng LeeLI In LIe wuy LIuL LIey do; Indeed, LIey ure 'noxci pc cicx
-oo,` I.e. Ior LIe generuLIon oI LeeLI.
;q
RepIrusIng EmpedocIes InArIsLoLIe`s LermInoIogy, we cunInLerpreL IIm
us usserLIng LIuL cll comIng Lo be occurs sLrIcLIy wILIIn LIe uccIdenLuI cuL-
egorIes, und noL ever wILIIn LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce. TIus, u cerLuIn
quunLILy oI uIr und wuLer und eurLI und IIre ure mIxed und brougIL InLo
co-IocuLIon, producIng u cerLuIn kInd oI uggreguLe or 'pseudo-subsLunce,`
eILIer sImpIe (In LIe cuse oI IIesI, bone or Iron) or compIex, sucI us orgun-
Isms. BuL LIe LIIngs LIuL EmpedocIes wIsIes Lo expIuIn, sucI us LIe comIng
Lo be oI unImuIs und Iumuns, ure LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL. Acuuse xc- co[c[px, muy occusIonuIIy produce resuILs wIIcI
mImIc producLs oI urL or nuLure, buL wIII never produce LIese resuILs reg-
uIurIy. or InsLunce, u LIousund monkeys bungIng LIe keys oI u LIousund
LypewrILers Ior uII eLernILy wIII evenLuuIIy produce SIukespeure`s Hcmlet
xc- co[c[px,, buL LIIs wIII noL occur uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. And
LIe monkeys wIII deIInILeIy noL IoIIow up LIeIr prodIgy by producIng Mcc-
beth, wIereus men reguIurIy produce men, cows reguIurIy produce oLIer
cows, und ruIn reguIurIy IuIIs In LIe wInLer In Greece. TIus, LIese musL uII
come Lo be xc0' c-, und us sucI, musL be LIe resuIL oI LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon
oI u poLency In LIose beIngs quc LIeIr gIven kInds, und Ience musL uIso be
cicx -oo.
;
;q
CI. Phsics, 1qqu1o.
;
CI. WIeIund, TIe ProbIem oI TeIeoIogy, p. 1q6: LIe reproucI ArIsLoLIe cusLs uL |LIe
oc:oyo:| Is sImpIy LIuL wILI LIeIr presupposILIons LIey ure unubIe Lo expIuIn wIuL LIey
wIsI Lo expIuIn, numeIy LIe vIsIbIe, ordered worId oI uppeurunces.
zzz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
The Impedocleun urgoment, reevulouted
Does ArIsLoLIe prove wIuL Ie InLends, wILI LIe urgumenL Irom occur-
rences 'Ior LIe mosL purL` versus 'Ior LIe Iesser purL`? He Ius pIuced cIunce
und Iuck wILIIn LIe cuLegory oI evenLs wIIcI Iuck u cuuse xc0' c-, und In-
sLeud possess u cuuse wIIcI Is mereIy xc- co[c[px,. He LIen cIuIms LIuL
LIere Is u sLrIcL puruIIeI beLween LIose LIIngs wIIcI occur 'uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL` und LIose LIIngs wIIcI Iuve u cuuse xc0' c-,
;6
sucI LIuL IL Is
noL possIbIe LIuL someLIIng wIIcI Ius un uccIdenLuI cuuse couId come Lo
be 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL.` TIIs beIng LIe cuse, IL IoIIows LIuL sInce LIe
pIenomenon Lo be expIuIned (LIe ruIn IuIIIng on LIe wIeuL In LIe wInLer,
LIe LeeLI sprouLIng Irom LIe juw, grupes Irom LIe grupevIne) occur uIwuys
or Ior LIe mosL purL, LIere musL be u xc0' c- cuuse, und LIIs cuuse (sInce
IL Is noL io,) musL be LIe InLernuI prIncIpIe oI cIunge LIuL Is c:,.
NeverLIeIess, EmpedocIes couId respond by denyIng LIe InILIuI premIse
Lo LIIs urgumenL. L Is noL cIeur LIuL someLIIng wIIcI Iucks u xc0' c-
cuuse couId noL occur uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. TIe IoIIowIng LIougIL
experImenL provIdes u poLenLIuI counLerexumpIe. AL LIe Lop oI u cIIII LIere
Is un ouk Lree, und beneuLI LIe ouk Lree LIere Is u crevIce wIIcI reucIes
Lo LIe cIIII. TIe ouk Lree Is so posILIoned LIuL numerous ucorns IuII Lo LIe
ground und roII InLo LIe crevIce, und LIrougI LIe crevIce LIey ure guIded Lo
LIe cIIII Iuce, wIere LIey IuII Lo LIe ground beIow. L so Iuppens LIuL LIere
Is u squIrreI IIvIng In u Lree uL LIe boLLom oI LIe cIIII, und IIs nesL Is IucIng
LIe cIIII, sucI LIuL LIe squIrreI sees LIe ucorns IuII pusL IIs nesL, buL LIey
;6
-c-c ci yp xc ni-c - cc: cc o-o yyic-c: , cn - no, -i o' n -_p, xc
-o c-o-oo ooi, Phsics, 1q8b-1qquz.
zz
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
never IuII into IIs nesL, due Lo LIe ungIe uL wIIcI LIey Ieuve LIe crevIce.
One duy LIere Is u ruInsLorm, und u bruncI wusIes InLo LIe crevIce uL LIe
Lop oI LIe cIIII, uL jusL LIe rIgIL ungIe sucI LIuL, wIen ucorns IuLer begIn Lo
roII down LIe crevIce, LIey IIL LIe bruncI und bounce ouL LIe cIIII Iuce uL un
ungIe sucI LIuL LIey neurIy uIwuys IuII InLo LIe squIrreI`s nesL. TIe resuIL,
under one descrIpLIon, couId be cuIIed un 'ucorn deIIvery sysLem.`
n LIIs cuse, we Iuve u sysLem LIuL produces u reguIur eIIecL, buL wIere
LIe eIIecL neverLIeIess Iucks u xc0' c- cuuse. TIe ucorns IuII InLo LIe
squIrreI`s nesL 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL,` und LIe occurrence Is cicx -oo,
sInce IL Is someLIIng LIuL couId Iuve been cIosen (by us, or by LIe squIrreI,
II we wIsI Lo be generous ubouL LIe squIrreI`s cupucILy Ior deIIberuLIon und
cIoIce oI LIIs kInd). NeverLIeIess, wIIIe LIere Is u xc0' c- muLerIuI cuuse
oI LIe ucorns` bouncIng (I.e. LIe bruncI LIuL Is wedged In LIe crevIce pro-
vIdes u compIeLe expIunuLIon Ior wIy LIe ucorns bounce us LIey do); nev-
erLIeIess, LIere Is no xc0' c- cuuse under LIe uccounL oI 'ucorns IuIIIng
InLo LIe squIrreI`s nesL,` uny more LIun LIere Is Ior LIe IucL LIuL LIe Iender
coIIecLed IIs debL on goIng Lo LIe murkeL.
suggesL LIuL EmpedocIes wouId IIkeIy Iuve responded Lo ArIsLoLIe`s
unuIysIs oI cIunce usIng u sImIIur reusonIng, urguIng Ior LIe IuIseIood oI
ArIsLoLIe`s ubsoIuLe sepuruLIon oI cIunce evenLs und evenLs wIIcI occur uI-
wuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. WIIIe LIe pIIIosopIer Irom Acrugus wus noL
expIIcIL ubouL LIe mecIunIsms Ior producIng compIex orgunIsms on LIe
busIs oI cIunce evenLs (uL IeusL noL In LIe IrugmenLs we sLIII possess), IL
seems IIkeIy LIuL Ie wus LIInkIng uIong LIese IInes, gIven IrugmenLs sucI
zzq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
us ;, 6o und 61.
;;
He couId propose LIuL IsoIuLed sysLems LIuL operuLe
'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL` deveIop by cIunce, us In LIe exumpIe oI LIe
'ucorn deIIvery sysLem.` Over LIme, under LIe InIIuence oI ove,
;8
sucI sys-
Lems wouId combIne Lo creuLe more compIex sysLems, pureIy by uccIdenL,
buL wIIcI noneLIeIess operuLe 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL,` despILe Iuck-
Ing uny c:,. L wouId noL be necessury LIuL uccIdenLuIIy-Iormed sysLems
oI LIIs sorL come ubouL IrequenLIy or Ior LIe mosL purL, buL onIy LIuL, one
LIey Iuve Iormed, LIey produce LIeIr cIurucLerIsLIc resuILs 'uIwuys or Ior
LIe mosL purL.` EmpedocIes couId udmIL LIuL IL Is uImosL InIInILeIy rure LIuL,
durIng LIe InILIuI uggreguLIon oI 'mIxed purLs,` urms, Iegs und u Lorso und
u Ieud sIouId come LogeLIer In u Iurger uggreguLe. NeverLIeIess, Ie wouId
be ubIe Lo respond LIuL once such cn crecte hcs jormed b chcnce,
ILs cIurucLerIsLIc ucLIvILIes wIII neverLIeIess come ubouL 'uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL` wILIouL IuvIng u xc0' c- cuuse.
AguInsL sucI un urgumenL by EmpedocIes-wIo couId cIuImLIuL Ie cun
expIuIn LIe comIng-Lo-be oI IsoIuLed sysLems LIuL operuLe uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL In u deLermInuLe IusIIon-IL remuIns LIe cuse LIuL growLI und
;;
DK1B;, 6o und 61.
;8
ArIsLoLIe, In IIs crILIque oI EmpedocIes`s LIeory, uppeurs Lo be mIxIng LogeLIer dIs-
LIncL perIods In EmpedocIes`s cosmoIogy: LIe pIuse oI LIe rundomurIsIng oI IsoIuLed body
purLs, wIIcI IuLer combIne InLo wIoIe orgunIsms, beIongs Lo LIuL perIod In LIe cosmIc cy-
cIe wIereIn ove Is domInunL, und wIereIn u generuLIon oI men und women urIse; cI.
WrIgIL, Empedocles: the Extcnt Ircments, p. q. See uIso GuLIrIe, A Histor oj Greel
Philosoph, p. zo. However, we ure noL IIvIng In LIuL purL oI LIe cosmIc cycIe, buL ruLIer
In LIe purL domInuLed by SLrIIe, wIere LIe urIsIng oI Iumun beIngs comes ubouL by un en-
LIreIy dIIIerenL mecIunIsm; cI. IrugmenL 6z, und LIe dIscussIon oI LIIs perIod In WrIgIL,
Empedocles: the Extcnt Ircments, pp. z1-z18. TIe ImporLunL poInL Ior ArIsLoLIe up-
peurs Lo be LIuL LIe 'evoIuLIonury` meLIod oI LIe perIod domInuLed by ove provIdes u
poLenLIuI uILernuLIve expIunuLIon Ior LIe urIsIng oI compIex orgunIsms, wIIcI Ie needs Lo
rebuL In order Lo sIow LIuL onIy c:, cun expIuIn LIe reuIILy oI bIoIogIcuI generuLIon und
reproducLIon.
zz
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
reproducLIon ure InexpIIcubIe wILIouL reIerence Lo u IInuI cuuse. WIIIe u
sysLem muy come ubouL, pureIy by cIunce, LIuL IuncLIons 'uIwuys or Ior
LIe mosL purL` despILe IuckIng u xc0' c- cuuse, sucI u sysLem cunnoL pro-
duce growLI, or reproduce, In LIe wuy LIuL IIvIng orgunIsms do. or LIe
deveIopmenL oI u muLure specImen oI, suy, u dog Irom u newborn puppy
(someLIIng LIuL Indeed Iuppens uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL), requIres LIuL
In LIe puppy LIere clrecd be LIe 'InIormuLIon` necessury Lo consLILuLe LIe
IuIIy-deveIoped dog (or, In ArIsLoLIe`s LermInoIogy, LIe IuII Iorm oI LIe dog
musL uIreudy be In poLency), und LIe mecIunIsms necessury Lo brIng LIe
muLure dog ubouL. SImIIurIy, In LIe cuse oI reproducLIon, LIe purenL(s)
musL ucL Lo brIng ubouL un IdenLIcuI essence In LIe oIIsprIng. I LIe 'coo,` Is
noL someIowpresenL In LIe purenL, us IL ucLs Lo produce un oIIsprIng cupu-
bIe oI survIvIng IndependenLIy Irom ILs purenL, wIuL wIII be produced wIII
noL be, Ior InsLunce, unoLIer dog, buL ruLIer someLIIng rundom, IIke LIe
producL oI LIe monkeys` LypIng, or LIe puLLerns produced by wIndbIown
gruss brusIIng sund. TIus, ArIsLoLIe`s crILIcIsm oI EmpedocIes IIgIIIgILs
LIe need Ior u 'prIncIpIe oI end-dIrecLed moLIon` LIuL provIdes un udequuLe
expIunuLIon Ior LIe IuLure-orIenLed ucLIvILIes oI orgunIsms, I.e. growLI und
reproducLIon.
;q
;q
CI. Pcrts oj Animcls, 6qobzo-z, ncoox, ... yioi np-oi ci -: oc - cnpc -
coi:c-i np_c:i -o:c-pi c_oi oic:i, c0' -: - no:cci np-cpoi np_ci o ioi - y
xc - _pi. As M. urLI poInLs ouL, ArIsLoLIe crILIcIzes EmpedocIes so sLrongIy be-
cuuse Ie IuIIs Lo reuIIze LIuL eIemenLuI mIxIng Is vusLIy InsuIIIcIenL Lo expIuIn LIe exIsLence
oI IIgIIy compIex, sLrucLured (I.e. jormed) IndIvIduuIs LIuL ure ubIe Lo communIcuLe LIuL
sLrucLure Lo LIeIr oIIsprIng: TIIs IucL Is perIups LIe mosL remurkubIe oI uII: 'Humun be-
Ing begeLs Iumun beIng`, us Ie repeuLedIy reIIecLs, neter Iorse or squIrreI or unL; Irom
wIIcI cun be ImmedIuLeIy guLIered wILI greuL probubIIILy LIuL LIere musL be u copin
mechcnism, IIgIIy reIIubIe und very uccuruLe, guurunLeeIng LIe LrunsmIssIon oI specIIIc
nuLure IdenLIcuI und InLucL Irom one generuLIon Lo LIe nexL, urLI, ArIsLoLIe's BIoIogIcuI
UnIverse: An OvervIew, p. zq.
zz6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
A IurLIer probIem wILI LIe EmpedocIeun posILIon Is LIuL IL posLuIuLes
orgunIsms LIuL 'come Lo be` jrequentl, despILe LIeIr IuckIng c:,.
8o
TIus,
Ie musL posLuIuLe 'sysLems` LIuL come Lo be reguIurIy In u gIven muLLer:
oxen Irom oxen seed, IungI Irom decuyIng muLLer, oysLers Irom LIe mud oI
cousLuI sIeIves, IIre Irom dry wood.
81
I u beIng Is Lo come Lo be wILIIn u
cerLuIn muLLer uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL, IL musL be becuuse LIe poLency
Ior LIuL beIng Is presenL In LIe muLLer. BuL EmpedocIes usserLs LIuL cerLuIn
oI LIe cIunce uggreguLes Ie proposes (I.e. LIe survIvIng end-producLs oI
IIs process oI 'evoIuLIon`) In IucL IrequenLIy or uIwuys occur, wIIIe LIIs Is
noL possIbIe unIess LIe muLLer In wIIcI LIese 'sysLems` come Lo be Is In IucL
In poLency Lo come Lo be u sysLem oI LIe gIven Lype. Were LIe muLLer noL
In poLency Lo LIe IormuI ucL wIIcI comes Lo be (e.g. LIe c:, oI un oysLer,
In LIe cuse oI LIe mud oI cousLuI sIeIves, or LIuL oI IIre In LIe cuse oI dry
wood) IL couId noL come Lo be In ucL In LIe gIven wuy, excepL on LIe rure
occusIons wIen uccIdenLuI cuuses InLervened Lo produce un eIIecL 'Ior LIe
Iesser purL,` on LIe busIs oI LIe muLerIuI nuLure oI componenLs unILed by
cIunce.
TIus, 'Irequency` Is noL mereIy u sLuLIsLIcuI noLIon In ArIsLoLIe: LIe IIgI
Irequency oI u gIven kInd oI comIng-Lo-be ruLIer Is u sIgn oI LIe beIng-In-
poLency oI LIe nuLure wIIcI comes Lo be uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL, under
LIe correcL condILIons; LIe IucL LIuL sysLems IIke LIuL Ior 'ucorn deIIvery` ure
8o
TIIs poInL wus brougIL Lo my uLLenLIon by Dr. EnrIque AIurcn (personuI conversu-
LIon, PumpIonu, AugusL q, zoo;).
81
ArIsLoLIe posLuIuLes sponLuneous generuLIon us responsIbIe Ior LIe generuLIon oI cer-
LuIn kInds oI beIngs, In purLIcuIur cerLuIn pIunLs und Iower unImuIs, sucI us InsecLs und
moIIusks (cI. IIs dIscussIon oI LIe generuLIon oI LIese orgunIsms In Dn the Generction oj
Animcls, cIupLers z und ).
zz;
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
InIrequenL Is precIseIy due Lo LIere noL beIng uny underIyIng nuLure IosLed
In poLency by LIe correspondIng muLLer.
8z
TIIs Is LIe underIyIng reuson
Ior LIe sLrIcL puruIIeI ArIsLoLIe Ius posLuIuLed beLween LIose LIIngs wIIcI
occur 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL` und LIose LIIngs wIIcI Iuve u cuuse xc0'
c-, und IndIcuLes LIuL ruLIer LIun proIIerIng u vuIId expIunuLIon Ior Iow
orgunIsms mIgIL urIse by cIunce, wIuL EmpedocIes Is In IucL proposIng Is
u IundumenLuI ImpossIbIIILy.
q.. Ind-directedness us reqoiring reuson
A second objecLIon LIuL ArIsLoLIe descrIbes In Phsics .8, Is LIuL oper-
uLIon Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng requIres deIIberuLIon.
8
n LIIs secLIon,
wIII dIscuss IIs response Lo LIIs urgumenL, LyIng In IIs dIscussIon on Iow
c:, und urL ure puruIIeI, und Iowc:, cun muke mIsLukes, Lo sIed IurLIer
IIgIL on wIuL IL meuns Lo suy LIuL c:, ucLs cicx -oo.
The purullelism between -_ip und c:,
ArIsLoLIe responds Lo LIe objecLIon by suyIng LIuL -onoi oc - occ0c:
cicx -oo yyicc0c:, i ooc: - x:ioi [oococcioi. xc-o: xc -_ip o
[oocc-c:.
8q
HIs response Iere depends upon IIs IuvIng uIreudy deveI-
oped, In LIe precedIng purugrupIs, u puruIIeIIsm beLween -_ip und c:,.
He gIves severuI reusons Ior usserLIng LIIs puruIIeIIsm. IrsL, -_ip, IIke
8z
um reIerrIng Iere Lo wIuL LIe ScIoIusLIcs Lermed 'proxImuLe poLency.`
8
TIIs urgumenL Is expIIcILIy menLIoned uL Phsics 1qqbz;II, buL LIe enLIre dIscussIon
Irom 1qqu8-1qqb revoIves uround LIIs und cIoseIy reIuLed Issues.
8q
Phsics, 1qqbz6-z8.
zz8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
c:,, InvoIves un orderIng oI IndIvIduuI sLuges oI un ucLIon In order Lo uL-
LuIn un end. He gIves LIe exumpIe oI LIe buIIdIng oI u Iouse: ooi c oxc
-i cc: y:yioioi i, o-o, i cyyic-o , ii n -, -_ip,.
8
TIere Is u
ruLIonuI sLrucLure Lo LIe deveIopmenL oI nuLuruI beIngs, jusL us LIere Is In
LIe producLIon oI urLIIucLs.
86
ArIsLoLIe Ius uIreudy posILed LIuL uII LIIngs LIuL come Lo be uIwuys or
Ior LIe mosL purL musL come Lo be cicx -oo; reucIIng LIe -o,, wIuLever IL
muy be, wIII requIre pussIng LIrougI vurIous sLuges oI deveIopmenL, eucI
oI wIIcI wIII brIng LIe gIven poLency cIoser Lo beIng IuIIy In ucL. I LIese
sLuges come Lo be In u dIIIerenL order, LIe IInuI ucLuuIILy wIII noL come Lo
be: Ior InsLunce, II LIe Lree sends ouL Ieuves beIore IL Ius rooLs Lo muInLuIn
ILseII uprIgIL und obLuIn nuLrIenLs, LIe Ieuves wIII noL be ubIe Lo survIve Lo
use LIe nuLrIenLs In pIoLosynLIesIs, un ucLIvILy wIIcI cun be suId Lo be LIe
ucLuuIILy oI LIe IeuI. TIIs muLuuI orderIng oI 'prIor und posLerIor` Is LIe
sume In LIe producLs boLI oI -_ip und c:,. TIe onIy dIIIerence Is LIuL
-_ip Is un exLerIor movIng cuuse, und c:, Is un InLernuI cuuse
8;
; boLI,
8
Phsics, 1qqu11-u1z.
86
Grunger IoIds LIuL Ior ArIsLoLIe, LIe puruIIeI Is brouder: LIe sLrucLure oI Iumun uc-
LIon-wIIcI Is ruLIonuI precIseIy InsoIur us IL Is jor somethin-mIrrors LIe ruLIonuI sLruc-
Lure oI reuIILy; Grunger, ArIsLoLIe on LIe AnuIogy beLween AcLIon und NuLure, p. 1;. He
buses LIIs usserLIon on u LexL Irom Metcphsics .z (qqqb8-16), wIere ArIsLoLIe deIends
LIe exIsLence oI LIe IInuI cuuse becuuse o - nc:poi no:oi-c, ci0iooc:i c(c:poi-c, -i
-o yc0o c:i ... oo i cp io, ci -o, oc:i cicxc yp -:io, c np--c: yc ioi c_oi, -o-o o
cc-: npc,. Grunger usserLs LIuL LIe deepesL puruIIeIIsmIn Phsics .8 Is noL LIuL beLween
urL und nuLure, buL LIuL beLween humcn cction und nuLure. TIIs puruIIeIIsm, In IIs vIew,
Is precIseIy IeIL undeIended by ArIsLoLIe becuuse LIe ruLIonuIILy oI nuLure, on LIe modeI oI
ucLIon, Is Ior ArIsLoLIe un urLIcIe oI IuILI: TIe Iuck oI supporL ArIsLoLIe oIIers Ior LIe unuI-
ogy beLween ucLIon und nuLure serves Lo reveuI ILs sLrengLI In IIs LIInkIng, und IL wouId
be onIy nuLuruI LIuL IL sIouId possess sucI sLrengLI II ucLIon provIded ArIsLoLIe wILI IIs
busIc modeI Ior LIe InLeIIIgIbIIILy oI processes LIuL yIeId resuILs. I nuLure Is InLeIIIgIbIe, IL
musL be IIke ucLIon, IbId., p. 1;q.
8;
CI. Metcphsics, 1oq8b-1oqqu1z. DuvId CIurIes purLs wuys Iere wILI Grunger, In-
soIur us Ie IoIds LIuL In LIe Phsics, ArIsLoLIe presenLs Lwo dIsLIncL Lypes oI LeIeoIogIcuI
zzq
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
Iowever, ucL Lo brIng wIuL Is In poLency InLo ucL vIu LIe sume sequence oI
deveIopmenLuI sLuges.
88
cuusuLIon: LIuL wIere ugency Is presenL (wIuL VIgo Lerms 'LeIeoIogy`, und LIuL embod-
Ied by nuLuruI orgunIsms, wIere ugency Is noL presenL ('LeIeonomy` In VIgo`s LermInoIogy,
und wIIcI CIurIes Lerms LIe 'IuncLIonuI` Lype, InsoIur us u gIven purL or ucLIvILy oI u nuL-
uruI orgunIsm perIorms u IuncLIon wIIcI beneIILs LIuL orgunIsm). CIurIes sees LIese Lwo
Lypes us beIng unuIogous, buL wILIouL LIere beIng uny prIorILy umongsL LIem(cI. CIurIes,
TeIeoIogIcuI CuusuLIon In LIe Phsics, pp. 1o6-;), pcce Grunger, wIo IoIds LIuL Iumun
ucLIon provIdes LIe busIc expIunuLory LempIuLe Ior uII comIng Lo be cicx -oo. CIurIes goes
IurLIer, Iowever: || suggesL LIuL ArIsLoLIe In Phs. .8-q dId noL urLIcuIuLe un uccounL
oI LeIeoIogIcuI cuusuLIon wIIcI dIsLInguIsIed properIy beLween LIe Agency und uncLIon
modeI. He possessed u generuI sLruLegy Ior vIndIcuLIng cIuIms concernIng LeIeoIogIcuI cuu-
suLIon; buL Ie dId noL udvunce one deLermInuLe modeI oI LeIeoIogIcuI cuusuLIon wIIcI Ie
uImed Lo vIndIcuLe. And Ior LIIs reuson, IIs noLIons oI nuLure (LIe key concepL oI Phs. ),
und oI nuLuruI process (LIe key concepL oI Phs. ) ure IeIL, In cerLuIn ImporLunL respecLs,
III-deIIned, IbId., p. 1z;. Grunger responds LIuL ArIsLoLIe couId ucknowIedge u common
LeIeoIogIcuI Iorm Ior boLI ucLIon und nuLure wILIouL LIInkIng LIuL LIey were IdenLIcuI In
every LeIeoIogIcuI IeuLure... RuLIer, LIe IeuLures oI LeIeoIogIcuI sequences, wIIcI ure com-
mon Lo ucLIon und nuLure, und wIIcI ArIsLoLIe muy borrowIromucLIon, ure perIups LIose
Iuve suggesLed oI (u) IInILude, (b) LermInuLIon In u gouI, (c) wIIcI Is good, Grunger,
ArIsLoLIe on LIe AnuIogy beLween AcLIon und NuLure, p. 1;q. Here Grunger Is opposed
Lo uny uLLempL Lo gIve expIunuLory prIorILy Lo 'LeIeonomy`; ruLIer, LeIeoIogy Is LIe busIc
modeI, bused on Iumun ucLIon, und LeIeonomy Is u resLrIcLed Lype oI LIe sume modeI,
wIereIn dIscursIve reuson Is noL presenL, buL 'reuson` In u brouder sense Is, I.e. In Lerms
oI LIe InLeIIIgIbIIILy oI LIe LeIeonomIc process.
88
Grunger IoIds LIuL LIIs urgumenL Is InvuIId: Even II IL be uIIowed LIuL eucI sLuge In
boLI sorLs oI serIes |urLIsLIc und nuLuruI| In some sense beneIILs eucI subsequenL sLuge
oI LIe serIes, LIIs udmIssIon Is noL suIIIcIenL Ior esLubIIsIIng LIuL eucI serIes Is equuIIy
gouI-dIrecLed. TIe serIes wouId be gouI-dIrecLed onIy II the recson Ior LIe exIsLence oI
eucI sLuge In LIe serIes Is LIuL IL conLrIbuLes Lo LIe exIsLence oI LIe resuIL oI LIe serIes.
TIe unuIogy Ius suIIIcIenL sLrengLI Ior esLubIIsIIng LIe gouI-dIrecLed cIurucLer oI nuLure
onIy II we Iuve uIreudy grunLed ILs gouI dIrecLed cIurucLer, buL LIIs wouId be Lo beg LIe
quesLIon. IbId., p. 16q.
Grunger`s urgumenL, wIIIe correcL II one consLruIns one`s exumInuLIon Lo LIe urgumenL
us ArIsLoLIe sLuLes IL uL 1qquq-1q, neverLIeIess overIooks un ImporLunL poInL. Grunger`s
crILIque Is LIuL nuLuruI serIes cuImInuLIng In u gIven gouI ure noL necessurIIy ocl-directed
jusL becuuse LIe sLuges In LIe process come Lo be In un ordered IusIIon, mucI us LIey do
In urLIsLIc ucLIon. He Is usserLIng LIuL LIe sLuges In un ordered serIes cun come ubouL In
sucI u wuy LIuL eucI sLuge beneIILs LIe subsequenL sLuge, wILIouL IL beIng LIe cuse LIuL
LIe recson Ior LIe becomIng oI u gIven sLuge Is conLrIbuLIng Lo LIe exIsLence oI LIe resuIL
oI LIe serIes. Hence, In Grunger`s vIew, LIe serIes comes ubouL despILe noL beIng cicx -oo
(In LIe sLrong sense, wIereIn u xc0' o- Is operuLIng Lo reuIIze ILs proper end). BuL Ior
ArIsLoLIe, LIIs meuns LIuL LIe serIes comes ubouL by cIunce (IoIIowIng LIe bInury oppo-
sILIon beLween possIbIe cuuses LIuL Ie presenLs In Phsics 1qqu-). BuL LIIs cunnoL be
LIe cuse, becuuse LIuL wIIcI comes ubouL uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL comes ubouL cicx
-oo (uguIn, In LIe sLrong sense). TIus, II we IoIIow ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs oI cIunce und Iuck,
Grunger Is posLuIuLIng u IundumenLuI ImpossIbIIILy. And Ior ArIsLoLIe, LIIs Is wIuL mukes
zo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
TIIs puruIIeIIsmoI -_ip und c:, Is suIIIcIenLIy exucL LIuL urL cun brIng
ubouL LIe sume LIIngs LIuL c:, does, or even 'exLend` nuLure, doIng LIIngs
wIIcI mIgIL Iuve come ubouL by nuLure, buL wIIcI (due Lo ImpedImenL or
LIe c:, beIng IncupubIe) LIe c:, does noL In IucL brIng ubouL. o, oc
-_ip - ci cn:-cc c:, ooic-c ncpyccc0c:, - oc :c-c:.
8q
or
InsLunce, LIe docLor cun brIng IeuILI Lo LIe puLIenL, someLIIng wIIcI LIe
c:, oI LIe puLIenL mIgIL do on ILs own under dIIIerenL condILIons. Or, LIe
docLor cun use IIs urL Lo provIde cupucILIes Lo u person wIIcI LIe c:, oI
Iumun beIngs normuIIy provIdes, e.g. by desIgnIng u cruLcI or wooden Ieg
Ior someone wIo Iucks u normuI Ieg. c:, Is muxImuIIy IIke -_ip wIen LIe
sume person uses IIs urL on IImseII: :c-c oc ooi, -ci -:, c-pc c-,
cco-i -o- yp co:xci c:,.
qo
ArIsLoLIe concIudes LIuL -: ci oi c-c c:,, xc o-o, , cicx -oo,
cicpi.
q1
TIIs Is LIe cuse, becuuse -_ip ILseII Is possIbIe due Lo LIe re-
IuLIonsIIp oI poLency Lo ucL. Humun beIngs ure ubIe Lo Ieurn urLs, wIIcI
muke LIem ubIe Lo obLuIn cerLuIn resuILs und end producLs In LIe worId,
precIseIy becuuse LIere exIsL reuI poLencIes wIIcI ure LIemseIves cicx -oo;
Indeed, us ArIsLoLIe Ius eurIIer suId, LIese poLencIes 'desIre` LIeIr reuIIzu-
LIon.
qz
TIus, IIs deducLIon oI end-dIrecLedness In c:, Irom LIuL wIIcI
Is obvIous In urL Is noL un IIIegILImuLe one; ruLIer, urL reIIes precIseIy on u
prIor end-dIrecLedness embedded In beIng ILseII.
IL so obvIous LIuL LIe puruIIeIIsm oI -_ip und c:, sIows LIe exIsLence oI IInuI cuusuLIon
In LIe IuLLer.
8q
Phsics, 1qqu16-1q.
qo
Phsics, 1qqbz-bq.
q1
Phsics, 1qqbq.
qz
Phsics, 1qzu1-z.
z1
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
Nutore us uble to 'muke mistukes'
PurL oI EmpedocIes`s urgumenL wus bused on LIe wIdeIy-observed pIe-
nomenu oI 'monsLers` In nuLure. TIese ure obvIousIy noL uccordIng Lo LIe
normuI order oI LIIngs, wIIcI Is one oI LIe reusons wIy LIey were wIdeIy
vIewed us omens oI ImporLunL evenLs In LIe uncIenL worId.
q
EmpedocIes
buses IIs cosmogony on un orIgInuI proIIIeruLIon oI sucI monsLers (e.g. LIe
'mun-Iuced ox-progeny` oI IrugmenL 61
qq
). ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL LIuL Empe-
docIes`s use oI sucI monsLers us evIdence Ior IIs LIeory Is ucLuuIIy quILe
mIsLuken, sInce xc ci -c, c( p_, pc coc-ccc: - [ooyci, c np, -:ic
poi xc -o, ooic- i c0ci, o:c0c:poip, i p_, -:i, cyyic-o, cncp ii
-o cnpc-o,.
q
MonsLers do occur 'Ior LIe Iesser purL,` precIseIy becuuse
LIere Is u prIncIpIe wIIcI uL LImes IuIIs Lo ucIIeve ILs end, due eILIer Lo un
exLernuI ImpedImenL, or un ImpedImenL In LIe muLLer oI LIe beIng ILseII.
Amujor Iucunu InEmpedocIes`s LIeory, u dIIIIcuILy wIIcI mukes ArIsLo-
LIe`s LIeory Iur superIor In ILs ubIIILy Lo expIuIn LIe pIenomenu In quesLIon,
Is reveuIed by ArIsLoLIe`s objecLIon Iere.
q6
L Is possIbIe Lo ImugIne LIuL,
us u resuIL oI LIe greuL InILIuI sepuruLIon oI LIe eIemenLs In LIe perIod oI
LIe ever-IncreusIng unIversuI domInuLIon oI ove, LIuL 'monsLers` urose oI
LIe sorL LIuL EmpedocIes descrIbes.
q;
NeverLIeIess, LIe nuLuruI subsLunces
(I.e. orgunIsms) LIuL we knowreproduce LIemseIves cc cn - no. TIe
'mun-Iucedox-progeny` mIgIL urIse by u cIunce combInuLIonoI eIemenLs In
q
CI. e.g., Geers, A BubyIonIun Omen TexL.
qq
DK1B61.
q
Phsics, 1qqb-8.
q6
We Iuve uIreudy noLed LIIs probIem ubove, In secLIon q..1.
q;
CI. DK1Bz1 und DK1B61. CI. uIso p. zz, n. ;8.
zz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
uggreguLIon, buL LIe oIIsprIng oI sucI u creuLure (II uny), II IL Iucked u c:,,
wouId noL be unoLIer 'mun-Iuced ox-progeny,` buL ruLIer un uggreguLIon
resuILIng Irom LIe sume uccIdenLuI cuuses (I.e. co-IocuLIon oI eIemenLs)
LIuL produced LIe purenL. TIe urIsIng oI 'mun-Iuced ox-progeny` cIIIdren
IromLIe purenL wouId be un occurrence equuIIy us rure us LIe urIsIng oI LIe
purenL ILseII.
q8
TIus, uL besL, LIe reproducLIon oI creuLures resuILIng Irom
cIunce uggreguLIons wouId be 'Ior LIe IeusL purL`; wIuL we observe, Iow-
ever, Is LIuL cows und Iorses und men reproduce LIemseIves cc cn -
no, wILI monsLers occurrIng rureIy. TIIs reguIurILy cun onIy be expIuIned
by un Inner prIncIpIe LIuL cun LrunsIer ILs own Iorm Lo dIsLIncL muLLer. TIe
reuson LIuL monsLers cun occur uL uII In LIe process oI reproducLIon, us
ArIsLoLIe Ius uIreudy poInLed ouL, Is LIuL LIere Is u prIncIpIe wIIcI uL LImes
IuIIs Lo ucIIeve ILs end.
TIe ubIIILy oI c:, Lo 'muke mIsLukes` Is dIrecLIy puruIIeI Lo LIe sume
pIenomenon In -_ip. TIe urLIsL, e.g. LIe scrIbe, wIII occusIonuIIy produce
IncorrecL wrILIng. TIIs muy be due Lo u IIuw In LIe muLerIuI (e.g. Ink LIuL
runs und bIoLcIes LIe pupyrus, pupyrus LIuL Is roLLen und cunnoL be wrIL-
Len on, eLc.) or due u Iuck oI concenLruLIon or IorgeLIuIness on LIe purL oI
LIe scrIbe (Ie Is sIeepy, Is LIInkIng ubouL someLIIng eIse, Is III). BuL II Ie
Ius genuIneIy ucquIred LIe urL oI wrILIng us u poLency, IIs wrILIng wIII be
correcL eILIer uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL. And LIIs cun onIy be expIuIned
by u poLency wIIcI Ius u deIInILe ucLuuIILy us ILs end or -o,, Ior II LIere
were no deLermInuLe ucLuuIILy us LIe -o,, un InIInILude oI resuILs wouId
occur, II unyLIIng dId. TIIs occurs, Ior InsLunce, wILI cIIIdren wIo Iuve
q8
CI. Cooper, ArIsLoLIe on NuLuruI TeIeoIogy, pp. z1o-11.
z
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
LIe ubIIILy Lo druw, buL noL Lo wrILe per se. or druwIng us u deLermInuLe
poLency beurs wILIIn IL wrILIng us u subspecIes. TIus smuII cIIIdren wIo
onIy know Iow Lo druw muy occusIonuIIy produce upproxImuLIons oI wrIL-
Ing 'Ior LIe Iesser purL,` In un uccIdenLuI wuy. WrILIng, us u subspecIes oI LIe
poLency oI druwIng, Is u deLermInuLIon oI wIuL Is, In ILseII, IndeLermInuLe
und Indeed InIInILe.
qq
or wILIIn LIe boundurIes oI LIuL wIIcI Is ucLuuIIz-
ubIe by LIe poLency oI druwIng, LIere Is un InIInILy oI possIbIIILIes, mucI us
LIere Is InIInILe dIvIsIbIIILy In u IIne or uny oLIer conLInuum.
1oo
TIe resuILs
obLuIned by LIe poLency oI wrILIng cun onIy be obLuIned 'uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL` wIen LIe poLency beIng exercIsed Is In IucL LIe poLency oI wrIL-
Ing. I unoLIer, more generIc, poLency Is beIng exercIsed, LIe -o, oI LIe
more specIIIc, deLermInuLe poLency wIII onIy resuIL Ior LIe IeusL purL. TIIs
beIng LIe cuse, IL Is noL possIbIe Ior u gIven ucLuuIILy Lo urIse 'uIwuys or Ior
LIe mosL purL` In LIe ubsence oI u poLency wILI LIuL ucLuuIILy us ILs -o,.
Ind-directedness und reuson
AL LIIs poInL we cun reLurn Lo LIe objecLIon descrIbed ubove, wIIcI
cIuIms LIuL ucLIng In un end-dIrecLed wuy requIres reuson. ArIsLoLIe re-
sponds In Lwo wuys. IrsL,
1o1
Ie sLuLes LIuL urL uIso does noL ucL vIu deIIb-
qq
TIe InIInILe Is suIdLo be wILIInpoLency: yc-c: o - cic: - ci ooic: - oc ci-cc_c,
xc - nc:poi cc-: ci npoc0cc: cc-: oc xc o:c:pcc:. - oc yc0o, -: ci xc-' cipyc:ci ox
cc-:i nc:poi, cpp-c:, o:c:pcc: o' cc-i o yp _ccni icci -, -oo, ypc, cnc-c: oi
ooic: cic: - nc:poi, Phsics, zo6u1-18.
1oo
cnc oc - c-:c o:pp-c: -c-pc_,, cicpi -: , p - nc:poi c-:i cc-:, xc -: - ci cic:
c- c-ppc:,, - oc xc0' c- noxccioi - coic_c, xc cc0p-i. cioi-c: oc ni-c, xc o o:
, _pcio: - ncp o: xc -onoi - ncp:_oi no:ci c- ncp:c_cioi, Phsics,
zo;b-zo8uq.
1o1
n LIe order oI LIe LexL, LIIs response comes second, buL pIuce IL IIrsL In LIe deveI-
opmenL oI LIe urgumenL, becuuse LIe demonsLruLIon LIuL urL ucLs wILIouL deIIberuLIon
zq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
eruLIon. Second, Ie cIuIms LIuL IL Is cIeur LIuL LIere ure orgunIsms LIuL ucL
Ior un end, wILIouL IuvIng reuson, und LIIs Is possIbIe Ior LIe sume reuson
LIuL urL Is ubIe Lo ucL wILIouL deIIberuLIon.
AL LIe end oI Phsics .8, ArIsLoLIe suys LIuL
-onoi oc - occ0c: cicx -oo yyicc0c:, i ooc: - x:ioi [oo
coccioi. xc-o: xc -_ip o [oocc-c: xc c cii ci - _
iconpy:x, oo, i - cc: cnoc: c-' c - -_i cicc-: - cicx
-oo, xc ci - cc:. :c-c oc ooi, -ci -:, c-pc c-, cco-i
-o- yp co:xci c:,. -: ci oi c-c c:,, xc o-o, , cicx
-oo, cicpi.
1oz
AquInus commenLs on LIIs pussuge, sLuLIng LIuL
munIIesLum esL quod urs ugIL propLer uIIquId; eL Lumen mun-
IIesLum esL quod urs non deIIberuL. Nec urLIIex deIIberuL In-
quunLum IubeL urLem, sed InquunLum deIIcIL u cerLILudIne ur-
LIs: unde urLes cerLIssImue nondeIIberunL, sIcuL scrIpLor nonde-
IIberuL quomodo debeuL Iormure IILLerus. EL IIII eLIum urLIIIces
quI deIIberunL, posLquum InvenerunL cerLum prIncIpIum urLIs,
In exequendo non deIIberunL: unde cILIuruedus, sI In Lungendo
quumIIbeL cIordum deIIberureL, ImperILIssImus vIdereLur. Ex
quo puLeL quod non deIIberure conLIngIL uIIcuI ugenLI, non quIu
non ugIL propLer IInem, sed quIu IubeL deLermInuLu medIu per
quue ugIL. Unde eL nuLuru, quIu IubeL deLermInuLu medIu per
mukes IL possIbIe Ior ArIsLoLIe Lo susLuIn u cIuIm oI end-dIrecLed ucLIon In non-reusonIng
orgunIsms.
1oz
Phsics, 1qqbz6-bq.
z
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
quue ugIL, propLer Ioc non deIIberuL.
1o
CIeurIy, LIen, LIe exercIse oI urL us u ruLIonuI poLency (In u LruIned urLIsL)
InvoIves no reIIecLIon In regurds Lo LIe concreLe ucLIons LIuL musL be Luken
In order Lo brIng LIe cIosen ucLuuIILy Irom poLency InLo ucL. RuLIer, once
LIe scuIpLor Ius deIIberuLed ubouL uhct LIe end wIII be (I.e. u sLuLue oI
Hermes or ApoIIo), LIe ucLIon oI scuIpLIng ILseII Lukes pIuce wILIouL reIIec-
LIon (ubouL scuIpLIng per se), jusL us c:, operuLes. or wIIIe LIe end ILseII
cun be cIosen, LIe ucIIevemenL oI LIe end requIres no operuLIon oI reuson,
buL sImpIy LIe progressIve druwIng InLo ucLuuIILy oI u Iorm LIuL Is presenL
In LIe LIIng In poLency.
We see u sImIIur dIcIoLomy beLween deIIberuLIon und end-dIrecLed uc-
LIon In orgunIsms. AL Phsics 1qquzo, ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL LIuL we cun ur-
rIve uL cIeur exumpIes oI orgunIsms ucLIng Ior un end, despILe IuckIng reu-
son. TIe end-dIrecLedness oI LIe ucLIon oI beIngs wILI IIgIer Lypes oI souIs
Is cIeur, Ior we observe unImuIs sucI us cuLs, dogs, Iorses und eIepIunLs
perIormIng ucLIons In pursuIL oI IdenLIIIubIe und reusonubIe gouIs. TIe spI-
der und LIe unL, Iowever, cuuse us Lo doubL; we ure noL sure wIeLIer Lo
uLLrIbuLe io, Lo sucI creuLures, despILe LIeIr cIeurIy ucLIng Ior ends. TIese
doubLs dIsuppeur wILI pIunLs, wIIcI cIeurIy Iuve no cupucILy Lo deIIberuLe,
buL neverLIeIess IL Is uIso LIe cuse LIuL LIeIr ucLIvILy Is Ior ends. TIIs Is pos-
sIbIe becuuse, us we Iuve seen, end-dIrecLedness In ucLIon Is noL dependenL
1o
AquInus, In Phsicorum, Ib. , IecL. 1q, n. 8. WIeIund IoIIows AquInus Iere: DIe
KunsL IsL numIIcI gerude dunn um meIsLen KunsL, wenn mun sIe so seIr beIerrscIL, du
mun ImkonkreLen uII bereILs oIne besondere UberIegung weI, wus zu Lun IsL. Dus ber-
Iegen seLzL Immer ersL dorL eIn, wo dIe unmILLeIbure VerLruuLIeIL mIL der SucIe und dIe
HIngube un sIe un IrgendeIner SLeIIe gesLrL IsL. Wer nocI berIegen mu, beweIsL gerude
dudurcI, du er dIe SucIe nocI nIcIL voIIkommen beIerrscIL, WIeIund, Die cristotelis-
che Phsil, p. z;1.
z6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
upon LIe exIsLence oI reuson, buL ruLIer on LIe reIuLIon oI poLency Lo ucL:
InsoIur us u poLency exIsLs Ior u deLermInuLe ucLuuIILy Lo be reuIIzed, LIuL
ucLuuIILy is LIe endoI LIuL poLency, und LIe moLIonLIuL reuIIzes LIe poLency
Is end-dIrecLed by necessILy (Indeed, II IL were noL end-dIrecLed, IL wouId
noL be moLIon uL uII, Ior us ArIsLoLIe suys In Phsics V.z, c-c[o yp
nccc noxci cx -:io, c, -:.
1oq
)
suggesL LIuL LIere Is un underIyIng LermInoIogIcuI conIusIon LIuL Ius
Ied ArIsLoLIe`s InLerIocuLors Lo ussocIuLe end-dIrecLedness excIusIveIy wILI
reuson. L Is cIeur LIuL un urLIsL, us u ruLIonuI beIng, cun deIIberuLe ubouL
ends, und cIoose meuns Lo LIose ends wIIcI InvoIve LIe exercIse oI IIs urL.
TIus, we cun suy LIuL LIe sIIpwrIgIL buIIL LIe bouL In order Lo eurn money
Lo Ieed IIs IumIIy, or LIe sIIpwrIgIL buIIL LIe bouL In order Lo guIn Ionor
und Iume wILI LIe ALIenIun ussembIy, eucI oI LIese beIng u possIbIe gouI
LIuL LIe sIIpwrIgIL cun seek Lo obLuIn. TIe sIIpwrIgIL`s ucLIvILy oI bouL-
buIIdIng cun LIen be suId Lo be cicx -oo, InsoIur us IL Is underLuken Ior
LIe suke oI some good wIIcI consLILuLes u ruLIonuIIy cIosen gouI. TIere Is
uIso, Iowever, un uddILIonuI sense oI cicx -oo wIIcI ArIsLoLIe IIgIIIgILs In
Phsics .8, wIIcI Is LIe sense oI LIe 'ucLuuIILy Lo be ucIIeved LIrougI LIe
ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u poLency.` TIIs Is LIe sense In wIIcI LIe Lrue sIIpwrIgIL
cun suId Lo exercIse IIs urL wILIouL reIIecLIon-LIe sIIpwrIgIL wIo Ius Lo
reIIecL on IIs urL durIng LIe buIIdIng oI LIe bouL Is ruLIer u sIIpwrIgIL-In-
LruInIng, wIereus we suy oI LIe Lrue sIIpwrIgIL LIuL Ie cun 'buIId LIe bouL
In IIs sIeep.` L Is In LIIs IuLLer sense LIuL pIunL growLI Is 'end-dIrecLed,` Ior
LIe pIunL Ius us ILs gouI LIe ucIIevemenL oI ILs IuIIy-deveIoped c:, In ucL,
1oq
Phsics, zzb8-1z.
z;
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
wIIcI IL uLLuIns LIrougI LIe ordered growLI processes wIIcI ure requIred
Lo produce LIe muLure pIunL.
q.q An issoe concerning biologicul Iinulity
ArIsLoLIe`s resoIuLIon oI LIe Issue oI nuLuruI IInuIILy Ieuves un ImporLunL
Issue unresoIved. He Ius sIown LIuL Ior someLIIng Lo come ubouL 'uIwuys
or Ior LIe mosL purL,` LIere musL be un exIsLIng poLency deLermIned Lo LIuL
LIIng. TIus, we cun suy LIuL Ior LeeLI Lo sprouL Irom u juw, LIe ImmuLure
juw musL possess u deLermInuLe poLency Lo produce LeeLI; oLIerwIse, LeeLI
wIII onIy sprouL In u LIny mInorILy oI cuses, us Iuppens occusIonuIIy wILI
muLuLIons, wIere Iumuns und unImuIs sprouL LeeLI Irom oLIer members
besIdes LIe juw.
NeverLIeIess, LIIs upproucI wIII noL uIIow us Lo demonsLruLe LIuL LIe
poLency Ior LeeLI Lo sprouL Irom LIe juw Is jor cheuin. L Is cerLuInIy LIe
cuse LIuL LeeLI do, de jccto, deveIop Irom LIe juw Ior LIe purpose oI grInd-
Ing und LeurIng Iood. BuL LIIs Is noL someLIIng LIuL cun be dIscerned Irom
LIe LeeLI und LIe juw uIone, buL ruLIer onIy In LIe conLexL oI LIe beIuvIor
oI LIe orgunIsm us u wIoIe. or InsLunce, In mosL bIrds, wIngs deveIop In
order LIuL LIe bIrd cun IIy. n cIIckens, Iowever, LIey do noL, sInce cIIck-
ens cunnoL IIy. TIus, In order Lo know wIeLIer LIere Is u gIven purpose
In LIe deveIopmenL oI un orgun, we musL know more ubouL LIe IuncLIon oI
LIuL orgun In LIe IIIe cycIe oI LIe unImuI. We mIgIL puL LIIs poInL more suc-
cIncLIy by sLuLIng LIuL LIe orgun ILseII does noL deLermIne ILs own purpose.
We cun resoIve LIIs Issue by IoIIowIng WIeIund`s meLIod oI 'ILeruLIve
z8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
unuIysIs`: LIe juw Ius u cerLuIn nuLure oI ILs own, consIdered quc ILseII,
purL oI wIIcI IncIudes LIe producLIon oI LeeLI oI cerLuIn kInds, und LIIs
nuLure, quc ILseII, need noL muke reIerence Lo cIewIng. BuL quc purL oI
LIe compIeLe orgunIsm, IL Ius LIuL purpose. And Indeed, us Iuve noLed
In CIupLer z (puge 11;), LIe c:, oI un orgunIsm Is wIuL mukes LIe muLLer
(I.e. LIe purL oI LIe body) oI LIe orgunIsm Lo be LIuL orgunIsm In ucLuuIILy.
TIus, IInuIILy oI LIe sorL LIuL ArIsLoLIe Is reIerrIng Lo wIen Ie IndIcuLes LIuL
Ieuves grow In order Lo sIeILer LIe IruIL
1o
(IoIIowIng ArIsLoLIe`s boLunIcuI
LIeory In LIIs poInL) Is u IInuIILy uL LIe IeveI oI LIe orgunIsm, und noL LIe
IeuI nor LIe bruncI us sucI. TIe c:, oI u Iemon Lree wIII IncIude bruncIes
LIuL sprouL Ieuves-wIIcI In Lurn serve, In purL, Lo proLecL LIe IruIL-buL
LIe c:, oI Ieuves us sucI need noL beur uny reIuLIon Lo IruIL (us we see In
Lrees LIuL Iuve Ieuves buL no IruIL, sucI us mupIe Lrees und coLLonwoods).
q.g Iinulity und Redoctionism
TIere Is un ImporLunL coroIIury oI LIe urgumenL LIuL Ius been mude up
Lo LIIs poInL.
1o6
EurIIer In LIIs cIupLer mude LIe poInL LIuL ArIsLoLIe be-
IIeves Ie Ius demonsLruLed LIuL Ior u LIIng Lo be ubIe Lo come Lo be xc0'
c-, LIere musL be u correspondIng poLency In LIe generuLor wIIcI Is re-
uIIzed In LIe LIIng generuLed. GoLLIeII poInLs ouL LIuL LIIs poLency musL
uddILIonuIIy be 'IrreducIbIe,` I.e. noL repIIcubIe In u compIeLe wuy by meuns
1o
CI. Phsics, 1qquz-uo.
1o6
IIrsL encounLered LIIs coroIIury In GoLLIeII, ArIsLoLIe's ConcepLIon oI InuI CuusuI-
ILy, uILIougI sImIIur urgumenLs Iuve been mude by WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd
Aenc und ennox, TeIeoIogy, CIunce und ArIsLoLIe's TIeory oI SponLuneous Gener-
uLIon.
zq
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
oI LIe poLencIes oI LIe busIc eIemenLs InvoIved In LIe comIng Lo be. TIe 'Ir-
reducIbIIILy urgumenL` LIuL GoLLIeII ouLIInes Is especIuIIy promInenL In LIe
bIoIogIcuI works, uILIougI ArIsLoLIe presenLs vurIunLs boLI In Metcphsics
. und .; us weII us In Phsics .8.
1o;
n LIe bIoIogIcuI conLexL, und uguInsL LIe oc:oyo:, ArIsLoLIe wus un
unwuverIng udvocuLe oI LIe posILIon LIuL LIe deveIopmenL oI u muLure or-
gunIsm Is LIe resuIL oI LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u sIngIe poLency wIIcI Is Ior LIe
suke oI LIe Iorm oI LIe muLure orgunIsm, und LIuL LIere Is no sequence oI
LIe ucLIvuLIon oI eIemenL poLencIes-wIIcI muke no reIerence Lo LIe IInuI
Iorm oI LIe orgunIsm-wIIcI wIII In IucL resuIL In LIe orgunIsm LIuL comes
Lo be. ComIng Lo be Ior LIe suke oI X ImpIIes IrreducIbIIILy.
1o8
GoLLIeII en-
counLers LexLs supporLIng LIIs urgumenL In Dn the Generction oj Animcls
.1, wIere ArIsLoLIe descrIbes LIe ucLIvILy oI LIe semen In gIvIng Iorm Lo
LIe embryo.
1oq
n reproducLIon, LIe moLIon oI LIe semen musL be uppro-
prIuLe Lo LIe producLIon oI LIe oIIsprIng. BuL sInce moLIons ure numed Ior
LIeIr LermInuLIons, LIIs meuns LIuL LIe semen's moLIon musL be deIIned In
Lerms oI LIe IInuI ouLcome. Hence, LIere Is no reducLIon Lo moLIons wIose
1o;
WuLerIow goes IurLIer und IInks 'IrreducIbIIILy` wILI ArIsLoLIe`s LIesIs LIuL beIngs en-
dowed wILI nuLures ure per se unILIes In u meLupIysIcuI sense. or LIe condILIon Ior
predIcuLIng per se unILy oI u compIex nuLuruI beIng wIIcI Is IdenLIcuI wILI LIe condILIon
Ior uppIyIng LeIeoIogIcuI expIunuLIon us ArIsLoLIe undersLunds IL. TIIs condILIon Is LIuL
LIe properLIes und beIuvIor oI LIe compIex beIng ure noL wIoIIy expIIcubIe us LIe producL
oI u per cccidens combInuLIon oI sImpIer componenLs und LIeIr respecLIve beIuvIngs,
WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, pp. 6q-;o.
1o8
GoLLIeII, ArIsLoLIe's ConcepLIon oI InuI CuusuIILy, pp. z1z-1. CI. uIso BuIme, TeIe-
oIogy und NecessILy, p. z81, ArIsLoLIe dId noL regurd uuLomuLIc pIysIcuI InLerucLIon us
cupubIe oI producIng unImuI LIssues und orguns; Ior wIen LIe eIemenLs ucL wILIouL beIng
used by nuLure or souI, LIey do noL Impose IImIL und deIInILIon upon LIemseIves.
1oq
H, o no-c cxcc-oi y/yic-c: ci-c0ci oc c[ci, p_i no:pccioo, np-oi ci -: cc
cc: y/yic-c: -_i n cicpyc/ i-o, y/yic-c: cx -o ooic: -o:o-oo. - ci oi cnpc
-o:o-oi, xc c_c: x/ipc:i xc p_i -o:c-pi c-c ncooip, -, x:ipcco, y/yicc0c: cxcc-oi -i
op/oi xc co_oi, Generction oj Animcls, ;qbzo-zq.
zqo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ends muke no reIerence Lo LIe specIes-ouLcome oI LIe semen's moLIon.
11o
As GoLLIeII sLuLes,
As LIe moLIons oI LIe LooIs Iuve u deIInILIon correspondIng Lo
LIe urL, I.e., Lo LIe Iorm In LIe mInd oI LIe urLIsL, so LIe semen`s
'moLIon` musL Iuve u deIInILIon correspondIng Lo LIe nuLure,
I.e., Lo LIe Iorm, oI LIe purenL. TIuL Is Lo suy, LIe semen`s 'mo-
LIon` musL be IdenLIIIed by reIerence Lo LIe Iorm IL Is LrunsmIL-
LIng... TIe semen`s 'moLIon` Is Lo be deIIned by ILs ouLcome: IL Is
LIe IuIIIIImenL oI LIe poLenLIuI Lo generuLe ununImuI or u cerLuIn
Iormor Iogos, quu poLenLIuI; LIe Iormor Iogos Is un InescupubIe
purL oI ILs very deIInILIon.
I LIIs Is so, LIen LIe 'poLenLIuI` wIIcI Is munIIesLed In LIe se-
men`s moLIon uIso Is Lo be IdenLIIIed by reIerence Lo LIe Iorm
beIng LrunsmILLed: IL Is, essenLIuIIy, u poLenLIuI Ior Iorm, u po-
LenLIuI dIsLIncL Iromund noL reducIbIe Lo uny sumoI quuIILuLIve
und IocomoLIve poLenLIuIs. or, II IL were reducIbIe, so wouId
LIe 'moLIon` be, und LIen IeuL und coId couId, In LIe proper se-
quence oI ucLIons, produce 'LIe Iogos by wIIcI one LIIng Is IIesI
und unoLIer bone`.
111
n MeLupIysIcs . und .;, ArIsLoLIe mukes un urgumenL LIuL Is brouder
11o
...-i oc yoi op - ci cp( - o c-oi ox-:, x/ipc:, n -o yciipcci-o, -o
ci-cc_c/ i-o, cc-: ooic: c( o y/yic-c:, cncp xc cn -i y:yioioi xc- -_ipi cxppi
ci yp xc ccxi -i c/oppoi no:c - 0cpi xc - o_pi, (/o, x/ipc:, -i pyioi
c_oocc yoi -i| -, -_ip,. yp -_ip p_ xc coo, -o y:yioioo, ci c-p oc -,
cco, x/ipc:, ci c- c-pc, occ cco, -, c_ocp, - coo, cicpyc/, Generction oj An-
imcls, ;zb-;u.
111
GoLLIeII, ArIsLoLIe's ConcepLIon oI InuI CuusuIILy, p. z1;.
zq1
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
LIun LIuL wIIcI uppIIes Lo unImuI generuLIon. He sLuLes LIuL goodness und
beuuLy cunnoL Iuve LIeIr orIgIn In eIemenLuI poLencIes or sponLuneILy und
cIunce, buL ruLIer LIuL LIere musL be u process wIIcI Ius LIem essenLIuIIy
(und Ience IrreducIbIy) us ILs end, und LIIs Is wIuL IL meuns Lo come Lo be
Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng.
11z
GoLLIeII InLerpreLs LIe IengLIy urgumenLuLIon
In Phsics .8 us IundumenLuIIy LIe sume us LIuL Iound In Metc . und .;:
LIere Is Loo mucI order und reguIurILy In nuLuruI processes Ior LIem Lo be
LIe resuILs oI eIemenLuI poLencIes.
11
WuLerIow (1q8z) mukes u sImIIur cuse Ior IrreducIbIIILy, druwn Irom
ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs In Phsics . IrsL, sIe druws ouL LIe sLrong posILIon
oI IdenLILy beLween LIe IormuI und IInuI cuuses LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius Luken In
Phsics .1, Irom wIIcI |Ie| concIudes LIuL nuLure In LIe sense oI un In-
ner prIncIpIe oI cIunge is LIe deveIoped Iorm.
11q
oIIowIng LIIs, sIe noLes
LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s posILIon concernIng IypoLIeLIcuI necessILy In Phsics .q
InLends Lo IImIL LIe roIe oI necessILy In nuLure In order Lo muke LIe cuse
Ior LeIeoIogIcuI expIunuLIons: Ior |LIe end| Is LIe cuuse oI LIe muLLer, buL
LIe muLLer Is noL cuuse oI LIe end.
11
BuL ArIsLoLIe`s posILIon on muLerIuI
necessILy ImpIIes LIuL Ie IoIds LIuL beIngs wILI nuLures ure per se unILIes
In u sLrong sense, becuuse LIe condILIon Ior predIcuLIng per se unILy oI u
compIex nuLuruI beIng Is IdenLIcuI wILI LIe condILIon Ior uppIyIng LeIeoIog-
IcuI expIunuLIon us ArIsLoLIe undersLunds IL.
116
TIIs condILIon Is precIseIy
LIuL LIe beIuvIor und sLrucLure oI LIe compIex beIng cunnoL be wIoIIy ex-
11z
GoLLIeII, ArIsLoLIe's ConcepLIon oI InuI CuusuIILy, pp. zz1-z.
11
IbId., p. zz.
11q
WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, p. 6.
11
Phsics, zoouz. CI. WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, p. 6q.
116
IbId., p. 6q.
zqz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
pIuIned by InLerpreLIng LIem us u per cccidens combInuLIon oI muLerIuI
componenLs und LIeIr InLerucLIons. ArIsLoLIe IoIds LIuL muLerIuIIsL expIu-
nuLIons do In IucL IuII In cerLuIn cIrcumsLunces, und LIIs meuns boLI LIuL
LIe compIex beIng Is someLIIng more LIun u mere uggreguLe oI muLerIuI
purLs, und LIuL someLIIng oLIer LIun ILs componenLs musL be Invoked In
order Lo expIuIn ILs beIuvIor.
11;
DeveIopmenL In pursuIL oI un end (c:,
us IInuI cuuse) Is precIseIy LIuL 'someLIIng more,` wIIcI Is IrreducIbIe Lo u
nuLuruI beIng`s muLerIuI componenLs precIseIy becuuse IL Is LIe onl ex-
pIunuLIon oI somethin cdditioncl Lo LIe muLerIuIs In LIe pIenomenon Lo
be expIuIned.
118
NoL uII recenL commenLuLors ure convInced by LIe IrreducIbIIILy urgu-
menLs presenLed by WuLerIow und GoLLIeII, LIe IuLLer oI wIom noLes LIuL
SorubjI (1q8o) und Nussbuum (1q;8) urgue Ior vIewIng LeIeoIogy In ArIs-
LoLIe us prImurIIy u muLLer oI scIenLIIIc expIunuLIons, und eucI oI wIom
deny IrreducIbIIILy.
11q
n Ier 1q;8 urLIcIe ArIsLoLIe on TeIeoIogIcuI ExpIu-
nuLIon, Nussbuum IIgIIIgILs LIe Immense expIunuLory udvunLuges LIuL
ure Lo be Iud by expIuInIng pIunL und unImuI beIuvIor In Lerms oI ends:
LIese udvunLuges ure compurubIe Lo LIose oI u muLIemuLIcuI expIunuLIon
over un expIunuLIon uL LIe pureIy uLomIc IeveI wIen uLLempLIng Lo expIuIn
wIy u gIven bronze cube oI sIde zr wIII noL puss LIrougI u Ioop oI rudIus
r.
1zo
n LIe one cuse you Iuve u sImpIe und eIegunL expIunuLIon In Lerms
11;
IbId., pp. 6q-;o.
118
IbId., p. ;1.
11q
GoLLIeII, ArIsLoLIe's ConcepLIon oI InuI CuusuIILy, p. z1. WuLerIow udds WIeIund
Lo LIe IIsL oI LIose wIo IoId LIuL In ArIsLoLIe LIe sume pIenomenon cun In prIncIpIe be
expIuIned boLI mecIunIcuIIy und LeIeoIogIcuIIy, In eIIecL pIucIng IIm In LIe reducLIonIsL
cump; cI. WuLerIow, Ncture, Chcne, cnd Aenc, ;o n. zo.
1zo
Nussbuum, ArIsLoLIe on TeIeoIogIcuI ExpIunuLIon, p. 6q.
zq
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
oI sImpIe geomeLrIc concepLs, wIereus In LIe oLIer cuse you musL IIsL uII oI
LIe uLoms mukIng up boLI LIe cube und LIe Ioop, uIong wILI LIeIr Lrujec-
LorIes, In order Lo sIow Ior one non-generuIIzubIe cuse wIy LIe cube wIII
noL puss. TIe cuse oI unImuI beIuvIor Is sImIIur; wIen we usk wIy LIe IIon
enLers LIe sIeep pen, LIe LeIeoIogIcuI expIunuLIon Lo geL meuL Is Iur sIm-
pIer, more eIegunL und more generuIIzubIe LIun uny uccounL gIven In Lerms
oI LIe consLILuenL uLoms oI LIe IIon.
1z1
or Nussbuum, LIen, LeIeoIogIcuI expIunuLIonexIsLs InArIsLoLIe becuuse
oI LIe eIegunce und expIunuLory power LIuL IL gIves Lo scIenLIsLs sLudyIng
IumunundunImuI purLs, deveIopmenL undbeIuvIor, undnoL becuuse LIere
Is u pIysIcuIIy-reuIIzed IInuI cuuse LIuL ucLs Lo druw u beIng In poLency InLo
u beIng In ucL. Her LIeory seeks Lo presenL un ArIsLoLIe wIo posLuIuLes no
mysLerIous, non-empIrIcuI processes und evenLs,
1zz
Ior wIom LIere ure
no eIIIcIenL-cuusuI gups cuused by LIe necessILy Lo posLuIuLe IrreducIbIe
poLencIes Ior deveIopmenL Lowurds ends.
1z
Her uccounL Is cogenL und
weII-urgued, wILI exLensIve reIerences Lo key ArIsLoLeIIun LexLs, und Ius LIe
udded udvunLuge oI correspondIng Lo u weII known cIurucLerIsLIc oI ArIsLo-
LIe, numeIy IIs concern Ior vuIId scIenLIIIc expIunuLIon, wIIcI Ie dIscusses
In LIe Drcnon und numerous oLIer LexLs spreud ouL LIrougIouL IIs oLIer
works.
1z1
Nussbuum, ArIsLoLIe on TeIeoIogIcuI ExpIunuLIon, p. ;1. BuL noLe GoLLIeII, RevIew:
|ArIsLoLIe's De MoLu AnImuIIum, by NussbuumM.|, p. ;1, NussbuumcILes no LexLs LIuL
suggesL LIuL ArIsLoLIe LIougIL sImpIIcILy, generuIILy, or predIcLIve power Lo be crILerIu Ior
expIunuLory superIorILy, und LIose sIe cILes Ior reIevunce (IncIudIng PA 6qobz8) devuIue
muLerIuIIsL uccounLs Ior LIeIr omIssIon oI Iorm, noL Ior LIeIr excess bugguge. And becuuse
oI LIIs omIssIon, ArIsLoLIe InsIsLs, LIe muLerIuIIsL uccounLs ure IncompIeLe, noL jusL cum-
bersome or IneIIIcIenL. TIey IuII Lo expIuIn...
1zz
Nussbuum, ArIsLoLIe on TeIeoIogIcuI ExpIunuLIon, p. ;q.
1z
IbId., p. 6o.
zqq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
As u resuIL, NussbuumLreuLs LeIeoIogIcuI expIunuLIons us IuvIng u pIuce
In scIence onIy becuuse LIey ure superior Lo LIe kInds oI expIunuLIons gIven
by oc:oyo: sucI us DemocrILus,
1zq
buL noL becuuse LIey reIIecL u genuIne
uspecL oI pIysIcuI deveIopmenL, wIereby u poLency Is reuIIzed wIIcI Ius u
gIven Iormus ILs gouI or 'npc,.` ndeed, sIe dIspuruges LIe Ideu LIuL ArIsLo-
LIe wouId posLuIuLe unyLIIng IIke mysLerIous sLrIvIngs In muLLer Lo reuIIze
Iorm.
1z
NeverLIeIess, LIe IucL LIuL Ie Is concernedInPhsics .8Lo jusLIIy
LIe possIbIIILy oI end-dIrecLed beIuvIor In creuLures IuckIng reuson sIows
LIuL Ie consIders LeIeoIogy Lo be u reuI pIenomenon.
ArIsLoLIe mukes u sLep-by-sLep cuse Ior LIe presence oI gouI-dIrecL-ed
beIuvIor In non-ruLIonuI creuLures, begInnIng wILI non-Iumun unImuIs
wIIcI ucL Ior un end wILIouL possessIng reuson, und proceedIng Lo pIunLs,
wIose purLs come Lo be Ior LIe suke oI LIe weII-beIng oI LIe enLIre pIunL.
1z6
WIuL ArIsLoLIe Is concerned Lo sIow Is LIuL LIe kInd oI IndIspuLubIy end-
dIrecLed beIuvIor Iound In ruLIonuI unImuIs (und especIuIIy In urL) Is uIso
Iound In non-ruLIonuI nuLuruI beIngs: c ci - -_i cicc-: - cicx -oo, xc
ci - cc:.
1z;
WIuL Is mosL decIsIve ubouL LIIs compurIson Is LIuL In LIe
cuse oI urL, LIere Is LIe Iorm In LIe mInd oI LIe urLIsL, wIIcI Is reuIIzed by
LIe sequence oI ucLIons LIuL Ie currIes ouL, unLII LIe end Is ucIIeved, wILI
eucI sLep Luken Ior LIe purpose oI LIe end. TeIeoIogy Is noL mereIy u wuy
oI descrIbIng wIuL LIe urLIsL does In un eIegunL und sImpIe wuy, buL reIers
1zq
CI. IbId., pp. qz-q.
1z
IbId., p. ;q. CI. uIso WIeIund, TIe ProbIem oI TeIeoIogy, p. 16: or ArIsLoLIe LIe
cuLegory oI gouIs Is un exLremeIy vuIuubIe LooI Ior InvesLIguLIon. OccuIL powers wIIcI
sLrIve Ior gouIs or wIIcI produce LIIngs unconscIousIy, Iuve Ior |ArIsLoLIe| uL besL u
meLupIorIcuI sIgnIIIcunce.
1z6
Phsics, 1qquzo-uo.
1z;
Phsics, 1qqbzq.
zq
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
Lo u genuIne dynumIsm LIuL propeIs LIe urLIsL Lo Luke eucI sLep In LIe pro-
ducLIon oI LIe work oI urL.
SImIIurIy, ArIsLoLIe wIsIes Lo deIend LIe exIsLence oI u puruIIeI sorL oI
dynumIsm In LIe comIng Lo be oI non-Iumun unImuIs und pIunLs:
c-' c cc: -c no:c xc cicx -oo _c:oi -i ico--:i xc
p_ip, - p_i:oi, xc - o- c cicxc -i xcpni xc -, c,
ox io x-o -, -po,, cicpi -: cc-:i c-c -o:c-p ci
-o, cc: y:yioio:, xc oc:i.
1z8
TIe exumpIe Ie gIves us beIng mosL IIke nuLure Is LIuL oI LIe pIysIcIun wIo
IeuIs IImseII.
1zq
n LIe cuse oI LIe pIysIcIun, LIere Is u gouI In mInd wIIcI
InIorms LIe ucLIons Ie perIorms upon IImseII (I.e. IeuILI); In nuLure, LIere
Is u gouI Ior wIIcI ucLIvILy Lukes pIuce, wIIcI Is us un ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u
poLency, I.e. LIuL oI LIe ucIIevemenL und susLuInIng oI LIe IuIIy-deveIoped
nuLuruI beIng. TIuL LIIs Is u reuI process, und noL mereIy u descrIpLIon oI
beIuvIor InLIe IusIIonoI 'us-II` LeIeoIogy, Is cIeur IromwIuL ArIsLoLIe sLuLes
nexL, In LIe concIudIng senLence oI LIe cIupLer: -: ci oi c-/c c:,, xc
o-o, , cicx -oo, cicpi.
1o
To concIude LIIs secLIon on LeIeoIogy und reducLIonIsm, IoId LIe po-
sILIon LIuL LIe vIew ArIsLoLIe Ius deveIoped on c:, us u cuuse In Phsics
.8 upIoIds GoLLIeII`s und WuLerIow`s vIewoI LIe IrreducIbIIILy oI cicx -oo
processes Lo sequences oI LIe ucLIvuLIons oI eIemenLuI poLencIes. ArIsLoLIe
upIoIds LIe posILIonLIuL IromLIe ouLseL oI deveIopmenLuI processes, gouIs
1z8
Phsics, 1qquz6-uo.
1zq
:c-c oc ooi, -ci -:, c-pc c-, cco-i -o- yp co:xci c:,, Phsics, 1qqbo.
1o
Phsics, 1qqb1-z.
zq6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ure presenL Lowurds wIIcI LIe deveIopmenL oI LIe nuLuruI beIng proceeds,
und LIese gouIs ure precIseIy LIe Iorms oI LIe muLure beIng LIemseIves.
TIese gouIs cunnoL be expressed In Lerms oI eIemenLuI poLencIes, buL ure
IrreducIbIy LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u poLenLIuI Ior Iorm.
11
Puce Nussbuum
und WIeIund, LeIeoIogy does noL sImpIy InvoIve u beLLer Irumework Ior gIv-
Ing scIenLIIIc expIunuLIons, buL InvoIves LIe reuI ucLIvILy oI c:, seekIng
seII-reuIIzuLIon.
1z
Becuuse c:, In LIIs sense Is InLegruLIve, producIng per
se unILIes ouL oI muLLer wIIcI muy Iuve ILs own nuLure, we cun suy LIuL LIe
reuIILy oI LeIeoIogy InvoIves uIso LIe reuIILy oI 'IIgIer` c:,, ucLIng us LIe
gouI oI compIex processes oI pIysIcuI deveIopmenL or pIunLJunImuI ucLIv-
ILy, wILI LIIs deveIopmenL und ucLIvILy unexpIuInubIe by reIerence mereIy
Lo LIe cc:, oI LIe muLerIuI componenLs mukIng up LIe more compIex be-
Ing.
q.6 Conclosions: c:, und Iinulity
To wIuL degree Ius ArIsLoLIe been ubIe, In Book oI LIe Phsics, Lo
respond Lo LIe objecLIons ruIsed by IIs opponenLs (purLIcuIurIy Empedo-
cIes), und demonsLruLe LIuL IIs docLrIne oI nuLure Is superIor Lo muLerIuIIsL
posILIons, wIIcI ure unubIe expIuIn key pIenomenu (especIuIIy reproduc-
LIon)? To wIuL degree Ius Ie sIown IIs LIeory Lo be noL mereIy beLLer, buL
necesscr?
11
GoLLIeII, ArIsLoLIe's ConcepLIon oI InuI CuusuIILy, p. zzq. CI. uIso GoLLIeII, Re-
vIew: |ArIsLoLIe's De MoLu AnImuIIum, by Nussbuum M.|, p. ;q.
1z
NeverLIeIess, us WIeIund noLes, ArIsLoLIe does noL gIve uny IInuI unswer Lo hou nu-
Lure brIngs IL ubouL LIuL gouI-dIrecLed deveIopmenLuI ucLIvILIes occur In IL; WIeIund, TIe
ProbIem oI TeIeoIogy, p. 1q.
zq;
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
n LIe IIrsL secLIon oI LIIs cIupLer, IIrsL dIscussed ArIsLoLIe`s response
Lo EmpedocIes`s cosmogony, In purLIcuIur IIs uLLempL Lo sIow Iow Iumun
beIngs und oLIer unImuIs mIgIL Iuve urIsen pureIy by cIunce. However,
ArIsLoLIe cIuIms LIuL EmpedocIes (uIong wILI oLIer muLerIuIIsL LIInkers)
Ius noL deveIoped un expIunuLIon oI wIuL 'cIunce` or 'Iuck` reuIIy ure, wILI
LIe resuIL LIuL cc o -:ic, o, ooxc cic: ci c-c -_p, opo, oc i0poni
o:cio , 0ci -: occ xc oc:oi:-cpoi.
1
TIus, In order Lo respond ude-
quuLeIy Lo LIeIr cIuIms, Ie IIrsL deveIops u LIeory oI -_p, us LIuL wIIcI Is
'Ior LIe IeusL purL` und uccIdenLuI, buL neverLIeIess cicx -oo.
He uLLempLs Lo sIow LIuL pIenomenu wIIcI come Lo be 'uIwuys or Ior
LIe mosL purL` cunnoL, LIereIore, be expIuIned us resuILIng Irom Iuck or
cIunce. WIIIe un opponenL oI ArIsLoLIe muy urgue LIuL IL Is, In IucL, possI-
bIe Ior LIIngs Lo come Lo be on u reguIur busIs Irom cIunce cIrcumsLunces
(us In LIe cuse oI LIe 'ucorn deIIvery sysLem`), LIIs kInd oI mecIunIsmIs In-
udequuLe Lo expIuIn LIe comIng Lo be oI orgunIsms or LIeIr compIex purLs
In reproducLIon, growLI und seII-muInLenunce. ComIng Lo be xc0' c- (I.e.
wILIInLIe cuLegory oI subsLunce, or eIse quc LIe kInd oI beIng LIuL LIe LIIng
Is) depends on LIere beIng u poLency Lo LIIs comIng-Lo-be. SInce sucI u po-
Lency Is u poLency to somethin, IL Is InIerenLIy end-dIrecLed: IL Is eILIer u
poLency to beIng u muLure exempIur oI LIe kInd oI beIng IL Is by nuLure (In
LIe cuse oI LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce) or eIse IL Is u poLency to LIe reuIIzuLIon
oI u kInd oI ucLuuIILy Ior wIIcI LIe c:, Ius LIe poLency (e.g. growLI or nu-
LrILIon). WILIouL LIIs kInd oI poLency Ior u deIInILe ucLuuIILy us -o,, LIere
wIII onIy be u poLency Ior un InIInILude oI comIngs-Lo-be, I.e. LIose proper
1
Phsics, 1q6b6-1o.
zq8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lo un uggreguLe, mukIng LIIngs IIke LIe sprouLIng oI LeeLI neurIy InIInILeIy
ImprobubIe.
rom LIIs, ArIsLoLIe cun concIude LIuL, In order Lo expIuIn LIe reguIur
comIng Lo be (und deveIopmenL) oI LIe orgunIsms we see In LIe worId, we
musL posLuIuLe u prIncIpIe oI growLI und reproducLIon wIIcI Is deLermIned
Lowurds u specIIIc end, I.e. LIe muLure Iorm oI LIe orgunIsm. And LIIs Is
precIseIy wIuL ArIsLoLIe cIuIms Ior c:,, In IIs docLrIne: u prIncIpIe oI mo-
LIon In subsLunces, wIIcI Ieuds LIem Lo deveIop, ucL und reproduce In vIew
oI ucIIevIng und muInLuInIng LIeIr muLure Iorm or coo,. InuIIy, we muy
noLe LIuL LIe ArIsLoLeIIun docLrIne oI poLency und ucL excIudes LIe possIbII-
ILy Ior u sysLem Lo come Lo be IrequenLIy (I.e. eILIer uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL
purL) Irom ILs correspondIng muLLer, unIess u poLency Ior LIuL 'sysLem` (I.e.
u c:,) Is presenL In LIuL muLLer In poLency. TIIs meuns LIuL LIe Empedo-
cIeun LIeory, wIIcI posLuIuLes reguIur comIng-Lo-be oI orgunIsms despILe
LIeIr IuckIng uny proper c:,, IuIIs vIcLIm Lo u IundumenLuI ImpossIbIIILy.
n LIe second secLIon oI LIIs cIupLer, dIscussed LIe exLensIve puruI-
IeIIsm LIuL ArIsLoLIe deveIoped beLween -_ip und c:,. n so doIng, Ie
demonsLruLes Lwo LIIngs. IrsL, Ie sIows LIuL LIe monsLers LIuL Empe-
docIes posLuIuLes cun onIy come Lo be us LIe resuIL oI u 'mIsLuke` In LIe
deveIopmenL oI u beIng wILI u c:,. WIIIe IL Is conceIvubIe (LIougI onIy
bureIy so) LIuL 'mun-Iuced oxen-progeny` mIgIL Iuve come ubouL LIrougI
LIe greuL InILIuI cosmIc comIng-Loge-LIer InLo LIe One, under LIe ImpuIse
oI ove, LIese beIngs couId never reproduce us sucI, were LIey Lo Iuck u
c:, und be LIe resuIL sLrIcLIy oI -_p. SucI reproducLIon requIres u po-
Lency Ior LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u deLermIned Iorm, I.e. u c:,.
zqq
Chcpter (. The Aruments jor Ncturcl Iinclit
SecondIy, Ie Ius demonsLruLed LIuL end-dIrecLedness Is noL necessur-
IIy u pIenomenon requIrIng reuson. TIere Is u sense oI cicx -oo wIIcI
reIers Lo un end-dIrecLedness embedded In LIe poLency-ucL sLrucLure oI re-
uIILy, sInce uII poLency Is u poLency to someLIIng, und Indeed 'desIres` ILs
ucLuuIIzuLIon us LIuL someLIIng. DeIIberuLIon cun cIoose ends, buL nuLuruI
ucLIvILy or moLIon does noL requIre LIIs deIIberuLIon, Ior IL Is sImpIy LIe re-
uIIzuLIonoI u poLency quc LIuL poLency. TIus, Iur IromIL beIng LIe cuse LIuL
end-dIrecLedness requIres deIIberuLIon, we see LIuL deIIberuLIon InvoIves u
specIuI cuse oI poLencIes, I.e. ruLIonuI poLencIes, wIIcI requIre deIIberu-
LIon und cIoIce precIseIy becuuse LIey ure open Lo opposILes. rruLIonuI
poLencIes, beIng deLermIned Lo one ucLuuIILy, do noL requIre deIIberuLIon
or cIoIce, buL ure equuIIy end-dIrecLed.
nLIe LIIrd secLIonoI LIIs cIupLer, uddressed u poLenLIuI dIIIIcuILy LIuL
wus noL expressIy deveIoped by ArIsLoLIe In IIs LreuLmenL oI LIese Issues In
LIe work uL Iund, buL wIIcI IInd soIuLIons In LIe IIgIL oI oLIer uspecLs oI
ArIsLoLIe`s overuII pIIIosopIy. n purLIcuIur, Iuve oIIered un expIunuLIon
Ior Iow LIere cun be Iurger purposes In orguns or purLs oI orgunIsms, de-
spILe LIe IucL LIuL LIe poLencIes LIuL cuuse LIese purLs Lo deveIop (e.g. LIe
LeeLI Irom LIe juw) need noL InvoIve reIerence Lo LIese Iurger purposes.
InuIIy, In LIe cIupLer`s IusL secLIon, dIscussed LIe coroIIury Issue oI
wIeLIer or noL ArIsLoLIe`s LeIeoIogIcuI LIeory Is mereIy u LIeory oI opLImuI
scIenLIIIc descrIpLIon (us IeId by SorubjI, Nussbuum und WIeIund), wIere
LIe 'reuI` comIng Lo be oI orgunIsms remuIns expIuInubIe by pureIy muLerIuI
processes (I.e. Is reducIbIe Lo LIe ucLIvILy und InLerucLIon oI LIe mosL bu-
sIc muLerIuI buIIdIng bIocks). concIuded LIuL NussbuumIn purLIcuIur Iud
zo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
deveIoped un uLLrucLIve urgumenL Ior vIewIng ArIsLoLIe`s LeIeoIogy us 'us II,`
provIdIng onIy eIegunce und expIunuLory power, und noL u descrIpLIon oI u
reuI end-orIenLed cuusuI process. NoneLIeIess, Nussbuum`s LIeory, Iow-
ever, IuIIs Lo Luke InLo uccounL wIuL ArIsLoLIe Is ucLuuIIy LryIng Lo sIow In
Phsics .8 und oLIer LexLs, wIIcI Is LIuL In gouI-dIrecLed orgunIc deveIop-
menL, LIere Is u sIngIe IrreducIbIe poLency wIIcI Is ucLuuIIzed Lo generuLe
LIe muLure beIng, und LIuL no expIunuLIon pureIy In Lerms oI LIe muLerIuI
prIncIpIes oI LIe oc:oyo: Is cupubIe oI expIuInIng LIe generuLIon oI or-
gunIsms. L Is precIseIy ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL LIuL wIuL LIe oc:oyo: ure
IuckIng Is LIe cuusuLIve noLIon oI Iorm, In ILs roIe us IInuI cuuse oI deveIop-
menL.
z1
g. Aristotle's Comprehensive Argoment Ior Higher
1c:,
n LIIs cIupLer, wIII unILe LIe vurIous sLrunds oI ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLu-
LIon LIuL Iuve presenLed In eurIIer cIupLers,
1
In order Lo presenL u IoIIsLIc
vIew oI IIs compreIensIve urgumenL Ior LIe exIsLence oI 'IIgIer c:,,` I.e.
LIe kInds oI c:, wIIcI ure LIe source oI beIng Ior nuLuruI subsLunces oI
greuLer compIexILy LIun LIe 'sImpIe nuLures` or eIemenLs. n LIe IIrsL sec-
LIon, wIII summurIze Iow ArIsLoLIe eIImInuLes LIe vurIous obsLucIes Lo IIs
pIysIcuI LIeory, sIowIng Iow Ie reIuLes LIe erroneous unuIyses proposed
by LIe oc:oyo:. n LIe second secLIon, presenL LIe vurIous posILIve ur-
gumenLs LIuL ArIsLoLIe mukes Lo prove LIuL LIe posLuIuLIon oI IIgIer c:,
Is necessury In order Lo expIuIn LIe pIenomenu under InvesLIguLIon. con-
cIude LIe cIupLer wILIu sIorL summury oI wIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius demonsLruLed
LIrougI IIs urgumenLuLIon.
g.1 TheeliminutionoI theobstucles prodocedby erroneoos the-
ories oI nutore
n LIIs secLIon, wIII presenL ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs uguInsL LIe LIeorIes
oI nuLure oIIeredby LIe oc:oyo: InsucIu wuy us LoprovIde unorderedur-
1
n LIIs cIupLer, due Lo ILs summury und synLIeLIc cIurucLer, wIII omIL reIerences
Lo LexLs oI ArIsLoLIe und oLIer uuLIors In LIose cuses wIere Iuve uIreudy dIscussed LIe
Issues und presenLed LIe upproprIuLe LexLuuI cILuLIons In eurIIer cIupLers.
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
gumenL LIuL eIImInuLes LIe buses needed by LIe Greek muLerIuIIsLs In order
Lo susLuIn LIeIr LIeorIes. We Iuve uIreudy encounLered LIese urgumenLs In
eurIIer cIupLers, buL deveIop Iere u sysLemuLIc presenLuLIon.
z
g.1.1 The moltiplicity oI being
suggesL LIuL LIe deepesL busIs Ior ArIsLoLIe`s reIuLuLIonoI LIe oc:oyo:
Is Iound In IIs meLupIysIcs, IIs sLudy oI wIuL IL meuns Lo 'be.` WIIIe mucI
oI LIe LermInoIogy reIuLed Lo LIe sLudy oI beIng, I.e. i und cic: In LIeIr
LecInIcuI senses, wus deveIoped by LIe Pre-SocruLIcs, LIere noneLIeIess
reIgned u deep conIusIon umong LIe oc:oyo: ubouL Iow Lo use LIe Lerm
'beIng` In u wuy LIuL corresponds Lo reuIILy. Among LIeIr predecessors, Pur-
menIdes uLLempLed Lo soIve LIe 'probIem oI beIng` by rIgorousIy reducIng
LIe sense oI i undcic: Lo reIer Lo 'LIuL wIIcIIs necessurIIy wIuL IL Is,` uL LIe
cosL oI enLIreIy denyIng uny reuIILy Lo LIe cIeur pIenomenon oI cIunge. TIe
HerucIILeuns, on LIe oLIer Iund, moved In LIe oLIer dIrecLIon, denyIng uII
sLubIIILy und IdenLILy In LIe worId, oLIer LIun LIuL Iound In LIe 'yo,.` BoLI
upproucIes mude u genuIne sLudy oI LIe pIysIcuI worId ImpossIbIe, sInce
LIe worId In wIIcI we IIve Is IundumenLuIIy cIurucLerIzed by boLI sLubIIILy
und cIunge. TIe IuLer oc:oyo:, Impressed by LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL
Ior beIng us necessury seII-IdenLILy, uLLempLed Lo reconcIIe LIe undenIubIe
z
NeurIy uII oI LIese urgumenLs Iuve been mude expIIcILIy by LIe SLugIrILe In one or
unoLIer oI IIs works, buL LIere Is u dIsLIncL udvunLuge Lo presenLIng LIem In u sysLemuLIc
munner. n purLIcuIur, recenL InLerpreLuLIons oI ArIsLoLIe`s pIysIcuI LIeory (purLIcuIurIy In
LIe EngIIsI Iunguuge) Lend Lo InLerpreL ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs us LIougI IIs nuLuruI pIIIos-
opIy were sepuruLe Irom und IndependenL oI IIs meLupIysIcs. TIe sysLemuLIc presenLu-
LIon propose Iere Ius LIe InLenLIonoI IIgIIIgILIng LIe deepdependence oI IIs urgumenLs
uguInsL LIe oc:oyo: on IIs meLupIysIcuI docLrIne.
z
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
pIenomenon oI cIunge wILI LIe (uppurenLIy) equuIIy undenIubIe Immo-
bIIILy oI beIng by proposIng vurIous kInds oI uncIungeubIe 'eIemenLs,` Lo
wIIcI uII pIysIcuI reuIILy Is uILImuLeIy reduced.
AIundumenLuI probIemurose IromLIe posILIonLukenby LIe oc:oyo:.
By udmILLIng cIunge, LIey ImpIIcILIy udmILLedLIuL LIe sense oI 'beIng` couId
noL be IImILed Lo LIe PurmenIdeun sense oI 'necessury seII-IdenLILy` de-
Iended In PurmenIdes`s Wuy oI TruLI. ArIsLoLIe convIncIngIy sIows LIuL
i und cic: ure used In muILIpIe senses reIuLed np, ci Lo LIe cenLruI sense
oI 'beIng,` wIIcI Is LIe 'occ np-oi,` I.e. seII-subsIsLenL IndIvIduuI beIng
wIIcI Is IosL Lo LIe uccIdenLuI 'cuLegorIes` oI beIng. TIe LIeorIes oI LIe
oc:oyo: provIde ubundunL evIdence Ior LIeIr need Lo udmIL LIe cuLego-
rIuI muILIpIIcILy oI beIng, sInce LIeIr LIeorIes reIy ImpIIcILIy on LIe 'beIng`
oI quunLILy, quuIILy, IocuLIon und ucLIonJpussIon. Even PurmenIdes IIm-
seII Iound IImseII In need oI muILIpIe senses oI beIng In order Lo conIronL
LIe IucL oI experIenced cIunge: uILIougI Ie IdenLIIIed LIe 'coId` or 'eurLIen`
prIncIpIe wILI non-beIng, IL sLIII remuIned necessury Ior LIIs prIncIpIe Lo be
posLuIuLed, und In some sense Lo 'be.`
ur IrombeIng unIssue oI mInor ImporLunce, wIIcILIe oc:oyo: mIgIL
udmIL wILIouL dumuge Lo LIeIr LIeorIes, LIe cuLegorIuI unuIysIs oI beIng
ImpIIes u deep uLLuck on LIe very IounduLIons oI LIeIr proposuIs. or LIe
Pre-SocruLIc muLerIuIIsLs wILI wIom ArIsLoLIe Is In dIuIogue, In purLIcu-
Iur EmpedocIes, Anuxugorus und LIe ALomIsLs, eucIppus und DemocrILus,
posLuIuLed LIeIr eLernuI muLerIuI p_c (vurIousIy Lermed 'rooLs,` 'uLoms` or
'seeds`) precIseIy us u wuy Lo InLegruLe uncIungeubIe PurmenIdeun beIng
wILIIn u Irumework LIuL udmILs cIunge. I beIng Is unIvocuI, und beIng
zq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
meuns wIuL PurmenIdes suys IL does, LIen In u cIungIng worId LIere must
be eLernuI, uncIungIng p_c wIIcI LruIy cre; uII eIse, In purLIcuIur LIe up-
purenLIy reuI beIngs oI our experIence, wIII be 'non-beIngs` In u rIgorous
unuIysIs.
Iuve urgued LIuL LIe seemIngIy unuvoIdubIe concIusIon oI LIe Pur-
menIdeun urgumenL guve LIe pre-MeIIssun oc:oyo: wIuL uppeured Lo be
u necessury busIs Ior LIeIr proposuI oI eLernuI 'eIemenLs`; II LIIs Is Lrue, und
II LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL Is unLenubIe Irom LIe begInnIng, LIen LIe
vurIous LIeorIes oI LIese oc:oyo: wIII Iuck u suIIIcIenL jusLIIIcuLIon Ior
LIe cenLruI cIuImoI LIeIr LIeorIes: LIuL LIe Lrue p_c oI LIe muLerIuI worId,
Iowever LIey ure cIurucLerIzed, ure eLernuI und uncIungeubIe und uncom-
bInubIe, und LIuL LIereIore uny cIuImoI Lrue comIng-Lo-be uL u IIgIer IeveI
Is IIIusory. urLIer, we Iuve un escupe Irom LIe HerucIILeun posILIon, Ior
we Iuve dIscovered Iow sLubIIILy cun coexIsL wILI cIunge: LIuL wIIcI Is
sLubIe Is LIe occ, ubIe Lo cIunge IrombeIng In one wuy Lo beIng In unoLIer
wuy wILIIn one or unoLIer oI LIe cuLegorIes, wILIouL ceusIng Lo be wIuL IL
Is.
TIe underIyIng mIsLuke mude by PurmenIdes, wIIcI IIILered down Lo
IIs IoIIowers umong LIe oc:oyo:, Is exposedby ArIsLoLIe LIrougIIIs unuI-
ysIs oI unoLIer puIr oI reIuLed senses oI 'beIng.` WIIIe LIe cuLegorIuI senses
oI beIng ure eusIIy derIvubIe vIu u IogIcuI unuIysIs oI predIcuLIon-wIIcI
ArIsLoLIe currIed ouL In IIs eurIy work, LIe Ccteories-oLIer senses oI i
und cic: ure Iess eusIIy dIscernIbIe. n purLIcuIur, LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween
'noeLIc` beIng (or LIe 'beIng oI LruLI,` us ArIsLoLIe puLs IL) und beIng us reuI Is
eusIIy overIooked, us PurmenIdes demonsLruLed wIen Ie suId - yp c-
z
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
ioci cc-i -c xc cic:.

NeverLIeIess, LIere ure ImporLunL dIIIerences be-


Lween LIe 'beIng` wIIcI Is suId oI noeLIc enLILIes, In purLIcuIur concepLs, und
LIe 'beIng` suId oI LIe genuIneIy reuI. 'BeIng` uL LIe concepLuuI-noeLIc IeveI,
Is cIurucLerIzed by precIseIy LIe noLes LIuL PurmenIdes brougIL Lo IIgIL In
IIs unuIysIs oI 'IL Is`: ubsoIuLeIy necessury seII-IdenLILy, ImmobIIILy, excIu-
sIon oI oLIerness, perIecLIon, unILy. To be 'unImuI` uL LIe noeLIc-concepLuuI
IeveI Is ubsoIuLeIy uncIungeubIe, Ior II we LIInk 'unImuI` we musL necessur-
IIy und eLernuIIy LIInk LIe sume LIIng, or eIse we ure noL LIInkIng 'unImuI.`
NeverLIeIess, our knowIedge oI LIe worId Is noL IImILed Lo LIuL wIIcI
we know noeLIcuIIy-concepLuuIIy. L Is LIe PrIncIpIe oI Non-ConLrudIcLIon
(PNC), oI wIIcI we Iuve un ImmedIuLe grusp us u IIrsL prIncIpIe boLI oI
beIng und oI knowIedge, wIIcI gIves us uccess Lo knowIedge oI LIe worId.
or InsoIur us LIe PNC ImpIIes LIuL u gIven subjecL cunnoL boLI be und noL
be In u purLIcuIur munner, In LIe sume respecL und uL LIe sume LIme, IL
gIves us knowIedge LIuL LIe subjecL Is open Lo opposILes, uIbeIL noL sImuI-
LuneousIy. Hence, IL gIves us knowIedge oI LIe muLerIuI, und knowIedge oI
cIunge. BuL, sInce LIe buse oI uII knowIedge Is LIe PNC, we know LIuL LIe
presence oI u gIven essence In u subjecL excIudes uII opposILes (uguIn, In
LIe sume respecL und uL LIe sume LIme). Hence, LIe concepL, by meuns oI
wIIcI we knowLIe essence oI u gIven LIIng, Is seII-IdenLIcuI, ImmobIIe und
excIusIve oI oLIerness. I beIng Is consIdered noL us u copuIu In u judgmenL,
buL us u concepLuuIIzed, sepuruLed essence, us PurmenIdes does, LIen be-
Ing becomes concepLuuIIzed und essenLIuIIzed, und Is mude ImmobIIe, seII-
IdenLIcuI, excIusIve oI oLIerness, unILury und perIecL, us LIe concepL Is, buL

DKz8B.
z6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
noL reuI beIng. BuL beIng Is noL mosL LruLIIuIIy consIdered us u concepL,
buL ruLIer us u judgmenL, us ArIsLoLIe IndIcuLes wIen Ie descrIbes noeLIc
beIng us 'beIng-us-LruLI.`
ArIsLoLIe`s dIscovery oI LIe reIuLIonsIIp beLween LIe reuI und noeLIc-
concepLuuI senses oI beIng Ius severuI ImporLunL resuILs. n LIe IIrsL pIuce,
we see LIuL LIe PurmenIdeun InsIsLence on LIe unIversuI ImmobIIILy oI be-
Ing Is LIe resuIL oI un IIIegILImuLe LrunsIerruI oI LIe cIurucLerIsLIcs oI noeLIc-
concepLuuI beIng Lo reuIILy. urgue LIuL LIe pre-MeIIssun oc:oyo:, Ior
LIeIr purL, Iose LIeIr wurrunL Ior posLuIuLIng eLernuI, uncIungeubIe eIe-
menLs, sInce LIIs posLuIuLe wus precIseIy u response Lo LIe uppurenLIy Ir-
reIuLubIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL uguInsL cIunge. TIIs Is u resuIL oI up-
pIyIng LIe necessury unuIysIs In Lerms oI cuLegorIuI beIng Lo LIeIr LIeo-
rIes; Iowever, ArIsLoLIe`s IdenLIIIcuLIon oI LIe dIIIerences beLween noeLIc
und reuI beIng uIso evIsceruLes LIe ubIIILy oI LIese oc:oyo: Lo neguLe sub-
sLunLIuI cIunge.
q
or II 'Lo be` does noL ImpIy 'necessury und eLernuI seII-
IdenLILy` In LIe reuIm oI LIe reuI, LIen we ure jusLIIIed In posLuIuLIng LIuL
genuIne cIunge cunuIsooccur umongsL LIose LIIngs wIIcI'LruIy ure` umongsL
LIose LIIngs wIIcI ure suId Lo be reuI (provIded LIuL LIe duLu requIre LIuL
we posLuIuLe sucI genuIne cIunge In u gIven cuse).
q
DemocrILus`s urgumenL, us Iuve sLuLed (p. q, n. 86), Is noL uIIecLed by LIe IIuw
In LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL; ruLIer, ArIsLoLIe unswers DemocrILus`s muLIemuLIcuIIy-
bused urgumenL wILI unoLIer bused on muLIemuLIcuI prIncIpIes.
z;
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
g.1. The p_c oI mobile being
HuvIng provIded jusLIIIcuLIon Ior IoIdIng LIuL LIe PurmenIdeun negu-
LIon oI cIunge Is bused on IuIse ussumpLIons, ArIsLoLIe now Ius LIe posI-
LIve cIuIIenge oI expIuInIng Iow Lo muke cIunge und sLubIIILy compuLIbIe
In LIe reuI worId sLudIed by LIe nuLuruI pIIIosopIers. TIIs Is precIseIy LIe
cIuIIenge LIuL Ie Lukes up In LIe Phsics, In purLIcuIur In Book , wILI LIe
ussIsLunce oI u LIIrd seL oI 'senses oI beIng,` I.e. beIng us poLency und beIng
us ucL, wIIcI Ie expIuIns In IIs Metcphsics.
n uddILIon Lo LIe senses oI beIng LIuL Iuve IndIcuLed up Lo now, ArIs-
LoLIe noLes LIuL someLIIng cun be suId Lo be (or be suId Lo be u beIng) eILIer
In poLency or In ucL. Once we udmIL LIe reuIILy oI cIunge, us musL be done
In order Lo sLudy LIe pIysIcuI worId, we Iuve Lo udmIL LIuL LIere Is more Lo
beIng LIun beIng 'ucLuuIIy.` AcL or ucLuuIILy Is wIuL we reIer Lo wIen we suy
LIuL u beIng exIsLs: IL IndIcuLes u IuII reuIILy, u kInd oI 'doIng` LIuL mukes u
LIIng Lo be wIuL IL Is. L Is u deLermInuLIon und u perIecLIon, wIIcI mukes
IL possIbIe Ior our InLeIIecLs Lo know IL, und In u sense we cun suy LIuL uII
LIuL Is, Is In ucL, InsoIur us noLIIng cun exIsL wILIouL beIng ucLuuI.
NeverLIeIess, LIIs Is noL LIe IuII sLory. Were LIe cosmos ImmobIIe, ucLu-
uIILy wouId be LIe onIy one oI LIIs puIr oI senses oI beIng wIIcI Is necessury
Lo posLuIuLe. And Indeed, LIe SLugIrILe Iud encounLered u group oI pIIIoso-
pIers wIIIIng Lo usserL LIuL 'beIng In ucL` Is LIe onl sucI sense oI beIng. TIe
posILIon IeId by LIe MegurIc scIooI oI pIIIosopIers serves us u 'sLruwmun`
Ior IIs urgumenL In Iuvor oI beIng us poLency und ucL. He noLes LIuL II we
deny LIe dIIIerence beLween poLency und ucL, we Iose our ubIIILy Lo escupe
z8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIe PurmenIdeun Lrup, und LIus we ure no Ionger expIuInIng LIe pIysIcuI
worId. ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL LIe MegurIc docLrIne cuuses u IurLIer probIem
Ior u scIenLIIIc expIunuLIon oI LIe worId. DenIuI oI LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween
poLency und ucL mukes IL ImpossIbIe Lo ite c ccuse jor LIe cIunges we In
IucL observe, und we musL posIL cIunge In sucI u wuy us Lo vIoIuLe cuusuIILy,
u vIoIuLIon LIuL eIImInuLes LIe scIenLIIIc nuLure oI pIysIcuI InquIry, wIIcI
Is precIseIy bused on gIvIng expIunuLIons In Lerms oI cuuses.
TIus, LIere musL be u sense oI 'beIng` wIIcI reIers Lo LIe poLenLIuI us-
pecL oI LIe reuI. WIIIe onIy LIuL wIIcI Is In ucL cun exIsL (np_c:i), LIere
'ure` cupucILIes Lo be wIIcI ure IosLed by LIe beIng In ucLuuIILy. TIe mun is
sILLIng In ucL, buL Ie ccn geL up, und Indeed does so uL some poInL. TIIs us-
pecL oI LIe reuI Is IndIcuLedby LIe moduI verbs, sucIus 'cunJcouId,` 'muyJmIgIL`
und'sIuIIJsIouId.` L Ius Lo be udmILLedus genuIne, despILe LIe IucL LIuL po-
Lency us sucI Is noL dIrecLIy knowubIe, sInce IL Is undeLermIned und Indeed
In some wuys InIInILe.
A IIrsL uppIIcuLIon oI LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween poLency und ucL Is ArIs-
LoLIe`s derIvuLIon oI LIe IormuI und muLerIuI 'purLs` oI mobIIe beIng. TIe
deveIopmenL oI LIe scIence oI 'pIysIcs` (LIuL bruncI oI pIIIosopIy deuIIng
wILI mobIIe beIng quc mobIIe) musL proceed LIrougI LIe deveIopmenL oI
udequuLe noLIons wIIcI LruLIIuIIy descrIbe reuIILy subjecL Lo cIunge. WIen
we sLudy u beIng LIuL Is ubIe Lo cIunge under some uccounL, despILe remuIn-
Ing LIe sume under ILs deIInILIon, we cun IdenLIIy boLI un uspecL wIIcI Is
deLermInuLe, und un uspecL LIuL Is IndeLermInuLe buL open Lo deLermInu-
LIon. TIese Lwo uspecLs, Lermed coo, und by ArIsLoLIe, correspond Lo
LIe ucLuuI und poLenLIuI uspecLs oI LIe mobIIe beIng. TIe coo,, us deLer-
zq
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
mInIng ucL oI LIe beIng, gIves IL ILs 'wIuLness` (- - i cic:) und 'Isness`
(np_c:i); LIe , us poLenLIuI prIncIpIe, IndIcuLes LIe cupucILy Lo 'be oLIer
LIun` IL Is In ucL.
TIIs unuIysIs Is necessurIIy uppIIcubIe Lo LIe enLILIes posLuIuLed by LIe
oc:oyo:: wIuLever pIysIcuI p_c LIey muy posLuIuLe, II LIese p_c ure Lo
be ubIe Lo undergo cIunge uL uII, LIey musL be ucLuuIILIes wIIcI IosL poLen-
cIes Ior LIe gIven kInd oI cIunge. TIus, LIe prIncIpIes oI coo, und ure
deeper p_c even LIun LIe 'rooLs` or 'uLoms` posLuIuLed by ArIsLoLIe`s pre-
decessors. WIIIe ArIsLoLIe uccepLs u rougIIy EmpedocIeun LIeory oI Iour
busIc eIemenLs (or 'n cc-c`), even LIese musL be composed Iundu-
menLuIIy oI u IormuI prIncIpIe (LIuL wIIcIgIves eucIeIemenL ILs 'wIuLness`)
und u muLerIuI prIncIpIe (LIe 'IIrsL muLLer`) wIIcI underIIes LIe IormuI uc-
LuuIILy oI LIe gIven eIemenL, und wIIcI mukes even LIe eIemenLs open Lo
pussIng-uwuy und comIng-Lo-be.
As u resuIL oI IIs derIvuLIon oI LIe uILImuLe p_c oI mobIIe beIng, ArIs-
LoLIe Ius IdenLIIIed LIuL every sucI beIng musL be cIurucLerIzed by u IormuI
prIncIpIe wIIcI mukes IL Lo be In ucL. TIIs IormuI prIncIpIe, In Lurn, Is 'IosL`
Lo LIe muLerIuI uspecL oI LIe beIng, sInce LIe muLLer Is conLuIned 'vIrLuuIIy`
wILIIn LIe beIng us IL Is In ucL. TIus, we cun suy LIuL ArIsLoLIe Ius derIved
LIe necessILy oI u prIncIpIe wIIcI Is u source oI LIe cIunges LIuL LIe mobIIe
beIng undergoes or cuuses, und LIIs prIncIpIe Is wIuL Ie cuIIs c:,, u 'prIn-
cIpIe oI moLIon und resL In LIuL wIIcI prImurIIy exIsLs` (I.e. In subsLunces).
z6o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
g.1. The churucteristics oI c:,
TIe derIvuLIon oI c:, us LIe IormuI prIncIpIe oI mobIIe beIng Ieuds Lo
u number oI ImporLunL concIusIons wIIcI wIII be ImporLunL Ior ArIsLoLIe`s
ubIIILy Lo jusLIIy LIe exIsLence oI 'IIgIer` cc:,. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, c:, Ius
u cIose reIuLIonsIIp Lo poLency, us LIe SLugIrILe noLes by sLuLIng LIuL IL Is ci
-c-... yic: - ooic:. nsoIur us u gIven IormuI ucL oI u beIng deLermInes
LIe kInds oI cIunge LIuL LIe beIng cun undergo or cuuse, LIe IormuI ucL cun
be suId Lo be u prIncIpIe oI poLency.
TIe IdenLIIIcuLIon oI c:, us u prIncIpIe oI poLency In LIIs sense Is oI
greuL ImporLunce Ior ArIsLoLIe In IIs eIIorL Lo jusLIIy LIe exIsLence oI 'IIgIer`
c:,. L Is c:, In ILs roIe us IormuI ucL wIIcI mukes LIe muLLer oI LIe be-
Ing Lo be LIe beIng LIuL IL Is. BuL IormuI ucL, us so deIIned, need noL be
resLrIcLed Lo beIng LIe IormuI ucL oI np-p , und LIus ArIsLoLIe need noL
resLrIcL Lrue exIsLence Lo jusL LIe eIemenLs, us LIe oc:oyo: do. RuLIer,
LIe puLI Is opened Ior LIe posLuIuLIon oI cc:, wIIcI ure LIe IormuI ucLs
oI 'muLLer` wIIcI Is, IromunoLIer perspecLIve, endowed wILI ILs own c:,.
TIe cc:, oI LIe eIemenLs ure, under unoLIer descrIpLIon, Ior oLIer
cc:,, sucI us LIose oI LIe Iomoeomerous bodIes (wood, meLuIs, oIIs, IIesI
und bone). TIIs 'scuIIoIdIng` oI Iorm Is bused on IIrm meLupIysIcuI prIncI-
pIes, us weII us onLIe derIvuLIonoI LIe IundumenLuI p_c oI pIysIcuI beIng,
LIereby gIvIng ArIsLoLIe umpIe jusLIIIcuLIon Ior posILIng Lrue comIng-Lo-be
und pussIng-uwuy uL IeveIs IIgIer LIun LIe 'sImpIe bodIes.`
TIe cuLegorIuI unuIysIs oI beIng demonsLruLes LIuL LIe prImury subjecLs
oI exIsLence ure LIe occ: np-oi, LIe seII-subsIsLenL IndIvIduuIs or 'sub-
z61
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
sLunces` wIIcI ure IosL Lo LIe vurIous cuLegorIes oI uccIdenLuI beIng. TIIs
ImpIIes LIuL IL Is noL possIbIe Lo posLuIuLe unIversuI 'Iuws` oI moLIon wIIcI
do noL Iuve us LIeIr cuuse purLIcuIur exIsLenLs; 'ove` und 'SLrIIe,` II we ure
Lo IoIIowEmpedocIes In posLuIuLIng sucI unIversuI cuuses oI moLIon, musL
orIgInuLe Iromsome genuIne exIsLenL (or exIsLenLs) wIIcI cun ucL us u gen-
uIne movIng cuuse.

ArIsLoLIe IdenLIIIes un eLernuI IrsL Mover wIIcI In-


deed pIuys LIe roIe oI uILImuLe movIng cuuse oI moLIon, LIe presence oI
wIIcI Is us LIe 'IIIe oI LIe cosmos,` InsoIur us IL Is responsIbIe Ior LIe eLer-
nuI cIrcuIur moLIon oI LIe Ieuvens, und secondurIIy oI LIe moLIon presenL
In LIe subIunur reuIm. NeverLIeIess, LIe eLernuI moLIon oI LIe Ieuvens Is
noL u compIeLe cuuse oI purLIcuIur moLIons.
6
Our unIverse Is cIurucLerIzed
by beIng composed oI u muILILude oI purLIcuIur exIsLenLs, eucI oI wIIcI Is
cIurucLerIzed by cIurucLerIsLIc 'moLIons` or ucLIvILIes, und LIe posLuIuLIon
oI un uILImuLe movIng cuuse does noL expIuIn wIy eucI kInd oI exIsLenL Ius
its purLIcuIur moLIons.
To expIuIn LIIs IucL, ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory proposes very purLIcuIur kInds oI
moLIon LIuL eucI kInd oI c:, gIves Lo LIe kInd oI mobIIe beIng IL brIngs
InLo ucL. TIe 'sImpIe bodIes` or eIemenLs ure cIurucLerIzedby cerLuIn'ucLIve

VIgo noLes LIuL subsLunLIuI enLILIes composed oI Iorm und muLLer consLILuyen... Ius
enLIdudes busIcus de Ius que depende Iu exIsLencIu de Lodo Io demus, denLro deI conjunLo
de Iu reuIIdud IisIcu: nI Ios procesos nI, mucIo menos, eI LIempo pueden exIsLIr por si
mIsmos, sIno que sIo pueden IucerIo, u juIcIo de Ar., en conexIn con Ios objeLos susLun-
cIuIes, de Ios cuuIes son, de modo InmedIuLo o medIuLo, onLoIgIcumenLe dependIenLes
ArIsLLeIes y Iu IInILud exLensIve deI LIempo, p. 1qz. UnIversuI 'pIysIcuI Iuws,` II u nuL-
uruI pIIIosopIer Is Lo posLuIuLe LIeIr exIsLence, wouId Iuve Lo be sImIIurIy dependenL on
exIsLIng purLIcuIurs.
6
CI. Dn Generction cnd Corruption, 6uz-b, und uIso Meteoroloicc, q6b16-1.
n ArIsLoLIe`s cosmoIogy, LIe moLIon oI LIe sun uIong LIe ecIIpLIc Is responsIbIe Ior LIe
generuLIon und corrupLIon oI LIe eIemenLs und, IndIrecLIy, LIe cycIe oI deuLI und bIrLI
LIuL we see umong orgunIsms.
z6z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
quuIILIes` und nuLuruI moLIons: IIre, Ior InsLunce, IeuLs und moves upwurd;
eurLI, on LIe oLIer Iund, cooIs und moves downwurd.
;
SImIIurIy, oLIer
nuLuruI subsLunces Iuve LIeIr cIurucLerIsLIc moLIons: Lrees grow, Iorses
guIIop, men wuIk (und reuson, Ior reusonIng Is u kInd oI moLIon). BuL In
order Lo expIuIn LIe exIsLence oI cIurucLerIsLIc moLIons wIIcI perLuIn Lo
u gIven c:,, IL Is necessury LIuL c:, be 'pIurIpoLenL,` I.e. ubIe Lo be u
prIncIpIe oI comIng-Lo-be noL onIy wILIIn LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce, buL
uIso wILIIn LIe oLIer cuLegorIes, In purLIcuIur LIose oI quunLILy, quuIILy und
pIuce; Indeed, ArIsLoLIe Is cIeur LIuL c:, Is pIurIpoLenL In LIIs sense.
TIIs 'pIurIpoLency` oI c:, provIdes ArIsLoLIe wILI un eIegunL soIuLIon
Lo LIe LIorny Issue oI 'seII-moLIon.` WIIIe Ie Ius sIown LIuL LIe eLernuI
moLIon wIIcI Is LIe 'IIIe oI LIe cosmos` musL proceed Irom un eLernuI IrsL
Mover, und LIuL no IInILe beIng cun be u Lrue producer oI uncuused mo-
LIon, IL Is uIso LIe cuse LIuL LIe posLuIuLIon oI IIgIer cc:, requIres LIuL
LIere exIsL cIurucLerIsLIc moLIons oI LIose cc:, wIIcI ure noL reducIbIe
Lo LIe moLIons oI more busIc muLerIuI componenLs. ndeed, II LIe moLIons
cIurucLerIsLIc oI orgunIsms were enLIreIy reducIbIe Lo LIe moLIons oI LIe
'sImpIe bodIes,` LIere wouId be IILLIe poInL Lo posLuIuLIng genuIne cc:,
Ior LIose orgunIsms. TIe pIurIpoLency oI c:,, Iowever, mukes IL cIeur
LIuL LIe sume c:, wIIcI mukes, Ior InsLunce, u pIunL or unImuI Lo be, Is
uIso LIe cuuse oI LIe cIurucLerIsLIc moLIons oI LIe pIunL or unImuI In ques-
LIon. AnImuIs und pIunLs ure noL uncuused movIng cuuses, und LIus musL
;
HIgIer cc:, wIII be cIurucLerIzed by operuLIons or IucuILIes wIIcI ure IrreducIbIe
Lo LIe busIc moLIons und ucLIvILy oI LIe eIemenLuI nuLures; LIe demonsLruLIon oI LIe ex-
IsLence oI sucI IIgIer cc:, wIII depend IeuvIIy upon sIowIng LIuL LIere exIsL beIngs
wIose operuLIons ure IrreducIbIe In LIIs wuy.
z6
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
be moved In some sense In order Ior LIeIr cIurucLerIsLIc moLIons Lo come
ubouL (us ArIsLoLIe mukes cIeur In Phsics V). NeverLIeIess, LIey ure noL
moved quc LIe moLIons LIey cuuse, und In LIIs sense ure genuIne InILIuLors
oI cuusuI cIuIns, und LIus cun be LruLIIuIIy cIurucLerIzed us 'seII-movers.`
WIIIe muy be moved by un objecL oI desIre In pIckIng up u sLIck und mov-
Ing u sLone (Lo use ArIsLoLIe`s generIc exumpIe oI u cuusuI cIuIn), um noL
moved In LIe sume wuy LIuL LIe sLIck und LIe sLone ure moved, und LIere-
Iore umLruIy LIe IIrsL movIng cuuse In LIe cIuIn oI IocomoLIon LIuL resuILs
In LIe movemenL oI LIe sLone.
A worId In wIIcI LIere Is genuIne cIunge uIso requIres LIe posLuIuLIon
oI ucLIon und pussIon. TIIs Is cIeur even In LIe LIeorIes proposed by LIe
oc:oyo:; wIIIe LIey envIsIon u unIverse wIere onIy LIeIr busIc pIysIcuI
p_c genuIneIy exIsL, LIe sImpIe enLILIes LIuL LIey propose Iuve LIe cu-
pucILy oI uIIecLIng oLIer sucI enLILIes. WIeLIer In LIe cuse oI LIe 'rooLs` oI
EmpedocIes or LIe 'uLoms` oI eucIppus und DemocrILus, LIeIr cosmogo-
nIes und expIunuLIons oI LIe comIng-Lo-be und IuncLIon oI orgunIsms reIy
IeuvIIy upon LIe muLuuI InLerucLIon oI LIeIr proposed enLILIes, purLIcuIur
In LIe cuse oI IocomoLIon. BuL LIIs requIres LIe posLuIuLIon oI Lwo dIsLIncL
Lypes oI poLencIes, I.e. ucLIve und pussIve poLencIes, In order LIuL one beIng
cun 'ucL` und LIe oLIer 'reucL.` n Lurn, LIIs requIres LIe posLuIuLIon oI wIuL
Iuve Lermed LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm,` wIIcI In Lurn requIres u busIc
openness oI beIng Lo LIe 'oLIer,` In order LIuL LIere cun be Lrue InLerucLIon,
us opposed Lo mere 'occusIonuIIsm.`
8
TIe necessILy oI LIe 'communIcuLIon
8
Anuxugorus posLuIuLed io, us u IIrsL movIng cuuse Ior LIe cosmos, buL Ie wus noL un
occusIonuIIsL: boLI ArIsLoLIe und PIuLo ure cIeur LIuL LIIs pIIIosopIer dId noL use io, us
un expIunuLIon oI purLIcuIur moLIons, u Iuck wIIcI Is suId Lo Iuve dIsIIIusIoned SocruLes
z6q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
oI Iorm` uIso mukes IL cIeur LIuL c:, cun be suId Lo be u prIncIpIe oI mo-
LIon In oLIer beIngs us weII; beIngs wIIcI exIsL 'cc:` ure noL mereIy seII-
movers, buL genuIne movers oI oLIer beIngs, In uccordunce wILI LIe ucLIve
poLencIes provIded by LIeIr purLIcuIur c:,.
ArIsLoLIe IoIds LIuL LIe mujorILy oI moLIons LIuL occur In LIe subIu-
nur unIverse ure produced by IIvIng creuLures: -i yp oi ncp -i -o
oo xipc:i - co_c c-:c -, x:icco,, cc x:ic-c: n' oi o: -
npocxn-c:i o:,.
q
I IIvIng creuLures ure Lo produce LIe mujorILy oI
moLIon Iound In LIe unIverse, IL musL be possIbIe LIuL one sucI beIng cun
move unoLIer.
1o
CommunIcuLIon oI Iorm, In ArIsLoLIe`s unuIysIs, Is Iun-
dumenLuIIy un ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u poLency presenL In LIe puLIenL, under LIe
InIIuence oI LIe ugenL. Becuuse LIe ugenL Is uIreudy In ucL under LIe uc-
counL In quesLIon, LIe ugenL Is noL suId Lo be moved ILseII; ruLIer, cc-i
xipc:, ci - x:ip-.
11
L Is Ior LIIs reuson LIuL u nuLuruI subsLunce cun be
un c- c- x:ioi wIIcI sLunds uL LIe Ieud oI u cuusuI cIuIn: LIe mover,
InsoIur us IL moves, Is noL moved. n Dn Generction cnd Corruption, Ie
does seL ouL some preIImInury condILIons Ior LIe communIcuLIon oI Iorm,
numeIy LIuL LIe mover und LIe moved be In conLucL, LIuL LIey be In ucL
und poLency In LIe sume 'genus` (I.e. cuLegory), und LIuL wILIIn LIuL genus
LIey be opposILes. GIven LIese condILIons, IL Is 'necessury` LIuL LIe ugenL
ucL und LIe puLIenL suIIer. TIe quesLIon, LIen, oI wIy Lwo uuLonomous be-
Ings, eucI oI wIIcI Is beIng wIuL IL Is LIrougI ILs own IormuI ucL, sIouId be
wILI Anuxugorus. CI. PIuLo, Phcedo, q;b.
q
Dn the Motion oj Animcls, ;oobo-1.
1o
dIscussed LIe Issue oI wIuL Iuve cuIIed LIe 'communIcuLIon oI Iorm` In CIupLers z
und .
11
Phsics, zozu1.
z6
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
open Lo cIungIng eucI oLIer, comes down Lo LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI (respec-
LIveIy) ucLIve und pussIve poLencIes presenL In LIe Lwo beIngs wIIcI uIIecL
one unoLIer, In LIe conLexL oI conLucL.
ConLucL Is LIe key Lo LIe mysLery oI LIe communIcuLIon oI Iorm, wIIcI
In Lurn uIIows ArIsLoLIe Lo susLuIn IIs vIew oI u worId oI IndependenL sub-
sLunces wIIcI ure noneLIeIess In consLunL InLerucLIon. ConLucL provIdes
LIe necessury (und under LIe rIgIL cIrcumsLunces, suIIIcIenL) condILIons
Ior one sucI IndependenL beIng Lo uIIecL unoLIer, becuuse IL removes uny
exLernuI ImpedImenL LIuL LIere mIgIL Iuve been Lo LIe ucLIon und pussIon.
n ArIsLoLIe`s vIew, ucLIon und pussIon occurs beLween wIoIe beIngs; IL Is
noL reducIbIe Lo InLerucLIon beLween LIe purLs pIysIcuIIy In conLucL. TIIs
Is wIuL mukes IL possIbIe Lo suy LIuL beIngs wIIcI ure cc: LruIy intercct
wILI oLIer beIngs In LIeIr envIronmenL, und LIuL seII-movers sLund uL LIe
Ieud oI cuusuI cIuIns: LIIngs move und ure moved quc LIe kInds oI beIngs
LIuL LIey ure, und LIus LIe kInds oI poLency LIey possess.
A IInuI, und very ImporLunL, cIurucLerIsLIc oI c:, Is ILs InIerenL end-
dIrecLedness. PoLency Is noL ubsoIuLe IndeLermInuLIon; ruLIer, LIe poLen-
cIes exIIbILed by u gIven kInd oI beIng ure boLI IImILed und cuused by LIe
c:, LIuL mukes LIuL kInd oI beIng Lo be. WIIIe 'prIme muLLer` Is, In u
cerLuIn sense, un ubsoIuLe IndeLermInucy, IL Is poLency onIy Ior generuLIng
LIe 'sImpIe bodIes.` PrIme muLLer Is noL suId Lo be 'In poLency` Lo be, Ior In-
sLunce, u sLuLue oI Hermes. RuLIer, IL Is LIe Iomoeomerous subsLunce oI
bronze wIIcI Is suId Lo poLenLIuIIy 'conLuIn` LIe Hermes; sImIIurIy, 'eurLI`
Is noL suId Lo be dIrecLIy In poLency Lo be u bow, buL ruLIer IL Is wood LIuL
Is In poLency Lo be u bow. TIIs 'IImILuLIon` oI poLency uIso Is LIe source
z66
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
oI LIe end-dIrecLedness oI c:,. or InsoIur us LIe IormuI ucL deLermInes
ILs muLLer Lo be some purLIcuIur kInd oI beIng, IL uIso deLermInes LIe re-
suILIng poLencIes Lo cerLuIn ends. TIe 'sImpIe bodIes` ure In poLency noL In
uny generIc sense, buL Iuve us 'ends` cerLuIn purLIcuIur kInds oI ucLIvILy, I.e.
beIng In LIeIr nuLuruI pIuces, und exercIsIng LIeIr ucLIve quuIILIes. TIus,
c:, Is cicx -oo, In LIe sense oI beIng dIrecLed Lowurds concreLe kInds oI
ucLIvILy und concreLe kInds oI reucLIvILy. nsoIur us IIgIer c:, provIdes
IrreducIbIe 'IIgIer` poLencIes Ior ucLIon und pussIon, IL wIII uIso provIde
IIgIer end-dIrecLedness, correspondIng Lo LIe purLIcuIur ucLIvILIes wIIcI
correspond Lo ILs ucLIve und pussIve poLencIes.
g. The cuse Ior the existence oI higher c:,
We ure now In u posILIon Lo Iook uL ArIsLoLIe`s posILIve prooIs Ior LIe
exIsLence oI IIgIer c:,. WIIIe muny modern commenLuLors on ArIsLo-
LIe uLLempL Lo InLerpreL IIs urgumenLs In u munner LIuL prescInds Irom LIe
brouder conLexL oI IIs pIysIcuI und meLupIysIcuI docLrInes, beIIeve Iuve
sIown LIuL LIese docLrInes provIde umpIe jusLIIIcuLIon Ior sIowIng LIuL IIs
posILIve prooIs In LIIs regurd resL upon soIId grounds, wIIcI muke LIe con-
cIusIons LIuL Ie druws mucI more pIuusIbIe.
Iuve dIvIded LIIs secLIon InLo LIree subsecLIons. TIe IIrsL subsecLIon
wIII Iook uL LIe ImpIIcuLIons Ior LIIs LIesIs oI ArIsLoLIe`s decIuruLIon-In
Phsics .1-LIuL uny uLLempL Lo demonsLruLe LIe exIsLence oI c:, Is u
rIdIcuIous endeuvor. TIe second subsecLIon wIII dIscuss LIe vurIous ur-
gumenLs LIuL Iuve Iound In ArIsLoLIe`s LexLs wIIcI Iuve us LIeIr gouI LIe
z6;
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
demonsLruLIon oI IIgIer cc:, IrreducIbIe Lo mere congIomeruLIons oI mu-
LerIuI p_c. TIe IInuI subsecLIon wIII uddress ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs Ior LIe
exIsLence oI IIgIer poLencIes or powers wIIcI cunnoL be expIuIned excepL
by udducIng LIe exIsLence oI IIgIer Lypes oI c:, wIIcI ure LIeIr IosLs.
WILIIn eucI secLIon, LIe urgumenLs wIII be ordered Irom greuLer Lo Iesser
ImporLunce.
g..1 emonstruting the existence oI c:, us 'ycooi'
PrIor Lo emburkIng on LIe dIscussIon oI ArIsLoLIe`s posILIve prooIs, IL Is
necessury Lo uddress LIe IucL LIuL ArIsLoLIe cIeurIy demonsLruLed u dIsduIn
Ior 'provIng` LIe exIsLence oI c:,.
1z
He compures sucI un uLLempL Lo LIe
sLruggIes oI LIe bIInd mun Lo syIIogIze ubouL coIors: LIe IucL LIuL someone
wouId uLLempL Lo 'demonsLruLe` wIuL Is obvIous by meuns oI wIuL Is Iess
obvIous Is u cIeur IndIcuLIon oI u IuIIure Lo undersLund LIe very LIIng be-
Ing dIscussed.
1
WIy dId ArIsLoLIe vIew uLLempLs Lo 'prove` LIe exIsLence
oI c:, In sucI u IursI IIgIL, und Iow does IIs sLuLed opInIon uIIecL LIe
projecL um curryIng ouL In LIIs sLudy?
TIere ure u number oI possIbIe reusons Ior LIe IucL LIuL ArIsLoLIe ex-
pressed IImseII In sucI u neguLIve wuy concernIng LIe uLLempL Lo prove
LIe exIsLence oI c:,. A IIrsL sucI reuson derIves Irom LIe IucL LIuL ArIsLo-
LIe`s survIvIng wrILIngs ure uII 'esoLerIc,` wrILLen Ior members oI ArIsLoLIe`s
1z
, o cc-:i c:,, nc:pc0c: oc:xiic: ycooi, Phsics, 1qu.
1
cicpi yp -: -o:c-c -i i-oi cc-i no. - oc oc:xiic: - cicp o: -i cii o
ooicioo xp/ic:i cc- - o: c- xc o: c- yip:oi |-: o cio_c-c: -o-o nc_c:i, ox opoi
cooy/cc:-o yp i -:, cx ycic-, i -o, ncp _po-oi, c-c iyxp -o, -o:o-o:, ncp -i
io-oi cic: -i yoi, ioci oc poi, Phsics, 1qu-q.
z68
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
own pIIIosopIIcuI cIrcIe.
1q
HIs InLended uudIence wouId Iuve been IumII-
Iur wILILIe urgumenLs Iuve dIscussed InLIe prevIous secLIonoI LIIs cIup-
Ler, und LIus IL wouId Iuve been ImmedIuLeIy obvIous LIuL u IormuI prIncI-
pIe oI moLIon und resL wus u necessury posLuIuLe Ior u suLIsIucLory pIysIcuI
scIence. Asecond reuson Is LIuL IL Is cIeur Irommere observuLIon LIuL LIere
ure beIngs wIIcI Iuve wILIIn LIemseIves u prIncIpIe oI moLIon und resL, us
ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL. L Is LIIs 'pIenomenuI` observuLIon oI mobIIe beIngs
LIuL LIe oc:oyo: reIy upon us LIe busIc duLu Ior LIeIr reducLIonIsL LIeo-
rIes, und LIus IL Is u seII-deIeuLIng muneuver Lo neguLe LIe very duLu LIuL
permIL LIe deveIopmenL oI LIe scIence LIey ure pursuIng.
AII oI LIIs beIng LIe cuse, wIuL purpose Is LIere Ior u projecL sucI us LIuL
wIIcI curry ouL In LIIs sLudy? s IL noL, uL IeusL, cIeurIy un-ArIsLoLeIIun Lo
uLLrIbuLe Lo ArIsLoLIe u seL oI posILIve prooIs Ior someLIIng wIIcI Ie IImseII
Ius cIeurIy sLuLed needs no provIng? beIIeve LIuL LIere ure severuI consId-
eruLIons wIIcI jusLIIy my currenL projecL. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, IL Is eusy (und
common) Ior reuders oI ArIsLoLIe-uncIenL und modern-Lo uccuse IIm oI
IuIIIng vIcLIm Lo 'IoIk onLoIogy,` I.e. oI gIvIng LIe sLuLus oI Lrue exIsLenL Lo
LIIngs wIIcI ure mereIy pIenomenuI: our eyes und oLIer senses deceIve us
InLo beIIevIng LIuL Iorses, Iouses und Iumuns ure more LIun mere uggre-
guLes; pIIIosopIers, Iowever, ougIL Lo know beLLer LIun Lo be deceIved.
TIus, cIuIm LIuL one vuIId purpose oI un urgumenL Ior LIe exIsLence oI
c:, Is Lo sIow LIuL ArIsLoLIe`s onLoIogy Is Iur Irom beIng 'IoIksy`; Indeed,
IL Is bused on u powerIuI meLupIysIcuI und pIysIcuI docLrIne LIuL sIows LIe
need Ior cc:, In order Lo expIuIn LIe pIenomenu under InvesLIguLIon In
1q
CI. Burnes, IIe und Works, p. 1z.
z6q
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
pIysIcuI scIence. n LIe conLexL oI ArIsLoLIe`s compIeLe docLrIne, LIe exIs-
Lence oI c:, Is so cIeurIy necessury LIuL IL IurdIy needs IurLIer prooI.
NeverLIeIess, IL Is noL uuLomuLIcuIIy cIeur Irom ArIsLoLIe`s meLupIysI-
cuI und pIysIcuI docLrInes uhich oI LIe muny beIngs we encounLer In LIe
worId ure genuIne nuLuruI subsLunces. or ArIsLoLIe dIsLInguIsIes beLween
objecLs wIIcI come Lo be by nuLure-und wIIcI LIus exIsL us Lrue unILury
subsLunces
1
-und LIose LIIngs wIIcI ure one by urL, und wIIcI Iuve un
uccIdenLuI unILy gIven Lo LIem by LIe urLIsL.
16
ndeed, muny oI LIe LIIngs
wIIcI u cIIId mIgIL nuveIy beIIeve Lo be 'one by nuLure` (sucI us doIIs,
busebuIIs, Iouses or sIoes) ure IuLer dIscovered Lo be urLIIucLs mude by
mun, und do noL In IucL grow on Lrees or sprouL Irom LIe eurLI.
TIus, IL Is noL c priori obvIous wIere Lo druw LIe IIne beLween LIuL
wIIcI Is uccIdenLuIIy one (LIrougI urL or LIrougI cIunce) und LIuL wIIcI
Is subsLunLIuIIy one. ndeed, IL wouId uppeur Lo be possIbIe, gIven ArIsLo-
LIe`s busIc meLupIysIcuI und pIysIcuI docLrIne, Lo usserL LIuL onIy LIe eI-
emenLs exIsL us Lrue subsLunces, und LIuL everyLIIng eIse Is un uggreguLe.
A Greek muLerIuIIsL mIgIL conceIvubIy udmIL ArIsLoLIe`s docLrIne oI Iorm
und muLLer und sLIII suy, wILI EmpedocIes, o o -o: cpo c:, ooci,
cc-:i ni-oi 0ip-i, oo -:, ooioo 0ci-o:o -cco-, ioi (:, -c
o:c(, -c :yi-oi cc-, c:, o' cn -o, ioc-c: i0pno:c:i.
1;
TIus, ArIs-
1
occ yc-c: - -c n cc-c, ooi y xc np xc oop xc cc -o:c-c, xc o, cc-c
xc - cx -o-ooi coicc--c -c xc oc:i:c xc - p:c -o-oi nci-c oc -c-c yc-c: occ
-: o xc0' noxc:ioo yc-c: xc- -o-oi - c, Metcphsics, 1o1;b1o-1.
16
nc:o - coic: xc - cnc-cc0c: co[cic: ncp ncc, -, c0ooo,, i cci p_c c-:c
c-o:_cc, cx -o -c-c yiopc:i |--c yp oc0c y:yicxc:i cxcc-oi, -ci - c-:c yiopcoci
- np-c xc -, p_, -, np-c, xc _p: -i c-o:_coi, ooi -: xc -, ncp cco,
cn:c-p, nc:pc-oi o:opccc0c: np-oi - ncp -, p_,, Phsics, 18quoq-16.
1;
DK1B8.
z;o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LoLIe wIII Iuve won u PyrrIIc vIcLory, demonsLruLIng LIuL uL LIe meLupIysI-
cuI IeveI we musL speuk In Lerms oI muLLer und Iorm, poLency und ucL, sub-
sLunce und uccIdenL, wIIIe LIe oc:oyo, IeeIs Iree Lo Ignore LIIs unuIysIs In
prucLIce. or wIuL does IL muLLer Lo LIe muLerIuIIsL II, In some sense, LIere
Is 'muLLer` und 'Iorm` In LIe beIng oI un uLom or u cerLuIn eIemenL, II LIIs
mukes no dIIIerence Lo IIs unuIysIs oI IIgIer beIngs us cIunce uggreguLes
oI eIemenLs?
L Is Ior LIIs reuson LIuL un expIIcIL deIense oI 'IIgIer` c:, becomes
necessury. or ArIsLoLIe needs Lo sIowLIuL LIe LIeorIes oI LIe oc:oyo: do
noL, und cunnoL, suIIIce Lo expIuIn LIe exIsLence und beIuvIor oI orgunIsms.
ArIsLoLIe provIdes u number oI posILIve urgumenLs InLended Lo sIow LIuL
LIere In IucL exIsL cc:, oI orgunIsms; LIe resL oI LIIs cIupLer Is dedIcuLed
Lo u descrIpLIon oI LIese urgumenLs.
g.. Argoments Ior the existence oI higher cc:,
n LIIs subsecLIon, presenL Lwo urgumenLs mude by ArIsLoLIe wIIcI
speuk purLIcuIurIy Lo LIe need Lo posIL compIex nuLuruI subsLunces In or-
der Lo expIuIn LIe pIenomenu observed In nuLure. n LIe IIrsL pIuce, wIII
dIscuss IIs LIeory oI unImuI seII-moLIon, und secondIy, wIII dIscuss IIs
brIeI urgumenL Ior LIe necessILy oI o_ Lo uccounL Ior LIe persIsLence oI
compIex orgunIsms over LIme.
z;1
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
Animul selI-motion
AIIrsL IIne oI urgumenLuLIon Is LIuL wIIcI ArIsLoLIe uses Lo demonsLruLe
LIuL unImuIs ure genuIne seII-movers. Iuve dIscussed severuI oI LIese ur-
gumenLs In CIupLer . TIe IIrsL sLuge oI LIese demonsLruLIons InvoIves
esLubIIsIIng LIe need Ior cuusuI cIuIns Lo be IInILe, wIIcI In Lurn depends
on LIe sImuILuneILy oI ucLIon und pussIon umong LIe mover und LIe moved.
I LIe mover und LIe moved move uL IdenLIcuI LImes, LIen no muLLer Iow
Iong LIe cuusuI cIuIn Is, uII LIe movers und mobIIes In LIe cIuIn move uL
LIe sume LIme, wILI LIe resuIL LIuL un InIInILe cuusuI cIuIn wouId InvoIve
InIInILe moLIon In IInILe LIme. TIe sImuILuneILy oI ucLIon und pussIon de-
rIves Irom LIe meLupIysIcuI unuIysIs oI ucLIon und pussIon: II LIe ucL oI LIe
mover Is In LIe moved ILseII, LIere cunnoL be u Iupse oI LIme beLween LIe
ucLIon und LIe pussIon, Ior LIere wouId be u momenL wIen LIe mover wus
movIng und LIe moved wus noL, wIIcI wouId noL be ucLIon uL uII; sImIIurIy,
LIere wouId be u momenL wIen LIe moved wus beIng ucLuuIIzed, buL LIe
mover wus noL movIng IL, und LIus LIe moLIon wouId be uncuused. TIus,
ucLIon und pussIon musL be sImuILuneous, und Ience IL IoIIows LIuL cuusuI
cIuIns musL be IInILe.
HuvIng esLubIIsIedLIIs poInL, ArIsLoLIe cunproceedLo muke oLIer urgu-
menLs wIIcI dIrecLIy prove LIe exIsLence oI seII-movers. n Phsics V.,
Ie mukes LIe urgumenL LIuL every cuusuI cIuIn musL LermInuLe In u seII-
mover, 'n -o c- x:ioi-o, x:ic-c:.` TIere ure cerLuIn moLIons, purLIcu-
IurIy LIose oI LIe 'sImpIe bodIes,` wIIcI ure dIrecLIy cuused by LIe cIrcuIur
moLIon oI LIe InnermosL ceIesLIuI spIere, wIIcI moves uIong LIe ecIIpLIc
z;z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
und LIus Is ubIe Lo cuuse conLrury moLIons dependIng on ILs posILIon wILI
respecL Lo LIe moved. TIe moLIons oI LIe sImpIe bodIes ure LIus respon-
sIbIe Ior LIe comIng-Lo-be und pussIng-uwuy oI LIe IIvIng orgunIsms oI LIe
worId. TIe vusL mujorILy oI LIe moLIons In LIe worId ure noL reducIbIe Lo
LIe moLIons oI LIe sImpIe bodIes, buL musL be Lruced Lo moLIons oI unI-
muIs und oLIer IIvIngs beIngs, wIIcI proceed IromLIeIr souIs, wIIcI ucL us
unmoved movers. suggesL LIuL LIere ure uL IeusL Lwo reIuLed urgumenLs
presenL In ArIsLoLIe`s works LIuL esLubIIsI LIe need Ior LIIs kInd oI genuIne
seII-moLIon In unImuIs.
n LIe IIrsL oI LIese urgumenLs, ArIsLoLIe poInLs Lo LIe exIsLence oI cer-
LuIn ooic:, In LIe sense orguns, wIIcI ure noL presenL In LIIngs wILIouL
souI. ArIsLoLIe unuIyses sensuLIon us u kInd oI uILeruLIon, buL noLes LIuL
unsouIed LIIngs Iuck LIe poLency Ior LIIs kInd oI uILeruLIon, und ure LIus
'InsensIbIe.` TIus, wIen ArIsLoLIe speuks ubouL LIe necessILy LIuL cuusuI
cIuIns LermInuLe In seII-movers,
18
we cun deduce LIuL Ie Is speukIng ubouL
LIe kInds oI moLIons LIuL ure cuused by un ensouIed beIng movIng due Lo
some kInd oI sensory InpuL (Ior Ie does noL propose LIuL unImuIs move
wILIouL sLImuIus Irom LIe envIronmenL), or eIse bused on some InLernuI
InpuL, sucI us memory or Iunger. BuL LIese kInds oI 'sense` experIences
(InLernuI or exLernuI) depend on u kInd oI uILeruLIon LIuL Is IuckIng In LIe
sImpIe bodIes, und Indeed Is IrreducIbIe Lo LIem.
1q
BuL II noLIIng In LIe
18
ndeed, In Dn the Motion oj Animcls ArIsLoLIe sLuLes LIuL mosL moLIon LIuL we en-
counLer In LIe subIunur worId Is LruceubIe Lo LIIs kInd oI seII-mover; cI. Dn the Motion oj
Animcls, ;oob-1.
1q
ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL LIe ubsurdILy oI reducIng 'psycIIc` uILeruLIon, sucI us IeurnIng
or IorgeLLIng, Lo LIe ucLIvILy oI LIe eIemenLs: -onoi oc xc c o_ cx -i c-o:_c/oi ci
-: c-i c yp o:cc:, c -, o_, n, ccoi-c:, ooi - ooc:xi cic: xc n:i oocoi,
ipp p0p, ooi yp -: c ci np o_p, - n0p np(c: c- cc nop np c oc :x-i, -
z;
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
muLerIuI mukeup oI LIe unImuI expIuIns LIe orIgIn oI LIe purLIcuIur kInd
oI moLIon resuILIng Irom LIe sensory experIence-Ior LIe moLIons cIuruc-
LerIsLIc oI LIe muLLer do noL produce LIe kInd oI moLIon Lo be uccounLed
Ior-LIen IL musL be precIseIy LIe o_ oI LIe unImuI, wIIcI does possess
LIe oic:, Ior sensory uILeruLIon, wIIcI Is LIe IIrsL unmoved mover In LIe
cuusuI cIuIn wIIcI LIe unImuI orIgInuLes.
DespILe ArIsLoLIe`s cIeur usserLIons LIuL IL Is LIe souI LIuL moves LIe
body, compIIcuLIons urIse Ior sucI u sImpIe uccounL oI seII-moLIon. n
purLIcuIur, Ior ArIsLoLIe, unImuI seII-movers ure noL ubsoIuLeIy unmoved
sources oI moLIon; ruLIer, Ie poInLs ouL LIuL In muny cuses LIey ure moved
eIemenLs enLerIng Irom LIeIr envIronmenL, sucI us Iood, wIose dIgesLIon
Induces sIeep und IuLer wukIng. n cuses wIere LIere Is no dIrecL eIIIcIenL
cuuse oI u gIven movemenL, ArIsLoLIe urgues LIuL unImuIs ure moved by
exLernuI IInuI cuuses. To uddress LIIs Issue, we IInd u second urgumenL
Ior seII-movers bused on ArIsLoLIe`s dIscussIon oI unImuI moLIon In Dn the
Motion oj Animcls, wIIcI posILs LIe objecL oI desIre (pcx-i) us LIe LruIy
unmoved mover In LIe cIuIn oI moLIon LIuL LIe unImuI begIns. or In muny
cuses IL Is noL mereIy sensory InpuL LIuL cuuses u gIven moLIon In un unI-
muI, buL sensory InpuL wIIcI Ius sIgnIIIcunce quc LIe kInd oI LIIng sensed.
WIIIe u Iox muy respond Lo LIe smeII oI IIve cIIckens wILI un uuLomuLIc re-
sponse oI IunLIng, LIe Iox does noL mereIy uLLempL Lo enLer LIe IenIouse
In uny rundom wuy: Ie seeks u gup In LIe IenIouse wuII or In LIe IencIng
uround LIe cIIcken coop wIIcI wIII uIIowIImLo enLer (und Indeed, LIe Iox
cun be quILe IngenIous In IIndIng wuys Lo deIeuL LIe Iurmer`s uLLempLs Lo
coc-:x -o-oi o ooci coc-:xi, Dn Generction cnd Corruption, qu1o-1.
z;q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
keep IIm ouL). SImIIurIy, Iurge preduLors sucI us woIves und IIons, wIIcI
consume Iurge umounLs oI energy durIng LIe IunL, do noL pursue uny run-
dommember oI u Ierd oI prey unImuIs, buL deIIberuLeIy seek ouL LIe weuk-
esL und sIowesL members oI LIe group, so us Lo muxImIze LIe energy guIn
obLuIned by mukIng u kIII. WIIIe LIIs beIuvIor Is cerLuInIy InsLIncLuuIIy
bused, und Indeed ArIsLoLIe Is cIeur LIuL Ioxes und woIves do noL possess
'reuson,` IL Is noneLIeIess LIe cuse LIuL LIese unImuIs musL be ubIe Lo rec-
ognIze cuLegorIes oI beIngs, precIseIy so LIuL LIey cun 'InLeIIIgenLIy` dIIIer-
enLIuLe beLween IIgIIy sImIIur vIsuuI InpuLs, und desIre und ucL upon one
kInd oI LIIng ruLIer LIun unoLIer. n sIorL, unImuIs need LIe oic:, Lo
InLerpreL someLIIng us u good Ior LIem, so LIuL IL cun be un pcx-i. TIIs
oic:, Is Iound onIy In LIe genus oI LIe IIvIng, purLIcuIurIy unImuIs, und Is
IrreducIbIe Lo LIe ucLIvILy oI LIe eIemenLs. TIus, moLIons wIIcI urIse us LIe
resuIL oI un objecL beIng un pcx-i under some yo, oI LIe good, musL be
moLIons wIIcI urIse Irom LIe souI oI LIe mover, und noL Irom LIe muLerIuI
componenLs oI LIe mover quc muLerIuI. L IoIIows, LIen, LIuL LIere musL
exIsL c:, IIgIer LIun LIuL oI LIe eIemenLs, wIIcI we cun cIurucLerIze us
o_ cupubIe oI producIng seII-moLIon.
Hence, see Lwo ureus wIere LIe ArIsLoLeIIunurgumenLs Ior seII-movers
und LIeIr properLIes ImpucL IIs overuII urgumenL uguInsL LIe oc:oyo:.
IrsL, In Phsics V.q-, Ie demonsLruLes LIe exIsLence oI IInILe unmoved
movers (I.e. unImuI souIs). TIese IInILe unmoved movers ure non-eLernuI
prIncIpIes wIIcI, noL beIng muLerIuI, ure noneLIeIess ubIe Lo dIrecL LIe mo-
LIon oI LIe muLerIuI componenLs oI u gIven body, quc beIng LIe o_ oI LIuL
body. nsoIur us we musL posLuIuLe souIs wIIcI move LIeIr bodIes, noL uII
z;
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
moLIon cun be reduced Lo muLerIuI necessILy. SecondIy, wIen Ie urgues Ior
LIe key roIe oI InLenLIonuI sLuLes (purLIcuIurIy ci-ccc) In LIe producLIon
oI seII-moLIon, Ie demonsLruLes LIuL LIe souI musL Iuve LIe cupucILy Lo us-
sess u gIven objecL oI sensuLIon In Lerms oI ILs beneIIL Lo LIe unImuI. WIuL
Is ImporLunL Lo recognIze Iere Is LIuL LIere muy be no convIncIng reduc-
LIon Lo u pIysIcuI or muLerIuI expIunuLIon Ior wIeLIer u gIven objecL Is u
good or noL, sInce LIere ure goods wIIcI ure onIy sucI us u resuIL oI LIe
uppIIcuLIon oI menLuI crILerIu. Hence, Ie Ius demonsLruLed LIe need Ior u
non-reducIbIe oic:, wIIcI mukes unImuIs ubIe Lo muke cIoIces bused on
experIence und Ieurned sLruLegIes, und mukes Iumuns ubIe Lo consIder ob-
jecLs oI percepLIon vIu oycc-c (und Ior boLI unImuIs und men Lo InILIuLe
movemenL bused upon LIese consIderuLIons In LIe souI, us wIII dIscuss
beIow).
The persistence oI orgunisms over time
ArIsLoLIe, In Dn the Soul .q, presenLs u brIeI urgumenL Lo sIowLIuL LIe
LIeory oI EmpedocIes Is unsuLIsIucLory, InsoIur us IL Is unubIe Lo expIuIn LIe
persIsLence oI orgunIsms over LIme. He suys, np, oc -o-o:, -/ - coi_oi
c, -ici-/c cpcic - np xc -i yi, o:ccncc0pcc-c: yp, c p -: cc-c: -
xooi c o cc-c:, -o- cc-:i o_p, xc - c-:oi -o c(icc0c: xc -pcc0c:.
zo
EmpedocIes posLuIuLes 'ove` us beIng responsIbIe Ior LIe muInLenunce oI
unILIes (sucI us LIe monsLrous beIngs wIIcI supposedIy exIsLed durIng
LIe cosmIc pIuse wIere ove Is becomIng gruduuIIy ever-more domInunL).
zo
Dn the Soul, q16uz-.
z;6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ArIsLoLIe compIeLeIy Ignores EmpedocIes`s 'ove` In LIIs connecLIon, mosL
IIkeIy becuuse IL Is u bIInd unIversuI Iorce wIIcI cunnoL Iuve uny dIrecL
beurIng upon wIeLIer u purLIcuIur orgunIsm (u pIunL, In LIIs cuse) Is IeId
LogeLIer or puIIed upurL by SLrIIe.
z1
TIe ALomIsLs, on LIe oLIer Iund, posLuIuLed LIuL cerLuIn 'uLoms` Iud
Iooked sIupes LIuL were suIIIcIenL Lo cuuse LIe uggreguLes LIey Iormed
Lo persIsL over LIme. NeverLIeIess, LIeIr LIeory Is vuInerubIe Lo u modI-
IIed versIon oI LIe sume urgumenL used uguInsL EmpedocIes, regurdIng LIe
'spIerIcuI` uLoms LIuL LIey posLuIuLed us beIng responsIbIe Ior souI-IIke uc-
LIvILIes. TIe spIerIcuI sIupes oI LIese uLoms ure suIIIcIenL Lo expIuIn wIy
LIe 'souI` Is ubIe Lo peneLruLe LIe gups beLween LIe oLIer kInds oI uLoms,
und LIereIore be presenL In LIe enLIreLy oI LIe body, buL LIeIr LIeory does
noL expIuIn wIy LIe spIerIcuI uLoms remcin In LIe orgunIsm`s body. WIuL
one sIouId expecL, InsLeud, Is LIuL LIe spIerIcuI uLoms sIouId 'evuporuLe`
IromLIe body, quIckIy IeuvIng LIe body souIIess. WIy, LIen, does LIe 'souI`
remuIn In LIe body over Iong perIods oI LIme?
ArIsLoLIe`s LIeory oI c:, provIdes LIe unswer Lo LIIs quesLIon. or
wIIIe Ie udmILs LIuL LIe 'sImpIe bodIes` ure Indeed presenL us LIe muLLer
oI more compIex beIngs, IL Is LIe o_ us LIe ucL oI LIe orgunIsm`s body
wIIcI mukes LIe muLLer Lo be one LIIng, und Lo persIsL us LIuL one LIIng
over LIme. TIe necessILy Ior sucI u IormuI prIncIpIe becomes uII LIe more
z1
TIe IewexLunL IrugmenLs oI EmpedocIes do noL gIve uny cIeur unswer Lo LIIs Issue, uI-
LIougI rugmenLs q, q und q6 seemLo ImpIy LIe ucLIon oI ove In creuLIng und preserv-
Ing purLIcuIur enLILIes. ArIsLoLIe, on LIe oLIer Iund, uppeurs Lo ussume LIuL EmpedocIes`s
cosmIc Iorces ure InsuIIIcIenL Lo expIuIn LIe persIsLence oI orgunIsms, presumubIy IoIdIng
LIuL bIInd unIversuI Iorces dId noL, In IucL, gIve uny suLIsIucLory unswer Lo LIe quesLIon oI
LIe persIsLence oI purLIcuIurs. ndeed, Ie does noL even menLIon ove or SLrIIe In LIe LexL
excerpLed ubove.
z;;
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
evIdenL wIen we noLe LIuL LIe muInLenunce oI un orgunIsmover LIme Is noL
sImpIy u quesLIon oI resIsLunce Lo degeneruLIon. RuLIer, IL requIres LIuL LIe
orgunIsm be cupubIe oI InLegruLIng oLIer kInds oI beIngs InLo IL, vIu nuLrI-
LIon, sucI LIuL LIe 'Iood` wIIcI enLers LIe orgunIsmdoes noL remuIn wIuL IL
wus beIore, buL us ArIsLoLIe noLes, IL becomes LruIy ussImIIuLed InLo LIe Ior-
muIILy oI LIe orgunIsm ILseII. Upon euLIng breud, we do noL become breud,
buL ruLIer LIe breud becomes us. TIIs meuns LIuL LIe o_ oI un orgun-
Ism musL pIuy un ucLIve roIe In LrunsIormIng ILs envIronmenL In order Lo
muInLuIn ILseII.
Asecond unexpIuIned Issue InvoIves LIe ubIIILy oI un orgunIsmLo repuIr
ILseII In order Lo muInLuIn u sLuLe oI IeuILI, u roIe wIIcI ArIsLoLIe expIIcILIy
ussIgns Lo c:,. BuL In order Ior un orgunIsm Lo respond Lo IIIness by ucL-
Ing Lo reLurn ILseII Lo LIe sLuLe oI buIunce wIIcI cIurucLerIzes IeuILI, LIere
musL be wILIIn LIuL orgunIsmu 'gouI` Lowurds wIIcI IL moves In uLLempLIng
Lo IeuI ILseII. BuL LIe eIemenLs or uLoms posLuIuLed by LIe oc:oyo: ure
expIIcILIy posLuIuLed us workIng by -o_, wIIcI excIudes (us LIey expIIcILIy
poInL ouL) uny gouI-dIrecLed beIuvIor on LIe purL oI LIe orgunIsm, wIIcI Is
u resuIL oI muLerIuI necessILy und noLIIng eIse. BuL orgunIsms cIeurIy ucL so
us Lo preserve LIemseIves uguInsL sIckness und reLurn LIemseIves Lo IeuILI
(u process wIIcI LIe docLor cun uId In, buL cunnoL produce by IImseII), und
LIus we musL posLuIuLe u prIncIpIe oI InLernuI ucLIvILy wIIcI Ius us ILs end
LIe preservuLIon oI LIe orgunIsm ILseII In u IeuILIy sLuLe.
z;8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
g.. Non-redocible powers und potencies
n LIIs subsecLIon, wIII Iook uL LIe urgumenLs LIuL ArIsLoLIe udduces
Lo prove LIe exIsLence oI ucLIve or pussIve poLencIes (or 'powers`) wIIcI
cunnoL be expIuIned In Lerms oI LIe ucLIvILy oI 'eIemenLs` or 'uLoms.` wIII
begIn wILI IIs dIscussIon oI nuLuruI IInuIILy. wIII LIen Iook uL IIs unuIysIs
oI ruLIonuI powers us 'open Lo opposILes,` wIere non-ruLIonuI powers ure
onIy open Lo u sIngIe ucLuuIIzuLIon. wIII concIude wILI u dIscussIon oI
ArIsLoLIe`s vIew on LIe IrreducIbIIILy oI LIe senses Lo eIemenLuI ucLIvILy.
Higher Iinulity
An ImporLunL seL oI urgumenLs mude by ArIsLoLIe concern LIe exIsLence
oI LIe end-dIrecLedness presenL In orgunIsms, u LeIeoIogIcuI cIurucLer LIuL
Is IrreducIbIe Lo expIunuLIons In Lerms oI cIunce or muLerIuI necessILy. n
CIupLer q exumIned ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenLs Ior nuLuruI IInuIILy, noLIng LIuL
IIs prImury urgumenL Is bused on LIe IncompuLIbIIILy oI LIe cuLegory oI
LIose LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be o-c-oi or by -o_ wILI LIe cuLegory oI
LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be 'c cn - no.` PrecIseIy becuuse cIunce neter
brIngs unyLIIng ubouL 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL,` IL cunnoL be responsIbIe
Ior LIe ucLIvILIes oI orgunIsms, wIIcI do Indeed ucL uIwuys uccordIng Lo
LIeIr ucLIve or pussIve poLencIes, provIded LIuL noLIIng Impedes.
Iuve noLed LIuL LIe oc:oyo: couId presumubIy respond by gIvIng ex-
umpIes oI LIIngs wIIcI do In IucL Iuppen us u resuIL oI cIunce or Iuck, buL
wIIcI neverLIeIess produce LIeIr eIIecLs 'uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL.` TIe
'ucorn-deIIvery mecIunIsm` descrIbed Is un InsLunce oI someLIIng LIuL
z;q
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
meeLs LIIs descrIpLIon: IL reguIurIy produces un eIIecL descrIbubIe us 'de-
IIverIng ucorns Lo u squIrreI`s nesL,` wILIouL LIere beIng uny xc0' c- cuuse
LIuL Ius ucorn deIIvery us ILs end. EmpedocIes couId cIuIm LIuL IIs cIunce
uggreguLIons oI bodIIy purLs ure sImIIur, In LIuL LIey occur very rureIy In
LIemseIves, buL once LIey occur, LIey brIng ubouL LIeIr cIurucLerIsLIc uc-
LIvILy uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL.
NeverLIeIess, ArIsLoLIe`s urgumenL Is subsLunLIuIIy sLronger LIun IL up-
peurs, even gIven LIIs excepLIon Lo IIs expIunuLory Irumework. or end-
dIrecLedness Is precIseIy LIe onlexpIunuLIonLIuL cunexpIuInIuLure-dIrecLed
ucLIvILy, sucI us LIe growLI und muLuruLIon oI orgunIsms, und reproduc-
LIon. norder Ior unImmuLure orgunIsmLo deveIop InLo u muLure specImen
oI ILs specIes (suy, Ior u puppy Lo become u muLure dog), LIe muLure coo,
oI LIe dog musL be presenL In LIe puppy, uIong wILI LIe powers necessury
Lo brIng LIe perIecLed IormInLo beIng. TIus, LIe muLure coo, musL be suId
Lo be In poLency; IL does noL exIsL In ucL, Ior LIe puppy sLIII Ius ILs Immu-
Lure bodIIy sLrucLure und powers. NeverLIeIess, LIe coo, musL be presenL
wILIIn LIe puppy, uIong wILI processes oI deveIopmenL precIseIy dIrecLed
Lowurds LIe muLure coo, us ILs end, Ior oLIerwIse LIe process oI deveIop-
menL wIII produce rundom resuILs, noL u muLure dog c cn - no.
AsImIIur urgumenL cun be mude In regurds Lo reproducLIon, Ior LIe pur-
enL (or purenLs) oI LIe engendered orgunIsm musL ImpIunL wILIIn ILs muL-
Ler precIseIy their oun Iorm. Here 'Iorm` cun be Luken In LIe Ioose sense
oI 'sLrucLure,` In order Lo uvoId ussumIng LIe very LIIng ArIsLoLIe needs Lo
prove. L remuIns Lrue LIuL even under u muLerIuIIsL expIunuLIon LIuL LIe
oIIsprIng oI purenLs oI u gIven specIes musL reproduce LIe generuI sLruc-
z8o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lure oI LIeIr purenLs, or eIse wIuL occurs Is noL reproducLIon, buL rundom
comIng-Lo-be. BuL Ior LIe purenLs Lo ImpIunL LIIs 'Iorm` In LIe oIIsprIng,
LIey musL possess LIe Iorm us u prIncIpIe LIuL guIdes LIe purenLs` ucLIvILy
In In-IormIng LIe muLerIuI oI LIe oIIsprIng. OLIerwIse, LIeIr ucLIvILy wIII
be rundom, und wIII reproduce LIeIr Iorm onIy under excepLIonuIIy rure
cIrcumsLunces, wIIcI Is dIrecLIy LIe opposILe oI wIuL Indeed occurs. TIIs
IormuI prIncIpIe musL be presenL even II we wIsI Lo reIy onIy upon 'muLerIuI
necessILy` us LIe movIng prIncIpIe, Ior unIess LIe ucLIvILy oI LIe muLLer (In
LIIs cuse, LIe eIemenLs or uLoms proposed by LIe oc:oyo:) Is operuLIng
in order to reproduce LIe sume Iorm J sLrucLure us Is presenL In LIe purenL
orgunIsms, LIe resuIL oI muLerIuI necessILy wIII be u rundom producL.
A conIusIon occurs Iere wILI respecL Lo wIuL IL meuns Lo ucL in order
to ucIIeve someLIIng, wIIcI ArIsLoLIe cIeurs up In LIe sume cIupLer oI LIe
Phsics. To ucL cicx -oo does noL requIre conscIousness or reuson, buL
ruLIer end-dIrecLed ucLIvILy Is precIseIy LIe resuIL oI LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon oI u
gIven poLency. ArIsLoLIe mukes IL cIeur LIuL LIe concepL oI beIng cicx -oo
Is uppIIed onIy In u derIvuLIve sense Lo ruLIonuI ucLIvILy. n LIe IIrsL pIuce,
even cIunce und Iuck ure cicx -oo, InsoIur us LIey ure producLIve oI resuILs
LIuL could hcte been cIosen: LIe Iender could hcte gone Lo LIe murkeL Lo
coIIecL IIs debL, even LIougI LIuL wus noL IIs reuI purpose In goIng.
SecondIy, ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL LIuL even wIere urL Is concerned, IInuI-
ILy Is onIy secondurIIy ussocIuLed wILI reusonIng. TIe IurpIsL wIo Ius Lo
LIInk ubouL every noLe beIore Ie sLrIkes u Iurp sLrIng Is noL reuIIy u IurpIsL,
buL u sLudenL IeurnIng Lo pIuy. n IucL, once LIe urL In quesLIon Ius been
Ieurned, IL Is exercIsed In vIew oI ruLIonuI gouIs (Ior InsLunce, pIuyIng LIe
z81
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
Iurp Ior one's supper, or buIIdIng u bouL In order Lo seII IL Lo LIe ALIenIun
nuvy), buL Is exercIsed wILIouL LIInkIng ubouL LIe purLIcuIur sLeps needed
Lo brIng ubouL LIe producL oI LIe urL. We suy oI u IurpIsL LIuL IIs Iunds
Iuve Ieurned LIe musIc, or oI LIe bouL buIIder LIuL Ie cun pIune u bourd
wILIouL LIInkIng precIseIy Lo express LIIs IucL. UILImuLeIy, LIIs Is u resuIL
oI LIe IucL LIuL end-dIrecLedness perLuIns prIncIpuIIy Lo LIe poLency LIuL
Is beIng exercIsed; In LIe cuse oI musIc or bouL-buIIdIng, LIIs Is u ruLIonuI
poLency, InsoIur us IL depends on LIe yo, oI LIe ucLIvILy, buL ILs exercIse
Is LIe sume us uny non-ruLIonuI poLency, sucI us dIgesLIon or growLI, In
LIuL IL InvoIves un ucLuuIIzuLIon oI someLIIng LIuL is In poLency. AcLuuIIzu-
LIon oI u poLency Is necessurIIy end-dIrecLed or cicx -oo, precIseIy becuuse
u purLIcuIur ci-c_c:c Is LIe end oI LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon.
HuvIng esLubIIsIed LIese poInLs, ArIsLoLIe cun deIend LIe exIsLence oI
IIgIer IInuIILIes wILI rIgor. AguIn, In Phsics .8 Ie noLes LIuL pIunLs und
LIe purLs oI unImuIs exIIbIL obvIous IInuIILy. TIe Ieuves oI pIunLs ure 'Ior`
proLecLIng LIe IruIL, und LIe swuIIow buIIds ILs nesL 'Ior` IoIdIng und pro-
LecLIng LIe eggs LIuL IL wIII Iuy. L Is cIeur LIuL sucI IInuIILIes ure beyond LIe
runge oI wIuL Is possIbIe Ior LIe eIemenLuI bodIes, wIose ucLIvILy cicx -oo
Is IImILed Lo beIng up or down, IeuLIng or cooIIng, und dryIng or moIsLen-
Ing.
zz
BuL LIere Is cIeurIy end-dIrecLedness embedded In LIe ucLIvILIes oI
LIese creuLures, Ior In uddILIon Lo LIe purposes served by LIe Ieuves or LIe
nesL, LIere Is uIso u cIeur ends-meuns sLrucLure In LIe comIng Lo be oI LIe
Ieuves or LIe nesLs. or LIe bIrd musL proceed by cIoosIng buIIdIng muLerI-
zz
TIe oc:oyo: propose sImIIur ucLIvILIes Ior LIeIr 'sImpIe bodIes,` wIIcI In uny cuse
do noL move or ucL due Lo uny compIex IInuIILy.
z8z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
uIs udequuLe Lo LIe kInd oI nesL LIuL wIII be buIIL (Ior InsLunce bILs oI gruss,
wood, or mud), und musL Iuy LIe IounduLIon oI LIe nesL beIore buIIdIng ILs
wuIIs, und musL buIId LIe rougI nesL sLrucLure beIore weuvIng In IIgILer
muLerIuIs LIuL wIII provIde cusIIonIng Ior LIe eggs, eLc. TIIs InLerreIuLIon
oI LIe sLuges oI comIng-Lo-be Is LIe sume us In urL, wIere LIere Is u cIeur In-
sLunce oI end-dIrecLedness, und LIe vurIous sLuges Iuve LIe sume purpose,
wIIcI Is Lo muke possIbIe LIe nexL sLuge In LIe ucLIvILy und LIe producLIon
oI LIe IInuI producL. TIIs Is u cuse oI IypoLIeLIcuI necessILy: II u nesL Is de-
sIred, cerLuIn sLeps musL be Luken Lo uLLuIn IL, und LIese sLeps ure 'Ior` LIe
nesL us IInuI producL, regurdIess oI wIeLIer LIe ugenL Is ruLIonuI or noL. L Is
noL possIbIe LIuL LIese vurIous sLuges uIwuys come Lo be In LIe sume order
by cIunce, sInce wIuLever Iuppens uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL excIudes
cIunce. Hence, LIere musL be un end Ior wIIcI LIe sLuges ure currIed ouL,
und LIus LIe comIng Lo be musL be cicx -oo In LIe sLrong sense.
n order LIuL LIere cun come Lo be IInuIILy In u compIex process sucI us
LIose currIed ouL by orgunIsms, or In LIe consLrucLIon oI LIe body oI LIe or-
gunIsm (us In LIe cuse oI LIe LeeLI In LIe juw oI un unImuI) LIere cunnoL be
un expIunuLIon LIuL mereIy mukes reIerence Lo LIe moLIon oI 'sImpIe bod-
Ies,` Ior sucI IInuIILy Is ubsenL Irom LIese bodIes, us we Iuve seen. TIus,
LIere musL exIsL u prIncIpIe wIIcI, us orgunIzer oI LIe 'muLLer` oI LIe orgun-
Ism, Is ubIe Lo muke one purL come Lo be 'Ior` unoLIer (cicx -oo). n LIe cuse
oI LIe unImuI`s juw, LIe producLIon oI LeeLI Is purL oI LIe IInuIILy embedded
In LIe c:, oI LIe juw, quc juw. BuL LIe juw, IndependenLIy oI ILs IuncLIon
In LIe LoLuIILy oI LIe orgunIsm, cunnoL be suId Lo Iuve LIe IInuIILy oI 'cIew-
Ing.` RuLIer, LIere musL be u superIor c:, wIIcI Ius juws us purL oI ILs
z8
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
'muLLer,` vIu LIe 'scuIIoIdIng oI Iorm,` und wIIcI does Iuve LIe ucLIvILIes oI
Iood-seekIng, cIewIng, dIgesLIng und growLI us uspecLs oI ILs own IInuIILy.
To concIude LIIs secLIon, suggesL LIuL ArIsLoLIe cun IegILImuLeIy con-
cIude LIuL LIere musL exIsL u prIncIpIe wIIcI Is InnuLe Lo LIe orgunIsm, und
wIIcI Is ubIe Lo IosL In poLency LIe coo, oI LIe muLure versIon oI ILseII
wIen IL Is young, wIIcI Is ubIe Lo reproduce LIuL coo, In LIe LIuL wIII
become ILs oIIsprIng, und wIIcI Is ubIe Lo be u dIrecLIve prIncIpIe oI ucLIvILy
und growLI Ior LIe purLs wIIcI ure LIe 'muLLer` oI LIe orgunIsm. BuL LIIs
Is precIseIy IIgIer c:,, consIdered In ILs LrIpIe roIe oI IormuI ucL, movIng
cuuse und IInuI cuuse.
Rutionul und non-rutionul powers
n Metcphsics X.1, uL LIe begInnIng oI IIs dIscussIon oI poLency und
ucL, ArIsLoLIe mukes u sLrong dIsLIncLIon beLween LIose ooic:, wIIcI ure
oyo: und LIose wIIcI ure c- yoo. TIe IuLLer, Ie suys, IncIude LIe vur-
Ious LIeoreLIcuI und prucLIcuI urLs, und ure cIurucLerIzed by beIng ubIe Lo
produce opposILes. n IIs descrIpLIon oI LIe Lwo Lypes oI powers, Ie mukes
u conLrusL beLween LIose beIngs wIIcI ure cIeurIy unreusonIng, sucI us
IIre, wIIcI cun onIy IeuL, und LIose beIngs wIIcI ure '-, o_, ci - yoi
c_oi-:,` sucI us LIe docLor, wIo cun boLI IeuI und cuuse IIIness. TIIs kInd oI
'ruLIonuI poLency` Is cIurucLerIsLIc oI LIose beIngs wIIcI ure uL LIe summIL
oI LIe c_o:, I.e. Iumun beIngs, wIIcI In uddILIon Lo possessIng LIe ucLIve
poLencIes cIurucLerIsLIc oI oLIer unImuIs, sucI us percepLIon, movemenL,
und resL In respecL oI pIuce, uIso possess io, or InLeIIecL.
z8q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
As ArIsLoLIe noLes uL Phsics .8, IL Is noL uIwuys eusy Lo LeII wIeLIer
unImuIs sIouId be deemed Lo Iuve io, or noL; neverLIeIess, LIere ure ru-
LIonuI poLencIes wIIcI ure unIqueIy cIurucLerIsLIc oI Iumun beIngs. TIese
IncIude, In purLIcuIur, LIe ubIIILy Lo Ieurn urLs, boLI LIeoreLIcuI und prucLI-
cuI, by meuns oI InsLrucLIon. TIese urLs InvoIve IeurnIng u purLIcuIur yo,
or uccounL, wIIcI cun be LIe Iorm oI LIe producL wIIcI Is Lo be produced,
or eIse LIe descrIpLIon oI un ucLIvILy (In LIe cuse oI non-prucLIcuI urLs sucI
us musIc). WIIIe vIu LruInIng, LIe urLIsun or urLIsL comes Lo LIe poInL oI
beIng ubIe Lo perIorm IIs or Ier urL wILIouL reIIecLIon, LIe urL ILseII Is puL
InLo prucLIce due Lo some reusonIng ubouL goods LIuL Ieud Lo LIe urLIsL or
urLIsun uppIyIng IIs knowIedge.
TIe rudIcuI dIIIerence LIuL exIsLs beLweenruLIonuI poLencIes oI LIIs sorL,
und non-ruLIonuI poLencIes (even poLencIes Iound In oLIer unImuIs) Is LIuL
LIey ure open Lo opposILes. TIus, LIe docLor cun cure un uIImenL or ucL Lo
cuuse Iurm, uII under LIe sume uccounL or yo,, Ior LIe sume knowIedge
LIuL gIves IIm LIe ubIIILy Lo cure uIso IndIcuLes Iow Ie cun provoke Injury.
TIus, ruLIonuI poLencIes ure sucI us Lo no:ci - cici-c, und LIIs cIurucLer
IndIcuLes un IrreducIbIe dIIIerence beLween ruLIonuI und IrruLIonuI poLen-
cIes. WIere LIe IuLLer must ucLuuIIze wIen In LIe presence oI LIe corre-
spondIng pussIve poLency (us Ior InsLunce IIre musL burn In LIe presence
oI someLIIng InIIummubIe), LIe ruLIonuI poLencIes cunnoL do LIIs. SInce
LIey ure open Lo opposILes, II LIey were Lo necessurIIy ucLuuIIze In LIe pres-
ence oI upproprIuLe pussIve poLencIes, LIey wouId sImuILuneousIy produce
opposILes, wIIcI Is cIeurIy ImpossIbIe. ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL necessILy In ru-
LIonuI beIngs does noL come ubouL due Lo exLerIor IucLors, us Is LIe cuse wILI
z8
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
IrruLIonuI poLencIes, buL ruLIer due Lo desIre (pc(:,), und LIuL LIe ruLIonuI
poLency Is necessurIIy exercIsed -ci pyp-c:. BuL uguIn, pc(:, Is some-
LIIng noL presenL In LIe muLerIuI eIemenLs oI LIe worId (us LIe oc:oyo:
wouId be quIck Lo ugree, sInce purL oI LIeIr projecL Is precIseIy eIImInuLIng
reIerence Lo sucI pIenomenu us purpose und desIre).
TIIs IIne oI urgumenL uppeurs Lo be quILe concIusIve, Ior II LIere ex-
IsL poLencIes wIIcI ure noL oLIerwIse expIuInubIe buL LIrougI reIerence
Lo io, und pc(:,, we musL posLuIuLe LIe kInds oI beIng wIIcI ure ubIe Lo
Iuve LIese poLencIes, undLIese ure precIseIy LIose beIngs wILIu c:, suIII-
cIenLIy IIgI on LIe scuIe oI InnuLe powers LIuL IL cun IosL ruLIonuI poLencIes
sucI us urL und scIence. BuL LIese poLencIes cIeurIy exIsL, Ior IL Is undenI-
ubIe LIuL LIere exIsL sucI poLencIes us LIe urL oI sIIpbuIIdIng, LIe urL oI
medIcIne und LIe urL oI pIuyIng musIc. Hence, IL uppeurs undenIubIe LIuL
LIe correspondIng IIgIer c:, musL uIso exIsL.
The irredocibility oI the senses to elementul uctivity
n IIs sIorL work Dn Sense cnd the Sensible, ArIsLoLIe mukes u number
oI reIuLed urgumenLs Lo sIowLIuL LIe muLerIuIIsL expIunuLIon oI LIe senses
wus rudIcuIIy InsuIIIcIenL. TIe IIrsL oI LIese proceeds by noLIng LIere ure
Loo muny senses Lo reduce eucI one Lo LIe ucLIvILy oI u purLIcuIur eIemenL:
-o oc cc-o, ci o, cyyyicc0c: noxci cc0p-ppo:,, ci:o: ci p-oc: xc-
- c-o:_cc -i co-oi ox cnopoi-c, oc np, ---cpc ni-' occ, coiyc:i,
y_oi-c: ncp -, nn-p,.
z
I LIere ure Iour eIemenLs, us posILedby Empe-
z
De sensu eL sensuLo, q;uz-z;.
z86
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
docIes, IL cunnoL be LIe cuse LIuL LIe senses ure expIuIned us eucI beIng LIe
ucLIvILy oI u gIven eIemenL. PresumubIy, uL LIe cosL oI some LIeoreLIcuI
reurrungemenL, u muLerIuIIsL mIgIL posIL LIuL LIere Is un uddILIonuI IIILI
eIemenL, wIIcI Is Lo correspond Lo LIe ucLIvILy oI LIe remuInIng sense. BuL
ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL LIuL sucI u sLruLugem wouId be enLIreIy mIsLuken, Ior
LIe senses ure noL expIuInubIe In Lerms oI eIemenLuI ucLIvILy.
He poInLs ouL, dIrecLIy IoIIowIng LIe pussuge quoLed ubove, LIuL LIe
oc:oyo: unIversuIIy ussIgned vIsIon Lo IIre, even II LIey were noL ubIe Lo
ussIgn uII LIe resL oI LIe senses Lo eIemenLuI ucLIvILy.
zq
BuL sucI un ussIgn-
menL Is mIsLuken Ior severuI reusons. IrsL oI uII, we cun sIow LIuL vIsIon
Is noL IIre by urguIng Irom pIysIcuI IucL: were vIsIon Lo be IIre, we wouId In
IucL be ubIe Lo see uL nIgIL, jusL us u IunLern Is mosL ubIe Lo cusL ILs ruys wIen
IL Is durk. BuL LIe opposILe Is LIe cuse, Ience vIsIon Is noL IIre.
z
urLIer,
we cunnoL uLLempL Lo resoIve LIe probIem us DemocrILus does, by suyIng
LIuL vIsIon Is u kInd oI reIIecLIon, Ior II reIIecLIon were Indeed vIsIon, we
wouId Iuve Lo propose LIuL vIsIon occurred wIerever reIIecLIon does, sucI
us In sLundIng wuLer und sIIny meLuI objecLs, wIIcI Is ubsurd.
z6
TIese urgumenLs poInL LoLIe ubsurdILy oI LIe reducLIonIsL posILIonLuken
by LIe oc:oyo:, buL does noL expIuInLIe Lrue dIIIerence beLweenLIe senses
und LIe ucLIvILy oI LIe eIemenLs (or oLIer pIysIcuI objecLs). TIe dIIIerence
Is precIseIy LIuL sense InvoIves u recepLIon oI Iorm, In un unuIogous munner
Lo wIuL occurs wIen u sIgneL rIng Is Impressed In wux. TIe senses ure ubIe
Lo receite LIe yo, oI LIe objecL sensed, wILIouL receIvIng LIe muLLer oI
zq
De sensu eL sensuLo, q;uz-o.
z
De sensu eL sensuLo, q;b1o-zo.
z6
De sensu eL sensuLo, q8u-1o.
z8;
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
LIe objecL ILseII In LIe sense, und ubsLrucLIng Irom non-sIgnIIIcunL uspecLs
oI LIe objecL sensed.
z;
BuL LIIs recepLIon oI Iorm cunnoL be IIke LIuL wIIcI
occurs wILI LIe wux, or wILI reIIecLIon (wIIcI Is uIso u recepLIon oI Iorm
In u sImIIur IusIIon), Ior we wouId LIen uppIy sensuLIon Lo LIe wux und LIe
reIIecLIng wuLer. nsLeud, LIe Iorm musL be ubsLrucLed, wILIouL ILs muL-
Ler, cs intelliible-xc- -i yoi-us ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL In conLInuuLIon,
und LIIs Is someLIIng LIuL cun onIy be perIormed by someLIIng wIIcI Ius
souI.
z8
g. Conclosions
n LIIs cIupLer, Iuve presenLed un InLegruLed uccounL oI ArIsLoLIe`s
deIense oI LIe exIsLence oI 'IIgIer` c:,, I.e. LIose kInds oI IormuI ucL wIIcI
ure responsIbIe Ior LIe beIng oI orgunIsms.
n LIe IIrsL secLIon oI LIe cIupLer, Iocused on LIe urgumenLs LIuL ArIs-
LoLIe mukes wIIcI serve Lo sIow LIe deIecLs oI LIe urgumenLs proposed by
z;
Dn the Soul, qzqu1;-zq.
z8
Dn the Soul, qzqu-bz. One mIgIL usk wIy IL Is LIuL onIy LIose beIngs wILI souI per-
ceIve, und noL LIe wux nor LIe reIIecLIng wuLer, sInce In u sense LIey Loo 'receIve Iorm
wILIouL muLLer,` us ArIsLoLIe poInLs ouL In IIs compurIson oI LIe sIgneL rIng: IL does noL
muLLer wIeLIer LIe rIng Is oI Iron or goId, LIe Impressed IormIn LIe wux wIII be LIe sume.
A modern-duy expIunuLIon, sucI us LIuL Iound In NugeI, WIuL s L Ike To Be u BuL?,
IdenLIIIes 'uwureness` or 'conscIousness` us beIng LIe dIsLInguIsIIng cIurucLerIsLIcs oI per-
cepLIon, buL LIIs does noL uppeur Lo be LIe urgumenL LIuL ArIsLoLIe mukes Iere; Ie urgues
InsLeud Lo LIe exIsLence oI dIsLIncLIve poLencIes. n LIe IoIIowIng purugrupI oI Dn the Soul,
ArIsLoLIe noLes LIuL LIe eye (und oLIer sensory orguns) ure mugnILudes wIIcI muInLuIn u
specIuI equIIIbrIum oI opposILes wIIcI enubIe LIe comIng-Lo-be oI u yo, , buL LIuL LIe
sense ILseII Is noL u mugnILude. WIIIe Ie does noL muke expIIcIL Iere wIuL LIe cIurucLer
oI LIIs oic:, Is, suggesL LIuL LIe dIsLIncLIon beLween LIe wux und LIe sense Is LIuL LIe
IuLLer Is precIseIy u oic:, LIuL uIIows LIe InLeIIecL Lo ubsLrucL LIe yo, xc0' c-; In LIe
cuse oI LIe wux, LIe yo, Is presenL us uccIdenLuI Iorm, und LIere Is no oic:, presenL
LIuL enubIes LIe _op:c, oI LIe yo, by LIe InLeIIecL, buL ruLIer LIe wux Is oic-oi In
LIIs wuy.
z88
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIe oc:oyo:, undLo sIowLIe necessILy oI IIs ownuILernuLIve LIeory oI nu-
Lure, wIIcI IInds ILs deeper IounduLIons In IIs meLupIysIcuI docLrIne. TIIs
docLrIne Is purLIcuIurIy ImporLunL In eIImInuLIng Lwo IuIse concepLIons oI
LIe oc:oyo:, wIo were InIIuenced by LIe PurmenIdeun urgumenL uguInsL
cIunge und In Iuvor oI LIe unIcILy oI beIng. TIe meLupIysIcuI docLrIne oI
LIe muILIpIe senses oI 'beIng` Lurns ouL Lo drumuLIcuIIy undermIne LIe Ioun-
duLIons oI LIe urgumenLs oI LIe 'EIeuLIc pIuruIIsLs` (EmpedocIes, Anuxugo-
rus und eucIppus) In Iuvor oI eLernuI und ImmuLubIe pIysIcuI p_c. n
combInuLIon wILI IIs specIIIc urgumenL uguInsL DemocrILus, ArIsLoLIe cun
LIereby demonsLruLe LIuL pIysIcuI beIng Is necessurIIy cIurucLerIzed In-
sLeud us IndIvIduuI subsLunce comprIsed oI IormuI und muLerIuI prIncIpIes;
LIe nuLuruI subsLunce so comprIsed Is LIus ubIe Lo undergo cIunge, boLI
In Lerms oI moLIon In LIe vurIous uccIdenLuI cuLegorIes, und In Lerms oI
comIng-Lo-be und pussIng-uwuy In LIe cuLegory oI subsLunce. TIe IormuI
prIncIpIe wIIcI, us ucL oI LIe muLLer oI LIe subsLunce, brIngs u gIven mobIIe
beIng InLo exIsLence, cun be cIurucLerIzed IurLIer us ILs prIncIpIe oI moLIon
und cIunge, uIIowIng ArIsLoLIe Lo derIve LIe noLIon oI c:, us u necessury
posLuIuLe Ior u suLIsIucLory scIence oI LIe pIysIcuI worId. TIe meLupIysIcuI
busIs LIuL ArIsLoLIe uses Lo underpIn IIs LIeory ncp cco, uIso uIIows IIm
Lo demonsLruLe LIe exIsLence oI u number oI properLIes oI c:,, In purLIc-
uIur ILs roIe us prIncIpIe oI LIe cIurucLerIsLIc ucLIvILIes oI u gIven kInd oI
mobIIe beIng, ILs ubIIILy Lo ucL und suIIer In InLerucLIons wILI oLIer beIngs,
und ILs beIng LIe cuuse oI LIose nuLuruI subsLunces wIIcI ucL us genuIne
seII-movers.
n LIe second purL oI LIe cIupLer, Iocused on LIe vurIous posILIve ur-
z8q
Chcpter . Aristotle's Comprehensite Arument jor Hiher 1c:,
gumenLs LIuL ArIsLoLIe mukes Ior LIe exIsLence oI IIgIer c:,. TIe IIrsL
Lwo oI LIese urgumenLs sIow LIuL IL Is necessury Lo posLuIuLe souI or o_,
wIIcI cun boLI be un unmoved mover oI ILs body und LIe InILIuLor oI cuusuI
cIuIns In LIe worId, und wIIcI cun muInLuIn LIe souI-endowed enLILy In ex-
IsLence vIu resIsLunce Lo degruduLIon und vIu nuLrILIon. TIe second LIree
urgumenLs sIowLIuL LIere exIsL powers LIuL ure noL reducIbIe Lo eIemenLuI
moLIon, buL wIIcI on LIe conLrury requIre LIe posLuIuLIon oI Lypes oI souI
(or IIgIer c:,) wIIcI ure cupubIe oI IosLIng LIese powers. TIese 'prooIs,`
wIIcI ure IrequenLIy quILe sIorL und uL LImes even somewIuL crypLIc, ure
sIown Lo Iuve u mucI greuLer urgumenLuLIve power In LIe Iurger conLexL oI
ArIsLoLIe`s pIysIcuI und meLupIysIcuI LIeorIes, und In purLIcuIur In LIe con-
LexL oI IIs reIuLuLIon oI mucI oI LIe IounduLIon necessury Ior deIendIng LIe
muLerIuIIsL LIeorIes oI IIs predecessors. Reud In LIIs brouder conLexL, LIe
demonsLruLIons udduced by ArIsLoLIe Ior LIe exIsLence oI 'IIgIer` nuLures
provIde u convIncIng deIense oI IIs posILIon uguInsL LIe proposuIs oI LIe
oc:oyo:, und In LIe process reveuI LIe greuL depLI oI InsIgIL LIuL LIe SLu-
gIrILe Iud boLI InLo LIe scIence oI nuLure ILseII, us weII us InLo LIe LIeorIes
oI IIs predecessors (boLI LIeIr posILIve conLrIbuLIons und LIeIr deIecLs).
zqo
Conclosin
Consideruciones globules
EsLe esLudIo de Iu nocIn de c:, en ArIsLLeIes Iue InspIrudo por unu
IecLuru de Iu isIcu, IIbro , cupiLuIo 8, encumInudu u enLender su deIensu
de Iu IInuIIdud nuLuruI. AI Ieer Iu IILeruLuru secundurIu, sobre Lodo uqueIIu
escrILu desde Iu perspecLIvu de Iu LrudIcIn IIIosIIcu deI mundo ungIopur-
IunLe, me enconLr IrecuenLemenLe con criLIcus u Ios urgumenLos de ArIsL-
LeIes, ucusundoIe de muIenLendIdos busIcos, de dur por senLudos uspecLos
ImporLunLes de Iu urgumenLucIn, o de urgumenLur con IuIucIus. Aunque en
uqueI enLonces cureci de unu buse suIIcIenLe en ArIsLLeIes que me permI-
LIese urgIr de muneru convIncenLe conLru dIcIus posIcIones, me purecI
obvIo que mucIus de esLus criLIcus no Lomubun en cuenLu Iu perspecLIvu
mus umpIIu de Iu docLrInu urIsLoLIIcu, en purLIcuIur en eI ureu de Iu meLuIi-
sIcu. EsLo me IIev u emprender un esLudIo mus proIundo de Ios urgumen-
Los de ArIsLLeIes, denLro deI murco gIobuI de su IIIosoIiu.
Puru enIocur mIs esLudIos en un conjunLo munejubIe de Lemus, decIdi II-
mILur mIs InvesLIgucIones u Ius respuesLus que ArIsLLeIes du u Ios oc:oyo:,
uqueIIos IIIsoIos presocruLIcos que propusIeron Leorius muLerIuIIsLus y re-
duccIonIsLus enIu IIIosoIiu nuLuruI, y enpurLIcuIur u Ios oc:oyo: que IIore-
cIeron en Ius generucIones InmedIuLumenLe unLerIores u ArIsLLeIes. EsLos
ConcIusIn
IIIsoIos, cuyus docLrInus conocI bIen ArIsLLeIes (y esLun usi mucIo mus
presenLes en sus escrILos), Iueron LumbIn Ios Ierederos de cIerLos uxIomus
de PurmnIdes. EsLos, en eIecLo, Ies InspIruron u proponer soIucIones que
combInubun unu InmovIIIdud IundumenLuI en uqueIIus cosus que 'verdu-
derumenLe son` -o seu Ios 'uLomos`, 'ruices` o 'semIIIus`, nIcos exIsLenLes
segnsus respecLIvus Leorius-y Iu uperLuru u udmILIr Iu reuIIduddeI cumbIo
-que Ies permILiu desurroIIur Leorius de umpIIo uIcunce sobre eI desurroIIo
y Iu esLrucLuru deI mundo IisIco.
De esLe modo, Iu ucoLucIn deI objeLo de esLudIo u unu exLensIn mu-
nejubIe exIgI prescIndIr de unu InvesLIgucIn proIundu sobre Iu IIIosoIiu
nuLuruI propuesLu por PIuLn, pese u su proIundu InIIuencIu en ArIsLLeIes
y Ius correspondIenLes criLIcus deI EsLugIrILu en vurIos Iugures de su cor-
pus. Tumpoco reuIIc unu consIderucIn deLuIIudu de Ius expIIcucIones ncp
cco, de PurmnIdes y de HerucIILo, suIvo en cuunLo sLus InIIuyeron en
Ios oc:oyo: posLerIores. InuImenLe, dej Iueru de consIderucIn Ius Leo-
rius muLerIuIIsLus y reduccIonIsLus de Iu ucLuuIIdud, u pesur de su obvIo In-
Lers.
os resuILudos de Iu InvesLIgucIn, no obsLunLe dIcIos IimILes, me con-
IIrmuron en mI conjeLuru preIImInur sobre eI poder probuLorIo de Ios ur-
gumenLos de ArIsLLeIes. Desde eI enIoque prImero, cenLrudo en Iu IInuII-
dud, umpII eI IorIzonLe de esLe esLudIo puru cubrIr eI Lemu generuI de Iu
c:, 'superIor` y uverIguur cmo ArIsLLeIes jusLIIIc Iu reuIIdud prImurIu
de precIsumenLe uqueIIos LIpos de seres que Ios oc:oyo: quIsIeron LunLo
eIImInur de sus onLoIogius: orgunIsmos, sobre Lodo unImuIes, como ver-
duderus occ: curucLerIzudus por prIncIpIos IormuIes IrreducLIbIes que Ies
zqz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
dun su ser y sus ucLIvIdudes curucLerisLIcus. DIcIo Lemu, que IncIuiu Iu con-
sIderucIn de Iu IInuIIdud nuLuruI, gozubu de unu enverguduru cubuI puru
proIundIzur en Lodu unu vurIedud de uspecLos de Iu IIIosoIiu de ArIsLLe-
Ies. En purLIcuIur, me IIev u esLudIur su Leoriu IisIcu gIobuI, IncIuyendo
uspecLos de su cosmoIogiu, 'IisIcu eIemenLuI`, 'quimIcu`, bIoIogiu y psIcoIo-
giu. EsLos Lemus resuILuron esLur proIundumenLe urruIgudos en su IIIosoIiu
prImeru y, como resuILudo, Iei unu ImporLunLe porcIn de Iu MeLuIisIcu. DI-
cIos esLudIos dejuron muy cIuro que Iu 'cIencIu nuLuruI` de ArIsLLeIes no
puede enLenderse Iueru deI conLexLo de su meLuIisIcu, y que -unu vez escIu-
recIdos Ios cImIenLos meLuIisIcos de su docLrInu- su urgumenLucIn conLru
Ios oc:oyo: y u Iuvor de su propIu Leoriu eru noLubIemenLe mus IuerLe de
Io que Iu opInIn de mucIos esLudIosos sueIe usumIr.
Como Ie descrILo en Ios cupiLuIos unLerIores, Iu Leoriu meLuIisIcu de
ArIsLLeIes no es merumenLe 'unu` Leoriu ucercu de cmo es eI mundo, unu
Leoriu enLre mucIus oLrus: es un InLenLo umbIcIoso de descubrIr y expIo-
rur Ius curucLerisLIcus de Lodo ser en cuunLo LuI, con eI resuILudo de que
cuuIquIer Leoriu IisIcu propuesLu -seu por Ios oc:oyo:, PIuLn, ArIsLLeIes
mIsmo, o por cuuIquIer IIIsoIo que vInIeru despus- debe ser InLerpreLu-
du u su Iuz. us Leorius de Iu muyoriu de Ios oc:oyo: resuILun busurse en
errores serIos de unuIIsIs meLuIisIco, que Ies condujeron u proponer p_c
busIcus curenLes de jusLIIIcucIn prImordIuI, y u proponer Iu InmuLubIIIdud
deI ser busundose en un urgumenLo errneo deI grun Iundudor de Iu escue-
Iu eIuLu. A Io Iurgo de su corpus, y especIuImenLe en su isIcu, ArIsLLeIes
derIvu unu Leoriu de Iu c:, que puede decIurur necesurIu: puru expIIcur Ios
Ienmenos enconLrudos por Iu cIencIu nuLuruI, no Iuy uILernuLIvu u propo-
zq
ConcIusIn
ner un prIncIpIo IormuI de 'movImIenLo` y 'quIeLud` en Ius susLuncIus. Unu
vez desurroIIudo -u Lruvs de su Leoriu generuI de Iu c:,- eI upoyo Le-
rIco puru Iu exIsLencIu de Ius cc:, de Ios unImuIes y Ius pIunLus, resuILu
expIIcubIe que no consIderuse necesurIo -por Io que subemos- desurroIIur
un LruLudo monogruIIco dedIcudo u Iu urgumenLucIn posILIvu u Iuvor de su
exIsLencIu, u pesur de Ios urgumenLos de Ios oc:oyo: negundo expresu-
menLe esu exIsLencIu.
Aportuciones de estu tesis
Como Ie mosLrudo en mI LesIs, eI EsLugIrILu cIerLumenLe desurroII ur-
gumenLos u Iuvor de Iu exIsLencIu de nuLuruIezus superIores, uunque esLos
urgumenLos -con Iu excepcIn de uqueI u Iuvor de Iu IInuIIdud nuLuruI en
Isicc .8- LipIcumenLe se enconLruron denLro de LexLos con unu IInuIIdud
urgumenLuLIvu dIsLInLu. TuI es eI cuso, por ejempIo, deI urgumenLo sobre Ios
unImuIes como moLores InmvIIes subIunures, que Iormu purLe u su vez de
Iu pruebu mus ImporLunLe de unnIco y prImurIo moLor InmvII deI unIver-
so. GrucIus u esLus IncIusIones, Ios urgumenLos no sIempre se resuILuncomo
LuIes, upurecIendo cusI como meros esbozos, curenLes deI esIuerzo precIso
por purLe de ArIsLLeIes puru desurroIIurIos pIenumenLe. o que Ie querIdo
mosLrur en esLu LesIs, su uporLucIn prIncIpuI, es que cuundo se consIderun
esLos urgumenLos u Iu Iuz de Iu docLrInu gIobuI urIsLoLIIcu sobre Iu c:, (y
su meLuIisIcu subyucenLe), son urgumenLos IuerLes y probuLorIos conLru Ios
conLrIncunLes de su LIempo, Ios oc:oyo:.
u segundu uporLucIn deI esLudIo es un escIurecImIenLo de Iu depen-
zqq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
dencIu de Ios oc:oyo: prevIos u MeIIso u Iu urgumenLucIn de PurmnI-
des u Iuvor de Iu InmovIIIdud, unIdud y eLernIdud deI Ser; y, por LunLo, Iu
consIguIenLe vuInerubIIIdud de sus LesIs u Iu urgumenLucIn exILosu conLru
Iu posIcIn IundumenLuI deI eIeuLu. He enconLrudo un urgumenLo de es-
Le LIpo 'escondIdo` en Iu exposIcIn urIsLoLIIcu de Ios senLIdos deI ser, en
purLIcuIur eI senLIdo deI ser noLIco. Conocemos eI ser u Lruvs deI prImer
prIncIpIo, eI de no conLrudIccIn, pero es IucII no durse cuenLu de que eI
ser se udvIerLe en un juIcIo y IIjurse sIo en eI concepLo deI modo de ser
que 'esLu sIendo`. EsLe sesgo en Iu consIderucIn deI ser conduce u Iu conIu-
sIn deI ser mIsmo con Iu indoIe deI concepLo y sus uLrIbuLos: InmovIIIdud,
uLemporuIIdud, uuLo-IdenLIdud, unIcIdud, eLc. Pero esLu muneru de consI-
derur eI ser deju oIvIdudo eI ucLo expresudo en eI juIcIo, y deju ubIerLo eI
'cumIno de PurmnIdes`, o seu LrunsIerIr uI enLe reuI Ius curucLerisLIcus deI
enLe noLIco-concepLuuI. EsLe urgumenLo no se encuenLru expresumenLe en
Ios LexLos deI EsLugIrILu LuI como Io Ie descrILo uqui, pero consIdero que es
un urgumenLo neLumenLe urIsLoLIIco.
Sobre Iu buse de su epIsLemoIogiu reIuLIvu uI ser, ArIsLLeIes puede reIu-
Lur de unu vez u Lodos uqueIIos oc:oyo: (en prIncIpIo, u quIenes escrIbIe-
ron unLes de MeIIso, dejundo upurLe u DemcrILo) que busuron sus Leorius
en Iu supuesLu InmovIIIdud de Io que reuImenLe es. EI ejempIo dudo por
ArIsLLeIes en su encuenLro con Ios oc:oyo: es, por LunLo, muy InsLrucLI-
vo. Aunque cIerLumenLe esLuvo dIspuesLo de proporcIonur urgumenLos po-
sILIvos u Iuvor de Iu exIsLencIu reuI de compIejos seres 'superIores` como Ius
pIunLus y Ios unImuIes, su muyor empeo esLuvo enIocudo en Iu creucIn
de unu Leoriu IisIcu proIundumenLe urruIgudu en unu meLuIisIcu udecuudu.
zq
ConcIusIn
EsLubIecIdo eI murco LerIco, Iu necesIdud puru unu urgumenLucIn posI-
LIvu, uunque Loduviu presenLe, LIene menos prIorIdud, pues mucIos de Ios
probIemus que Ios urgumenLos posILIvos InLenLuron resoIver yu LIenen so-
IucIones cIurus, que proceden de Ius Leorius IisIcu y meLuIisIcu subyucenLes.
OLro resuILudo deI esLudIo u resuILur no es propIumenLe unu uporLucIn
de mI LesIs, sIno un IuIIuzgo de grun InLers ucercu de Iu IILeruLuru secun-
durIu sobre ArIsLLeIes. Es bIen subIdo que Ios esLudIos de su IIIosoIiu en eI
mundo ungIopurIunLe Iun sIdo InIIuIdos desde Iuce mucIo LIempo por Iu
perspecLIvu IermenuLIcu de Iu IIIosoIiu unuIiLIcu. Por seuIur sIo unejem-
pIo, uqueI deI pupeI de Iu meLuIisIcu en Iu comprensIn de Ius docLrInus de
ArIsLLeIes, Iu InIIuencIu de Iu IIIosoIiu unuIiLIcu Iu dudo Iugur u InLerpreLu-
cIones deI EsLugIrILu que son cIurumenLe unLImeLuIisIcus, que quIeren ver u
ArIsLLeIes como un IIIsoIo deI Ienguuje comn (B. Jones, W. CIurILon, G.
RyIe), por ejempIo, o como un empIrIsLu InLeresudo en eIImInur procesos
o evenLos mIsLerIosos y no empirIcos de Ius expIIcucIones de Ienmenos
IisIcos (M. Nussbuum 1q;8, p. ;q), y puru quIen Iu Iormu es uIgo 'muLerIuI`,
que prIncIpuImenLe LIene que ver con Iu orgunIzucIn deI enLe en cuesLIn
(LumbIn Nussbuum). ncIuso Ios que se InLeresun por su meLuIisIcu, como
W. SeIIurs y R. AIbrILLon, enLIenden Iu docLrInu de Iu susLuncIu sIn Iu uyudu
de Iu unuIogiu, uIgo LipIco de Iu IIIosoIiu unuIiLIcu; Ieen MeLuIisIcu V-V
puru comprender Iu docLrInu de Iu susLuncIu, pero no Lomun en cuenLu Ios
demus senLIdos deI enLe, en purLIcuIur eI ucLo y Iu poLencIu. De esLe modo,
su enLendImIenLo de Iu susLuncIu es enLerumenLe en LrmInos de Iu Iormu
como esLrucLuru, y no como ucLo de unu muLerIu en poLencIu de ser Iu sus-
LuncIu que es. MI opInIn sobre Ios uuLores de esLu Iuse de Iu IIsLorIu de Iu
zq6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
IermenuLIcu de ArIsLLeIes es que son unuIiLIcos en prImer Iugur, y sIo
secundurIumenLe InLrpreLes deI EsLugIrILu, por Iu IuerLe InIIuencIu de Ius
docLrInus InLerpreLuLIvus consIderudus 'ucepLubIes` por Ios unuIiLIcos. EsLe
sesgo se Iuce noLur mus, quIzu, con Iu IIIosoIiu unuIiLIcu, dudu su Lenden-
cIu u querer sIempre empezur 'desde cero`, y IuIIur sus concIusIones sIn eI
buguje de InLerpreLucIones unLerIores.
Todo esLo purece Iuber cumbIudo noLubIemenLe en dcudus recIenLes,
sobre Lodo desde Ios uos 8o, upurenLemenLe bujo Iu InIIuencIu de Ios esLu-
dIos cIusIcos sobre ArIsLLeIes como IIIsoIo. u nuevu LendencIu es uIerrur-
se u Ios LexLos y ser muy cuIdudosos u Iu Ioru de oIrecer InLerpreLucIones
gIobuIes de su uuLor. Por ejempIo, IIIsoIos mus recIenLes, como S. WuLer-
Iow (uIoru BroudIe), M. . GIII, C. WILL, M. urLI, D. CIurIes y T. ScuILsus
Iun vueILo u unu InLerpreLucIn de Iu susLuncIu que Lomu en cuenLu Ios vu-
rIos senLIdos deI ser, purLIcuIurmenLe Ios de ucLo y poLencIu, y por LunLo
LIenen unu InLerpreLucIn de Iu meLuIisIcu que se udecu mucIo mus u Iu
LoLuIIdud de Iu docLrInu expuesLu en Iu MeLuIisIcu. D. BosLock es oLro ejem-
pIo de esLu corrIenLe InLerpreLuLIvu mus recIenLe que InLenLu represenLur
IIeImenLe Iu docLrInu urIsLoLIIcu uun cuundo eI uuLor no esL de ucuerdo
con eIIu. BosLock, noLorIumenLe, consIderu que Iu nocIn de Iormu en ArIs-
LLeIes pudece de unu ubsoIuLu IncoIerencIu, pero urgumenLu mosLrundo
un udmIrubIe munejo de Ios LexLos, especIuImenLe Ios de Ios LexLos bIoIgI-
cos, que unLes recIbiun pocu uLencIn. TumbIn Iuy Ioy en diu unu nuevu
dIsposIcIn u enLrur en conversucIn con Ios comenLurIsLus unLIguos y me-
dIevuIes, LruLundo sus comenLurIos uI LexLo con grun respeLo, como de IguuI
InLers puru unu correcLu InLerpreLucIn de ArIsLLeIes uI de Ios mejores co-
zq;
ConcIusIn
menLurIsLus ucLuuIes. InuImenLe, Iu IubIdo unu expunsIn en Iu gumu de
LexLos que LipIcumenLe se Ieen puru enLender Iu meLuIisIcu y IisIcu urIsLoL-
IIcus y su IIIosoIiu de Iu cIencIu: Ioy endiu es de rIgor Lener unconocImIenLo
de Ios LexLos bIoIgIcos. GoLLIeII y ennox Iun sIdo pIoneros en ubrIr esLu
nuevu IronLeru, durunLe LunLos uos desconocIdu.
EI resuILudo IInuI de esLus nuevus LendencIus esLu sIendo mejorur Iu cuII-
dud IermenuLIcu de Ios esLudIos sobre eI EsLugIrILu, uunque, en Io reIeren-
Le u Iu meLuIisIcu, su comprensIn no uIcunzu Loduviu u Iu de Ios mejores co-
menLurIsLus ucLuuIes en eI conLInenLe europeo. EsLo se debe, en mI opInIn,
u Iu pecuIIur concepcIn de meLuIisIcu reInunLe ucLuuImenLe en eI mundo
ungIopurIunLe, en purLIcuIur Iu InIIuencIu de Iu usi IIumudu 'meLuIisIcu de
Ios mundos posIbIes`, que LIene muy poco en comn con Ios pIunLeumIen-
Los urIsLoLIIcos.
irecciones puru lu investigucin Iotoru
Huy dos Iineus de desurroIIo prIncIpuIes puru InvesLIgucIones IuLurus
sobre Ios Lemus esLudIudos: Ius perLInenLes u Iu IIIosoIiu unLIguu, y Ius re-
IuLIvus u cmo esLos Lemus esLun LruLudos en Iu IIIosoIiu ucLuuI. Comenzur
con Lemus reIucIonudos con Iu IIIosoIiu unLIguu, de Ios cuuIes mencIonur
dos que seriun de especIuI InLers. Un ureu de InLers seriu eI unuIIsIs de
Ios posIbIes respuesLus de Ios oc:oyo: u Ios urgumenLos de ArIsLLeIes en
su conLru, busundonos en Ios IrugmenLos de su docLrInu y Iu doxoIogiu LuI
como Ios Lenemos Ioy en diu. Cmo podriun Iuberse deIendIdo cudu uno
de eIIos, de ucuerdo con Ios prIncIpIos propIos de cudu uno? CuuI Iubriu
zq8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
sIdo su reuccIn uI uLuque urIsLoLIIco conLru PurmnIdes busudo en Iu use-
verucIn de unu conIusIn enLre Io reuI y Io noLIco-concepLuuI? Qu oLros
urgumenLos podriun Iuber usudo cudu uno puru deIender Io nucIeur de Iu
cosmoIogiu de cudu uno: Iu negucIn ubsoIuLu de Iu generucIn y Iu corrup-
cIn, y por LunLo de Iu c:,? Y IInuImenLe, qu respuesLu IubIeru dudo
PurmnIdes uI uLuque urIsLoLIIco u su docLrInu? Unu InvesLIgucIn de esLu
indoIe seriu uILumenLe especuIuLIvu, dudu Iu escusez de LexLos que Lenemos
de Ios vurIos uuLores bujo consIderucIn, pero LumbIn seriu de grun InLers
uverIguur Ios recursos 'InnuLos` de Ius Leorius de esLos presocruLIcos, y re-
suILur su cupucIdud de dur respuesLu u reLos IIIosIIcos provenIenLe de unu
perspecLIvu muy dIsLInLu de Iu suyu.
Unu segundu ureu de InLers seriu eI ImpucLo que LIenen Ius pruebus
urIsLoLIIcus puru nuLuruIezus superIores sobre oLros umbILos de su IIIoso-
Iiu, en purLIcuIur Iu LIcu. Hoy en diu es comn, uunque no unIversuI, de-
Iender Iu posLuru de que Iu LIcu urIsLoLIIcu no depende de su meLuIisIcu, sI
bIen son compuLIbIes; esLu posLuru Iu sIdo IIumudo 'coIerenLIsLu` por sos-
Lener que Iuy unu coIerencIu enLre umbos suberes, de LuI Iormu que Iu LI-
cu no pone en cuesLIn docLrInus meLuIisIcus de ArIsLLeIes, pero Lumpoco
necesILu de eIIus. HusLu qu punLo es necesurIo que un sujeLo LIco Len-
gu Ius curucLerisLIcus de un ser con unu c:, superIor? Por ejempIo, no
es necesurIo ser un se-movIenLe en un senLIdo IuerLe puru ser sujeLo LI-
co? SI no, cmo se puede useverur que es responsubIe de sus uccIones? Y
LumbIn, no son necesurIus Ius poLencIus rucIonuIes puru Iu cupucIdud de
decIdIr y ucLuur en consecuencIu? Y no es necesurIu Iu exIsLencIu de LeIeo-
Iogiu nuLuruI puru que un Iombre puedu Lener Iu IInuIIdud de ser IeIIz en
zqq
ConcIusIn
Iu conLempIucIn deI ucLo puro se-pensunLe? Me purece que esLus cupucI-
dudes y curucLerisLIcus son requerIdus en Iu LIcu, y por LunLo es necesurIo
unu 'bIoIogiu meLuIisIcu`, en Ius puIubrus de MucnLyre, puru poder Iucer
LIcu como Iu Iuce ArIsLLeIes. TunLo en su LIempo como en eI nuesLro, son
mucIos Ios IIIsoIos que neguriun Iu exIsLencIu de dIcIus cupucIdudes en eI
ser Iumuno, socuvundo usi su cupucIdud reuI puru ser sujeLo LIco.
En cuunLo u InvesLIgucIones que Lomuriun en cuenLu pIunLeumIenLos y
cuesLIones ucLuuIes, Iuy vurIos que me purecen de especIuI InLers. En prI-
mer Iugur, como Ie noLudo en esLu LesIs, Iu urgumenLucIn urIsLoLIIcu con-
Lru Ios oc:oyo: LIene un IuerLe componenLe meLuIisIco, munIIIesLo en sus
urgumenLos posILIvos u Iuvor de Iu exIsLencIu de nuLuruIezus superIores.
Pues bIen, uIoru que Iu meLuIisIcu yu no es un Lemu InmencIonubIe denLro
deI mundo ungIopurIunLe, qu seru de Ios urgumenLos u Iuvor de nuLuru-
Iezus superIores propuesLos por ArIsLLeIes?
u respuesLu u esLu pregunLu dependeriu, por supuesLo, de cuuI de Ius
mucIus 'meLuIisIcus` se udopLe puru Iucer Iu compurucIn. Por ejempIo,
denLro deI 'esencIuIIsmo cIenLiIIco` de KrIpke, PuLnum y BrIun EIIIs, por
qu cuben nuLuruIezus o 'esencIus` en eI nIveI de Ios eIemenLos y compues-
Los quimIcos, pero en eI grudo de Ios orgunIsmos? Qu LIpos de cuusuIIdud
exIsLen segn esLu Leoriu? Cube unu cuusuIIdud IInuI? Se udmILe Iu dIs-
LIncIn enLre ucLo y poLencIu? Es IIIemrIIcu su Leoriu de Ius susLuncIus
IisIcus? SI es usi, se puede consLruIr unu Leoriu de 'undumIuje de Iormus`
como se Iu IecIo con Iu onLoIogiu urIsLoLIIcu? Qu ruzones duriun sus
udIerenLes puru negur esencIus de un nIveI mus uILo y con cuusuIIdud pro-
pIu? Aunque IuILu mucIo puru que eI 'esencIuIIsmo cIenLiIIco` IIegue u ser
oo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
unu verduderu meLuIisIcu en senLIdo urIsLoLIIco o LomIsLu, Ius dIscusIones
ucLuuIes en Lorno u esLu Leoriu y oLrus semejunLes oIrecen IorIzonLes posILI-
vos puru Iu upIIcucIn de nuevus versIones de Ios urgumenLos urIsLoLIIcos
u Iuvor de nuLuruIezus superIores.
DenLro deI umbILo de Iu bIoIogiu, Iuy uuLores, como AuIeLLu eL uI., CIuy-
Lon y DuvIs, y MurpIy y SLoeger, enLre oLros, que deIIenden Iu exIsLencIu
de unu cuusuIIdud 'urrIbu-ubujo`. AuIeLLu, en purLIcuIur, un IisIco y bIIogo,
Iu dIseudo un experImenLo puru demosLrur que -en un orgunIsmo sIm-
pIe- condIcIones de mus uILo nIveI conIIgurun eI conLexLo puru procesos de
un nIveI mus bujo, un proceso que I IIumu 'conLroI de InIormucIn`. EsLo
suenu mucIo u Ius demosLrucIones urIsLoLIIcus u Iuvor de Iu consIderucIn
de Ios unImuIes como se-movIenLes. HusLu qu punLo se puede IubIur de
'se-movIenLes` desde Iu perspecLIvu de Iu Leoriu de cuusuIIdud urrIbu-ubujo?
Cmo cubriu Iu nocIn conLemporuneu de InIormucIn denLro de Iu IisIcu
y meLuIisIcu urIsLoLIIcu? Huy unu reIucIn enLre Iormu e InIormucIn?
En Ios procesos de uuLomovImIenLo que ArIsLLeIes descrIbe en De moLu
unImuIIum, qu reIucIn Iuy enLre un moLor InmvII que mueve por ser
senLIdo por un unImuI como moLIvo (y que por LunLo ucLu como unu cuusu
IInuI) y Iu nocIn de unu 'IuenLe de InIormucIn`? Huy mucIo Lerreno que
expIorur uqui, con semejunzus muy InLrIgunLes enLre Ios pIunLeumIenLos
conLemporuneos y Ios urIsLoLIIcos, pero LumbIn dIIerencIus ImporLunLes
que pIden ser mejor enLendIdus.
EsLus pregunLus soIo son unu seIeccIn minImu de uqueIIus que podriun
Iucerse ucercu deI Lemu de Ius nuLuruIezus superIores Ioy en diu. EI IuLuro
es IuIugeo, yu que cudu vez son mus Ios IIIsoIos que ucuden u ArIsLLe-
o1
ConcIusIn
Ies como InspIrucIn puru uIronLur Ios probIemus de Ioy, en Ius ureus que
Ie ubordudo en mIs esLudIos docLoruIes y en oLrus como Iu IIIosoIiu de Iu
cIencIu, Iu IisIcu, Iu bIoIogiu, Iu LIcu y Iu poIiLIcu, eLc.
Puru mi, sIn emburgo, Iu cuesLIn de Iu exIsLencIu de nuLuruIezus supe-
rIores es quIzu unu de Ius cuesLIones mus ImporLunLes de Lodus. Aunque po-
driu purecer un ureu oscuru y de escuso uLrucLIvo, en verdud Locu un usunLo
que es de InnegubIe InLers puru Lodos: somos Ios seres Iumunos, uI IIn
y uI cubo, uIgo reuI con nuesLru propIu nuLuruIezu que InIormu cmo vIvI-
mos como IndIvIduos y udnde queremos Ir como socIedud, o somos, en eI
veredIcLo nIIIIIsLu de DemcrILo, merumenLe 'uLomos y vucio`? Y de uIi Iu
ImporLuncIu de ArIsLLeIes, cuyu meLuIisIcu, upIIcubIe Loduviu Ioy, pone Ios
cImIenLos puru unu respuesLu posILIvu u esLu pregunLu, unu respuesLu que
no sIo es esperunzudoru, sIno que muesLru posIbIIIdudes de ser sosLenIbIe
un en eI conLexLo cIenLiIIco de nuesLro LIempo.
oz
A. Trunslutions oI Greek Texts
A.1 Aristotle
A.1.1 Cutegories
TrunsIuLIon by E. M. EdgIIII.
1bg-uq
ExpressIons wIIcI ure In no wuy composILe sIgnIIy subsLunce, quunLILy,
quuIILy, reIuLIon, pIuce, LIme, posILIon, sLuLe, ucLIon, or uIIecLIon. To skeLcI
my meunIng rougIIy, exumpIes oI subsLunce ure 'mun` or 'LIe Iorse`, oI
quunLILy, sucI Lerms us 'Lwo cubILs Iong` or 'LIree cubILs Iong`, oI quuIILy,
sucI uLLrIbuLes us 'wIILe`, 'grummuLIcuI`. 'DoubIe`, 'IuII`, 'greuLer`, IuII un-
der LIe cuLegory oI reIuLIon; 'In u LIe murkeL pIuce`, 'In LIe yceum`, under
LIuL oI pIuce; 'yesLerduy`, 'IusL yeur`, under LIuL oI LIme. 'yIng`, 'sILLIng`,
ure Lerms IndIcuLIng posILIon, 'sIod`, 'urmed`, sLuLe; 'Lo Iunce`, 'Lo cuuLer-
Ize`, ucLIon; 'Lo be Iunced`, 'Lo be cuuLerIzed`, uIIecLIon.
A.1. On Sophisticul ReIotutions
TrunsIuLIon by W. A. PIckurd-CumbrIdge.
16qu,-qo
or LIIs reuson, Loo, LIIs Lype oI IuIIucy Is Lo be runked umong LIose LIuL
depend on Iunguuge; In LIe IIrsL pIuce, becuuse LIe decepLIon Is eIIecLed
LIe more reudIIy wIen we ure InquIrIng InLo u probIem In compuny wILI
oLIers LIun wIen we do so by ourseIves, und LIe IIkeness urIses ouL oI LIe
Iunguuge.
A.1. Physics, or Nutorul Heuring
TrunsIuLIon by R. P. HurdIe und R. K. Guye.
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1Squq-16
WIen LIe objecLs oI un InquIry, In uny depurLmenL, Iuve prIncIpIes, condI-
LIons, or eIemenLs, IL Is LIrougI ucquuInLunce wILI LIese LIuL knowIedge,
LIuL Is Lo suy scIenLIIIc knowIedge, Is uLLuIned. or we do noL LIInk LIuL we
know u LIIng unLII we ure ucquuInLed wILI ILs prImury condILIons or IIrsL
prIncIpIes, und Iuve currIed our unuIysIs us Iur us ILs sImpIesL eIemenLs.
PIuInIy LIereIore In LIe scIence oI NuLure, us In oLIer bruncIes oI sLudy,
our IIrsL Lusk wIII be Lo Lry Lo deLermIne wIuL reIuLes Lo ILs prIncIpIes.
1Sgu1-6
TIe mosL perLInenL quesLIon wILI wIIcI Lo begIn wIII be LIIs: n wIuL sense
Is IL usserLed LIuL uII LIIngs ure one? or 'Is' Is used In muny senses. Do
LIey meun LIuL uII LIIngs 'ure' subsLunce or quunLILIes or quuIILIes? And,
IurLIer, ure uII LIIngs one subsLunce-one mun, one Iorse, or one souI-or
quuIILy und LIuL one und LIe sume-wIILe or IoL or someLIIng oI LIe kInd?
TIese ure uII very dIIIerenL docLrInes und uII ImpossIbIe Lo muInLuIn. or
II boLI subsLunce und quunLILy und quuIILy ure, LIen, wIeLIer LIese exIsL
IndependenLIy oI eucI oLIer or noL, BeIng wIII be muny.
1Sqb1g-
TIe prIncIpIes In quesLIon musL be eILIer (u) one or (b) more LIun one. I
(u) one, IL musL be eILIer (I) moLIonIess, us PurmenIdes und MeIIssus us-
serL, or (II) In moLIon, us LIe pIysIcIsLs IoId, some decIurIng uIr Lo be LIe
IIrsL prIncIpIe, oLIers wuLer. I (b) more LIun one, LIen eILIer (I) u IInILe or
(II) un InIInILe pIuruIILy. I (I) IInILe (buL more LIun one), LIen eILIer Lwo
or LIree or Iour or some oLIer number. I (II) InIInILe, LIen eILIer us Dem-
ocrILus beIIeved one In kInd, buL dIIIerIng In sIupe or Iorm; or dIIIerenL In
kInd und even conLrury.
A sImIIur InquIry Is mude by LIose wIo InquIre InLo LIe number oI exIs-
LenLs: Ior LIey InquIre wIeLIer LIe uILImuLe consLILuenLs oI exIsLIng LIIngs
ure one or muny, und II muny, wIeLIer u IInILe or un InIInILe pIuruIILy. So
LIey Loo ure InquIrIng wIeLIer LIe prIncIpIe or eIemenL Is one or muny.
oq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1Sgu1-o
To Iook InLo wIeLIer beIng Is one und ImmobIIe, LIen, Is noL Lo Iook InLo
nuLure. or jusL us Ior LIe geomeLer LIere Is no Ionger un urgumenL wILI
regurd Lo one wIo denIes LIe prIncIpIes, buL |LIIs job beIongs| eILIer Lo u
dIIIerenL scIence or Lo one common Lo uII, so neILIer |wILI regurd| Lo one
wIo denIes LIe prIncIpIes |Iere|. or LIere Is no Ionger u prIncIpIe, II LIere
Is onIy one LIIng und IL Is one In LIIs wuy. or u prIncIpIe Is u prIncIpIe
oI some LIIng or LIIngs... L musL be grunLed by us LIuL eILIer uII or some
nuLuruI LIIngs ure movIng. TIIs Is cIeur IromInducLIon... BuL sInce, LIougI
LIey do noL speuk ubouL nuLure, dIIIIcuILIes ubouL nuLure do sLIII occur Irom
LIeIr urgumenLs, perIups IL Is weII Lo dIscuss LIem u IILLIe, Ior LIe InquIry
Is pIIIosopIIcuI.
1Sgu1-6
TIe mosL perLInenL quesLIon wILI wIIcI Lo begIn wIII be LIIs: n wIuL sense
Is IL usserLed LIuL uII LIIngs ure one? or 'Is' Is used In muny senses. Do LIey
meun LIuL uII LIIngs 'ure' subsLunce or quunLILIes or quuIILIes?
1S6u1
or mun Is dIIIerenL In specIes Irom Iorse und |LIese ure| conLrurIes Irom
eucI oLIer.
1S6u-g
TIe sume kInd oI urgumenL IoIds good uguInsL PurmenIdes uIso, besIdes
uny LIuL muy uppIy specIuIIy Lo IIs vIew: LIe unswer Lo IIm beIng LIuL 'LIIs
Is noL Lrue` und 'LIuL does noL IoIIow`. HIs ussumpLIon LIuL one Is used In u
sIngIe sense onIy Is IuIse, becuuse IL Is used In severuI.
1S6b1
Hence 'subsLunce` wIII noL be u predIcuLe oI unyLIIng eIse. or LIe subjecL
cunnoL be u beIng, unIess 'beIng` meuns severuI LIIngs, In sucI u wuy LIuL
eucI Is someLIIng. BuL ex IypoLIesI 'beIng` meuns onIy one LIIng.
o
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1S,u16-1S
TIe IIrsL seL muke LIe underIyIng body one eILIer one oI LIe LIree or some-
LIIng eIse wIIcI Is denser LIun IIre und rurer LIun uIr LIen generuLe every-
LIIng eIse Irom LIIs, und obLuIn muILIpIIcILy by condensuLIon und rureIuc-
LIon.
1S,uo-6
TIe second seL usserL LIuL LIe conLrurIeLIes ure conLuIned In LIe one und
emerge IromIL by segreguLIon, Ior exumpIe AnuxImunder und uIso uII LIose
wIo usserL LIuL 'wIuL Is' Is one undmuny, IIke EmpedocIes undAnuxugorus;
Ior LIey Loo produce oLIer LIIngs IromLIeIr mIxLure by segreguLIon. TIese
dIIIer, Iowever, IromeucI oLIer In LIuL LIe Iormer ImugInes u cycIe oI sucI
cIunges, LIe IuLLer u sIngIe serIes. Anuxugorus uguIn mude boLI IIs 'Iome-
omerous' subsLunces undIIs conLrurIes InIInILe InmuILILude, wIereus Empe-
docIes posILs onIy LIe so-cuIIed eIemenLs.
1S,b,-1
NowLIe InIInILe quu InIInILe Is unknowubIe, so LIuL wIuL Is InIInILe In muI-
LILude or sIze Is unknowubIe In quunLILy, und wIuL Is InIInILe In vurIeLy oI
kInd Is unknowubIe In quuIILy. BuL LIe prIncIpIes In quesLIon ure InIInILe
boLI In muILILude und In kInd. TIereIore IL Is ImpossIbIe Lo know LIIngs
wIIcI ure composed oI LIem; Ior IL Is wIen we know LIe nuLure und quun-
LILy oI ILs componenLs LIuL we suppose we know u compIex.
1S,b-,
urLIer, unyLIIng muy come ouL oI unyLIIng-wuLer by segreguLIon Irom
IIesI und IIesI Irom wuLer. Hence, sInce every IInILe body Is exIuusLed by
LIe repeuLed ubsLrucLIon oI u IInILe body, IL seems obvIousIy Lo IoIIow LIuL
everyLIIng cunnoL subsIsL In everyLIIng eIse.
1SSu,-
L Is cIeur, LIen, LIuL uII LIInkers someIowmuke conLrurIes prIncIpIes. And
|LIey suy| LIIs reusonubIy. or LIe prIncIpIes musL be neILIer Irom eucI
oLIer nor Irom oLIers, und uII LIIngs musL be Irom LIem. BuL LIese |cIur-
o6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
ucLerIsLIcs| beIong Lo LIe IIrsL conLrurIes: LIrougI beIng IIrsL LIIngs, LIey
ure noL Irom oLIers; LIrougI beIng conLrury, LIey ure noL Irom eucI oLIer.
1SSu-b6
Our IIrsL presupposILIon musL be LIuL In nuLure noLIIng ucLs on, or Is ucLed
on by, uny oLIer LIIng uL rundom, nor muy unyLIIng come Irom unyLIIng
eIse, unIess we meun LIuL IL does so In vIrLue oI u concomILunL uLLrIbuLe.
or Iow couId 'wIILe' come Irom 'musIcuI', unIess 'musIcuI' Iuppened Lo
be un uLLrIbuLe oI LIe noL-wIILe or oI LIe bIuck? No, 'wIILe' comes Irom
'noL-wIILe'-und noL Irom uny 'noL-wIILe', buL Irom bIuck or some InLerme-
dIuLe coIour. SImIIurIy, 'musIcuI' comes Lo be Irom 'noL-musIcuI', buL noL
Irom uny LIIng oLIer LIun musIcuI, buL Irom 'unmusIcuI' or uny InLermedI-
uLe sLuLe LIere muy be.
Nor uguIn do LIIngs puss InLo LIe IIrsL cIunce LIIng; 'wIILe' does noL puss
InLo 'musIcuI' (excepL, IL muy be, In vIrLue oI u concomILunL uLLrIbuLe), buL
InLo 'noL-wIILe'-und noL InLo uny cIunce LIIng wIIcI Is noL wIILe, buL InLo
bIuck or unInLermedIuLe coIour; 'musIcuI' pusses InLo 'noL-musIcuI'-und noL
InLo uny cIunce LIIng oLIer LIun musIcuI, buL InLo 'unmusIcuI' or uny In-
LermedIuLe sLuLe LIere muy be.
1Squ11-1S
TIe nexL LIIng wouId be Lo suy wIeLIer |LIe prIncIpIes| ure Lwo or LIree
or more. TIey cunnoL be one, becuuse LIe conLrurIes ure noL one. Nor cun
LIey be InIInILe, becuuse beIng wouId noL be undersLundubIe, und In ev-
ery one genus LIere Is one conLrurIeLy, und subsLunce Is one cerLuIn genus,
und becuuse |wIuLever| cun be Irom IInILe |prIncIpIes| Is beLLer Irom IInILe
LIIngs, us EmpedocIes suys LIun Irom InIInILe LIIngs.
1Squ,-q
OLIer objecLIons Lo LIe vIewLIuL IL Is noL necessury Lo ussume u LIIrdprIncI-
pIe us u subsLruLummuy be udded. we IoId LIuL u subsLunce Is noL conLrury
Lo unoLIer subsLunce. How LIen cun subsLunce be derIved Irom wIuL ure
noL subsLunces? Or Iow cun non-subsLunces be prIor Lo subsLunce?
o;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1Sqb1-b1,
ndeed LIIs docLrIne Loo (LIuL LIe One und excess und deIecL ure LIe prIn-
cIpIes oI LIIngs) wouId uppeur Lo be oI oId sLundIng, LIougI In dIIIerenL
Iorms; Ior LIe eurIy LIInkers mude LIe Lwo LIe ucLIve undLIe one LIe pussIve
prIncIpIe, wIereus some oI LIe more recenL muInLuIn LIe reverse. To sup-
pose LIen LIuL LIe eIemenLs ure LIree In number wouId seem, Irom LIese
und sImIIur consIderuLIons, u pIuusIbIe vIew, us suId beIore.
1qob1,-S
PIuInIy LIen, II LIere ure condILIons und prIncIpIes wIIcI consLILuLe nuLuruI
objecLs und IromwIIcI LIey prImurIIy ure or Iuve come Lo be-Iuve come Lo
be, meun, wIuL eucI Is suId Lo be In ILs essenLIuI nuLure, noL wIuL eucI Is
In respecL oI u concomILunL uLLrIbuLe-pIuInIy, suy, everyLIIng comes Lo be
Irom boLI subjecL und Iorm. or 'musIcuI mun' Is composed (In u wuy) oI
'mun' und 'musIcuI': you cun unuIyse IL InLo LIe deIInILIons oI ILs eIemenLs.
L Is cIeur LIen LIuL wIuL comes Lo be wIII come Lo be Irom LIese eIemenLs.
Now LIe subjecL Is one numerIcuIIy, LIougI IL Is Lwo In Iorm. (or IL Is LIe
mun, LIe goId-LIe 'muLLer' generuIIy-LIuL Is counLed, Ior IL Is more oI LIe
nuLure oI u 'LIIs', und wIuL comes Lo be does noL come Irom IL In vIrLue oI u
concomILunL uLLrIbuLe; LIe prIvuLIon, on LIe oLIer Iund, und LIe conLrury
ure IncIdenLuI In LIe process.) And LIe posILIve Iorm Is one-LIe order, LIe
ucquIred urL oI musIc, or uny sImIIur predIcuLe.
1qobo-
WIence, IL musL be suId LIuL, In u wuy, LIere ure Lwo prIncIpIes, buL In u
wuy, LIree. And LIey ure, In u wuy, LIe conLrurIes, us LIougI someone suId
LIuL LIe musIcuI und LIe unmusIcuI or LIe IoL und LIe coId or LIe consonunL
und LIe dIssonunL |ure prIncIpIes|, buL In u wuy, noL. or IL Is ImpossIbIe
LIuL LIe conLrurIes suIIer by eucI oLIer.
1q1u,-u1g
TIe underIyIng nuLure, Iowever, Is scIenLIIIcuIIy knowubIe uccordIng Lo
proporLIon unuIogy. or us bronze Is Lo sLuLue or us LImber Is Lo bed or
us muLerIuI und LIe IormIess beIore IL Lukes on Iorm Is Lo wIuLever eIse Ius
o8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Iorm, so Is LIIs underIyIng nuLure Lo u subsLunce und "LIIs someLIIng" und
u beIng. TIIs, LIen, Is one prIncIpe, LIougI IL Is noL one or beIng us u "LIIs
someLIIng", und one Is LIe |prIncIpIe| wIIcI Is LIe uccounL; und, moreover,
|one prIncIpIe Is| wIuL Is conLrury Lo LIIs, LIe prIvuLIon.
1q1u-g
We wIII now proceed Lo sIow LIuL LIe dIIIIcuILy oI LIe eurIy LIInkers, us
weII us our own, Is soIved In LIIs wuy uIone. TIe IIrsL oI LIose wIo sLudIed
scIence were mIsIed In LIeIr seurcI Ior LruLI und LIe nuLure oI LIIngs by
LIeIr InexperIence...
1q1b1-b1g
We ourseIves ure In ugreemenL wILI LIem In IoIdIng LIuL noLIIng cun be
suId wILIouL quuIIIIcuLIon Lo come Irom wIuL Is noL. BuL neverLIeIess we
muInLuIn LIuL u LIIng muy 'come Lo be Irom wIuL Is noL`-LIuL Is, In u quuI-
IIIed sense. or u LIIng comes Lo be Irom LIe prIvuLIon, wIIcI In ILs own
nuLure Is noL-beIng,-LIIs noL survIvIng us u consLILuenL oI LIe resuIL. YeL
LIIs cuuses surprIse, und IL Is LIougIL ImpossIbIe LIuL someLIIng sIouId
come Lo be In LIe wuy descrIbed Irom wIuL Is noL.
1q1bS-o
TIIs LIen Is one wuy oI soIvIng LIe dIIIIcuILy. AnoLIer consIsLs In poInL-
Ing ouL LIuL LIe sume LIIngs cun be expIuIned In Lerms oI poLenLIuIILy und
ucLuuIILy.
1qu1g-g
or udmILLIng wILI LIem LIuL LIere Is someLIIng dIvIne, good, und desIr-
ubIe, we IoId LIuL LIere ure Lwo oLIer prIncIpIes, LIe one conLrury Lo IL, LIe
oLIer sucI us oI ILs own nuLure Lo desIre und yeurn Ior IL. BuL LIe conse-
quence oI LIeIr vIewIs LIuL LIe conLrury desIres ILs exLIncLIon. YeL LIe Iorm
cunnoL desIre ILseII, Ior IL Is noL deIecLIve; nor cun LIe conLrury desIre IL, Ior
conLrurIes ure muLuuIIy desLrucLIve. TIe LruLI Is LIuL wIuL desIres LIe Iorm
Is muLLer, us LIe IemuIe desIres LIe muIe und LIe ugIy LIe beuuLIIuI-onIy LIe
ugIy or LIe IemuIe noL per se buL per uccIdens.
oq
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1qbS-16
OI LIIngs wIIcI ure, some ure by nuLure und some LIrougI oLIer cuuses.
TIe unImuIs und LIeIr purLs und LIe pIunLs und LIe sImpIe bodIes, sucI us
eurLI, IIre, uIr, und wuLer, ure by nuLure. or we suy LIese und sucI LIIngs
ure by nuLure. BuL uII LIese LIIngs cIeurIy dIIIer IromLIIngs noL consLILuLed
by nuLure. or eucI oI LIese Ius In ILseII u prIncIpIe oI moLIon und sLundIng,
some uccordIng Lo pIuce, some uccordIng Lo growLI und dImInuLIon, und
some uccordIng Lo uILeruLIon.
1qb16-
A bed und u cIouk, Iowever, und unyLIIng eIse oI LIIs kInd, InsoIur us LIey
ure subjecL Lo eucI predIcuLe |menLIoned| und InusmucI us LIey ure Irom
urL, do noL Iuve uny Inborn ImpuIse Ior cIunge uL uII. BuL InsoIur us LIey
Iuppen Lo be oI rock or eurLI or u mIxLure oI LIese, LIey do Iuve one, und
jusL Lo LIuL exLenL, us nuLure Is u cerLuIn prIncIpIe und cuuse oI movIng und
oI resLIng In LIuL In wIIcI IL Is, prImurIIy, In vIrLue oI ILseII, und noL uccI-
denLuIIy.
1qb
...nuLure Is u cerLuIn prIncIpIe und cuuse oI moLIon und oI resLIng In LIuL In
wIIcI IL Is, prImurIIy, In vIrLue oI ILseII, und noL uccIdenLuIIy.
1qu-q
BuL Lo Lry Lo sIow LIuL nuLure exIsLs Is IuugIubIe. or IL Is uppurenL LIuL
umong beIngs LIere ure muny sucI LIIngs. SIowIng LIe munIIesL LIrougI
LIe unmunIIesL Is noL beIng ubIe Lo dIscern wIuL Is known LIrougI ILseII
und wIuL Is noL known LIrougI ILseII. TIuL IL Is possIbIe Lo suIIer LIIs Is
noL uncIeur. or someone bIInd Irom bIrLI mIgIL syIIogIze ubouL coIors.
WIence, IL Is necessury LIuL, Ior sucI peopIe, LIe urgumenL Is ubouL numes
und Is wILIouL undersLundIng.
1qb-,
WIence, In unoLIer wuy, nuLure wouId be LIe Iorm und specIes oI LIIngs
wIIcI Iuve In LIemseIves u prIncIpIe oI moLIon, |wIIcI specIes Is| noL sep-
1o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
urubIe excepL uccordIng Lo uccounL. WIuL Is Irom LIese Is noL nuLure, buL
by nuLure, e.g., mun. And LIIs Iorm Is more nuLure LIun LIe muLerIuI. or
eucI LIIng Is numed |by ILs nume| wIen IL Is In ucLuuIILy, ruLIer LIun wIen
IL Is In poLency.
1qb1q
'orm` und 'nuLure`, IL sIouId be udded, ure suId In Lwo senses. or LIe
prIvuLIon Loo Is In u wuy Iorm. BuL wIeLIer In unquuIIIIed comIng Lo be
LIere Is prIvuLIon, I.e. u conLrury Lo wIuL comes Lo be, we musL consIder
IuLer.
1qbg-g
BuL sInce LIe number oI wuys In wIIcI nuLure Is suId Ius been deLermned,
uILer LIIs one musL consIder In wIuL LIe muLIemuLIcIun dIIIers Irom LIe
sLudenL oI nuLure. or nuLuruI bodIes uIso Iuve surIuces und soIIds und
IengLIs und poInLs, wIIcI ure wIuL LIe muLIemuLIcIun Iooks InLo... TIe
muLIemuLIcIun, LIen, Is uIso concerned wILI LIese LIIngs, buL noL us eucI
Is u IImIL oI nuLuruI body, nor does Ie consIder LIeIr uccIdenLs InsoIur us
LIey occur In sucI beIngs. WIence, Ie uIso sepuruLes |IIs objecLs|. or
LIey ure sepurubIe Irom moLIon In LIougIL. And LIIs mukes no dIIIerence,
nor, sepuruLIng, do LIey become IuIse.
1qquo-
I we Iook uL LIe uncIenLs, pIysIcs wouId Lo be concerned wILI LIe muLLer.
(L wus onIy very sIIgILIy LIuL EmpedocIes und DemocrILus LoucIed on LIe
Iorms und LIe essence.)
1qqbq-
AguIn LIe prImury source oI LIe cIunge or comIng Lo resL; e.g. LIe mun wIo
guve udvIce Is u cuuse, LIe IuLIer Is cuuse oI LIe cIIId, und generuIIy wIuL
mukes oI wIuL Is mude und wIuL cuuses cIunge oI wIuL Is cIunged.
11
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1q6ug-S
TIere ure some Loo wIo uscrIbe LIIs IeuvenIy spIere und uII LIe worIds Lo
sponLuneILy. TIey suy LIuL LIe vorLex urose sponLuneousIy, I.e. LIe moLIon
LIuL sepuruLed und urrunged In ILs presenL order uII LIuL exIsLs.
1q6b6-b1o
TIere ure some Lo wIom Iuck seems Lo be u cuuse, yeL uncIeur Lo Iumun
LIougIL, us beIng someLIIng dIvIne und ruLIer godIIke. WIence, one musL
Iook InLo wIuL eucI Is, und wIeLIer cIunce und Iuck ure LIe sume or dIIIer-
enL, und Iow LIey IuII umong LIe cuuses deLermIned.
1q6b1o-b16
IrsL, LIen, sInce we see LIuL some LIIngs uIwuys come Lo be In LIe sume
wuy, buL some do so Ior LIe mosL purL, IL Is uppurenL LIuL Iuck Is cuIIed LIe
cuuse oI neILIer oI LIese; nor ure LIese by Iuck, eILIer wIuL Is by necessILy
und uIwuys, or wIuL Is Ior LIe mosL purL. BuL sInce LIere ure LIIngs wIIcI
come Lo be besIdes LIese und everyone suys LIese ure by Iuck, IL Is uppurenL
LIuL Iuck und cIunce ure someLIIng.
1q6b16-b
OI LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be, some come Lo be Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng und
some do noL. OI LIe Iormer, some |come Lo be| uccordIng Lo cIoIce, und
some noL uccordIng Lo cIoIce; buL boLI sorLs ure umong LIose wIIcI ure
Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng. WIence, IL Is cIeur LIuL, even In LIose wIIcI ure
beyond LIe necessury und wIuL Is Ior LIe mosL purL, LIere ure some ubouL
wIIcI "LIuL Ior LIe suke oI wIIcI" cun be presenL. WIuLever couId be done
by LIougIL or by nuLure Is Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng. SucI LIIngs, LIen,
wIen LIey come Lo be uccIdenLuIIy, we suy ure by Iuck. or jusL us wIuL
Is exIsLs eILIer In vIrLue oI ILseII or uccIdenLuIIy, so uIso cun IL be u cuuse.
or exumpIe, LIe urL oI Iouse-buIIdIng Is LIe cuuse oI LIe Iouse In vIrLue
oI ILseII, buL uccIdenLuIIy, wIILe or musIcuI Is. WIuL Is u cuuse In vIrLue oI
ILseII, LIen, Is deLermInuLe, buL wIuL Is so uccIdenLuIIy Is IndeLermInuLe, Ior
InIInILe LIIngs muy Iuppen Lo be In one LIIng.
1z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1q6bo-1q,uS
As wus suId, LIen, wIen LIIs comes Lo be umong LIIngs wIIcI ure Ior LIe
suke oI someLIIng, LIenIL Is suIdLo be by cIunce undby Iuck. TIe dIIIerence
beLween LIese musL be deLermIned IuLer. BuL nowIeL LIIs be uppurenL, LIuL
boLI ure umong LIIngs wIIcI ure Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng. or exumpIe,
u mun curIng Ior u common Iund wouId Iuve gone |Lo u cerLuIn pIuce| Ior
LIe suke oI recoverIng u debL, II Ie Iud known. BuL Ie dId noL go LIere
Ior LIe suke oI LIIs; IL Iuppened Lo IIm Lo go und Lo do LIIs Ior LIe suke oI
geLLIng LIe money. |He dId| LIIs, Iowever, neILIer goIng Lo LIe spoL Ior LIe
mosL purL nor by necessILy. TIe end, coIIecLIng LIe money, Is noL umong LIe
cuuses In IIm, buL Is umong LIIngs wIIcI ure cIosen und ure by LIougIL.
And LIen Ie Is suId Lo Iuve gone by Iuck; buL II Ie Iud cIosen und gone Ior
LIe suke oI LIIs, or II Ie uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL wenL LIere Lo coIIecL
money, |Ie wouId| noL |be suId Lo Iuve gone| by Iuck.
1q,u6-oS
So IL Is cIeur LIuL Iuck Is un uccIdenLuI cuuse In LIIngs wIIcI ure Ior LIe
Iesser purL, Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng, |und| uccordIng Lo cIoIce. WIence,
LIougIL undIuck concernLIe sume LIIng. or cIoIce Is noL wILIouL LIougIL.
1q,b1
or Iuck und wIuL Is by Iuck ure In LIose Lo wIIcI beIng IorLunuLe und,
generuIIy, ucLIon cun beIong.
1q,b1q-b
BuL cIunce Is In LIe oLIer unImuIs und In muny unsouIed LIIngs. or exum-
pIe, we suy LIe Iorse cume by cIunce, becuuse, comIng, IL wus suved, buL IL
dId noL come Ior LIe suke oI beIng suved. And LIe LrIpod IeII by cIunce, Ior
IL sLood Ior LIe suke oI beIng suL upon, buL dId noL IuII Ior LIe suke oI beIng
suL upon. WIence, IL Is uppurenL LIuL In LIIngs wIIcI come Lo be Ior LIe
suke oI someLIIng sImpIy, wIen LIIngs wIose cuuse Is ouLsIde come Lo be
noL Ior LIe suke oI wIuL Iuppens, LIen we suy |LIey come Lo be| by cIunce.
BuL, oI LIese, we suy LIuL wIuLever cIoosubIes come Lo be by cIunce In
LIose wIIcI Iuve cIoIce, come Lo be by Iuck.
1
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1qSu1-
We Iuve nowexpIuInedwIuL cIunce Is undwIuL sponLuneILy Is, undInwIuL
LIey dIIIer Irom eucI oLIer. BoLI beIong Lo LIe mode oI cuusuLIon 'source
oI cIunge`, Ior eILIer some nuLuruI or some InLeIIIgenL ugenL Is uIwuys LIe
cuuse; buL In LIIs sorL oI cuusuLIon LIe number oI possIbIe cuuses Is InIInILe.
1qSug-,
TIe IusL LIree oILen coIncIde; Ior LIe 'wIuL` und 'LIuL Ior LIe suke oI wIIcI`
ure one, wIIIe LIe prImury source oI moLIon Is LIe sume In specIes us LIese
(Ior mun generuLes mun).
1qSb1o-b1,
We musL expIuIn LIen (1) LIuL NuLure beIongs Lo LIe cIuss oI cuuses wIIcI
ucL Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng; (z) ubouL LIe necessury und ILs pIuce In pIys-
IcuI probIems, Ior uII wrILers uscrIbe LIIngs Lo LIIs cuuse, urguIng LIuL sInce
LIe IoL und LIe coId, eLc., ure oI sucI und sucI u kInd, LIereIore cerLuIn
LIIngs necessurIIy ure und come Lo be-und II LIey menLIon uny oLIer cuuse
(one IIs 'IrIendsIIp und sLrIIe`, unoLIer IIs 'mInd`), IL Is onIy Lo LoucI on IL,
und LIen good-bye Lo IL.
1qSb1,-bq
BuL LIere Is u dIIIIcuILy: wIuL prevenLs nuLure Irom ucLIng noL Ior LIe suke
oI someLIIng nor becuuse IL Is beLLer so, buL us Zeus sends LIe ruIn, noL
so LIe gruIn mIgIL grow, buL by necessILy? or wIuL rIses musL cooI, und
LIe cooIed comIng Lo be wuLer, musL IuII down. BuL, wIen LIIs comes Lo
be, growLI occurs In LIe gruIn. So Loo, II LIe gruIn on LIe LIresIIng-IIoor
Is desLroyed by LIIs, IL dId noL ruIn Ior LIe suke oI LIIs, LIuL IL mIgIL be
desLroyed, buL LIIs jusL Iuppened. So wIuL prevenLs LIe purLs In wIuL Is
by nuLure Irom beIng IIke LIIs, Ior exumpIe, LeeLI urIsIng by necessILy, LIe
IronL ones sIurp und IILLed Ior cuLLIng, LIe moIurs IIuL und useIuI Ior grInd-
Ing Iood sInce LIey dId noL come Lo be Ior LIe suke oI LIIs, buL LIey jusL
IeII LogeLIer |IIke LIIs|? And so Loo In LIe cuses oI LIe oLIer purLs In LIose
In wIIcI LIuL Ior LIe suke oI wIIcI seems Lo beIong. WIerever, LIen, ev-
eryLIIng cume LogeLIer us II IL cume Lo be Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng, LIese
were suved beIng suILubIy consLILuLed by cIunce. BuL wIuLever wus noL oI
1q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIIs sorL wus desLroyed und Is desLroyed, us EmpedocIes suys mun-Iuced
ox-progeny wus. TIIs, LIen, und uny oLIer oI LIIs sorL, Is LIe urgumenL due
Lo wIIcI someone mIgIL be uL u Ioss.
1qSbg-1qquS
BuL IL Is ImpossIbIe LIuL LIIs Is LIe wuy LIIngs ure. or LIese und uII LIIngs
wIIcI ure by nuLure come Lo be In u cerLuIn wuy eILIer uIwuys or Ior LIe
mosL purL, buL none oI LIe LIIngs wIIcI ure by Iuck und cIunce do LIIs. or
Lo ruIn mucI durIng wInLer does noL seemLo be by Iuck or by u coIncIdence,
buL durIng LIe dog-duys; nor Ior LIere Lo be burnIng IeuL durIng LIe dog-
duys, buL II durIng LIe wInLer. I, LIen, LIese LIIngs seem Lo be eILIer by
coIncIdence or Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng, und II LIese LIIngs ure noL ubIe Lo
be by coIncIdence nor by cIunce, LIey musL be Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng.
BuL Indeed, uII sucI LIIngs ure by nuLure, us even LIose suyIng LIese LIIngs
udmIL. So LIere Is "LIuL Ior LIe suke oI wIIcI" InLIIngs wIIcI ure und wIIcI
come Lo be by nuLure.
1qquS-1g
urLIer, wIere u serIes Ius u compIeLIon, uII LIe precedIng sLeps ure Ior
LIe suke oI LIuL. Now sureIy us In InLeIIIgenL ucLIon, so In nuLure; und us In
nuLure, so IL Is In eucI ucLIon, II noLIIng InLerIeres. Now InLeIIIgenL ucLIon
Is Ior LIe suke oI un end; LIereIore LIe nuLure oI LIIngs uIso Is so. TIus II u
Iouse, e.g. Iud been u LIIng mude by nuLure, IL wouId Iuve been mude In
LIe sume wuy us IL Is now by urL; und II LIIngs mude by nuLure were mude
uIso by urL, LIey wouId come Lo be In LIe sume wuy us by nuLure. EucI sLep
LIen In LIe serIes Is Ior LIe suke oI LIe nexL.
1qqbg-S
TIus In LIe orIgInuI combInuLIons LIe 'ox-progeny` II LIey IuIIed Lo reucI u
deLermInuLe end musL Iuve urIsen LIrougI LIe corrupLIon oI some prIncI-
pIe correspondIng Lo wIuL Is now LIe seed. urLIer, seed musL Iuve come
InLo beIng IIrsL, und noL sLruIgILwuy LIe unImuIs: LIe words 'wIoIe-nuLured
IIrsL...` musL Iuve meunL seed.
1
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1qqb1g-b6
TIe one wIo speuks LIus |deIendIng pureIy muLerIuI necessILy| wIoIIy does
uwuy boLI wILI LIe LIIngs wIIcI ure by nuLure und wILI nuLure. or LIose
LIIngs ure by nuLure wIIcI, conLInuousIy beIng moved Irom some prIncI-
pIe In LIemseIves, reucI some end. BuL LIe sume end Is noL reucIed Irom
eucI prIncIpIe In eucI cuse, nor uny cIunce end: ruLIer, eucI LIIng uIwuys
reucIes LIe sume end, unIess someLIIng Impedes IL. BuL LIuL Ior LIe suke
oI wIIcI und wIuL Is Ior LIe suke oI LIIs cun come Lo be by Iuck, us we suy
LIuL LIe sLrunger cume by Iuck, und, IuvIng Ireed LIe cupLIve, wenL uwuy,
wIen, comIng, Ie ucLed us II Ior LIe suke oI LIIs, LIougI Ie dId noL come Ior
LIe suke oI LIIs. And LIIs Is uccIdenLuI, Ior Iuck Is umong uccIdenLuI cuuses,
us we suId eurIIer. BuL wIen LIIs comes Lo be uIwuys or Ior LIe mosL purL, IL
Is noL uccIdenLuI nor by Iuck. YeL In nuLuruI LIIngs IL Is uIwuys LIus, unIess
someLIIng Impedes IL.
1qqb6-bq
L Is sLrunge noL Lo beIIeve LIuL someLIIng comes Lo be Ior LIe suke oI some-
LIIng jusL becuuse LIe mover Is noL seen deIIberuLIng. or even urL does noL
deIIberuLe. I LIe sIIp-buIIdIng urL were In LIe LImber, IL wouId ucL by nu-
Lure In LIe sume wuy. WIence, II LIuL Ior LIe suke oI wIIcI Is In urL, IL Is
uIso In nuLure. TIIs Is mosL cIeur wIen someone cures IImseII. or nuLure
Is IIke LIIs.
oob1-1
NuLure Ius been deIIned us u 'prIncIpIe oI moLIon und cIunge', und IL Is
LIe subjecL oI our InquIry. We musL LIereIore see LIuL we undersLund LIe
meunIng oI 'moLIon'; Ior II IL were unknown, LIe meunIng oI 'nuLure' Loo
wouId be unknown.
oob-g
AguIn, LIere Is no sucI LIIng us moLIon over und ubove LIe LIIngs. L Is
uIwuys wILI respecL Lo subsLunce or Lo quunLILy or Lo quuIILy or Lo pIuce LIuL
wIuL cIunges cIunges. BuL IL Is ImpossIbIe, us we usserL, Lo IInd unyLIIng
common Lo LIese wIIcI Is neILIer 'LIIs` nor quunLum nor quuIe nor uny oI
LIe oLIer predIcuLes. Hence neILIer wIII moLIon und cIunge Iuve reIerence
16
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Lo someLIIng over und ubove LIe LIIngs menLIoned, Ior LIere Is noLIIng
over und ubove LIem.
o1u1o-1q
HuvIng dIsLInguIsIed uccordIng Lo eucI genus, beLween wIuL Is In ucLuuIILy
und wIuL Is In poLency, LIe ucLuuIILy oI wIuL exIsLs In poLency, us sucI, Is
moLIon. or exumpIe, |LIe ucLuuIILy| oI LIe uILerubIe, us uILerubIe, Is uILer-
uLIon; oI LIe growubIe und oI ILs opposILe, LIe decreusubIe (Ior LIere Is no
nume common Lo boLI), growLI und dImInuLIon; oI wIuL cun come Lo be
und oI LIe desLrucLIbIe, comIng Lo be und desLrucLIon; oI wIuL cun be borne,
IocomoLIon. ExumpIes wIII eIucIduLe LIIs deIInILIon oI moLIon. WIen LIe
buIIdubIe, In so Iur us IL Is jusL LIuL, Is IuIIy reuI, IL Is beIng buIIL, und LIIs Is
buIIdIng. SImIIurIy, IeurnIng, docLorIng, roIIIng, IeupIng, rIpenIng, ugIng.
TIe sume LIIng, II IL Is oI u cerLuIn kInd, cun be boLI poLenLIuI und IuIIy reuI,
noL Indeed uL LIe sume LIme or noL In LIe sume respecL, buL e.g. poLenLIuIIy
IoL und ucLuuIIy coId. Hence uL once sucI LIIngs wIII ucL und be ucLed on by
one unoLIer In muny wuys: eucI oI LIem wIII be cupubIe uL LIe sume LIme
oI cuusIng uILeruLIon und oI beIng uILered.
ouS-ou1
TIIs occurs by LIe LoucI oI wIuL Is moLIve: wIence, LIe IuLLer suIIers uL LIe
sume LIme. TIe mover wIII uIwuys beur some specIes, eILIer u "LIIs" or u
quuIILy or un umounL wIIcI wIII be u prIncIpIe und cuuse oI moLIon, wIen IL
moves |unoLIer|. or exumpIe, LIe mun In ucLuuIILy mukes mun IromwIuL
Is mun In poLency.
ou1-1S
And |LIe soIuLIon oI| LIe dIIIIcuILy Is uppurenL, LIuL moLIon Is In LIe mobIIe.
or LIe ucLuuIILy Is oI LIIs und Irom wIuL Is moLIve. And LIe ucL oI wIuL Is
moLIve Is noL oLIer. or LIere musL be unucLuuIILy oI boLI. or IL Is u moLIve
LIIng by beIng ubIe; buL IL Is u mover by beIng In ucL uL work. BuL LIe moLIve
LIIng cuuses LIe ucL oI LIe mobIIe; wIence, LIe ucL oI boLI uIIke Is one, jusL
us LIe InLervuI Irom one Lo Lwo und Irom Lwo Lo one Is LIe sume, und wIuL
Is upIIII und J wIuL Is downIIII. or LIese ure one, LIougI LIe uccounL Is
noL one. So Loo In LIe cuse oI LIe mover und LIe moved.
1;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
ou-g
DemocrILus, Ior IIs purL, usserLs LIe conLrury, numeIy LIuL noeIemenL urIses
Irom unoLIer eIemenL. NeverLIeIess Ior IIm LIe common body Is u source
oI uII LIIngs, dIIIerIng Irom purL Lo purL In sIze und In sIupe.
ob-1q
L Is cIeur LIen Irom LIese consIderuLIons LIuL LIe InquIry concerns LIe
pIysIcIsL. Nor Is IL wILIouL reusonLIuL LIey uII muke IL u prIncIpIe or source.
We cunnoL suy LIuL LIe InIInILe Ius no eIIecL, und LIe onIy eIIecLIveness
wIIcI we cunuscrIbe Lo IL Is LIuL oI u prIncIpIe. EveryLIIng Is eILIer u source
or derIved Iromu source. BuL LIere cunnoL be u source oI LIe InIInILe or IIm-
ILIess, Ior LIuL wouId be u IImIL oI IL. urLIer, us IL Is u begInnIng, IL Is boLI
uncreuLubIe und IndesLrucLIbIe. or LIere musL be u poInL uL wIIcI wIuL
Ius come Lo be reucIes compIeLIon, und uIso u LermInuLIon oI uII pussIng
uwuy. TIuL Is wIy, us we suy, LIere Is no prIncIpIe oI LIIs, buL IL Is LIIs
wIIcI Is IeId Lo be LIe prIncIpIe oI oLIer LIIngs, und Lo encompuss uII und
Lo sLeer uII, us LIose usserL wIo do noL recognIze, uIongsIde LIe InIInILe,
oLIer cuuses, sucI us MInd or rIendsIIp. urLIer LIey IdenLIIy IL wILI LIe
DIvIne, Ior IL Is 'deuLIIess und ImperIsIubIe` us AnuxImunder suys, wILI LIe
mujorILy oI LIe pIysIcIsLs.
oqu-q
BuL IL Is ImpossIbIe LIuL LIe InIInILe be u beIng InucLuuIILy; Ior IL Is necessury
LIuL IL be some umounL. TIe InIInILe, LIen, exIsLs uccIdenLuIIy. BuL II so, IL
wus suId LIuL one cunnoL cuII IL u prIncIpIe, u: buL LIuL In wIIcI IL Iuppens
Lo be, LIe uIr or LIe even, |Is u prIncIpIe|.
o6u1g-1S
BoLI wIuL Is In poLency und wIuL Is In ucLuuIILy, LIen, ure suId Lo be. And
LIe one InIInILe Is by uddILIon, unoLIer by dIvIsIon. Now, IL wus suId LIuL
mugnILude Is noL InIInILe uccordIng Lo ucL; buL by dIvIsIon, IL Is. or IL Is noL
dIIIIcuIL Lo reIuLe LIe IndIvIsIbIe IInes. L remuIns, LIen, LIuL LIe InIInILe Is
In poLency.
18
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
o,uS
or LIe muLLer Is purL oI LIe wIoIe, us LIe bronze Is oI LIe bronze sLuLue.
o,b1-6
TIe InIInILe Is noL LIe sume In mugnILude und movemenL und LIme, In LIe
sense oI u sIngIe nuLure, buL LIe posLerIor depends on LIe prIor, e.g. move-
menL Is cuIIed InIInILe In vIrLue oI LIe mugnILude covered by LIe movemenL
(or uILeruLIon or growLI), und LIme becuuse oI LIe movemenL.
o,bg-oSuq
SInce, Iowever, LIe cuuses were dIvIded In u Iour-IoId wuy, IL Is uppurenL
LIuL LIe InIInILe Is u cuuse us muLerIuI, und LIuL Lo be InIInILe Is u prIvuLIon;
wIuL underIIes |LIe InIInILe| In vIrLue oI ILseII Is LIe conLInuous und sen-
sIbIe. AII oLIer LIInkers cIeurIy use LIe InIInILe us muLerIuI. WIence, IL Is
uIso sLrunge Lo muke IL noL wIuL Is conLuIned, buL wIuL conLuIns.
oqug-o,
True, buL even II we suppose ILs exIsLence seLLIed, LIe quesLIon oI ILs nuLure
presenLs dIIIIcuILy-wIeLIer IL Is some sorL oI 'buIk` oI body or some enLILy
oLIer LIun LIuL, Ior we musL IIrsL deLermIne ILs genus. Now IL Ius LIree
dImensIons, IengLI, breudLI, depLI, LIe dImensIons by wIIcI uII body uIso
Is bounded. BuL LIe pIuce cunnoL be body; Ior II IL were LIere wouId be Lwo
bodIes In LIe sume pIuce.
11u1S-q
AguIn, wIen we suy u LIIng Is 'moved`, LIe predIcuLe eILIer (1) beIongs Lo IL
ucLuuIIy, In vIrLue oI ILs own nuLure, or (z) In vIrLue oI someLIIng conjoIned
wILI IL. n LIe IuLLer cuse IL muy be eILIer (u) someLIIng wIIcI by ILs own
nuLure Is cupubIe oI beIng moved, e.g. LIe purLs oI LIe body or LIe nuII In LIe
sIIp, or (b) someLIIng wIIcI Is noL In ILseII cupubIe oI beIng moved, buL Is
uIwuys moved LIrougI ILs conjuncLIon wILI someLIIng eIse, us 'wIILeness`
or 'scIence`. TIese Iuve cIunged LIeIr pIuce onIy becuuse LIe subjecLs Lo
wIIcI LIey beIong do so.
1q
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
qb1-b1o
or wIuL Is IIrsL moved und LIuL Lo wIIcI und Irom wIIcI IL Is moved ure
dIIIerenL, e.g., LIe LImber und LIe IoL und LIe coId. OI LIese, LIen, one Is
LIuL wIIcI, one LIuL Lo wIIcI, und one LIuL Irom wIIcI. L Is cIeur, LIen,
LIuL LIe moLIon Is In LIe LImber, noL In LIe specIes. or LIe specIes or LIe
pIuce or LIe umounL do noL move undure noL moved, buL LIe mover |moves|
wIuL Is moved und Lo LIuL InLo wIIcI IL Is moved. or LIe cIunge Is numed
more IromLIuL Lo wIIcI LIun IromLIuL IromwIIcI. WIence uIso, desLruc-
LIon Is cIunge Lo non-beIng. NeverLIeIess, wIuL Is desLroyed uIso cIunges
IrombeIng. And comIng Lo be Is Lo beIng; neverLIeIess, IL Is uIso Iromnon-
beIng.
6b1-bq
CIunge In LIe sume specIes wILI regurd Lo more und Iess Is uILeruLIon. or
moLIon Is Iromu conLrury or Lo u conLrury, eILIer sImpIy or In u cerLuIn wuy.
or, In LIe cuse oI LIe Iess, LIIs wIII be suId Lo cIunge In goIng Lo LIe con-
Lrury; In LIe cuse oI LIe more, us Irom LIe conLrury Lo LIIs sume LIIng. L
mukes no dIIIerence wIeLIer IL cIunge In some wuy or sImpIy, excepL LIuL
LIe conLrurIes musL be presenL In some wuy or sImpIy, excepL LIuL LIe con-
LrurIes musL be presenL In some wuy; LIe more und Iess, Iowever, ure more
or Iess oI LIe conLrury beIng presenL or noL. rom LIese |consIderuLIons|,
LIen, IL Is cIeur LIuL LIese LIree uIone ure moLIons.
,b-Su
TIe moLIonone InsubsLunce undInnumber Is sImpIy one. WIuL sucIu mo-
LIon Is Is cIeur by dIvIdIng. or LIere ure uccordIng Lo number LIree LIIngs
ubouL wIIcI we speuk In regurd Lo moLIon: LIuL wIIcI, LIuL In wIIcI, und
wIen. meun LIuL IL Is necessury LIuL LIere be someLIIng movIng, us mun
or goId und LIuL LIIs Is movIng In someLIIng, sucI us In pIuce or pussIon,
und uL some LIme, Ior everyLIIng moves In LIme. OI LIese, Iowever, Lo be
one In genus or In specIes Is In LIe LIIng In wIIcI LIe mobIIe Is movIng, und
Lo be conLIguous wus In LIme, buL Lo be sImpIy one moLIon Is |beIng one|
In uII LIese. or LIuL In wIIcI musL be one und IndIvIsIbIe, I.e., u specIes;
und LIe wIen, I.e., LIe LIme, musL be one und musL noL be InLerrupLed. And
wIuL Is movIng musL be one noL uccIdenLuIIy, us LIe wIILe bIuckens und
CorIscus wuIks (CorIscus und wIILe ure one, buL uccIdenLuIIy), nor uccord-
Ing Lo someLIIng common. or Lwo men muy become weII uL LIe sume LIme
zo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
uccordIng Lo LIe sume IeuILI, e.g., Irom InIIummuLIon oI LIe eye, buL LIIs
Is noL one moLIon, buL one In specIes.
1u1-q
I, Iowever, LIe conLInuous und wIuL Is LoucIIng und wIuL Is In successIon
ure us deLermIned beIore, LIe conLInuous beIng LIuL oI wIIcI LIe exLremes
ure one, wIuL Is LoucIIng, LIuL oI wIIcI |LIe exLremes| urc LogeLIer, und
wIuL Is In successIon, wIuL Ius noLIIng oI LIe sume kInd beLween, IL Is Im-
possIbIe LIuL someLIIng conLInuous be |mude| Irom IndIvIsIbIes, us u IIne
IrompoInLs, II, Indeed, LIe IIne Is conLInuous, buL LIe poInL IndIvIsIbIe. or
neILIer ure LIe exLremes oI poInLs one (Ior LIere Is noL, on LIe one Iund un
exLreme, und on LIe oLIer, some oLIer purL oI LIe IndIvIsIbIe); nor ure LIe
exLremes LogeLIer (Ior LIere Is no exLreme oI LIe purLIess, Ior LIe exLreme
und LIuL oI wIIcI IL Is LIe exLreme ure dIIIerenL).
qu1,-b1,
SInce, Iowever, wIuL Is movIng Is moved by someLIIng, IL Is uIso necessury
LIuL everyLIIng movIng In pIuce be moved by unoLIer. And LIereIore LIe
mover |Is moved| by someLIIng dIIIerenL, wIen IL ILseII Is uIso movIng, und
LIIs uguIn by someLIIng dIIIerenL. TIey wIII noL LIen, go on Lo InIInILy, buL
|LIe serIes| wIII come Lo u sLund somewIere, und LIere wIII be someLIIng
wIIcI wIII be prImurIIy LIe cuuse oI movIng. or II noL, buL LIe movers do
go on Lo InIInILy, IeL A, someLIIng moved, be moved by B, B by C, C by D;
und, LIen, In LIIs wuy, IeL LIemgo on Lo InIInILy. SInce, LIen, LIe mover und
LIe LIIng |moved| ure movIng uL LIe sume LIme, IL Is cIeur LIuL boLI A und
B wIII be movIng uL LIe sume LIme. or A wIII be moved wIen B Is movIng;
und B, LIen, wIen C, und C wIen D. TIe moLIon oI A und B, wIII LIereIore
be uL LIe sume LIme, und oI C, und oI eucI oI LIe remuInIng ones. We wIII be
ubIe Lo Luke eucI oI LIese, LIereIore. or even II eucI Is moved by eucI, LIe
moLIon oI eucI Is no Iess one In number, und Is noL InIInILe In ILs exLremes,
sInce, Indeed, everyLIIng movIng moves IromsomeLIIng Lo someLIIng. or
moLIon Iuppens Lo be LIe sume eILIer In number, or In genus, or In specIes.
cuII LIuL moLIon sume In number, LIen, wIIcI Is IromLIe sume In number
Lo LIe sume In number In u LIme sume In number, e.g., Irom LIIs wIILe,
wIIcI Is one In number, Lo LIIs bIuck, uccordIng Lo LIIs LIme, wIIcI Is one
In number. or II |LIe moLIon Is| uccordIng Lo unoLIer LIme, LIe moLIon
wIII no Ionger bc one In number, buL In specIes. TIuL moLIon Is LIe sume In
genus wIIcI Is In LIe sume uLLrIbuLe predIcuLe, cuLegory, oI subsLunce or oI
z1
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
|unoLIer| genus, In specIes, LIe one Irom LIe sume In specIes Lo LIe sume
In specIes, us Irom wIILe Lo bIuck or Irom good Lo bud. (TIese LIngs were
uIso suId In LIe prIor dIscussIons.) eL LIe moLIon oI A, LIereIore, be Luken,
und IeL IL be E, und oI B, Z, und oI CD, T, und LIe LIme In wIIcI A moves,
K. TIe moLIon oI A, LIen, beIng deLermIned, LIe LIme wIII be deLermIned
und K wIII noL be InIInILe. BuL boLI A und B und eucI oI LIe remuInIng
ones were movng In LIe sume LIme. L LIereIore Iuppens LIuL LIe moLIon
EZT, beIng InIInILe, Is movIng In LIe deLermIned LIme K. or In LIuL In
wIIcI A wus movIng, uII LIe ones In successIon Lo A, beIng InIInILe, were
uIso movIng. WIence, LIey ure movng In LIe sume LIme. or eILIer LIe
moLIon oI A wIII be equuI Lo LIuL oI B, or greuLer. However, IL mukes no
dIIIerence. or In every wuy un InIInILe moLIon Iuppens Lo be movIng In u
IInILe LIme; und LIIs Is ImpossIbIe.
qqb6-qgu6
or In u wuy even LIe senses undergo uILeruLIon, sInce LIe ucLIve sense Is
u moLIon LIrougI LIe body In LIe course oI wIIcI LIe sense Is uIIecLed In
u cerLuIn wuy. We see, LIen, LIuL LIe unImuLe Is cupubIe oI every kInd oI
uILeruLIon oI wIIcI LIe InunImuLe Is cupubIe: buL LIe InunImuLe Is noL cu-
pubIe oI every kInd oI uILeruLIon oI wIIcI LIe unImuLe Is cupubIe, sInce IL
Is noL cupubIe oI uILeruLIon In respecL oI LIe senses: moreover LIe InunI-
muLe Is unconscIous oI beIng uIIecLed by uILeruLIon, wIereus LIe unImuLe
Is conscIous oI IL, LIougI LIere Is noLIIng Lo prevenL LIe unImuLe uIso be-
Ing unconscIous oI IL wIen LIe process oI LIe uILeruLIon does noL concern
LIe senses. SInce, LIen, LIe uILeruLIon oI LIuL wIIcI undergoes uILeruLIon
Is cuused by sensIbIe LIIngs, In every cuse oI sucI uILeruLIon IL Is evIdenL
LIuL LIe respecLIve exLremILIes oI LIuL wIIcI cuuses und LIuL wIIcI under-
goes uILeruLIon ure udjucenL. TIus LIe uIr Is conLInuous wILI LIuL wIIcI
cuuses LIe uILeruLIon, und LIe body LIuL undergoes uILeruLIon Is conLInuous
wILI LIe uIr. AguIn, LIe coIor Is conLInuous wILI LIe IIgIL und LIe IIgIL wILI
LIe sIgIL. And LIe sume Is Lrue oI IeurIng und smeIIIng: Ior LIe prImury
movenL In respecL Lo LIe moved Is LIe uIr. SImIIurIy, In LIe cuse oI LusLIng,
LIe IIuvor Is udjucenL Lo LIe sense oI LusLe. And IL Is jusL LIe sume In LIe
cuse oI LIIngs LIuL ure InunImuLe und IncupubIe oI sense-percepLIon.
gob6-g1ug
...or In LIe munner descrIbed by EmpedocIes, uccordIng Lo wIom LIe unI-
verse Is uILernuLeIy In moLIon und uL resL-In moLIon, wIen ove Is mukIng
zz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIe one ouL oI muny, or SLrIIe Is mukIng muny ouL oI one, und uL resL In LIe
InLermedIuLe perIods oI LIme-IIs uccounL beIng us IoIIows:
'SInce One IuLI Ieurned Lo sprIng Irom MunIIoId,
And One dIsjoIned mukes munIIoId urIse,
TIus LIey Become, nor sLubIe Is LIeIr IIIe:
BuL sInce LIeIr moLIon musL uILernuLe be,
TIus Iuve LIey ever ResL upon LIeIr round`:
Ior we musL suppose LIuL Ie meuns by LIIs LIuL LIey uILernuLe Irom LIe
one moLIon Lo LIe oLIer.
gbS-1
IrsL, IL muy be suId LIuL no process oI cIunge Is eLernuI: Ior LIe nuLure oI
uII cIunge Is sucI LIuL IL proceeds Irom someLIIng Lo someLIIng, so LIuL
every process oI cIunge musL be bounded by LIe conLrurIes LIuL murk ILs
course, und no moLIon cun go on Lo InIInILy.
ggug-uo
or IL Is ImpossIbIe Lo suy |LIe eIemenLs| ure moved by LIemseIves. or
LIIs Is vILuI und proper Lo ensouIed LIIngs. And LIey wouId be ubIe Lo brIng
LIemseIves Lo u sLund. meun, e.g., II u LIIng Is LIe e cuuse oI wuIkIng Ior
ILseII, IL Is uIso LIe cuuse oI noL wuIkIng. WIence, II IL Is In ILs own power
Ior IIre Lo be borne up, IL Is cIeur LIuL Lo be borne down Is uIso In ILs own
power. L Is unreusonubIe, Iowever, |Ior LIem| Lo be moved by LIemseIves
uccordIng Lo one moLIon uIone, II In IucL LIey move LIemseIves. Moreover,
Iow cun someLIIng conLInuous und nuLuruIIy one move ILseII? or InsoIur
us IL Is one und conLInuous, noL by LoucI, u LIIng Is ImpussIbIe buL InsoIur
us u LIIng Is sepuruLed |InLo purLs|, one |purL| Is nuLuruIIy upL Lo ucL, LIe
oLIer Lo suIIer. So noL one oI u LIese moves ILseII, Ior LIey ure nuLuruIIy
one, nor does uny oLIer conLInuous LIIng move ILseII. buL IL Is necessury
LIuL In eucI LIIng LIe mover be dIvIded In reIuLIon Lo wIuL Is moved us we
see In LIe cuse oI unsouIed LIIngs wIen someLIIng umong ensouIed LIIngs
moves |LIem|.
z
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
ggb-g6uq
I LIen LIe moLIon oI uII LIIngs LIuL ure In moLIon Is eILIer nuLuruI or un-
nuLuruI und vIoIenL, und uII LIIngs wIose moLIon Is vIoIenL und unnuLuruI
ure moved by someLIIng, und someLIIng oLIer LIun LIemseIves, und uguIn
uII LIIngs wIose moLIon Is nuLuruI ure moved by someLIIng-boLI LIose
LIuL ure moved by LIemseIves und LIose LIuL ure noL moved by LIemseIves
(e.g. IIgIL LIIngs und Ieuvy LIIngs, wIIcI ure moved eILIer by LIuL wIIcI
brougIL LIe LIIng InLo exIsLence us sucI und mude IL IIgIL und Ieuvy, or by
LIuL wIIcI reIeused wIuL wus IInderIng und prevenLIng IL); LIen uII LIIngs
LIuL ure In moLIon musL be moved by someLIIng.
g6ug-b1
I, LIen, someLIIng moved moves |unoLIer|, IL Is necessury Lo come Lo u
sLund und noL Lo go on Lo InIInILy. or II LIe sLIck moves by beIng moved
by LIe Iund, LIe Iund moves LIe sLIck, buL II unoLIer uIso moves LIe Iund,
LIIs dIIIerenL LIIng wIII be wIuL Is movIng LIe Iund. WIenever, LIen, u
dIIIerenL LIIng uIwuys moves |unoLIer| by someLIIng, IL Is necessury LIuL u
seII-mover be prIor. I, LIen, LIIs |mover| Is movIng, buL LIere Is noLIIng
movIng IL, IL Is necessury LIuL IL move ILseII. WIence, uccordIng Lo LIIs
urgumenL uIso, eILIer wIuL Is moved Is dIrecLIy moved by u seII-mover, or
uL some LIme one comes Lo LIIs sorL oI LIIng.
g,uq-1o
...we do no more LIun II we Iud suId uL LIe ouLseL LIuL LIuL wIIcI Is cuusIng
IocomoLIon Is In process oI IocomoLIon, und LIuL one wIo Is LeucIIng Is In
process oI beIng LuugIL.
g,u,-S
ConsequenLIy LIe IIrsL LIIng LIuL Is m moLIon wIII derIve ILs moLIon eILIer
Irom someLIIng LIuL Is uL resL or Irom ILseII.
g,b-b1o
NoweveryLIIng LIuL Is In moLIon musL be InIInILeIy dIvIsIbIe, Ior IL Ius been
sIown uIreudy In our generuI course on PIysIcs, LIuL everyLIIng LIuL Is es-
zq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
senLIuIIy In moLIon Is conLInuous. L Is ImpossIbIe, LIen, Ior wIuL Is movIng
ILseII Lo move ILseII us u wIoIe. or us u wIoIe IL wouId be borne und beur
uccordIng Lo LIe sume IocomoLIon, beIng one und undIvIded In specIes; und
IL wouIdbe uILeredunduILer, so LIuL IL wouIdbe LeucIIng undIeurnIng uL LIe
sume LIme, und be IeuIIng und beIng IeuIed uccordIng Lo LIe sume IeuILI.
Moreover, IL wus deLermIned LIuL IL Is LIe mobIIe LIuL Is moved und LIIs
Is u LIIng moved In poLency, noL In ucLuuIILy; wIuL Is In poLency, Iowever,
goes InLo ucLuuIILy; und moLIon Is LIe ImperIecL ucLuuIILy oI LIe mobIIe. TIe
mover, Iowever, Is uIreudy In ucL, us LIe IoL IeuLs und generuIIy, LIe LIIng
IuvIng LIe specIes generuLes. WIence, LIe sume LIIng wIII be IoL und noL
IoL In LIe sume wuy.
gSu-,
IL Is cIeur LIuL IL Is noL LIrougI some purL oI LIe wIoIe beIng oI sucI u nuLure
us Lo be cupubIe oL movIng ILseII LIuL LIe wIoIe moves ILseII: IL moves ILseII
us u wIoIe, boLI beIng moved und ImpurLIng moLIon LIrougI conLuInIng
u purL LIuL ImpurLs moLIon und u purL LIuL Is moved. L does noL ImpurL
moLIon us u wIoIe nor Is IL moved us u wIoIe: IL Is A uIone LIuL ImpurLs
moLIon und B uIone LIuL Is moved.
gSbS-gqu,
TIe eLernILy und conLInuILy oI LIe process cunnoL be cuused eILIer by uny
one oI LIemsIngIy or by LIe sumoI LIem, becuuse LIIs cuusuI reIuLIon musL
be eLernuI und necessury, wIereus LIe sum oI LIese movenLs Is InIInILe und
LIey do noL uII exIsL LogeLIer. L Is cIeur, LIen, LIuL LIougI LIere muy be
counLIess InsLunces oI LIe perIsIIng oI some prIncIpIes LIuL ure unmoved
buL ImpurL moLIon, und LIougI muny LIIngs LIuL move LIemseIves perIsI
und ure succeeded by oLIers LIuL come InLo beIng, und LIougI one LIIng
LIuL Is unmoved moves one LIIng wIIIe unoLIer moves unoLIer, neverLIe-
Iess LIere Is someLIIng LIuL compreIends LIem uII, und LIuL us someLIIng
upurL Irom eucI one oI LIem, und LIIs IL Is LIuL Is LIe cuuse oI LIe IucL LIuL
some LIIngs ure undoLIers ure noL undoI LIe conLInuous process oI cIunge:
und LIIs cuuses LIe moLIon oI LIe oLIer movenLs, wIIIe LIey ure LIe cuuses
oI LIe moLIon oI oLIer LIIngs.
z
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
gquq-,
...|N|everLIeIess LIere Is someLIIng LIuL compreIends LIem uII, und LIuL
us someLIIng upurL Irom eucI one oI LIem, und LIIs IL Is LIuL Is LIe cuuse
oI LIe IucL LIuL some LIIngs ure und oLIers ure noL und oI LIe conLInuous
process oI cIunge: und LIIs cuuses LIe moLIon oI LIe oLIer movenLs, wIIIe
LIey ure LIe cuuses oI LIe moLIon oI oLIer LIIngs.
gqb
We munIIesLIy see, Iowever, sucI beIngs wIIcI move LIemseIves, IIke LIe
genus oI LIe ensouIed und oI unImuIs.
gqbq-bo
TIese LIIngs, LIen, suggesL LIe opInIon LIuL perIups moLIon, noL beIng uL
uII |uL some LIme|, cun Iuve come Lo be, becuuse oI our seeIng LIIs Iuppen
In LIese LIIngs. or LIougI LIey ure someLImes ImmobIIe, LIey ure moved
uguIn; us IL seems. One musL grusp, LIen, LIuL LIey move LIemseIves uc-
cordIng Lo one moLIon, und uccordIng Lo Lo LIIs moLIon noL properIy. or
LIe cuuse Is noL Irom LIe unImuI, buL oLIer nuLuruI moLIons ure presenL In
unImuIs, moLIons wIIcI LIey do noL move cuuse LIrougI LIemseIves, IIke
growLI, dImInuLIon, und respIruLIon, uccordIng Lo wIIcI eucI oI LIe unI-
muIs Is movIng, |even wIen| IL Is resLIng und noL movIng uccordIng Lo u
moLon Irom ILseII. TIe cuuse oI LIIs Is ILs envIronmenL und muny oI LIe
LIIngs wIIcI go In, us Iood goes In. or, dIgesLIng, LIey sIeep; |LIe Iood| be-
Ing dIsLrIbuLed, Iowever, LIey uwuke und move LIemseIves, LIe IIrsL prIncI-
pIe beIng Irom ouLsIde. WIence, LIey ure noL uIwuys movIng conLInuousIy
by LIemseIves; Ior LIe mover Is oLIer, ILseII movIng und cIungIng In re-
IuLIon Lo eucI oI LIe seII-movers. n uII oI LIese LIIngs, Iowever, LIe IIrsL
mover und cuuse oI ILs movIng ILseII Is moved, LIougI uccIdenLuIIy. or LIe
body cIunges pIuce, so LIuL wIuL Is In LIe body und moves ILseII by Ieveruge
uIso |cIunges pIuce|.
A.1.q On the Heuvens
TrunsIuLIon by J. . SLocks.
z6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
6qb1q-16
On uII LIese grounds, LIereIore, we muy InIer wILI conIIdence LIuL LIere Is
someLIIng beyond LIe bodIes LIuL ure ubouL us on LIIs eurLI, dIIIerenL und
sepuruLe IromLIem; und LIuL LIe superIor gIory oI ILs nuLure Is proporLIon-
uLe Lo ILs dIsLunce Irom LIIs worId oI ours.
,gbo-q
I LIe wIoIe Is noL conLInuous, buL exIsLs, us DemocrILus und eucIppus
LIInk, In LIe IormoI purLs sepuruLed by voId, LIere musL necessurIIy be one
movemenL oI uII LIe muILILude. TIey ure dIsLInguIsIed, we ure LoId, Irom
one unoLIer by LIeIr IIgures; buL LIeIr nuLure Is one, IIke muny pIeces oI
goId sepuruLed Irom one unoLIer.
S1b1,-b
BuL II u LIIng Ius Ior InIInILe LIme more LIun one cupucILy, unoLIer LIme Is
ImpossIbIe und LIe LImes musL coIncIde. TIus II u LIIng wIIcI exIsLs Ior
InIInILe LIme Is desLrucLIbIe, IL wIII Iuve LIe cupucILy oI noL beIng. Now II
IL exIsLs Ior InIInILe LIme IeL LIIs cupucILy be ucLuuIIzed; und IL wIII be In
ucLuuIILy uL once exIsLenL und non-exIsLenL.
ob1-1q
We begIn wILI LIe vIew oI Anuxugorus LIuL uII LIe Iomoeomerous bodIes
ure eIemenLs. Any one wIo udopLs LIIs vIew mIsuppreIends LIe meunIng
oI eIemenL.
obo-o
BuL even LukIng 'eIemenL` us LIey do, LIey need noL usserL un InIInILy oI eI-
emenLs, sInce LIe IypoLIesIs oI u IInILe number wIII gIve IdenLIcuI resuILs.
ndeedevenLwo or LIree sucIbodIes serve LIe purpose us weII, us Empedo-
cIes` uLLempL sIows. AguIn, evenonLIeIr vIewIL Lurns ouL LIuL uII LIIngs ure
noL composed oI Iomocomerous bodIes. TIey do noL preLend LIuL u Iuce Is
composed oI Iuces, or LIuL uny oLIer nuLuruI conIormuLIon Is composed oI
purLs IIke ILseII. ObvIousIy LIen IL wouId be beLLer Lo ussume u IInILe num-
ber oI prIncIpIes. TIey sIouId, In IucL, be us Iew us possIbIe, consIsLenLIy
z;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
wILI provIng wIuL Ius Lo be proved. TIIs Is LIe common demund oI muLI-
emuLIcIuns, wIo uIwuys ussume us prIncIpIes LIIngs IInILe eILIer In kInd or
In number.
o,b1,-q
rom wIuL Ius been suId IL Is cIeur LIuL LIe dIIIerence oI LIe eIemenLs does
noL depend upon LIeIr sIupe. Now LIeIr mosL ImporLunL dIIIerences ure
LIose oI properLy, IuncLIon, und power; Ior every nuLuruI body Ius, we
muInLuIn, ILs own IuncLIons, properLIes, und powers. Our IIrsL busIness,
LIen, wIII be Lo speuk oI LIese, und LIuL InquIry wIII enubIe us Lo expIuIn
LIe dIIIerences oI eucI Irom eucI.
11b1q-1q
TIe IoIIowIng uccounL wIII muke IL pIuIn LIuL LIere ure ubsoIuLeIy IIgIL und
ubsoIuLeIy Ieuvy LIIngs. And by ubsoIuLeIy IIgIL meun one wIIcI oI ILs
own nuLure uIwuys moves upwurd, by ubsoIuLeIy Ieuvy one wIIcI oI ILs
own nuLure uIwuys moves downwurd, II no obsLucIe Is In LIe wuy.
1uq-oS
BuL sInce LIuL wIIcI sInks Lo LIe boLLom oI uII LIIngs moves Lo LIe cenLre,
necessurIIy LIuL wIIcI rIses Lo LIe surIuce moves Lo LIe exLremILy oI LIe
regIon In wIIcI LIe movemenL oI LIese bodIes Lukes pIuce. or LIe cenLre
Is opposed us conLrury Lo LIe exLremILy, us LIuL wIIcI sInks Is opposed Lo
LIuL wIIcI rIses Lo LIe surIuce. TIIs uIso gIves u reusonubIe ground Ior LIe
duuIILy oI Ieuvy und IIgIL In LIe spuLIuI duuIILy cenLre und exLremILy.
A.1.g On Generution und Corroption
TrunsIuLIon by H. H. JoucIIm.
1qb1-1
TIose, LIen, wIo consLrucL uII LIIngs ouL oI u sIngIe eIemenL, musL muIn-
LuIn LIuL comIng-Lo-be und pussIng-uwuy ure 'uILeruLIon`. or LIey musL uI-
IIrm LIuL LIe underIyIng someLIIng uIwuys remuIns IdenLIcuI und one; und
z8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
cIunge oI sucI u subsLruLum Is wIuL we cuII 'uILerIng` TIose, on LIe oLIer
Iund, wIo muke LIe uILImuLe kInds oI LIIngs more LIun one, musL muIn-
LuIn LIuL 'uILeruLIon` Is dIsLIncL Irom comIng-Lo-be: Ior comIng-Lo-be und
pussIng-uwuy resuIL Irom LIe consIIIence und LIe dIssoIuLIon oI LIe muny
kInds. TIuL Is wIy EmpedocIes Loo uses Iunguuge Lo LIIs eIIecL, wIen Ie
suys 'TIere Is no comIng-Lo-be oI unyLIIng, buL onIy u mIngIIng und u dI-
vorce oI wIuL Ius beenmIngIed`. TIus IL Is cIeur (I) LIuL Lo descrIbe comIng-
Lo-be und pussIng-uwuy In LIese Lerms Is In uccordunce wILI LIeIr Iundu-
menLuI ussumpLIon, und (II) LIuL LIey do In IucL so descrIbe LIem: never-
LIeIess, LIey Loo musL recognIze 'uILeruLIon` us u IucL dIsLIncL Irom comIng
Lo-be, LIougI IL Is ImpossIbIe Ior LIem Lo do so consIsLenLIy wILI wIuL LIey
suy.
1qb1q-1gu
TIuL we ure rIgIL InLIIs crILIcIsmIs eusy Lo perceIve. or 'uILeruLIon` Is u IucL
oI observuLIon. WIIIe LIe subsLunce oI LIe LIIng remuIns uncIunged, we
see IL 'uILerIng` jusL us we see In IL LIe cIunges oI mugnILude cuIIed 'growLI`
und 'dImInuLIon`. NeverLIeIess, LIe sLuLemenLs oI LIose wIo posIL more
'orIgInuI reuIs` LIun one muke 'uILeruLIon` ImpossIbIe. or 'uILeruLIon, us
we usserL, Lukes pIuce In respecL Lo cerLuIn quuIILIes: und LIese quuIILIes (
meun, e.g. IoL-coId, wIILe-bIuck, dry-moIsL, soIL-Iurd, und so IorLI) ure,
uII oI LIem, dIIIerences cIurucLerIzIng LIe 'eIemenLs`. TIe ucLuuI words oI
EmpedocIes muy be quoLed In IIIusLruLIon:
TIe sun everywIere brIgIL Lo see, und IoL,
TIe ruIn everywIere durk und coId;
und Ie dIsLIncLIveIy cIurucLerIzes IIs remuInIng eIemenLs In u sImIIur mun-
ner. SInce, LIereIore, IL Is noL possIbIe Ior Ire Lo become WuLer, or WuLer
Lo become EurLI, neILIer wIII IL be possIbIe Ior unyLIIng wIILe Lo become
bIuck, or unyLIIng soIL Lo become Iurd; und LIe sume urgumenL uppIIes Lo
uII LIe oLIer quuIILIes. YeL LIIs Is wIuL 'uILeruLIon` essenLIuIIy Is.
1gb-g
A sImIIur crILIcIsmuppIIes Lo uII our predecessors wILI LIe sIngIe excepLIon
oI DemocrILus. NoL one oI LIem peneLruLed beIow LIe surIuce or mude u
zq
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
LIorougI exumInuLIon oI u sIngIe one oI LIe probIems. DemocrILus, Iow-
ever, does seem noL onIy Lo Iuve LIougIL cureIuIIy ubouL uII LIe probIems,
buL uIso Lo be dIsLInguIsIed Irom LIe ouLseL by IIs meLIod.
uq-16
n wIuL wuy, LIen, Ius LIe Iood been modIIIed by LIe growIng LIIng? Per-
Iups we sIouId suy LIuL IL Ius been 'mIxed' wILI IL, us II one were Lo pour
wuLer InLo wIne und LIe wIne were ubIe Lo converL LIe new IngredIenL InLo
wIne. And us IIre Iuys IoId oI LIe InIIummubIe, so LIe ucLIve prIncIpIe oI
growLI, dweIIIng In LIe growIng LIIng LIuL wIIcI Is ucLuuIIy IIesI), Iuys
IoId oI un uccedIng Iood wIIcI Is poLenLIuIIy IIesI und converLs IL InLo uc-
LuuI IIesI. TIe uccedIng Iood, LIereIore, musL be LogeLIer wILI LIe growIng
LIIng: Ior II IL were upurL Irom IL, LIe cIunge wouId be u comIng-Lo-be.
or IL Is possIbIe Lo produce IIre by pIIIng Iogs on Lo LIe uIreudy burnIng
IIre. TIuL Is 'growLI'. BuL wIen LIe Iogs LIemseIves ure seL on IIre, LIuL Is
'comIng-Lo-be'.
u1,-S
'QuunLum-In-generuI` does noL come-Lo-be uny more LIun 'unImuI` wIIcI
Is neILIer mun nor uny oLIer oI LIe specIIIc Iorms oI unImuI: wIuL 'unImuI-
In-generuI` Is In comIng-Lo-be, LIuL 'quunLum-In-generuI` Is In growLI. BuL
wIuL does come-Lo-be In growLI Is IIesI or bone-or u Iund or urm (I.e. LIe
LIssues oI LIese orgunIc purLs). SucI LIIngs come-Lo-be, LIen, by LIe ucces-
sIon noL oI quunLIIIed-IIesI buL oI u quunLIIIed-someLIIng. n so Iur us LIIs
uccedIng Iood Is poLenLIuIIy LIe doubIe resuIL e.g. Is poLenLIuIIy so-mucI-
IIesI-IL produces growLI: Ior IL Is bound Lo become ucLuuIIy boLI so-mucI
und IIesI.
b1o-1g
BuL DemocrILus dIssenLedIromuII LIe oLIer LIInkers undmuInLuInedu LIe-
ory pecuIIur Lo IImseII. He usserLs LIuL ugenL und puLIenL ure IdenLIcuI, I.e.
'IIke`. L Is noL possIbIe (Ie suys) LIuL 'oLIers`, I.e. 'dIIIerenLs`, sIouId suIIer
ucLIon Iromone unoLIer: on LIe conLrury, even II Lwo LIIngs, beIng 'oLIers`,
do ucL In some wuy on one unoLIer, LIIs Iuppens Lo LIem noL quu 'oLIers`
buL quu possessIng un IdenLIcuI properLy.
o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
b1,-,
SucI, LIen, ure LIe LrudILIonuI LIeorIes, und IL Iooks us II LIe sLuLemenLs oI
LIeIr udvocuLes were In munIIesL conIIIcL. BuL LIe reuson oI LIIs conIIIcL Is
LIuL eucI group Is In IucL sLuLIng u purL, wIereus LIey ougIL Lo Iuve Luken u
compreIensIve vIew oI LIe subjecL us u wIoIe. or LIe sume consequence
IoIIows II A und B ure ubsoIuLeIy 'oLIer`, I.e. In no respecL IdenLIcuI.
bo-g
BuL sInce onIy LIose LIIngs wIIcIeILIer InvoIve u 'conLrurIeLy' or ure 'conLrurIes'-
und noL uny LIIngs seIecLed uL rundom-ure sucI us Lo suIIer ucLIon und Lo
ucL, ugenL und puLIenL musL be 'IIke' (I.e. IdenLIcuI) In kInd und yeL 'unIIke'
(I.e. conLrury) In specIes. (or IL Is u Iuw oI nuLure LIuL body Is uIIecLed by
body, IIuvour by IIuvour, coIour by coIour, und so In generuI wIuL beIongs
Lo uny kInd by u member oI LIe sume kInd-LIe reuson beIng LIuL 'conLrurIes`
ure In every cuse wILIIn u sIngIe IdenLIcuI kInd, und IL Is 'conLrurIes` wIIcI
recIprocuIIy ucL und suIIer ucLIon.)
gu-g
BuL eucIppus LIougIL Ie Iud u LIeory wIIcI wouId ugree wILI LIe sense
und wouId noL uboIIsI comIng-Lo-be or desLrucLIon or moLIon or LIe pIuruI-
ILy oI exIsLIng LIIngs. So mucI Ie conceded Lo LIe pIenomenu, wIereus Lo
LIe proponenLs oI unILy Ie grunLed LIuL LIere couId noL be movemenL wILI-
ouL voId, LIuL LIe voId wus 'noL beIng', und noLIIng oI wIuL Is Is noL beIng;
wIuL, sLrIcLIy speukIng, Is, Is compIeLeIy IuII. BuL sucI beIng, Ie cIuImed,
Is noL u unILy. L consIsLs oI u pIuruIILy oI LIIngs InIInILe In number und Loo
smuII Lo be seen. TIey move In LIe voId (Ior LIere Is voId), und LIeIr combI-
nuLIon cuuses comIng-Lo-be, LIeIr sepuruLIon dIssoIuLIon. TIey ucL und ure
ucLed upon us LIey Iuppen Lo LoucI (Ior In LIIs wuy LIey ure noL one) und
generuLe by comIng LogeLIer und InLerIockIng. A Lrue unILy cun never gIve
rIse Lo muILIpIIcILy, nor u Lrue pIuruIILy produce unILy. TIuL Is ImpossIbIe,
buL us EmpedocIes und oLIers suy LIuL LIIngs ure ucLed upon by meuns oI
pores, so Ie cIuImed LIuL uILeruLIon und every IormoI beIng-ucLed-on Lukes
pIuce In LIIs wuy: dIssoIuLIon und desLrucLIon occur by meuns oI LIe voId,
us uIso does growLI wIen soIId bodIes sIIp In |sc. Lo IIII empLy spuces|.
1
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
6b-q
As u generuI crILIcIsm we musL urge LIuL Lo posLuIuLe pores Is superIIuous.
or II LIe ugenL produces no eIIecL by LoucIIng LIe puLIenL, neILIer wIII IL
produce uny by pussIng LIrougI ILs pores. On LIe oLIer Iund, II IL ucLs
by conLucL, LIen-even wILIouL pores-some LIIngs wIII 'suIIer ucLIon` und
oLIers wIII 'ucL`, provIded LIey ure by nuLure udupLed Ior recIprocuI ucLIon
und pussIon. Our urgumenLs Iuve sIown LIuL IL Is eILIer IuIse or IuLIIe Lo
udvocuLe pores In LIe sense In wIIcI some LIInkers conceIve LIem. BuL
sInce bodIes ure dIvIsIbIe LIrougI und LIrougI, LIe posLuIuLe oI pores Is
rIdIcuIous: Ior, quu dIvIsIbIe, u body cun IuII InLo sepuruLe purLs.
6b-,
AguIn, wIuL Is IL wIIcI seLs LIemmovIng? or II LIeIr 'mover` Is oLIer LIun
LIemseIves, LIey ure sucI us Lo 'suIIer ucLIon`. I, on LIe oLIer Iund, eucI oI
LIem seLs ILseII In moLIon, eILIer (u) IL wIII be dIvIsIbIe (`ImpurLIng moLIon`
quu LIIs, 'beIng moved` quu LIuL), or (b) conLrury properLIes wIII uLLucI Lo
IL In LIe sume respecL-I.e. 'muLLer` wIII be IdenLIcuI In-poLenLIuIILy us weII
us numerIcuIIy-IdenLIcuI.
,u1-o6
So Iong, Indeed, us uny body Is nuLuruIIy unILed und one, IL Is InsuscepLIbIe.
So, Loo, bodIes ure InsuscepLIbIe so Iong us LIey ure noL In conLucL eILIer
wILI one unoLIer or wILI oLIer bodIes wIIcI ure by nuLure sucI us Lo ucL
und suIIer ucLIon.
,u1o-1q
SInce, Iowever, (II) LIIs Is IuIse, I.e. sInce every body Is dIvIsIbIe, LIere Is
no dIIIerence beLween 'IuvIng been dIvIded InLo purLs wIIcI remuIn In con-
LucL` und 'beIng dIvIsIbIe`. or II u body 'cun be sepuruLed uL LIe conLucLs`
(us some LIInkers express IL), LIen, even LIougI IL Ius noL yeL been dIvIded,
IL wIII be In u sLuLe oI dIvIdedness-sInce, us IL cun be dIvIded, noLIIng Incon-
ceIvubIe resuILs.
z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Suq-
Now wIen LIere Is u cerLuIn equIIIbrIum beLween LIeIr 'powers oI ucLIon`,
LIen eucI oI LIemcIunges ouL oI ILs own nuLure Lowurds LIe domInunL: yeL
neILIer becomes LIe oLIer, buL boLI become un InLermedIuLe wILI proper-
LIes common Lo boLI.
ouo-bg
TIe eIemenLs ure Iour, und uny Iour Lerms cun be combIned In sIx coupIes.
ConLrurIes, Iowever, reIuse Lo be coupIed; Ior IL Is ImpossIbIe Ior LIe sume
LIIng Lo be IoL und coId, or moIsL und dry. Hence IL Is evIdenL LIuL LIe
coupIIngs oI LIe eIemenLs wIII be Iour: IoL wILI dry und moIsL wILI IoL,
und uguIn coId wILI dry und coId wILI moIsL. And LIese Iour coupIes Iuve
uLLucIed LIemseIves Lo LIe uppurenLIy sImpIe bodIes (Ire, AIr, WuLer, und
EurLI) In u munner consonunL wILI LIeory. or Ire Is IoL und dry, wIereus
AIr Is IoL und moIsL (AIr beIng u sorL oI vupour); und WuLer Is coId und
moIsL, wIIIe EurLI Is coId und dry.
qu1o-1g
An uddILIonuI purudox Is LIuL LIe souI sIouId consIsL oI LIe 'eIemenLs`, or
LIuL IL sIouId be one oI LIem. Howure LIe souI`s 'uILeruLIons` Lo Luke PIuce?
How, e.g. Is LIe cIunge Irom beIng musIcuI Lo beIng unmusIcuI, or Iow Is
memory or IorgeLLIng, Lo occur? or cIeurIy, II LIe souI be Ire, onIy sucI
modIIIcuLIons wIII Iuppen Lo IL us cIurucLerIze Ire quu Ire: wIIIe II IL
be compounded ouL oI LIe eIemenLs, onIy LIe corporeuI modIIIcuLIons wIII
occur In IL. BuL LIe cIunges we Iuve menLIoned ure none oI LIemcorporeuI.
6bg-g
ComIng-Lo-be und pussIng-uwuy wIII, us we Iuve suId, uIwuys be conLIn-
uous, und wIII never IuII owIng Lo LIe cuuse we sLuLed. And LIIs conLInu-
ILy Ius u suIIIcIenL reuson. or In uII LIIngs, us we uIIIrm, nuLure uIwuys
sLrIkes uILer LIe beLLer. Now beIng (we Iuve expIuIned eIsewIere LIe vur-
eLy oI meunIngs we recognIze In LIIs Lerm) Is beLLer LIun noL-beIng; buL noL
uII LIIngs cun possess beIng, sInce LIey ure Loo Iur removed Irom LIe prIn-
cIpIe. God LIereIore udopLed LIe remuInIng uILernuLIve, und IuIIIIIed LIe
perIecLIon oI LIe unIverse by mukIng comIng-Lo-be unInLerrupLed; Ior LIe

Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts


greuLesL possIbIe coIerence wouId LIus be secured Lo exIsLence, becuuse
LIuL comIng-Lo-be sIouId ILseII come-Lo-be perpeLuuIIy Is LIe cIosesL up-
proxImuLIon Lo eLernuI beIng
6u-b
TIIs expIuIns wIy IL Is noL LIe prImury moLIon LIuL cuuses comIng-Lo-be
und pussIng-uwuy, buL LIe moLIon uIong LIe IncIIned cIrcIe; Ior LIIs mo-
LIon noL onIy possesses LIe necessury conLInuILy, buL IncIudes u duuIILy oI
movemenLs us weII. or II comIng-Lo-be und pussIng-uwuy ure uIwuys Lo be
conLInuous, LIere musL be some body uIwuys beIng moved (In order LIuL
LIese cIunges muy noL IuII) und moved wILI u duuIILy oI movemenLs (In
order LIuL boLI cIunges, noL one onIy, muy resuIL).
A.1.6 Meteorologiu
TrunsIuLIon by E. W. WebsLer.
Sqb1g-1q
Wood consIsLs oI eurLI und uIr und Is LIereIore combusLIbIe buL cunnoL be
meILed or soILened by IeuL. (or LIe sume reuson IL IIouLs In wuLer-uII ex-
cepL ebony. TIIs does noL, Ior oLIer kInds oI wood conLuInu preponderunce
oI uIr, buL In bIuck ebony LIe uIr Ius escuped und so eurLI preponderuLes In
IL.)
A.1., On reums
TrunsIuLIon by J. . Beure.
qgqug-b
WIuL Iuppens In LIese cuses muy be compured wILI wIuL Iuppens In LIe
cuse oI projecLIIes movIng In spuce. or In LIe cuse oI LIese LIe movemenL
conLInues even wIen LIuL wIIcI seL up LIe movemenL Is no Ionger In con-
LucL |wILI LIe LIIngs LIuL ure moved|. or LIuL wIIcI seL LIem In moLIon
moves u cerLuInporLIonoI uIr, undLIIs, InLurn, beIng movedexcILes moLIon
In unoLIer porLIon; und so, uccordIngIy, IL Is In LIIs wuy LIuL |LIe bodIes|,
q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
wIeLIer In uIr or In IIquIds, conLInue movIng, unLII LIey come Lo u sLund-
sLIII.
A.1.S On Sense und the Sensible
TrunsIuLIon by J. . Beure.
q,u-1
OI LIe Lwo IusL menLIoned, seeIng, regurded us u suppIy Ior LIe prImury
wunLs oI IIIe, und In ILs dIrecL eIIecLs, Is LIe superIor sense; buL Ior deveIop-
Ing InLeIIIgence, und In ILs IndIrecL consequences, IeurIng Lukes LIe prece-
dence. TIe IucuILy oI seeIng, LIunks Lo LIe IucL LIuL uII bodIes ure coIoured,
brIngs LIdIngs oI muILILudes oI dIsLIncLIve quuIILIes oI uII sorLs; wIence IL Is
LIrougI LIIs sense especIuIIy LIuL we perceIve LIe common sensIbIes, vIz.
IIgure, mugnILude, moLIon, number: wIIIe IeurIng unnounces onIy LIe dIs-
LIncLIve quuIILIes oI sound, und, Lo some Iew unImuIs, LIose uIso oI voIce.
IndIrecLIy, Iowever, IL Is IeurIng LIuL conLrIbuLes mosL Lo LIe growLI oI In-
LeIIIgence. or ruLIonuI dIscourse Is u cuuse oI InsLrucLIon In vIrLue oI ILs
beIng uudIbIe, wIIcI IL Is, noL dIrecLIy, buL IndIrecLIy; sInce IL Is composed
oI words, und eucI word Is u LIougIL-symboI. AccordIngIy, oI persons des-
LILuLe IrombIrLI oI eILIer sense, LIe bIInd ure more InLeIIIgenL LIun LIe deuI
und dumb.
q,ug-o
BuL us Lo LIe nuLure oI LIe sensory orguns, or purLs oI LIe body In wIIcI
eucI oI LIe senses Is nuLuruIIy ImpIunLed, InquIrers now usuuIIy Luke us
LIeIr guIde LIe IundumenLuI eIemenLs oI bodIes. NoL, Iowever, IIndIng IL
eusy Lo coordInuLe IIve senses wILI Iour eIemenLs, LIey ure uL u Ioss respecL-
Ing LIe IIILI sense. BuL LIey IoId LIe orgun oI sIgIL Lo consIsL oI IIre, beIng
prompLed Lo LIIs vIew by u cerLuIn sensory uIIecLIon oI wIose Lrue cuuse
LIey ure IgnorunL. TIIs Is LIuL, wIen LIe eye Is pressed or moved, IIre up-
peurs Lo IIusI Irom IL. TIIs nuLuruIIy Lukes pIuce In durkness, or wIen LIe
eyeIIds ure cIosed, Ior LIen, Loo, durkness Is produced.

Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts


q,b1o-o
I LIe vIsuuI orgun proper reuIIy were IIre, wIIcI Is LIe docLrIne oI Empe-
docIes, u docLrIne LuugIL uIso In LIe TImueus, und II vIsIon were LIe resuIL
oI IIgIL IssuIng IromLIe eye us Iromu IunLern, wIy sIouId LIe eye noL Iuve
Iud LIe power oI seeIng even In LIe durk? L Is LoLuIIy IdIe Lo suy, us LIe
TImueus does, LIuL LIe vIsuuI ruy comIng IorLI In LIe durkness Is quencIed.
qSug-1o
DemocrILus, on LIe oLIer Iund, Is rIgIL In IIs opInIon LIuL LIe eye Is oI
wuLer; noL, Iowever, wIen Ie goes on Lo expIuIn seeIng us mere mIrrorIng.
TIe mIrrorIng LIuL Lukes pIuce In un eye Is due Lo LIe IucL LIuL LIe eye Is
smooLI, und IL reuIIy Ius ILs seuL noL In LIe eye wIIcI Is seen, buL In LIuL
wIIcI sees. or LIe cuse Is mereIy one oI reIIexIon. BuL IL wouId seem LIuL
even In IIs LIme LIere wus no scIenLIIIc knowIedge oI LIe generuI subjecL oI
LIe IormuLIon oI Imuges und LIe pIenomenu oI reIIexIon. L Is sLrunge Loo,
LIuL IL never occurred Lo IIm Lo usk wIy, II IIs LIeory be Lrue, LIe eye uIone
sees, wIIIe none oI LIe oLIer LIIngs In wIIcI Imuges ure reIIecLed do so.
A.1.q e Animu
TrunsIuLIon by J. A. SmILI.
q1u16-g
BuL sInce IL Is uIso u body oI sucI und sucI u kInd, vIz. IuvIng IIIe, LIe body
cunnoL be souI; LIe body Is LIe subjecL or muLLer, noL wIuL Is uLLrIbuLed
Lo IL. Hence LIe souI musL be u subsLunce In LIe sense oI LIe Iorm oI u
nuLuruI body IuvIng IIIe poLenLIuIIy wILIIn IL. BuL subsLunce Is ucLuuIILy,
und LIus souI Is LIe ucLuuIILy oI u body us ubove cIurucLerIzed. Now LIe
word ucLuuIILy Ius Lwo senses correspondIng respecLIveIy Lo LIe possessIon
oI knowIedge und LIe ucLuuI exercIse oI knowIedge. L Is obvIous LIuL LIe
souI Is ucLuuIILy In LIe IIrsL sense, vIz. LIuL oI knowIedge us possessed, Ior
boLI sIeepIng und wukIng presuppose LIe exIsLence oI souI, und oI LIese
wukIng corresponds Lo ucLuuI knowIng, sIeepIng Lo knowIedge possessed
buL noL empIoyed, und, In LIe IIsLory oI LIe IndIvIduuI, knowIedge comes
beIore ILs empIoymenL or exercIse.
6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
q1u1,-1
BuL sInce IL Is uIso u body oI sucI und sucI u kInd, vIz. IuvIng IIIe, LIe body
cunnoL be souI; LIe body Is LIe subjecL or muLLer, noL wIuL Is uLLrIbuLed Lo
IL. Hence LIe souI musL be u subsLunce In LIe sense oI LIe Iorm oI u nuLuruI
body IuvIng IIIe poLenLIuIIy wILIIn IL. BuL subsLunce Is ucLuuIILy, und LIus
souI Is LIe ucLuuIILy oI u body us ubove cIurucLerIzed.
q1bS-q
TIuL Is wIy we cun wIoIIy dIsmIss us unnecessury LIe quesLIon wIeLIer LIe
souI und LIe body ure one: IL Is us meunIngIess us Lo usk wIeLIer LIe wux
und LIe sIupe gIven Lo IL by LIe sLump ure one, or generuIIy LIe muLLer oI u
LIIng und LIuL oI wIIcI IL Is LIe muLLer. UnILy Ius muny senses (us muny us
'Is` Ius), buL LIe mosL proper und IundumenLuI sense oI boLI Is LIe reIuLIon
oI un ucLuuIILy Lo LIuL oI wIIcI IL Is LIe ucLuuIILy.
q1b1o-1
We Iuve now gIven un unswer Lo LIe quesLIon, "WIuL Is souI?-un unswer
wIIcI uppIIes Lo IL In ILs IuII exLenL. L Is subsLunce In LIe sense wIIcI cor-
responds Lo LIe deIInILIve IormuIu oI u LIIng's essence.
q1uo-g
We suy, LIen, mukIng u begInnIng oI our InquIry, LIuL LIuL wIIcI Ius souI
Is dIsLInguIsIed Irom LIuL wIIcI Ius noL by IIIe. BuL IIIe Is so spoken oI
In muny wuys, und we suy LIuL u LIIng IIves II buL one oI LIe IoIIowIng
Is presenL-InLeIIecL, percepLIon, movemenL, und resL In respecL oI pIuce,
und IurLIermore LIe movemenL InvoIved n nuLrILIon, und boLI decuy und
growLI.
q1qug-S
ReIIecLIon conIIrms LIe observed IucL; LIe ucLuuIILy oI uny gIven LIIng cun
onIy be reuIIzed In wIuL Is uIreudy poLenLIuIIy LIuL LIIng, I.e. In u muLLer oI
ILs own upproprIuLe Lo IL. rom uII LIIs IL IoIIows LIuL souI Is un ucLuuIILy
or IormuIubIe essence oI someLIIng LIuL possesses u poLenLIuIILy oI beIng
besouIed.
;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
q1qu-bo
OI LIe psycIIc powers ubove enumeruLed some kInds oI IIvIng LIIngs, us we
Iuve suId, possess uII, some Iess LIun uII, oLIers one onIy. TIose we Iuve
menLIoned ure LIe nuLrILIve, LIe uppeLILIve, LIe sensory, LIe IocomoLIve,
und LIe power oI LIInkIng. PIunLs Iuve none buL LIe IIrsL, LIe nuLrILIve,
wIIIe unoLIer order oI IIvIng LIIngs Ius LIIs pIus LIe sensory. I uny order
oI IIvIng LIIngs Ius LIe sensory, IL musL uIso Iuve LIe uppeLILIve; Ior uppeLILe
Is LIe genus oI wIIcI desIre, pussIon, und wIsI ure LIe specIes; now uII un-
ImuIs Iuve one sense uL IeusL, vIz. LoucI, und wIuLever Ius u sense Ius LIe
cupucILy Ior pIeusure und puIn und LIereIore Ius pIeusunL und puInIuI ob-
jecLs presenL Lo IL, und wIerever LIese ure presenL, LIere Is desIre, Ior desIre
Is jusL uppeLILIonoI wIuL Is pIeusunL. urLIer, uII unImuIs Iuve LIe sense Ior
Iood (Ior LoucI Is LIe sense Ior Iood); LIe Iood oI uII IIvIng LIIngs consIsLs
oI wIuL Is dry, moIsL, IoL, coId, und LIese ure LIe quuIILIes uppreIended by
LoucI; uII oLIer sensIbIe quuIILIes ure uppreIended by LoucIonIy IndIrecLIy.
Sounds, coIours, und odours conLrIbuLe noLIIng Lo nuLrImenL; IIuvours IuII
wILIIn LIe IIeId oI LungIbIe quuIILIes. Hunger und LIIrsL ure Iorms oI desIre,
Iunger u desIre Ior wIuL Is dry und IoL, LIIrsL u desIre Ior wIuL Is coId und
moIsL; IIuvour Is u sorL oI seusonIng udded Lo boLI. We musL IuLer cIeur up
LIese poInLs, buL uL presenL IL muy be enougI Lo suy LIuL uII unImuIs LIuL
possess LIe sense oI LoucI Iuve uIso uppeLILIon. TIe cuse oI ImugInuLIon Is
obscure; we musL exumIne IL IuLer. CerLuIn kInds oI unImuIs possess In ud-
dILIon LIe power oI IocomoLIon, und sLIII unoLIer order oI unImuLe beIngs,
I.e. mun und possIbIy unoLIer order IIke mun or superIor Lo IIm, LIe power
oI LIInkIng, I.e. mInd.
q1gbo
We musL muInLuIn, IurLIer, LIuL LIe souI Is uIso LIe cuuse oI LIe IIvIng body
us LIe orIgInuI source oI IocuI movemenL.
q1gb1-,
TIe power oI IocomoLIon Is noL Iound, Iowever, In uII IIvIng LIIngs. BuL
cIunge oI quuIILy und cIunge oI quunLILy ure uIso due Lo LIe souI. Sensu-
LIon Is IeId Lo be u quuIILuLIve uILeruLIon, und noLIIng excepL wIuL Ius souI
In IL Is cupubIe oI sensuLIon. TIe sume IoIds oI LIe quunLILuLIve cIunges
wIIcI consLILuLe growLI und decuy; noLIIng grows or decuys nuLuruIIy ex-
cepL wIuL Ieeds ILseII, und noLIIng Ieeds ILseII excepL wIuL Ius u sIure oI
8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
souI In IL.
q1qbS-q1gu,
TIe cuses oI IIgure und souI ure exucLIy puruIIeI; Ior LIe purLIcuIurs sub-
sumed under LIe common nume In boLI cuses-IIgures und IIvIng beIngs-
consLILuLe u serIes, eucI successIve Lerm oI wIIcI poLenLIuIIy conLuIns ILs
predecessor, e.g. LIe squure LIe LrIungIe, LIe sensory power LIe seII-nuLrILIve.
Hence we musL usk InLIe cuse oI eucIorder oI IIvIng LIIngs, WIuL Is ILs souI,
I.e. WIuL Is LIe souI oI pIunL, unImuI, mun? WIy LIe Lerms ure reIuLed In
LIIs serIuI wuy musL Iorm LIe subjecL oI IuLer exumInuLIon. BuL LIe IucLs
ure LIuL LIe power oI percepLIon Is never Iound upurL Irom LIe power oI
seII-nuLrILIon, wIIIe-In pIunLs-LIe IuLLer Is Iound IsoIuLed Irom LIe Iormer.
AguIn, no sense Is Iound upurL Irom LIuL oI LoucI, wIIIe LoucI Is Iound by
ILseII; muny unImuIs Iuve neILIer sIgIL, IeurIng, nor smeII.
q1gbq-b,
TIe souI Is LIe cuuse or source oI LIe IIvIng body. TIe Lerms cuuse und
source Iuve muny senses. BuL LIe souI Is LIe cuuse oI ILs body uIIke In uII
LIree senses wIIcI we expIIcILIy recognIze. L Is (u) LIe source or orIgIn oI
movemenL, IL Is (b) LIe end, IL Is (c) LIe essence oI LIe wIoIe IIvIng body.
TIuL IL Is LIe IusL, Is cIeur; Ior In everyLIIng LIe essence Is IdenLIcuI wILI
LIe ground oI ILs beIng, und Iere, In LIe cuse oI IIvIng LIIngs, LIeIr beIng Is
Lo IIve, und oI LIeIr beIng und LIeIr IIvIng LIe souI In LIem Is LIe cuuse or
source. urLIer, LIe ucLuuIILy oI wIuLever Is poLenLIuI Is IdenLIcuI wILI ILs
IormuIubIe essence.
L Is munIIesL LIuL LIe souI Is uIso LIe IInuI cuuse oI ILs body. or NuLure,
IIke mInd, uIwuys does wIuLever IL does Ior LIe suke oI someLIIng, wIIcI
someLIIng Is ILs end. To LIuL someLIIng corresponds In LIe cuse oI unImuIs
LIe souI und In LIIs IL IoIIows LIe order oI nuLure; uII nuLuruI bodIes ure
orguns oI LIe souI. TIIs Is Lrue oI LIose LIuL enLer InLo LIe consLILuLIon oI
pIunLs us weII us oI LIose wIIcI enLer InLo LIuL oI unImuIs. TIIs sIows LIuL
LIuL LIe suke oI wIIcI LIey ure Is souI. We musL Iere recuII LIe Lwo senses
oI 'LIuL Ior LIe suke oI wIIcI', vIz. (u) LIe end Lo ucIIeve wIIcI, und (b) LIe
beIng In wIose InLeresL, unyLIIng Is or Is done.
We musL muInLuIn, IurLIer, LIuL LIe souI Is uIso LIe cuuse oI LIe IIvIng body
q
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
us LIe orIgInuI source oI IocuI movemenL. TIe power oI IocomoLIon Is noL
Iound, Iowever, In uII IIvIng LIIngs. BuL cIunge oI quuIILy und cIunge oI
quunLILy ure uIso due Lo LIe souI. SensuLIon Is IeId Lo be u quuIILuLIve uILer-
uLIon, und noLIIng excepL wIuL Ius souI In IL Is cupubIe oI sensuLIon. TIe
sume IoIds oI LIe quunLILuLIve cIunges wIIcI consLILuLe growLI und de-
cuy; noLIIng grows or decuys nuLuruIIy excepL wIuL Ieeds ILseII, undnoLIIng
Ieeds ILseII excepL wIuL Ius u sIure oI souI In IL.
q16u-g
urLIer, we musL usk wIuL Is LIe Iorce LIuL IoIds LogeLIer LIe eurLI und LIe
IIre wIIcI Lend Lo LruveI In conLrury dIrecLIons; II LIere Is no counLerucLIng
Iorce, LIey wIII be Lorn usunder; II LIere Is, LIIs musL be LIe souI und LIe
cuuse oI nuLrILIon und growLI.
qqu1,-q
By u 'sense` Is meunL wIuL Ius LIe power oI receIvIng InLo ILseII LIe sensIbIe
Iorms oI LIIngs wILIouL LIe muLLer. TIIs musL be conceIved oI us LukIng
pIuce In LIe wuy In wIIcI u pIece oI wux Lukes on LIe Impress oI u sIgneL-
rIng wILIouL LIe Iron or goId; we suy LIuL wIuL produces LIe ImpressIon
Is u sIgneL oI bronze or goId, buL ILs purLIcuIur meLuIIIc consLILuLIon mukes
no dIIIerence: In u sImIIur wuy LIe sense Is uIIecLed by wIuL Is coIoured
or IIuvoured or soundIng, buL IL Is IndIIIerenL wIuL In eucI cuse LIe sub-
sLunce Is; wIuL uIone muLLers Is wIuL quuIILy IL Ius, I.e. In wIuL ruLIo ILs
consLILuenLs ure combIned.
qqu-b
TIIs expIuIns uIso wIy pIunLs cunnoL perceIve. In spILe oI LIeIr IuvIng u
porLIon oI souI In LIem und obvIousIy beIng uIIecLed by LungIbIe objecLs
LIemseIves; Ior undoubLedIy LIeIr LemperuLure cun be Iowered or ruIsed.
TIe expIunuLIon Is LIuL LIey Iuve no meun oI conLrury quuIILIes, und so no
prIncIpIe In LIemcupubIe oI LukIng on LIe Iorms oI sensIbIe objecLs wILIouL
LIeIr muLLer; In LIe cuse oI pIunLs LIe uIIecLIon Is un uIIecLIon by Iorm-und-
muLLer LogeLIer.
qo
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
qqu1q-1q
I LIInkIng Is IIke perceIvIng, IL musL be eILIer u process In wIIcI LIe souI
Is ucLed upon by wIuL Is cupubIe oI beIng LIougIL, or u process dIIIerenL
Irom buL unuIogous Lo LIuL. TIe LIInkIng purL oI LIe souI musL LIereIore
be, wIIIe ImpussIbIe, cupubIe oI receIvIng LIe Iorm oI un objecL; LIuL Is,
musL be poLenLIuIIy IdenLIcuI In cIurucLer wILI ILs objecL wILIouL beIng LIe
objecL. MInd musL be reIuLed Lo wIuL Is LIInkubIe, us sense Is Lo wIuL Is
sensIbIe.
A.1.1o On the Purts oI Animuls
TrunsIuLIon by WIIIIum OgIe.
6q1bq-1
AguIn, wIenever LIere Is pIuInIy some IInuI end, Lo wIIcI u moLIon Lends
sIouId noLIIng sLund In LIe wuy, we uIwuys suy LIuL sucI IInuI end Is LIe
uIm or purpose oI LIe moLIon; und Irom LIIs IL Is evIdenL LIuL LIere musL
be u someLIIng or oLIer reuIIy exIsLIng, correspondIng Lo wIuL we cuII by
LIe nume oI NuLure. or u gIven germ does noL gIve rIse Lo uny cIunce
IIvIng beIng, nor sprIng Irom uny cIunce one; buL eucI germ sprIngs Irom
u deIInILe purenL und gIves rIse Lo u deIInILe progeny. And LIus IL Is LIe germ
LIuL Is LIe ruIIng InIIuence und IubrIcuLor oI LIe oIIsprIng. or LIese IL Is
by nuLure, LIe oIIsprIng beIng uL uny ruLe LIuL wIIcI In nuLure wIII sprIng
Irom IL.
6qu1,-g
or prImury cuuse consLILuLes LIe nuLure oI un unImuI mucI more LIun
does ILs muLLer. TIere ure Indeed pussuges In wIIcI even EmpedocIes IILs
upon LIIs, und IoIIowIng LIe guIdunce oI IucL, IInds IImseII consLruIned Lo
speuk oI LIe ruLIo (oIugos) us consLILuLIng LIe essence und reuI nuLure oI
LIIngs. SucI, Ior InsLunce, Is LIe cuse wIen Ie expIuIns wIuL Is u bone. or
Ie does noL mereIy descrIbe ILs muLerIuI, und suy IL Is LIIs one eIemenL, or
LIose Lwo or LIree eIemenLs, or u compound oI uII LIe eIemenLs, buL sLuLes
LIe ruLIo (oIugos) oI LIeIr combInuLIon. As wILI u bone, so munIIesLIy Is IL
wILI LIe IIesI und uII oLIer sImIIur purLs.
q1
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
6qu-bg
OI LIe meLIod ILseII LIe IoIIowIng Is un exumpIe. n deuIIng wILI respIru-
LIon we musL sIowLIuL IL Lukes pIuce Ior sucI or sucI u IInuI objecL; und we
musL uIso sIow LIuL LIIs und LIuL purL oI LIe process Is necessILuLed by LIIs
und LIuL oLIer sLuge oI IL. By necessILy we sIuII someLImes meun IypoLIeL-
IcuI necessILy, LIe necessILy, LIuL Is, LIuL LIe requIsILe unLecedunLs sIuII be
LIere, II LIe IInuI end Is Lo be reucIed; und someLImes ubsoIuLe necessILy,
sucI necessILy us LIuL wIIcI connecLs subsLunces und LIeIr InIerenL prop-
erLIes und cIurucLers. or LIe uILernuLe dIscIurge und re-enLrunce oI IeuL
und LIe InIIow oI uIr ure necessury II we ure Lo IIve. Here we Iuve uL once
u necessILy In LIe Iormer oI LIe Lwo senses. BuL LIe uILernuLIon oI IeuL und
reIrIgeruLIon produces oI necessILy un uILernuLe udmIssIon und dIscIurge
oI LIe ouLer uIr, und LIIs Is u necessILy oI LIe second kInd.
66b1-g
Deer ure LIe onIy unImuIs In wIIcI LIe Iorns ure soIId LIrougIouL, und ure
uIso LIe onIy unImuIs LIuL cusL LIem. TIIs cusLIng Is noL sImpIy udvunLu-
geous Lo LIe deer Irom LIe Increused IIgILness wIIcI IL produces, buL, see-
Ing Iow Ieuvy LIe Iorns ure, Is u muLLer oI ucLuuI necessILy... eL us now
consIder LIe cIurucLer oI LIe muLerIuI nuLure wIose necessury resuILs Iuve
been mude uvuIIubIe by ruLIonuI nuLure Ior u IInuI cuuse.
A.1.11 Motion oI Animuls
TrunsIuLIon by A. S. . urquIurson.
6qSu,-11
Now we Iuve uIreudy deLermIned (wIen we were dIscussIng wIeLIer eLer-
nuI moLIon exIsLs or noL, und ILs deIInILIon, II IL does exIsL) LIuL LIe orIgIn
oI uII oLIer moLIons Is LIuL wIIcI moves ILseII, und LIuL LIe orIgIn oI LIIs Is
LIe ImmovubIe, und LIuL LIe prIme mover musL oI necessILy be ImmovubIe.
,oobg-1
SInce uII IIIeIess LIIngs ure moved by someLIIng eIse, und sInce we Iuve seL
IorLI In our work on IIrsL pIIIosopIy our vIews concernIng Iow LIe IIrsL
qz
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
und eLernuIIy moved Is moved, und Iow LIe IIrsL mover ImpurLs moLIon, IL
remuIns Ior us Lo consIder Iow LIe souI moves LIe body, und wIuL Is LIe
orIgIn oI un unImuI's moLIon. or II we excIude LIe moLIon oI LIe unIverse,
IIvIng creuLures ure responsIbIe Ior LIe moLIon oI everyLIIng eIse, excepL
sucI LIIngs us ure moved by eucI oLIer sLrIkIng uguInsL eucI oLIer.
,o1b1-o,
TIe movemenL oI unImuIs Is IIke LIuL oI uuLomuLIc puppeLs, wIIcI ure seL
movIng wIen u smuII moLIon occurs: LIe cubIes ure reIeused und LIe pegs
sLrIke uguInsL one unoLIer; und IIke LIuL oI LIe IILLIe curL.
,ou1S-o
TIe orgunIc purLs ure suILubIy prepured by LIe uIIecLIons, LIese uguIn by
desIre, und desIre by ImugInuLIon. mugInuLIon In ILs Lurn depends eILIer
upon concepLIon or sense-percepLIon.
A.1.1 On the Generution oI Animuls
TrunsIuLIon by ArLIur PIuLL.
,qu1,-1
L Is pIuIn LIen LIuL IL Is noL necessury LIuL unyLIIng uL uII sIouId come
uwuy IromLIe muIe, und II unyLIIng does come uwuy IL does noL IoIIowLIuL
LIIs gIves rIse Lo LIe embryo us beIng In LIe embryo, buL onIy us LIuL wIIcI
ImpurLs LIe moLIon und us LIe Iorm; so LIe medIcuI urL cures LIe puLIenL.
,obo-o
n IIke munner, In LIe muIe oI LIose unImuIs wIIcI emIL semen NuLure uses
LIe semen us u LooI und us possessIng moLIon In ucLuuIILy, jusL us LooIs ure
used In LIe producLs oI uny urL, Ior In LIem IIes In u cerLuIn sense LIe mo-
LIon oI LIe urL. SucI, LIen, Is LIe wuy In wIIcI LIese muIes conLrIbuLe Lo
generuLIon.
q
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
,qb1,-
BuL LIey do noL suy weII nor do LIey ussIgn u necessury cuuse wIo suy sIm-
pIy LIuL 'IL uIwuys Iuppens so`, und ImugIne LIuL LIIs Is u IIrsL prIncIpIe In
LIese cuses. TIus DemocrILus oI Abderu suys LIuL 'LIere Is no begInnIng oI
LIe InIInILe; nowLIe cuuse Is u begInnIng, und LIe eLernuI Is InIInILe; In con-
sequence, Lo usk LIe cuuse oI unyLIIng oI LIIs kInd Is Lo seek Ior u begInnIng
oI LIe InIInILe`.
,6,b1-1g
And LIe monsLrosILy, LIougI noL necessury In regurd oI u IInuI cuuse und
un end, yeL Is necessury uccIdenLuIIy.
,,6u16-b1o
WE musL now InvesLIguLe LIe quuIILIes by wIIcI LIe purLs oI unImuIs dII-
Ier. meun sucI quuIILIes oI LIe purLs us bIueness und bIuckness In LIe eyes,
IeIgIL und depLI oI pILcI In LIe voIce, und dIIIerences In coIour wIeLIer oI
LIe skIn or oI IuIr und IeuLIers... Now we musL no Ionger suppose LIuL LIe
cuuse oI LIese und uII sucI pIenomenu Is LIe sume. or wIenever LIIngs
ure noL LIe producL oI NuLure workIng uponLIe unImuI kIngdomus u wIoIe,
nor yeL cIurucLerIsLIc oI eucI sepuruLe kInd, LIen none oI LIese LIIngs Is
sucI us IL Is or Is so deveIoped Ior uny IInuI cuuse. TIe eye Ior InsLunce ex-
IsLs Ior u IInuI cuuse, buL IL Is noL bIue Ior u IInuI cuuse unIess LIIs condILIon
be cIurucLerIsLIc oI LIe kInd oI unImuI. n IucL In some cuses LIIs condILIon
Ius no connexIon wILI LIe essence oI LIe unImuI`s beIng, buL we musL re-
Ier LIe cuuses Lo LIe muLerIuI und LIe moLIve prIncIpIe or eIIIcIenL cuuse,
on LIe vIew LIuL LIese LIIngs come InLo beIng by NecessILy. or, us wus
suId orIgInuIIy In LIe ouLseL oI our dIscussIon, wIen we ure deuIIng wILI
deIInILe und ordered producLs oI NuLure, we musL noL suy LIuL eucI Is oI u
cerLuIn quuIILy becuuse IL becomes so, buL ruLIer LIuL LIey become so und
so becuuse LIey ure so und so, Ior LIe process oI BecomIng or deveIopmenL
uLLends upon BeIng und Is Ior LIe suke oI BeIng, noL vIce versu.
,Sqb1g-1q
We Iuve LIus spoken oI LIe LeeLI, suyIng wIy some ure sIed und grow
uguIn, und oLIers noL, und generuIIy Ior wIuL cuuse LIey ure Iormed. And
qq
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
we Iuve spoken oI LIe oLIer uIIecLIons oI LIe purLs wIIcI ure Iound Lo oc-
cur noL Ior uny IInuI end buL oI necessILy und on uccounL oI LIe moLIve or
eIIIcIenL cuuse.
A.1.1 Metuphysics
TrunsIuLIon by W. D. Ross.
qSqb1o-
WIen LIese men und LIe prIncIpIes oI LIIs kInd Iud Iud LIeIr duy, us LIe
IuLLer were Iound InudequuLe Lo generuLe LIe nuLure oI LIIngs men were
uguIn Iorced by LIe LruLI ILseII, us we suId, Lo InquIre InLo LIe nexL kInd oI
cuuse. or IL Is noL IIkeIy eILIer LIuL IIre or eurLIor uny sucIeIemenL sIouId
be LIe reuson wIy LIIngs munIIesL goodness und, beuuLy boLI In LIeIr beIng
und In LIeIr comIng Lo be, or LIuL LIose LIInkers sIouId Iuve supposed IL
wus; nor uguIn couId IL be rIgIL Lo enLrusL so greuL u muLLer Lo sponLuneILy
und cIunce. WIen one mun suId, LIen, LIuL reuson wus presenL-us In unI-
muIs, so LIrougIouL nuLure-us LIe cuuse oI order und oI uII urrungemenL, Ie
seemed IIke u sober mun In conLrusL wILI LIe rundom LuIk oI IIs predeces-
sors. We knowLIuL Anuxugorus cerLuInIy udopLed LIese vIews, buL Hermo-
LImus oI CIuzomenue Is credILed wILI expressIng LIem eurIIer. TIose wIo
LIougIL LIus sLuLed LIuL LIere Is u prIncIpIe oI LIIngs wIIcI Is uL LIe sume
LIme LIe cuuse oI beuuLy, und LIuL sorL oI cuuse Irom wIIcI LIIngs ucquIre
movemenL.
qSgu1q-
or Anuxugorus uses reuson us u deus ex mucIInu Ior LIe mukIng oI LIe
worId, und wIen Ie Is uL u Ioss Lo LeII Irom wIuL cuuse someLIIng neces-
surIIy Is, LIen Ie drugs reuson In, buL In uII oLIer cuses uscrIbes evenLs Lo
unyLIIng ruLIer LIun Lo reuson.
qS6b1q
YeL LIIs mucI Is germune Lo LIe presenL InquIry: PurmenIdes seems Lo Ius-
Len on LIuL wIIcI Is one In deIInILIon...
q
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
qS6b6-g
...PurmenIdes seems In pIuces Lo speuk wILI more InsIgIL. or, cIuImIng
LIuL, besIdes LIe exIsLenL, noLIIng non-exIsLenL exIsLs, Ie LIInks LIuL oI ne-
cessILy one LIIng exIsLs, vIz. LIe exIsLenL und noLIIng eIse (on LIIs we Iuve
spoken more cIeurIy In our work on nuLure), buL beIng Iorced Lo IoIIow LIe
observed IucLs, und supposIng LIe exIsLence oI LIuL wIIcI Is one In deII-
nILIon, buL more LIun one uccordIng Lo our sensuLIons, Ie now posILs Lwo
cuuses und Lwo prIncIpIes, cuIIIng LIem IoL und coId, I.e. IIre und eurLI;
und oI LIese Ie runges LIe IoL wILI LIe exIsLenL, und LIe oLIer wILI LIe
non-exIsLenL.
qq1u1g-o
...LIey mIgIL be LIougIL Lo be cuuses, us wIILe cuuses wIILeness In u wIILe
objecL by enLerIng InLo ILs composILIon. BuL LIIs urgumenL, wIIcI IIrsL
Anuxugorus und IuLer Eudoxus und cerLuIn oLIers used, Is very eusIIy upseL;
Ior IL Is noL dIIIIcuIL Lo coIIecL muny InsuperubIe objecLIons Lo sucI u vIew.
qqqbS-16
...buL LIose wIo muInLuIn LIe InIInILe serIes eIImInuLe LIe Good wILIouL
knowIng IL (yeL no one wouId Lry Lo do unyLIIng II Ie were noL goIng Lo
come Lo u IImIL); nor wouId LIere be reuson In LIe worId; LIe reusonubIe
mun, uL IeusL, uIwuys ucLs Ior u purpose, und LIIs Is u IImIL; Ior LIe end Is u
IImIL.
1oo1b1q-
BuL even II one supposes LIe cuse Lo be sucI LIuL, us some suy, number
proceeds Irom unILy-ILseII und someLIIng eIse wIIcI Is noL one, none LIe
Iess we musL InquIre wIy und Iow LIe producL wIII be someLImes u num-
ber und someLImes u mugnILude, II LIe noL-one wus InequuIILy und wus LIe
sume prIncIpIe In eILIer cuse.
1oogbo-q
CIeurIy, LIen, IL Is u prIncIpIe oI LIIs kInd LIuL Is LIe mosL cerLuIn oI uII
prIncIpIes. eL us nexL sLuLe wIuL LIIs prIncIpIe Is. "L Is ImpossIbIe Ior
q6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
LIe sume uLLrIbuLe uL once Lo beIong und noL Lo beIong Lo LIe sume LIIng
und In LIe sume reIuLIon"; und we musL udd uny IurLIer quuIIIIcuLIons LIuL
muy be necessury Lo meeL IogIcuI objecLIons. TIIs Is LIe mosL cerLuIn oI uII
prIncIpIes, sInce IL possesses LIe requIred deIInILIon; Ior IL Is ImpossIbIe Ior
unyone Lo suppose LIuL LIe sume LIIng Is und Is noL, us some ImugIne LIuL
HerucIILus suys-Ior wIuL u mun suys does noL necessurIIy represenL wIuL
Ie beIIeves.
1o1qb16-1o1gu1
'NuLure` meuns (1) LIe genesIs oI growIng LIIngs-LIe meunIng wIIcI wouId
be suggesLedII one were Lo pronounce LIe 'u` InpIusIs Iong. (z) TIuL Immu-
nenL purL oI u growIng LIIng, Irom wIIcI ILs growLI IIrsL proceeds. () TIe
source IromwIIcI LIe prImury movemenL In eucI nuLuruI objecL Is presenL
In IL In vIrLue oI ILs own essence. TIose LIIngs ure suId Lo grow wIIcI de-
rIve Increuse Irom someLIIng eIse by conLucL und eILIer by orgunIc unILy,
or by orgunIc udIesIon us In LIe cuse oI embryos. OrgunIc unILy dIIIers
Irom conLucL; Ior In LIe IuLLer cuse LIere need noL be unyLIIng besIdes LIe
conLucL, buL In orgunIc unILIes LIere Is someLIIng IdenLIcuI In boLI purLs,
wIIcI mukes LIem grow LogeLIer InsLeud oI mereIy LoucIIng, und be one
In respecL oI conLInuILy und quunLILy, LIougI noL oI quuIILy.
(q) 'NuLure` meuns LIe prImury muLerIuI oI wIIcI uny nuLuruI objecL con-
sIsLs or ouL oI wIIcI IL Is mude, wIIcI Is reIuLIveIy unsIuped und cunnoL be
cIunged Irom ILs own poLency, us e.g. bronze Is suId Lo be LIe nuLure oI u
sLuLue und oI bronze uLensIIs, und wood LIe nuLure oI wooden LIIngs; und
so In uII oLIer cuses; Ior wIen u producL Is mude ouL oI LIese muLerIuIs, LIe
IIrsL muLLer Is preserved LIrougIouL. or IL Is In LIIs wuy LIuL peopIe cuII
LIe eIemenLs oI nuLuruI objecLs uIso LIeIr nuLure, some numIng IIre, oLIers
eurLI, oLIers uIr, oLIers wuLer, oLIers someLIIng eIse oI LIe sorL, und some
numIng more LIun one oI LIese, und oLIers uII oI LIem. () 'NuLure` meuns
LIe essence oI nuLuruI objecLs, us wILI LIose wIo suy LIe nuLure Is LIe prI-
mury mode oI composILIon, or us EmpedocIes suys:
NoLIIng LIuL Is Ius u nuLure,
BuL onIy mIxIng und purLIng oI LIe mIxed,
And nuLure Is buL u nume gIven LIem by men.
Hence us regurds LIe LIIngs LIuL ure or come Lo be by nuLure, LIougI LIuL
Irom wIIcI LIey nuLuruIIy come Lo be or ure Is uIreudy presenL, we suy LIey
q;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
Iuve noL LIeIr nuLure yeL, unIess LIey Iuve LIeIr Iormor sIupe. TIuL wIIcI
comprIses boLI oI LIese exIsLs by nuLure, e.g. LIe unImuIs und LIeIr purLs;
und noL onIy Is LIe IIrsL muLLer nuLure (und LIIs In Lwo senses, eILIer LIe
IIrsL, counLIng Irom LIe LIIng, or LIe IIrsL In generuI; e.g. In LIe cuse oI
works In bronze, bronze Is IIrsL wILI reIerence Lo LIem, buL In generuI per-
Iups wuLer Is IIrsL, II uII LIIngs LIuL cun be meILed ure wuLer), buL uIso LIe
Iorm or essence, wIIcI Is LIe end oI LIe process oI becomIng. (6) By un
exLensIon oI meunIng Irom LIIs sense oI 'nuLure` every essence In generuI
Ius come Lo be cuIIed u 'nuLure`, becuuse LIe nuLure oI u LIIng Is one kInd
oI essence.
1o1gu1-1q
rom wIuL Ius been suId, LIen, IL Is pIuIn LIuL nuLure In LIe prImury und
sLrIcL sense Is LIe essence oI LIIngs wIIcI Iuve In LIemseIves, us sucI, u
source oI movemenL; Ior LIe muLLer Is cuIIed LIe nuLure becuuse IL Is quuII-
IIed Lo receIve LIIs, und processes oI becomIng und growIng ure cuIIed nu-
Lure becuuse LIey ure movemenLs proceedIng Irom LIIs. And nuLure In LIIs
sense Is LIe source oI LIe movemenL oI nuLuruI objecLs, beIng presenL In
LIem someIow, eILIer poLenLIuIIy or In compIeLe reuIILy.
1o1gb1g-g
'One` meuns (1) LIuL wIIcI Is one by uccIdenL, (z) LIuL wIIcI Is one by ILs
own nuLure. (1) nsLunces oI LIe uccIdenLuIIy one ure 'CorIscus und wIuL Is
musIcuI`, und'musIcuI CorIscus` (Ior IL Is LIe sume LIIng Lo suy 'CorIscus und
wIuL Is musIcuI`, und 'musIcuI CorIscus`), und 'wIuL Is musIcuI und wIuL Is
jusL`, und 'musIcuI CorIscus und jusL CorIscus`. or uII oI LIese ure cuIIed
one by vIrLue oI un uccIdenL, 'wIuL Is jusL und wIuL Is musIcuI` becuuse LIey
ure uccIdenLs oI one subsLunce, 'wIuL Is musIcuI und CorIscus` becuuse LIe
one Is un uccIdenL oI LIe oLIer; und sImIIurIy In u sense 'musIcuI CorIscus` Is
one wILI 'CorIscus` becuuse one oI LIe purLs oI LIe pIruse Is un uccIdenL oI
LIe oLIer, I.e. 'musIcuI` Is un uccIdenL oI CorIscus; und 'musIcuI CorIscus` Is
one wILI 'jusL CorIscus` becuuse one purL oI eucI Is un uccIdenL oI one und
LIe sume subjecL.
q8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1o1gbg-1o16u
OI LIIngs LIuL ure cuIIed one In vIrLue oI LIeIr own nuLure some (u) ure so
cuIIed becuuse LIey ure conLInuous, e.g. u bundIe Is mude one by u bund,
und pIeces oI wood ure mude one by gIue; und u IIne, even II IL Is benL, Is
cuIIed one II IL Is conLInuous, us eucI purL oI LIe body Is, e.g. LIe Ieg or LIe
urm. OI LIese LIemseIves, LIe conLInuous by nuLure ure more one LIun LIe
conLInuous by urL.
1o16u1S-q
TIIngs ure cuIIed one In unoLIer sense becuuse LIeIr subsLruLum does noL
dIIIer InkInd; IL does noL dIIIer InLIe cuse oI LIIngs wIose kIndIs IndIvIsIbIe
Lo sense. TIe subsLruLum meunL Is eILIer LIe neuresL Lo, or LIe IurLIesL
Irom, LIe IInuI sLuLe. or, one LIe one Iund, wIne Is suId Lo be one und
wuLer Is suId Lo be one, quu IndIvIsIbIe In kInd; und, on LIe oLIer Iund, uII
juIces, e.g. oII und wIne, ure suId Lo be one, und so ure uII LIIngs LIuL cun be
meILed, becuuse LIe uILImuLe subsLruLum oI uII Is LIe sume; Ior uII oI LIese
ure wuLer or uIr.
1o16uo-b1
Two LIIngs ure cuIIed one, wIen LIe deIInILIon wIIcI sLuLes LIe essence oI
one Is IndIvIsIbIe IromunoLIer deIInILIon wIIcI sIows us LIe oLIer (LIougI
In ILseII every deIInILIon Is dIvIsIbIe). TIus even LIuL wIIcI Ius Increused or
Is dImInIsIIng Is one, becuuse ILs deIInILIon Is one, us, In LIe cuse oI pIune
IIgures, Is LIe deIInILIon oI LIeIr Iorm.
1o16b1-16
WIIIe In u sense we cuII unyLIIng one II IL Is u quunLILy und conLInuous, In
u sense we do noL unIess IL Is u wIoIe, I.e. unIess IL Ius unILy oI Iorm; e.g.
II we suw LIe purLs oI u sIoe puL LogeLIer unyIow we sIouId noL cuII LIem
one uII LIe sume (unIess becuuse oI LIeIr conLInuILy); we do LIIs onIy II LIey
ure puL LogeLIer so us Lo be u sIoe und Lo Iuve uIreudy u cerLuIn sIngIe Iorm.
TIIs Is wIy LIe cIrcIe Is oI uII IInes mosL LruIy one, becuuse IL Is wIoIe und
compIeLe.
qq
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1o16bo-1o1,u
AguIn, some LIIngs ure one In number, oLIers In specIes, oLIers In genus,
oLIers by unuIogy; In number LIose wIose muLLer Is one, In specIes LIose
wIose deIInILIon Is one, In genus LIose Lo wIIcI LIe sume IIgure oI pred-
IcuLIon uppIIes, by unuIogy LIose wIIcI ure reIuLed us u LIIrd LIIng Is Lo u
IourLI. TIe IuLLer kInds oI unILy ure uIwuys Iound wIen LIe Iormer ure; e.g.
LIIngs LIuL ure one In number ure uIso one In specIes, wIIIe LIIngs LIuL ure
one In specIes ure noL uII one In number; buL LIIngs LIuL ure one In specIes
ure uII one In genus, wIIIe LIIngs LIuL ure so In genus ure noL uII one In
specIes buL ure uII one by unuIogy; wIIIe LIIngs LIuL ure one by unuIogy ure
noL uII one In genus.
1o1,uq-bq
TIIngs ure suId Lo be (1) In un uccIdenLuI sense, (z) by LIeIr own nuLure. (1)
n un uccIdenLuI sense, e.g., we suy LIe jusL Is musIcuI, und LIe mun Is mu-
sIcuI und LIe musIcuI Is u mun, jusL us we suy LIe musIcuI buIIds, becuuse
LIe buIIder Iuppens Lo be musIcuI or LIe musIcuI Iuppens Lo be u buIIder;
Ior Iere 'one LIIng Is unoLIer' meuns 'one Is un uccIdenL oI unoLIer'...
(z) TIose LIIngs ure suId In LIeIr own rIgIL Lo be LIuL ure IndIcuLed by LIe
IIgures oI predIcuLIon; Ior LIe senses oI 'beIng' ure jusL us muny us LIese
IIgures. SInce some predIcuLes IndIcuLe wIuL LIe subjecL Is, oLIers ILs quuI-
ILy, oLIers quunLILy, oLIers reIuLIon, oLIers ucLIvILy or pussIvILy, oLIers ILs
pIuce, oLIers ILs LIme, 'beIng' Ius u meunIng unswerIng Lo eucI oI LIese...
() 'BeIng' und 'Is' meun LIuL u sLuLemenL Is Lrue, 'noL beIng' LIuL IL Is noL
Lrue buL IuIse,-und LIIs uIIke In uIIIrmuLIon und neguLIon; e.g. 'SocruLes Is
musIcuI' meuns LIuL LIIs Is Lrue, or 'SocruLes Is noL-wIILe' meuns LIuL LIIs
Is Lrue; buL 'LIe dIugonuI oI LIe squure Is noL commensuruLe wILI LIe sIde'
meuns LIuL IL Is IuIse Lo suy IL Is.
(q) AguIn, 'beIng' und 'LIuL wIIcI Is', In LIese cuses we Iuve menLIoned,
someLImes meun beIng poLenLIuIIy, und someLImes beIng ucLuuIIy. or we
suy boLI oI LIuL wIIcI sees poLenLIuIIy und oI LIuL wIIcI sees ucLuuIIy, LIuL
IL Is seeIng, und boLI oI LIuL wIIcI cun use knowIedge und oI LIuL wIIcI Is
usIng IL, LIuL IL knows, und boLI oI LIuL Lo wIIcI resL Is uIreudy presenL und
oI LIuL wIIcI cun resL, LIuL IL resLs. And sImIIurIy In LIe cuse oI subsLunces
we suy LIe Hermes Is In LIe sLone, und LIe IuII oI LIe IIne Is In LIe IIne, und
o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
we suy oI LIuL wIIcI Is noL yeL rIpe LIuL IL Is corn. WIen u LIIng Is poLenLIuI
und wIen IL Is noL yeL poLenLIuI musL be expIuIned eIsewIere.
1o1,b1o-g
We cuII subsLunces (1) LIe sImpIe bodIes, I.e. eurLI und IIre und wuLer und
everyLIIng oI LIe sorL, und In generuI bodIes und LIe LIIngs composed oI
LIem, boLI unImuIs und dIvIne beIngs, und LIe purLs oI LIese. AII LIese ure
cuIIedsubsLunce becuuse LIey ure noL predIcuLedoI u subjecL buL everyLIIng
eIse Is predIcuLed oI LIem. (z) TIuL wIIcI, beIng presenL In sucI LIIngs us
ure noL predIcuLed oI u subjecL, Is LIe cuuse oI LIeIr beIng, us LIe souI Is oI
LIe beIng oI unImuIs.
() TIe purLs wIIcI ure presenL In sucI LIIngs, IImILIng LIem und murk-
Ing LIem us IndIvIduuIs, und by wIose desLrucLIon LIe wIoIe Is desLroyed,
us LIe body Is by LIe desLrucLIon oI LIe pIune, us some suy, und LIe pIune
by LIe desLrucLIon oI LIe IIne; und In generuI number Is LIougIL by some Lo
be oI LIIs nuLure; Ior II IL Is desLroyed, LIey suy, noLIIng exIsLs, und IL IImILs
uII LIIngs.
(q) TIe essence, LIe IormuIu oI wIIcI Is u deIInILIon, Is uIso cuIIed LIe sub-
sLunce oI eucI LIIng. L IoIIows, LIen, LIuL subsLunce Ius Lwo senses, (u)
LIe uILImuLe subsLruLum, wIIcI Is no Ionger predIcuLed oI unyLIIng eIse,
und (b) LIuL wIIcI Is u 'LIIs' und sepurubIe-und oI LIIs nuLure Is LIe sIupe
or Iorm oI eucI LIIng.
1ogbS-1o6ug
Now, we musL noL IuII Lo noLIce LIe mode oI beIng oI LIe essence und oI
ILs deIInILIon, Ior, wILIouL LIIs, InquIry Is buL IdIe. OI LIIngs deIIned, I.e.
oI 'wIuLs`, some ure IIke 'snub`, und some IIke 'concuve`. And LIese dIIIer
becuuse 'snub` Is bound up wILI muLLer (Ior wIuL Is snub Is u concuve nose),
wIIIe concuvILy Is IndependenL oI percepLIbIe muLLer. I LIen uII nuLuruI
LIIngs ure u unuIogous Lo LIe snub In LIeIr nuLure; e.g. nose, eye, Iuce, IIesI,
bone, und, In generuI, unImuI; IeuI, rooL, burk, und, In generuI, pIunL (Ior
none oI LIese cun be deIIned wILIouL reIerence Lo movemenL-LIey uIwuys
Iuve muLLer), IL Is cIeur Iow we musL seek und deIIne LIe 'wIuL` In LIe cuse
oI nuLuruI objecLs, und uIso LIuL IL beIongs Lo LIe sLudenL oI nuLure Lo sLudy
even souI In u cerLuIn sense, I.e. so mucI oI IL us Is noL IndependenL oI
muLLer.
1
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1o6u1-b
BuL sInce LIe unquuIIIIed Lerm 'beIng` Ius severuI meunIngs, oI wIIcI one
wus seen` Lo be LIe uccIdenLuI, und unoLIer LIe Lrue (`non-beIng` beIng LIe
IuIse), wIIIe besIdes LIese LIere ure LIe IIgures oI predIcuLIon (e.g. LIe
'wIuL`, quuIILy, quunLILy, pIuce, LIme, und uny sImIIur meunIngs wIIcI 'be-
Ing` muy Iuve), und uguIn besIdes uII LIese LIere Is LIuL wIIcI 'Is` poLen-
LIuIIy or ucLuuIIy:-sInce 'beIng` Ius muny meunIngs, we musL suy regurdIng
LIe uccIdenLuI, LIuL LIere cun be no scIenLIIIc LreuLmenL oI IL.
1o6b1-1
...Ior LIe uccIdenLuI Is prucLIcuIIy u mere nume... LIe uccIdenLuI Is obvIousIy
ukIn Lo non-beIng.
1o6bo-
...LIIs Is LIe prIncIpIe und LIIs LIe cuuse oI LIe exIsLence oI LIe uccIdenLuI ;
Ior LIuL wIIcI Is neILIer uIwuys nor Ior LIe mosL purL, we cuII uccI denLuI.
1o,bS-1oSug
TIIs beIng so, we musL consIder IuLer wIuL Ius Lo be dIscussed wILI regurd
Lo LIuL wIIcI Is or Is noL In LIIs sense. BuL sInce LIe combInuLIon und LIe
sepuruLIon ure In LIougIL und noL In LIe LIIngs, und LIuL wIIcI Is In LIIs
sense Is u dIIIerenL sorL oI 'beIng` Irom LIe LIIngs LIuL ure In LIe IuII sense
(Ior LIe LIougIL uLLucIes or removes eILIer LIe subjecL`s 'wIuL` or ILs IuvIng
u cerLuIn quuIILy or quunLILy or someLIIng eIse), LIuL wIIcI Is uccIdenLuIIy
und LIuL wIIcI Is In LIe sense oI beIng Lrue musL be dIsmIssed. or LIe
cuuse oI LIe Iormer Is IndeLermInuLe, und LIuL oI LIe IuLLer Is some uIIecLIon
oI LIe LIougIL, und boLI ure reIuLed Lo LIe remuInIng genus oI beIng, und do
noL IndIcuLe LIe exIsLence oI uny sepuruLe cIuss oI beIng. TIereIore IeL LIese
be dIsmIssed, und IeL us consIder LIe cuuses und LIe prIncIpIes oI beIng
ILseII, quu beIng. (L wus cIeur In our dIscussIon oI LIe vurIous meunIngs oI
Lerms, LIuL 'beIng` Ius severuI meunIngs.)
z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1oou1,-g
Or perIups "deIInILIon," IIke LIe "wIuL," Ius more LIun one sense. or LIe
"wIuL" In one sense meuns LIe subsLunce und LIe IndIvIduuI, und In un-
oLIer eucI one oI LIe cuLegorIes: quunLILy, quuIILy, eLc. JusL us "Is" uppIIes
Lo everyLIIng, uILIougI noL In LIe sume wuy, buL prImurIIy Lo one LIIng und
secondurIIy Lo oLIers; so "wIuL IL Is" uppIIes In un unquuIIIIed sense Lo sub-
sLunce, und Lo oLIer LIIngs In u quuIIIIed sense. or we mIgIL usk uIso wIuL
quuIILy "Is," so LIuL quuIILy uIso Is u "wIuL IL Is"; noL Iowever wILIouL quuI-
IIIcuLIon, buL jusL us In LIe cuse oI noL-beIng some suy by u verbuI quIbbIe
LIuL noL-beIng "Is"-noL In un unquuIIIIed sense, buL "Is" noL-beIng-so Loo
wILI quuIILy.
1o1u1-1g
CIeurIy, LIen, LIere Is deIInILIon oI subsLunce uIone. I LIere were deIInILIon
oI LIe oLIer cuLegorIes uIso, IL wouId Iuve Lo InvoIve un udded deLermInunL,
us In LIe cuse oI LIe quuIILuLIve; und oI LIe odd, Ior LIIs cunnoL be deIIned
upurL Irom number; nor cun "IemuIe" upurL Irom "unImuI."By "InvoIvIng
un udded deLermInunL" meun descrIpLIons wIIcI InvoIve u LuuLoIogy, us
In LIe ubove exumpIes. Now II LIIs Is Lrue, LIere wIII be no deIInILIon oI
compound expressIons eILIer; e.g., "odd number." We IuII Lo reuIIze LIIs
becuuse our Lerms ure noL used uccuruLeIy. I on LIe oLIer Iund LIere ure
deIInILIons oI LIese Loo, eILIer LIey ure deIIned In u dIIIerenL wuy, or, us
we Iuve suId, "deIInILIon" und "essence" musL be used In more LIun one
sense; LIus In one sense LIere wIII be no deIInILIonoI unyLIIng, und noLIIng
wIII Iuve un essence, excepL subsLunces; und In unoLIer LIose oLIer LIIngs
wIII Iuve u deIInILIon und essence. L Is obvIous, LIen, LIuL LIe deIInILIon
Is LIe IormuIu oI LIe essence, und LIuL LIe essence beIongs eILIer onIy Lo
subsLunces, or especIuIIy und prImurIIy und sImpIy.
1o1u1g-1
We musL InquIre wIeLIer LIe essence Is LIe sume us LIe purLIcuIur LIIng,
or dIIIerenL. TIIs Is useIuI Ior our InquIry ubouL subsLunce; becuuse u pur-
LIcuIur LIIng Is consIdered Lo be noLIIng oLIer LIun ILs own subsLunce, und
LIe essence Is cuIIed LIe subsLunce oI LIe LIIng. n uccIdenLuI predIcuLIons,
Indeed, LIe LIIng ILseII wouId seem Lo be dIIIerenL Irom ILs essence; e.g.,
"wIILe mun" Is dIIIerenL Irom "essence oI wIILe mun." I IL were LIe sume,
"essence oI mun" und"essence oI wIILe mun" wouIdbe LIe sume. or "mun"

Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts


und "wIILe mun" ure LIe sume, LIey suy, und LIereIore "essence oI wIILe
mun" Is LIe sume us "essence oI mun." BuL perIups IL Is noL necessurIIy Lrue
LIuL LIe essence oI uccIdenLuI combInuLIons Is LIe sume us LIuL oI LIe sIm-
pIe Lerms; becuuse LIe exLremes oI LIe syIIogIsm ure noL IdenLIcuI wILI LIe
mIddIe Lerm In LIe sume wuy. PerIups IL mIgIL be LIougIL Lo IoIIow LIuL
LIe uccIdenLuI exLremes ure IdenLIcuI; e.g. "essence oI wIILe" und "essence
oI cuILured"; buL LIIs Is noL udmILLed.
1o1b1q-
TIuL eucI IndIvIduuI LIIng Is one und LIe sume wILI ILs essence, und noL
mereIy uccIdenLuIIy so, Is uppurenL, noL onIy Irom LIe IoregoIng consIderu-
LIons, buL becuuse Lo Iuve knowIedge oI LIe IndIvIduuI Is Lo Iuve knowIedge
oI ILs essence; so LIuL by seLLIng ouL exumpIes IL Is evIdenL LIuL boLI musL
be IdenLIcuI.
1o1bo-1ou6
YeL wIy sIouId noL some LIIngs be IdenLIIIed wILI LIeIr essence Irom LIe
ouLseL, II essence Is subsLunce? ndeednoL onIy ure LIe LIIng undILs essence
one, buL LIeIr IormuIu Is LIe sume, us Is cIeur IromwIuL we Iuve jusL sLuLed;
Ior IL Is noL by uccIdenL LIuL LIe essence oI "one," und "LIe one," ure one.
Moreover, II LIey ure dIIIerenL, LIere wIII be unInIInILe serIes; Ior LIe essence
oI "one" und "LIe one" wIII boLI exIsL; so LIuL In LIuL cuse Loo LIe sume prIn-
cIpIe wIII uppIy. CIeurIy, LIen, In LIe cuse oI prImury und seII-subsIsLenL
Lerms, LIe IndIvIduuI LIIng und ILs essence ure one und LIe sume.
1ou1-16
OI LIIngs wIIcI ure generuLed, some ure generuLed nuLuruIIy, oLIers urLIII-
cIuIIy, und oLIers sponLuneousIy; buL everyLIIng wIIcI Is generuLed Is gen-
eruLed by someLIIng und Irom someLIIng und becomes someLIIng. WIen
suy "becomes someLIIng" meun In uny oI LIe cuLegorIes; IL muy come Lo
be eILIer u purLIcuIur LIIng or oI some quunLILy or quuIILy or In some pIuce.
1ou1-g
NuLuruI generuLIon Is LIe generuLIon oI LIIngs wIose generuLIon Is by nu-
Lure.TIuL Irom wIIcI LIey ure generuLed Is wIuL we cuII muLLer; LIuL by
q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
wIIcI, Is someLIIng wIIcI exIsLs nuLuruIIy; und LIuL wIIcI LIey become Is
u mun or u pIunL or someLIIng eIse oI LIIs kInd, wIIcI we cuII subsLunce
In LIe IIgIesL degree. AII LIIngs wIIcI ure generuLed nuLuruIIy or urLIII-
cIuIIy Iuve muLLer; Ior IL Is possIbIe Ior eucI one oI LIem boLI Lo be und
noL Lo be, und LIIs possIbIIILy Is LIe muLLer In eucI IndIvIduuI LIIng.And
In generuI boLI LIuL Irom wIIcI und LIuL In uccordunce wILI wIIcI LIey
ure generuLed, Is nuLure; Ior LIe LIIng generuLed, e.g. pIunL or unImuI, Ius
u nuLure. And LIuL by wIIcI LIey ure generuLed Is LIe so-cuIIed "IormuI"
nuLure, wIIcI Ius LIe sume Iorm us LIe LIIng generuLed (uILIougI IL Is In
someLIIng eIse); Ior mun begeLs mun.
1ob1-o
...by "Iorm" meun LIe essence oI eucI LIIng, und ILs prImury subsLunce.
1o6uS-oq
BuL muLLer Is unknowubIe In ILseII.
1o,b6-S
...Ior LIe deIInILIon Is u sIngIe IormuIu und u IormuIu oI subsLunce, so LIuL
IL musL be u IormuIu oI some one LIIng; Ior subsLunce meuns u one und u
LIIs, us we muInLuIn.
1oqbo-o
SInce subsLunce Is oI Lwo kInds, LIe concreLe LIIng und LIe IormuIu ( meun
LIuL one kInd oI subsLunce Is LIe IormuIu Luken wILI LIe muLLer, wIIIe un-
oLIer kInd Is LIe IormuIu In ILs generuIILy), subsLunces In LIe Iormer sense
ure cupubIe oI desLrucLIon (Ior LIey ure cupubIe uIso oI generuLIon), buL
LIere Is no desLrucLIon oI LIe IormuIu In LIe sense LIuL IL Is ever In course oI
beIng desLroyed (Ior LIere Is no generuLIon oI IL eILIer; LIe beIng oI Iouse
Is noL generuLed, buL onIy LIe beIng oI LIIs Iouse), buL wILIouL generuLIon
und desLrucLIon IormuIue ure und ure noL; Ior IL Ius been sIown LIuL no
one begeLs nor mukes LIese.

Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts


1oqquq-q
And LIe number musL be someLIIng In vIrLue oI wIIcI IL Is one, und LIIs
LIese LIInkers cunnoL sLuLe, wIuL mukes IL one, II IL Is one (Ior eILIer IL Is
noL one buL u sorL oI Ieup, or II IL Is, we ougIL Lo suy wIuL IL Is LIuL mukes one
ouL oI muny); und LIe deIInILIon Is one, buL sImIIurIy LIey cunnoL suy wIuL
mukes IL one. And LIIs Is u nuLuruI resuIL; Ior LIe sume reuson Is uppIIcubIe,
und subsLunce Is one In LIe sense wIIcI we Iuve expIuIned, und noL, us
some suy, by beIng u sorL oI unIL or poInL; eucI Is u compIeLe reuIILy und u
deIInILe nuLure.
1oqgb-1oq6uq
And sInce 'beIng` Is In one wuy dIvIded InLo IndIvIduuI LIIng, quuIILy, und
quunLILy, und Is In unoLIer wuy dIsLInguIsIed In respecL oI poLency und
compIeLe reuIILy, und oI IuncLIon, IeL us now udd u dIscussIon oI poLency
und compIeLe reuIILy. And IIrsL IeL us expIuIn poLency In LIe sLrIcLesL sense,
wIIcIIs, Iowever, noL LIe mosL useIuI Ior our presenL purpose. or poLency
und ucLuuIILy exLend beyond LIe cuses LIuL InvoIve u reIerence Lo moLIon.
BuL wIen we Iuve spoken oI LIIs IIrsL kInd, we sIuII In our dIscussIons oI
ucLuuIILy` expIuIn LIe oLIer kInds oI poLency us weII.
1oq6uq-1S
BuL uII poLenLIuIILIes LIuL conIorm Lo LIe sume Lype ure sLurLIng poInLs,
und ure cuIIed poLenLIuIILIes In reIerence Lo one prImury kInd, wIIcI Is u
sLurLIng-poInL oI cIunge In unoLIer LIIng or In LIe LIIng ILseII quu oLIer.
or one kInd Is u poLenLIuIILy Ior beIng ucLed on, I.e. LIe prIncIpIe In LIe
very LIIng ucLed on, wIIcI mukes IL cupubIe oI beIng cIunged und ucLed
on by unoLIer LIIng or by ILseII regurded us oLIer; und unoLIer kInd Is u
sLuLe oI InsuscepLIbIIILy Lo cIunge Ior LIe worse und Lo desLrucLIon by un-
oLIer LIIng or by LIe LIIng ILseII quu oLIer, I.e. by u prIncIpIe oI cIunge. n
uII LIese deIInILIons Is conLuIned LIe IormuIu oI poLenLIuIILy In LIe prImury
sense. And uguIn LIese so-cuIIed poLenLIuIILIes ure poLenLIuIILIes eILIer oI
ucLIng mereIy or oI beIng ucLed on, or oI ucLIng or beIng ucLed on weII, so
LIuL even In LIe IormuIue oI LIe IuLLer LIe IormuIue oI LIe prIor kInds oI
poLenLIuIILy ure someIow conLuIned.
6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1oq6u1q-q
ObvIousIy, LIen, In u sense LIe poLency oI ucLIng und oI beIng ucLed on Is
one (Ior u LIIng muy be 'cupubIe` eILIer becuuse IL cun ILseII be ucLed on or
becuuse someLIIng eIse cun be ucLed on by IL), buL In u sense LIe poLencIes
ure dIIIerenL. or LIe one Is In LIe LIIng ucLed on; IL Is becuuse IL conLuIns
u cerLuIn orIgInuLIve source, und becuuse even LIe muLLer Is un orIgInuLIve
source, LIuL LIe LIIng ucLed on Is ucLed on, und one LIIng by one, unoLIer
by unoLIer; Ior LIuL wIIcI Is oIIy cun be burnL, und LIuL wIIcI yIeIds In
u purLIcuIur wuy cun be crusIed; und sImIIurIy In uII oLIer cuses. BuL LIe
oLIer poLency Is In LIe ugenL, e.g. IeuL und LIe urL oI buIIdIng ure presenL,
one In LIuL wIIcI cun produce IeuL und LIe oLIer In LIe mun wIo cun buIId.
And so, Inso Iur us u LIIng Is unorgunIc unILy, IL cunnoL be ucLed onby ILseII;
Ior IL Is one und noL Lwo dIIIerenL LIIngs.
1oq6uo-o
ObvIousIy, LIen, Inu sense LIe poLenLIuIILy oI ucLIng und oI beIng ucLed onIs
one (Ior u LIIng muy be cupubIe eILIer becuuse IL cun be ucLed on or becuuse
someLIIng eIse cun be ucLed on by IL), buL In u sense LIe poLenLIuIILIes ure
dIIIerenL. or LIe one Is In LIe LIIng ucLed on; IL Is becuuse IL conLuIns u
cerLuIn moLIve prIncIpIe, und becuuse even LIe muLLer Is u moLIve prIncIpIe,
LIuL LIe LIIng ucLedonIs ucLedon, one LIIng by one, unoLIer by unoLIer; Ior
LIuL wIIcI Is oIIy Is InIIummubIe, und LIuL wIIcI yIeIds In u purLIcuIur wuy
cun be crusIed; und sImIIurIy In uII oLIer cuses. BuL LIe oLIer poLenLIuIILy
Is In LIe ugenL, e.g. IeuL und LIe urL oI buIIdIng ure presenL, one In LIuL
wIIcI cun produce IeuL und LIe oLIer In LIe mun wIo cun buIId. And so In
so Iur us u LIIng Is un orgunIc unILy, IL cunnoL be ucLed on by ILseII; Ior IL Is
one und noL Lwo dIIIerenL LIIngs.
1oq6u-b1g
SInce some sucI orIgInuLIve sources ure presenL In souIIess LIIngs, und oLI-
ers In LIIngs possessed oI souI, und In souI, und In LIe ruLIonuI purL oI LIe
souI, cIeurIy some poLencIes wIII, be non-ruLIonuI und some wIII be non-
ruLIonuI und some wIII be uccompunIed by u ruLIonuI IormuIu. TIIs Is wIy
uII urLs, I.e. uII producLIve Iorms oI knowIedge, ure poLencIes; LIey ure orIgI-
nuLIve sources oI cIunge InunoLIer LIIng or In LIe urLIsL IImseII consIdered
us oLIer. And eucI oI LIose wIIcI ure uccompunIed by u ruLIonuI IormuIu
Is uIIke cupubIe oI conLrury eIIecLs, buL one non-ruLIonuI power produces
;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
one eIIecL; e.g. LIe IoL Is cupubIe onIy oI IeuLIng, buL LIe medIcuI urL cun
produce boLI dIseuse und IeuILI.
TIe reuson Is LIuL scIence Is u ruLIonuI IormuIu, und LIe sume ruLIonuI Ior-
muIu expIuIns u LIIng und ILs prIvuLIon, onIy noL In LIe sume wuy; und In u
sense IL uppIIes Lo boLI, buL In u sense IL uppIIes ruLIer Lo LIe posILIve IucL.
TIereIore sucI scIences musL deuI wILI conLrurIes, buL wILI one In vIrLue
oI LIeIr own nuLure und wILI LIe oLIer noL In vIrLue oI LIeIr nuLure; Ior LIe
ruLIonuI IormuIu uppIIes Lo one objecL In vIrLue oI LIuL objecL's nuLure, und
Lo LIe oLIer, In u sense, uccIdenLuIIy. or IL Is by denIuI und removuI LIuL
IL exIIbILs LIe conLrury; Ior LIe conLrury Is LIe prImury prIvuLIon, und LIIs
Is LIe removuI oI LIe posILIve Lerm... And so LIe LIIngs wIose poLency Is
uccordIng Lo u ruLIonuI IormuIu ucL conLrurIwIse Lo LIe LIIngs wIose po-
Lency Is non-ruLIonuI; Ior LIe producLs oI LIe Iormer ure IncIuded under
one orIgInuLIve source, LIe ruLIonuI IormuIu.
1oq6b1g-q
Now sInce conLrurIes do noL occur In LIe sume LIIng, buL scIence Is u po-
Lency wIIcI depends on LIe possessIon oI u ruLIonuI IormuIu, und LIe souI
possesses un orIgInuLIve source oI movemenL; LIereIore, wIIIe LIe wIoIe-
some produces onIy IeuILI und LIe cuIorIIIc onIy IeuL und LIe IrIgorIIIc onIy
coId, LIe scIenLIIIc mun produces boLI LIe conLrury eIIecLs. or LIe ruLIo-
nuI IormuIu Is one wIIcI uppIIes Lo boLI, LIougI noL In LIe sume wuy, und
IL Is In u souI wIIcI possesses un orIgInuLIve source oI movemenL; so LIuL
LIe souI wIII sLurL boLI processes Irom LIe sume orIgInuLIve source, IuvIng
IInked LIem up wILI LIe sume LIIng. And so LIe LIIngs wIose poLency Is
uccordIng Lo u ruLIonuI IormuIu ucL conLrurIwIse Lo LIe LIIngs wIose po-
Lency Is non-ruLIonuI; Ior LIe producLs oI LIe Iormer ure IncIuded under
one orIgInuLIve source, LIe ruLIonuI IormuIu.
1oq6bq-bq
TIere ure some wIo suy, us LIe MegurIc scIooI does, LIuL u LIIng 'cun` ucL
onIy wIen IL Is ucLIng, und wIen IL Is noL ucLIng IL 'cunnoL` ucL, e.g. LIuL Ie
wIo Is noL buIIdIng cunnoL buIId, buL onIy Ie wIo Is buIIdIng, wIen Ie Is
buIIdIng; und so In uII oLIer cuses. L Is noL Iurd Lo see LIe ubsurdILIes LIuL
uLLend LIIs vIew. or IL Is cIeur LIuL on LIIs vIew u mun wIII noL be u buIIder
unIess Ie Is buIIdIng (Ior Lo be u buIIder Is Lo be ubIe Lo buIId), und so wILI
LIe oLIer urLs. I, LIen, IL Is ImpossIbIe Lo Iuve sucI urLs II one Ius noL uL
8
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
some LIme IeurnL und ucquIred LIem, und IL Is LIen ImpossIbIe noL Lo Iuve
LIemII one Ius noL someLIme IosL LIem(eILIer by IorgeLIuIness or by some
uccIdenL or by LIme; Ior IL cunnoL be by LIe desLrucLIon oI LIe objecL, Ior
LIuL IusLs Ior ever), u mun wIII noL Iuve LIe urL wIen Ie Ius ceused Lo use
IL, und yeL Ie muy ImmedIuLeIy buIId uguIn; Iow LIen wIII Ie Iuve goL LIe
urL?
1oq,u1o-q
AguIn, II LIuL wIIcI Is deprIved oI poLency Is IncupubIe, LIuL wIIcI Is noL
IuppenIng wIII be IncupubIe oI IuppenIng; buL Ie wIo suys oI LIuL wIIcI Is
IncupubIe oI IuppenIng eILIer LIuL IL Is or LIuL IL wIII be wIII suy wIuL Is un-
Lrue; Ior LIIs Is wIuL IncupucILy meunL. TIereIore LIese vIews do uwuy wILI
boLI movemenL und becomIng. or LIuL wIIcI sLunds wIII uIwuys sLund,
und LIuL wIIcI sILs wIII uIwuys sIL, sInce II IL Is sILLIng IL wIII noL geL up; Ior
LIuL wIIcI, us we ure LoId, cunnoL geL up wIII be IncupubIe oI geLLIng up.
BuL we cunnoL suy LIIs, so LIuL evIdenLIy poLency und ucLuuIILy ure dIIIer-
enL (buL LIese vIews muke poLency und ucLuuIILy LIe sume, und so IL Is no
smuII LIIng LIey ure seekIng Lo unnIIIIuLe), so LIuL IL Is possIbIe LIuL u LIIng
muy be cupubIe oI beIng und noL Ie, und cupubIe oI noL beIng und yeL Ie,
und sImIIurIy wILI LIe oLIer kInds oI predIcuLe; IL muy be cupubIe oI wuIk-
Ing und yeL noL wuIk, or cupubIe oI noL wuIkIng und yeL wuIk. And u LIIng Is
cupubIe oI doIng someLIIng II LIere wIII be noLIIng ImpossIbIe In ILs Iuv-
Ing LIe ucLuuIILy oI LIuL oI wIIcI IL Is suId Lo Iuve LIe cupucILy. meun, Ior
InsLunce, II u LIIng Is cupubIe oI sILLIng und IL Is open Lo IL Lo sIL, LIere wIII
be noLIIng ImpossIbIe In ILs ucLuuIIy sILLIng; und sImIIurIy II IL Is cupubIe oI
beIng moved or movIng, or oI sLundIng or mukIng Lo sLund, or oI beIng or
comIng Lo be, or oI noL beIng or noL comIng Lo be.
1oq,uo-b
TIe word 'ucLuuIILy', wIIcI we connecL wILI IuIIIIImenL, Ius, sLrIcLIy speuk-
Ing, been exLended Irom movemenLs Lo oLIer LIIngs; Ior ucLuuIILy In LIe
sLrIcL sense Is IdenLIIIedwILImovemenL. AndsopeopIe donoL ussIgnmove-
menL Lo non-exIsLenL LIIngs, LIougI LIey do ussIgn some oLIer predIcuLes.
E.g. LIey suy LIuL non-exIsLenL LIIngs ure objecLs oI LIougIL und desIre, buL
noL LIuL LIey ure moved; und LIIs becuuse, wIIIe LIey do noL ucLuuIIy exIsL,
LIey wouId Iuve Lo exIsL ucLuuIIy II LIey were moved. or oI non-exIsLenL
LIIngs some exIsL poLenLIuIIy; buL LIey do noL exIsL, becuuse LIey do noL
exIsL In IuIIIIImenL.
q
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1oqSu1-q
SInce LIuL wIIcI Is cupubIe Is cupubIe oI someLIIng und uL some LIme und
In some wuy-wILI uII LIe oLIer quuIIIIcuLIons wIIcI musL be presenL In LIe
deIInILIon-, und sInce some LIIngs cun work uccordIng Lo u ruLIonuI Ior-
muIu und LIeIr poLenLIuIILIes InvoIve u IormuIu, wIIIe oLIer LIIngs ure non-
ruLIonuI und LIeIr poLenLIuIILIes ure non-ruLIonuI, und LIe Iormer poLenLIuI-
ILIes musL be In u IIvIng LIIng, wIIIe LIe IuLLer cun be boLI In LIe IIvIng und
In LIe IIIeIess; us regurds poLenLIuIILIes oI LIe IuLLer kInd, wIen LIe ugenL
und LIe puLIenL meeL In LIe wuy upproprIuLe Lo LIe poLenLIuIILy In ques-
LIon, LIe one musL ucL und LIe oLIer be ucLed on, buL wILI LIe Iormer kInd
LIIs Is noL necessury. or LIe non-ruLIonuI poLenLIuIILIes ure uII producLIve
oI one eIIecL eucI, buL LIe ruLIonuI produce conLrury eIIecLs, so LIuL LIey
wouId produce conLrury eIIecLs uL LIe sume LIme; buL LIIs Is ImpossIbIe.
TIuL wIIcI decIdes, LIen, musL be someLIIng eIse; meun by LIIs, desIre
or cIoIce.
1oqSu1-q
TIereIore every LIIng wIIcI Ius u ruLIonuI poLenLIuIILy, wIen IL desIres LIuL
Ior wIIcI IL Ius u poLenLIuIILy und In LIe cIrcumsLunces In wIIcI IL Ius IL,
musL do LIIs. AndIL Ius LIe poLenLIuIILy InquesLIonwIenLIe pussIve objecL
Is presenL und Is In u cerLuIn sLuLe; II noL IL wIII noL be ubIe Lo ucL. To udd
LIe quuIIIIcuLIon 'II noLIIng exLernuI prevenLs IL' Is noL IurLIer necessury;
Ior IL Ius LIe poLenLIuIILy In so Iur us LIIs Is u poLenLIuIILy oI ucLIng, und
IL Is LIIs noL In uII cIrcumsLunces buL on cerLuIn condILIons, umong wIIcI
wIII be LIe excIusIon oI exLernuI IIndrunces; Ior LIese ure burred by some
oI LIe posILIve quuIIIIcuLIons. And so even II one Ius u ruLIonuI wIsI, or un
uppeLILe, Lo do Lwo LIIngs or conLrury LIIngs uL LIe sume LIme, one cunnoL
do LIem; Ior IL Is noL on LIese Lerms LIuL one Ius LIe poLenLIuIILy Ior LIem,
nor Is IL u poLenLIuIILy Ior doIng boLI uL LIe sume LIme, sInce one wIII do jusL
LIe LIIngs wIIcI IL Is u poLenLIuIILy Ior doIng.
1oqSbo-q
E.g. u cuskeL Is noL 'eurLIen' nor 'eurLI', buL 'wooden'; Ior LIIs Is poLenLIuIIy
u cuskeL und LIIs Is LIe muLLer oI u cuskeL, wood In generuI oI u cuskeL In
generuI, und LIIs purLIcuIur wood oI LIIs purLIcuIur cuskeL.
6o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1oqSug-bq
SInce we Iuve LreuLed oI LIe kInd oI poLenLIuIILy wIIcI Is reIuLed Lo move-
menL, IeL us dIscuss ucLuuIILy, wIuL undwIuL sorL oI LIIng IL Is. nLIe course
oI our unuIysIs IL wIII uIso become cIeur, wILI regurd Lo LIe poLenLIuI, LIuL
we noL onIy uscrIbe poLenLIuIILy Lo LIuL wIose nuLure IL Is Lo move some-
LIIng eIse, eILIer wILIouL quuIIIIcuLIon or In some purLIcuIur wuy, buL uIso
use LIe word In unoLIer sense, In LIe pursuIL oI wIIcI we Iuve dIscussed
LIese prevIous senses. AcLuuIILy meuns LIe exIsLence oI LIe LIIng, noL In LIe
wuy wIIcI we express by 'poLenLIuIIy'; we suy LIuL poLenLIuIIy, Ior InsLunce,
u sLuLue oI Hermes Is In LIe bIock oI wood und LIe IuII-IIne Is In LIe wIoIe,
becuuse IL mIgIL be sepuruLed ouL, und even LIe mun wIo Is noL sLudyIng
we cuII u mun oI scIence, II Ie Is cupubIe oI sLudyIng. OLIerwIse, ucLuuIIy.
Our meunIng cun be seen In LIe purLIcuIur cuses by InducLIon, und we musL
noL seek u deIInILIon oI everyLIIng buL be conLenL Lo grusp LIe unuIogy,-
LIuL us LIuL wIIcI Is buIIdIng Is Lo LIuL wIIcI Is cupubIe oI buIIdIng, so Is
LIe wukIng Lo LIe sIeepIng, und LIuL wIIcI Is seeIng Lo LIuL wIIcI Ius ILs
eyes sIuL buL Ius sIgIL, und LIuL wIIcI Is sIuped ouL oI LIe muLLer Lo LIe
muLLer, und LIuL wIIcI Ius been wrougIL Lo LIe unwrougIL. eL ucLuuIILy
be deIIned by one member oI LIIs unLILIesIs, und LIe poLenLIuI by LIe oLIer.
BuL uII LIIngs ure noL suId In LIe sume sense Lo exIsL ucLuuIIy, buL onIy by
unuIogy-us A Is In B or Lo B, C Is In D or Lo D; Ior some ure us movemenL Lo
poLenLIuIILy, und LIe oLIers us subsLunce Lo some sorL oI muLLer.
1oqSbg-1oqqu1
|W|e musL dIsLInguIsI wIen u LIIng Is poLenLIuIIy und wIen IL Is noL; Ior
IL Is noL uL uny und every LIme. E.g. Is eurLI poLenLIuIIy u mun? No--buL
ruLIer wIen IL Ius uIreudy become seed, und perIups noL even LIen, us
noL everyLIIng cun be IeuIed by LIe medIcuI urL or by cIunce, buL LIere
Is u cerLuIn kInd oI LIIng wIIcI Is cupubIe oI IL, und onIy LIIs Is poLenLIuIIy
IeuILIy... SImIIurIy LIere Is poLenLIuIIy u Iouse, II noLIIng InLIe LIIng ucLed
on-I.e. In LIe muLLer-prevenLs IL ) Irom becomIng u Iouse, und II LIere Is
noLIIng wIIcI musL be udded or Luken uwuy or cIunged; LIIs Is poLenLIuIIy
u Iouse, und LIe sume Is Lrue oI uII oLIer LIIngs Ior wIIcI LIe source oI LIeIr
becomIng Is exLernuI.
61
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1oqqbq-1o
We Iuve dIsLInguIsIed LIe vurIous senses oI 'prIor', und IL Is cIeur LIuL uc-
LuuIILy Is prIor Lo poLenLIuIILy. And meun by poLenLIuIILy noL onIy LIuL
deIInILe kInd wIIcI Is suId Lo be u prIncIpIe oI cIunge In unoLIer LIIng or In
LIe LIIng ILseII regurded us oLIer, buL In generuI every prIncIpIe oI move-
menL or oI resL. or nuLure uIso Is In LIe sume genus us poLenLIuIILy; Ior IL Is
u prIncIpIe oI movemenL-noL, Iowever, In someLIIng eIse buL In LIe LIIng
ILseII quu ILseII. To uII sucI poLenLIuIILy, LIen, ucLuuIILy Is prIor boLI In Ior-
muIu und In subsLunce; und In LIme IL Is prIor In one sense, und In unoLIer
noL.
1oqqb1-1,
CIeurIy IL Is prIor In IormuIu; Ior LIuL wIIcI Is In LIe prImury sense poLen-
LIuI Is poLenLIuI becuuse IL Is possIbIe Ior IL Lo become ucLuuI, e.g. meun by
'cupubIe oI buIIdIng' LIuL wIIcI cun buIId, und by 'cupubIe oI seeIng' LIuL
wIIcI cun see, und by 'vIsIbIe' LIuL wIIcI cun be seen. And LIe sume uc-
counL uppIIes Lo uII oLIer cuses, so LIuL LIe IormuIu und LIe knowIedge oI
LIe one musL precede LIe knowIedge oI LIe oLIer
1oqqbq-S
or IromLIe poLenLIuIIy exIsLIng LIe ucLuuIIy exIsLIng Is uIwuys produced by
un ucLuuIIy exIsLIng LIIng, e.g. mun Irommun, musIcIun by musIcIun; LIere
Is uIwuys u IIrsL mover, und LIe mover uIreudy exIsLs ucLuuIIy. We Iuve suId
In our uccounL oI subsLunce LIuL everyLIIng LIuL Is produced Is someLIIng
produced Irom someLIIng und by someLIIng, und LIuL LIe sume In specIes
us IL.
1ogoug-1o
BuL IL Is uIso prIor In subsLunLIuIILy; IIrsLIy, becuuse LIIngs wIIcI ure pos-
LerIor In generuLIon ure prIor In Iorm und subsLunLIuIILy; e.g., uduIL Is prIor
Lo cIIId, und mun Lo semen, becuuse LIe one uIreudy possesses LIe Iorm,
buL LIe oLIer does noL; und secondIy, becuuse everyLIIng wIIcI Is gener-
uLed moves Lowurds u prIncIpIe, I.e. ILs end. or LIe objecL oI u LIIng Is ILs
prIncIpIe; und generuLIon Ius us ILs objecL LIe end. And LIe ucLuuIILy Is LIe
end, und IL Is Ior LIe suke oI LIIs LIuL LIe poLenLIuIILy Is ucquIred.
6z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1ogou1g-q
urLIer, muLLer exIsLs poLenLIuIIy, becuuse IL muy uLLuIn Lo LIe Iorm; buL
wIen IL exIsLs ucLuuIIy, IL Is LIen In LIe Iorm. TIe sume uppIIes In uII oLIer
cuses, IncIudIng LIose wIere LIe end Is moLIon. Hence, jusL us LeucIers
LIInk LIuL LIey Iuve ucIIeved LIeIr end wIen LIey Iuve exIIbILed LIeIr
pupII perIormIng, so IL Is wILI nuLure. or II LIIs Is noL so, IL wIII be unoLIer
cuse oI "Puuson's Hermes"; IL wIII be ImpossIbIe Lo suy wIeLIer LIe knowI-
edge Is In LIe pupII or ouLsIde IIm, us In LIe cuse oI LIe Hermes. or LIe
ucLIvILy Is LIe end, und LIe ucLuuIILy Is LIe ucLIvILy; Ience LIe Lerm "ucLuuI-
ILy" Is derIved Irom "ucLIvILy," und Lends Lo Iuve LIe meunIng oI "compIeLe
reuIILy."
1ogouo-1ogobg
TIus In uII cuses wIere LIe resuIL Is someLIIng oLIer LIun LIe exercIse oI
LIe IucuILy, LIe ucLuuIILy resIdes In LIe LIIng produced; e.g. LIe ucL oI buIId-
Ing In LIe LIIng buIIL, LIe ucL oI weuvIng In LIe LIIng woven, und so on; und
In generuI LIe moLIon resIdes In LIe LIIng moved. BuL wIere LIere Is no
oLIer resuIL besIdes LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon, LIe ucLuuIIzuLIon resIdes In LIe sub-
jecL; e.g. seeIng In LIe seer, und specuIuLIon InLIe specuIuLor, und IIIe In LIe
souI (und Ience uIso IuppIness, sInce IuppIness Is u purLIcuIur kInd oI IIIe).
EvIdenLIy, LIereIore, subsLunce or Iorm Is ucLuuIILy. TIus IL Is obvIous by
LIIs urgumenL LIuL ucLuuIILy Is prIor In subsLunLIuIILy Lo poLenLIuIILy; und
LIuL In poInL oI LIme, us we Iuve suId, one ucLuuIILy presupposes unoLIer
rIgIL buck Lo LIuL oI LIe prIme mover In eucI cuse.
1o6oug-
urLIer, II LIere Is u subsLunce or prIncIpIe oI sucI u nuLure us LIuL wIIcI
we ure nowseekIng, und II LIIs Is one Ior uII LIIngs, und LIe sume Ior eLernuI
und Ior perIsIubIe LIIngs, IL Is Iurd Lo suy wIy In LIe worId, II LIere Is LIe
sume prIncIpIe, some oI LIe LIIngs LIuL IuII under LIe prIncIpIe ure eLernuI,
und oLIers ure noL eLernuI; LIIs Is purudoxIcuI. BuL II LIere Is one prIncIpIe
oI perIsIubIe und unoLIer oI eLernuI LIIngs, we sIuII be In u IIke dIIIIcuILy
II LIe prIncIpIe oI perIsIubIe LIIngs, us weII us LIuL oI eLernuI, Is eLernuI;
Ior wIy, II LIe prIncIpIe Is eLernuI, ure noL LIe LIIngs LIuL IuII under LIe
prIncIpIe uIso eLernuI? BuL II IL Is perIsIubIe unoLIer prIncIpIe Is InvoIved
Lo uccounL Ior IL, und unoLIer Lo uccounL Ior LIuL, und LIIs wIII go on Lo
InIInILy.
6
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
A.1.1q Nicomucheun Ithics
TrunsIuLIon by W. D. Ross.
1oqSug-1S
Now II LIe IuncLIon oI mun Is un ucLIvILy oI souI wIIcI IoIIows or ImpIIes
u ruLIonuI prIncIpIe, und II we suy 'so-und-so-und 'u good so-und-so` Iuve
u IuncLIon wIIcI Is LIe sume In kInd, e.g. u Iyre, und u good Iyre-pIuyer,
und so wILIouL quuIIIIcuLIon In uII cuses, emInence In respecL oI goodness
beIng Idded Lo LIe nume oI LIe IuncLIon (Ior LIe IuncLIon oI u Iyre-pIuyer Is
Lo pIuy LIe Iyre, und LIuL oI u good Iyre-pIuyer Is Lo do so weII): II LIIs Is LIe
cuse, und we sLuLe LIe IuncLIon oI mun Lo be u cerLuIn kInd oI IIIe, und LIIs
Lo be un ucLIvILy or ucLIons oI LIe souI ImpIyIng u ruLIonuI prIncIpIe, und
LIe IuncLIon oI u good mun Lo be LIe good und nobIe perIormunce oI LIese,
und II uny ucLIon Is weII perIormed wIen IL Is perIormed In uccordunce wILI
LIe upproprIuLe exceIIence: II LIIs Is LIe cuse, Iumun good Lurns ouL Lo be
ucLIvILy oI souI In uccordunce wILI vIrLue, und II LIere ure more LIun one
vIrLue, In uccordunce wILI LIe besL und mosL compIeLe.
A.1.1g Rhetoric
TrunsIuLIon by W. RIys RoberLs.
16Sbq-6
OI LIose |ucLIons| noL due Lo IImseII some ure due Lo cIunce, LIe oLIers Lo
necessILy; oI LIese IuLLer, uguIn, some ure due Lo compuIsIon, LIe oLIers Lo
nuLure.
A. iels, H.
A..1 ie Irugmente der Vorsokrutiker
AII Germun LrunsIuLIons ure by H. DIeIs und W. Krunz.
6q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
1B1
AnIung und Ursprung der seIenden DInge IsL dus ApeIron...
1B1, ,
...kuILes Wusser IsL du, ses, IuuLeres.
1B1, 16
...denn dIes zu erbitten, IsL ju dus Gemuere (dus uns nuIer AngeIende).
1B
BeIm euer zIemL soIcI GesprucI zur WInLerszeIL, wenn mun uuI weIcIem
uger gesuLLIgL duIIegL...
B1, 6-S
Denn gescIIeIL uucI uIIes nucI dIesem SInn, so gIeIcIen sIe docI Uner-
probLen, so oIL sIe sIcI erproben un soIcIen WorLen und Werken, wIe IcI
sIe errLere, nucI seIner NuLur eIn jegIIcIes zerIegend und erkIurend, wIe
es sIcI verIuIL.
B11
Gesund Denken IsL dIe grLe VoIIkommenIeIL, und dIe WeIsIeIL besLeIL
durIn, dIe WuIrIeIL zu sugen und zu IundeIn nucI der NuLur, uuI sIe IIn-
Irend.
oB,,
Denn dIe IrIere GesLuILung geIL nIcIL unLer und dIe nIcIL vorIundene
enLsLeIL nIcIL.
6
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
qqB,
NoLwendIg mssen dIe vorIundenen Dine uIIe enLweder grenzebIIdend
oder grenzenIos <oder nur genzebIIdend> knnen sIe woII nIcIL seIn.
qqB, q-11
Und dIese, obwoII der VergungIIcIkeIL unLerworIen, bewuIren docI IIre
EIgenLmIIcIkeILenund GesLuILen und brIngen uuI demWege der Zeugung
wIderum dIeseIbe GesLuIL Iervor wIe sIe der VuLer und DemIurg gescIuI-
Ien...
q,B1, 1o
Denn sIe bescIuILIgen sIcI mIL den beIden verscIwIsLerLen UrgesLuILen des
SeIenden.
ggB
DIe NuLur und dIe ErzIeIung sInd eLwus InIIcIes. Denn dIe ErzIeIung
IormL zwur den MenscIen um, uber durcI dIese UmIormung scIuIIL sIe
NuLur.
gqA66
Anuxugorus... |proposed| un uncIeur cuuse due Lo Iumun reusonIng: Ior IL
InvoIves necessILy, IuLe, cIoIce, Iuck und cIunce. |My LrunsIuLIon|
gqB
...denn es IsL unmgIIcI, du dus SeIende zu seIn uuIIre.
gqB1
Dus UbrIge IuL AnLeII un uIIem, GeIsL uber IsL eLwus nIcIL durcI Grenze
BesLImmLes und SeIbsLIerrIIcIes und IsL vermIscIL mIL keInem DInge...
66
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
gqB1
Und uIs der GeIsL dIe Bewegung begunn, sonderLe er sIcI ub von uIIem, wus
du In Bewegung geseLzL wurden und sovIeI der GeIsL In Bewegung seLzLe,
dus wurde uIIes voneInunder gescIIeeden. WuIrend der Bewegung und
ScIeIdung uber bewIrkLe dIe UmdreIung eIne nocIvIeI sLurkere ScIeIdung
voneInunder.
gqB1q
Aber der GeIsL, der ewIg IsL, IsL IrwuIr uucI jeLzL, wo uucI dus undere
uIIes IsL, In der umgebenden VIeIIeIL und In dem, wus sIcI durun durcI
ScIeIdung unseLzLe, und In dem bereits AbgescIIedenen.
gqB1,
Denn keIn DIng enLsLeIL oder vergeIL, sonder uus verIundenen DIngen
mIscIL es sIcI und es scIeIdeL sIcI wIeder. Und so wrden sIe demnucI
rIcILIg dus EnLsLeIen MIscIung und dus VergeIen ScIeIdung nennen.
6SA1, qq
TIe sun und LIe moon ure uggreguLed Irom smooLI und spIerIcuI musses
oI LIIs sorL, und sImIIurIy LIe souI, wIIcI Is LIe sume LIIng us mInd |Lruns-
IuLIon Is mIne|.
6SA1, qg
EveryLIIng Iuppens uccordIng Lo necessILy, Ior LIe cuuse oI LIe comIng-
InLo-beIng oI uII LIIngs Is LIe wIIrI, wIIcI Ie cuIIs necessILy |LrunsIuLIon by
KIrkJRuven|
6SA1, q,
QuuIILIes ure by convenLIon, buL by nuLure LIey ure uLoms und voId. |Lruns-
IuLIon by KIrkJRuven|
6;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
6SBq
By convenLIon ure sweeLness, bILLerness, IoLness, coIdness und coIor; wIuL
Is reuI ure LIe uLoms und moLIon... |My LrunsIuLIon|
6SBqq
covered more LerrILory LIun uny mun In my LIme, mukIng LIe mosL ex-
LensIve InvesLIguLIons, und suw more cIImes und counLrIes und IIsLened Lo
more Iumous men. |LrunsIuLIon by KIrkJRuven|
SB11u, 1-
TIe IeguI uccusuLIon, LIe deIense |und LIe| decIsIon do noL come ubouL Ior
LIe purpose oI deuLI: Ior IL Is cIeur LIuL nuLure Ius decreed deuLI wILI ILs
voLe concernIng uII LIose wIo ure dyIng... |My LrunsIuLIon|
SSBq
DurcI Ubung sInd meIr euLe LcILIg uIs von NuLur
A. Impedocles
A..1 "On Nutore, trunsluted by W. I. Leonurd
CILed In Die Ircmente der Vorsolrctiler.
1B6
And IIrsL LIe IourIoId rooL oI uII LIIngs Ieur!-
WIILe gIeumIng Zeus, IIIe-brIngIng Here, DIs,
And NesLIs wIose Leurs bedew morLuIILy.
1BS
More wIII LeII LIee Loo: LIere Is no bIrLI
OI uII LIIngs morLuI, nor end In ruInous deuLI;
BuL mIngIIng onIy und InLercIunge oI mIxed
68
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
TIere Is, und bIrLI Is buL ILs nume wILI men.
1Bq
BuL wIen In mun, wIId beusL, or bIrd, or busI,
TIese eIemenLs commIngIe und urrIve
TIe reuIms oI IIgIL, LIe LIougILIess deem IL "bIrLI";
WIen LIey dIspurL, 'LIs "doom oI deuLI;" und LIougI
NoL LIIs LIe uw, Loo ussenL Lo use.
1B11
ooIs! Ior LIeIr LIougILs ure brIeIIy brooded o'er.
WIo LrusL LIuL wIuL Is noL cun e'er become,
Or uugIL LIuL Is cun wIoIIy dIe uwuy.
1B1
rom wIuL-Is-noL wIuL-Is cun ne'er become;
So LIuL wIuL-Is sIouId e'er be uII desLroyed,
No Iorce couId compuss und no eur IuLI Ieurd-
or LIere 'LwIII be Iorever wIere 'LIs seL.
1B1-1q
TIe AII IuLI neILIer VoId nor OverIIow.
BuL wILI LIe AII LIere Is no VoId, so wIence
CouId uugIL oI more come nIgI?
1B1,, 1-q
wIII reporL u LwoIoId LruLI. Now grows
TIe One Irom Muny InLo beIng, now
Even Irom LIe One dIspurLIng come LIe Muny.
TwoIoId LIe bIrLI, LwoIoId LIe deuLI oI LIIngs
or, now, LIe meeLIng oI LIe Muny brIngs
To bIrLI und deuLI; und, now, wIuLever grew
rom ouL LIeIr sunderIng, IIIes upurL und dIes.
6q
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
And LIIs Iong InLercIunge sIuII never end.
1B1,, ,-g
BeIoId LIose eIemenLs own equuI sLrengLI
And equuI orIgIn; eucI ruIes ILs Lusk;
And unLo eucI ILs prImuI mode; und eucI
PrevuIIIng conquers wILI revoIvIng LIme.
And more LIun LIese LIere Is no bIrLI nor end;
or were LIey wusLed ever und evermore,
TIey were no Ionger, und LIe greuL AII were LIen
How Lo be pIenIsIed und Irom wIuL Iur cousL?
And Iow, besIdes, mIgIL LIey Lo ruIn come,
SInce noLIIng IIves LIuL empLy Is oI LIem?-
No, LIese ure uII, und, us LIey course uIong
TIrougI one unoLIer, now LIIs, now LIuL Is born-
And so Iorever down ELernILy.
1Bo
TIe worId-wIde wurIure oI LIe eLernuI Two
WeII In LIe muss oI Iumun IImbs Is sIown:
WIIIes InLo one do LIey LIrougI ove unILe,
And morLuI members Luke LIe body's Iorm,
And IIIe doLI IIower uL LIe prIme; und wIIIes,
AguIn dIssevered by LIe HuLes perverse,
TIey wunder Iur und wIde und up und down
TIe surI-swepL beucIes und dreur sIores oI IIIe.
1B1
BuL come, und Lo my words IoresuId Iook weII,
I LIeIr wIde wILness unywIere IorgoL
AugIL LIuL beIooves LIe eIemenLuI Iorms:
BeIoId LIe Sun, LIe wurm, LIe brIgIL-dIIIused;
BeIoId LIe eLernuI SLurs, Iorever sLeeped
n IIquId IeuL und gIowIng rudIunce; see
AIso LIe RuIn, obscure und coId und durk,
And Iow Irom EurLI sLreums IorLI LIe Green und Irm.
;o
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
And uII LIrougI WruLI ure spIIL Lo sIupes dIverse;
And eucI LIrougI ove druws neur und yeurns Ior eucI.
or Irom LIese eIemenLs IuLI budded uII
TIuL wus or Is or evermore sIuII be-
AII Lrees, und men und women, beusLs und bIrds,
And IIsIes nourIsIed In deep wuLers, uye,
TIe Iong-IIved gods, In Ionors exceIIenL.
or LIese ure uII, und, us LIey course uIong
TIrougI one unoLIer, LIey Luke new Iuces uII,
By vurIed mIngIIng und endurIng cIunge.
1Bg,
Ir (der Erde) enLsprocIen vIeIe KInnbucken oIne HuIse, nuckLe Arme Ir-
rLen IIn und Ier sonder ScIuILern, und Augen uIIeIn scIweIILen umIer bur
der SLIrnen.
1Bgq
DocI uIs In grerem Mue IundgemeIn wurde der eIne DuImon mIL dem
underen (dIe Iebe mIL dem SLreILe), du IIeI dIeses zusummen, wIe gerude
dIe eInzeInenGIIeder zusummenLruIen, unduucIunderes vIeIes enLsproLe
uuerdem sIcI uneInunder reIIend.
1B61
Muny were born wILI LwoIoId brow und breusL,
Some wILI LIe Iuce oI mun on bovIne sLock,
Some wILI mun's Iorm beneuLI u bovIne Ieud,
MIxed sIupes oI beIng wILI sIudowed secreL purLs,
SomeLImes IIke men, und someLImes womun-growLIs.
1B6g
nLo cIeun wombs LIe seeds ure poured, und wIen
TIereIn LIey meeL wILI CoId, LIe bIrLI Is gIrIs;
And boys, wIen conLrurIwIse LIey meeL wILI Wurm.
;1
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
1BSq
As wIen u mun, ubouL Lo suIIy IorLI,
Prepures u IIgIL und kIndIes IIm u bIuze
OI IIumIng IIre uguInsL LIe wInLry nIgIL,
n Iorny IunLern sIIeIdIng Irom uII wInds;
TIougI IL proLecL Irom breuLI oI bIowIng wInds,
Ls beum durLs ouLwurd, us more IIne und LIIn,
And wILI unLIrIng ruys IIgILs up LIe sky:
JusL so LIe Ire prImevuI once Iuy IId
n LIe round pupII oI LIe eye, encIosed
n IIIms und guuzy veIIs, wIIcI LIrougI und LIrougI
Were pIerced wILI pores dIvIneIy IusIIoned,
And LIus kepL oII LIe wuLery deeps uround,
WIIIsL Ire bursL ouLwurd, us more IIne und LIIn.
1BSg
TIe genLIe IIume oI eye dId cIunce Lo geL
OnIy u IILLIe oI LIe eurLIen purL.
1Bqo
TIus SweeL seIzed SweeL, BILLer on BILLer IIew,
Sour sprung Ior Sour, und upon HoL rode IoL.
1Bq1
WuLer Lo wIne more neurIy Is uIIIed, BuL wIII noL mIx wILI oII.
A.q Purmenides
A.q.1 On Nutore
TrunsIuLIon by J. BurneL.
CILed In Die Ircmente der Vorsolrctiler.
;z
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
SB
Come now, wIII LeII LIee - und do LIou Ieurken Lo my
suyIng und curry IL uwuy - LIe onIy Lwo wuys oI seurcI LIuL
cun be LIougIL oI. TIe IIrsL, numeIy, LIuL L Is, und LIuL IL Is
ImpossIbIe Ior unyLIIng noL Lo be, Is LIe wuy oI convIcLIon,
Ior LruLI Is ILs compunIon. TIe oLIer, numeIy, LIuL L Is noL,
und LIuL someLIIng musL needs noL be, - LIuL, LeII LIee, Is u
wIoIIy unLrusLworLIy puLI. or you cunnoL know wIuL Is
noL - LIuL Is ImpossIbIe - nor uLLer IL;
SB
or IL Is LIe sume LIIng LIuL cun be LIougIL und LIuL cun be.
SB,
or LIIs sIuII never be proved, LIuL LIe LIIngs LIuL ure noL
ure; und do LIou resLruIn LIy LIougIL Irom LIIs wuy oI InquIry.
Nor IeL IubIL Iorce LIee Lo cusL u wunderIng eye upon LIIs
devIous Lruck, or Lo Lurn LIILIer LIy resoundIng eur or LIy
Longue; buL do LIou judge LIe subLIe reIuLuLIon oI LIeIr
dIscourse uLLered by me.
SBS
One puLI onIy Is IeIL Ior us Lo
speuk oI, numeIy, LIuL L Is. n IL ure very muny Lokens LIuL
wIuL Is, Is uncreuLed und IndesLrucLIbIe, uIone, compIeLe,
ImmovubIe und wILIouL end. Nor wus IL ever, nor wIII IL be; Ior
() now IL Is, uII uL once, u conLInuous one. or wIuL kInd oI orIgIn
Ior IL. wIII you Iook Ior? n wIuL wuy und Irom wIuL source
couId IL Iuve druwn ILs Increuse? sIuII noL IeL LIee suy nor
LIInk LIuL IL cume Irom wIuL Is noL; Ior IL cun neILIer be
LIougIL nor uLLered LIuL wIuL Is noL Is. And, II IL cume Irom
(1o) noLIIng, wIuL need couId Iuve mude IL urIse IuLer ruLIer LIun
sooner? TIereIore musL IL eILIer be uILogeLIer or be noL uL
;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
uII. Nor wIII LIe Iorce oI LruLI suIIer uugIL Lo urIse besIdes
ILseII Irom LIuL wIIcI In uny wuy Is. WIereIore, JusLIce does
noL Ioose Ier IeLLers und IeL unyLIIng come InLo beIng or puss
(1) uwuy, buL IoIds IL IusL.
s IL or Is IL noL? SureIy IL Is udjudged, us IL needs musL
be, LIuL we ure Lo seL usIde LIe one wuy us unLIInkubIe und
numeIess (Ior IL Is no Lrue wuy), und LIuL LIe oLIer puLI Is reuI
und Lrue. How, LIen, cun wIuL Is be goIng Lo be In LIe
(zo) IuLure? Or Iow couId IL come InLo beIng? I IL cume InLo
beIng, IL Is noL; nor Is IL II IL Is goIng Lo be In LIe IuLure. TIus Is
becomIng exLInguIsIed und pussIng uwuy noL Lo be Ieurd oI.
Nor Is IL dIvIsIbIe, sInce IL Is uII uIIke, und LIere Is no more
oI IL In one pIuce LIun In unoLIer, Lo IInder IL Irom IoIdIng
LogeLIer, nor Iess oI IL, buL everyLIIng Is IuII oI wIuL Is.
A.g Pluto
A.g.1 Luws
TrunsIuLIon by R.G. Bury.
,Su-c
Athenicn: eL us, LIen, reverL uguIn Lo our IIrsL sLuLemenLs. TIus mucI
uL IeusL every mun ougIL Lo undersLund,-LIuL eILIer LIe Iumun ruce never
Iud u begInnIng uL uII, |;8zu| und wIII never Iuve un end, buL uIwuys wus
und uIwuys wIII be, or eIse IL musL Iuve been In exIsLence un IncuIcuIubIe
IengLI oI LIme Irom LIe duLe wIen IL IIrsL begun.
Clinics: UndoubLedIy.
Athenicn: WeII LIen, do we noL suppose LIuL uII LIe worId over und In uII
sorLs oI wuys LIere Iuve been rIsIngs und IuIIIngs oI SLuLes, und InsLILuLIons
oI every vurIeLy oI order und dIsorder, und uppeLILes Ior Iood-boLI meuLs
und drInks-oI every kInd, und uII sorLs oI vurIuLIons In LIe seusons, dur-
Ing wIIcI IL Is probubIe LIuL LIe unImuIs underwenL |;8zb| InnumerubIe
cIunges?
;q
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
Clinics: CerLuInIy.
Athenicn: Are we Lo beIIeve, LIen, LIuL vInes, noL prevIousIy exIsLIng, up-
peured uL u cerLuIn sLuge; und oIIves, IIkewIse, und LIe gIILs oI DemeLer und
Kore? And LIuL some TrIpLoIemus wus LIe mInIsLer oI sucI IruILs? And
durIng LIe perIod LIuL LIese IruILs were us yeL non-exIsLenL, musL we noL
suppose LIuL LIe unImuIs Lurned, us LIey do now, Lo IeedIng on one un-
oLIer.
SSquq-d
wIII expIuIn IL more cIeurIy. Ire und wuLer und eurLI und uIr, LIey suy, uII
exIsL by nuLure und cIunce, und none oI LIemby urL; und by meuns oI LIese,
wIIcIure wIoIIy InunImuLe, LIe bodIes wIIcIcome nexL-LIose, numeIy, oI
LIe eurLI, sun, moon und sLurs-Iuve been brougIL InLo exIsLence. L Is by
cIunce uII LIese eIemenLs move, by LIe InLerpIuy oI LIeIr respecLIve Iorces,
und uccordIng us LIey meeL LogeLIer und combIne IILLIngIy,-IoL wILI coId,
dry wILI moIsL, soIL wILI Iurd, und uII sucI necessury mIxLures us resuIL
Irom LIe cIunce combInuLIon oI LIese opposILes,-In LIIs wuy und by LIose
meuns LIey Iuve brougIL InLo beIng LIe wIoIe Heuven und uII LIuL Is In
LIe Heuven, und uII unImuIs, Loo, und pIunLs-uILer LIuL uII LIe seusons Iud
urIsen IromLIese eIemenLs; und uII LIIs, us LIey usserL, noL owIng Lo reuson,
nor Lo uny god or urL, buL owIng, us we Iuve suId, Lo nuLure und cIunce.
A.g. Meno
TrunsIuLIon by ArLIur uIrbunks.
,6c
Do yousuy, wILIEmpedokIes, LIuL LIere ure cerLuIneIIIuences IromLIIngs?
- CerLuInIy.
And pores, InLo wIIcI und LIrougI wIIcI LIe eIIIuences go? - Yes Indeed.
And LIuL some oI LIe eIIIuences muLcI cerLuIn oI LIe pores, und oLIers ure
smuIIer or Iurger? - L Is Lrue.
And LIere Is sucI u LIIng us vIsIon? - Yes.
;
Appendix A. Trcnslctions oj Greel Texts
And . . . coIour Is LIe eIIIuence oI Iorms In ugreemenL wILI vIsIon und
percepLIbIe by LIuL sense? - L Is.
A.g. Theutetos
TrunsIuLIon by HuroId NorLI owIer.
1Se
PurmenIdes seems Lo me Lo be, In Homer's words, one Lo be veneruLed
und uIso uwIuI. or meL IIm wIen wus very young und Ie wus very
oId, und Ie uppeured Lo me Lo possess un ubsoIuLeIy nobIe depLI oI mInd.
A.6 Simplicios
A.6.1 On Aristotle's Physics
6r,-qg [1Sqb1g|
Among LIose wIo wIo susLuIn LIuL LIe one Is moved und unIImILed, Anux-
Imunder, son oI PruxIudos oI MIIesus, wIo becume IIs successor und sLu-
denL, suId LIuL LIe prIncIpIe und eIemenL oI beIngs wus LIe unIImILed, IIrsL
beIng LIe IIrsL Lo gIve LIIs nume Lo LIe prIncIpIe. He suId LIuL LIIs wus
noL wuLer nor unyLIIng eIse oI LIose LIIngs cuIIed eIemenLs, buL LIuL LIe
unIImILed wus oI unoLIer nuLure, Irom wIIcI uII LIIngs come Lo be In LIe
Ieuvens und In LIe cosmos beneuLI LIem: "IL Is IromLIese LIIngs LIuL LIere
Is comIng-Lo-be Ior beIngs, und pussIng-uwuy Is InLo LIese LIIngs, uccord-
Ing Lo 'debL'. or LIey repuy jusLIce umongsL LIemseIves Ior unjusLIce done,
uccordIng Lo LIe orderIng oI LIme"--Ie sLuLed LIese LIIngs LIusIy LIrougI
InvenLed numes. BuL IL Is cIeur LIuL, In regurds Lo LIe muLuuI InLerLruns-
IormuLIon oI LIe Iour eIemenLs, LIIs pIIIosopIer dId noL wunL Lo muke uny
one oI LIemu subjecL oI LIese, buL LIuL |LIe subsLruLum| Is someLIIng oLIer
LIun LIem. TIIs LIInker dId noL posIL comIng Lo be us u cIungIng oI LIe eI-
emenL, buL ruLIer sepuruLIng LIe opposILes LIrougI eLernuI cIunge. TIe
opposILes were IoL, coId, dry, weL, und LIe oLIers.
;6
Aristotle on Hiher Nctures
A.6. On Aristotle's Physics
TrunsIuLIon by B. IeeL.
1oS.,
or, In IucL, In LIe cuse oI unImuIs, LIe unImuI Is seen movIng us u wIoIe,
buL IL Is ugreed LIuL LIe body Is moved by LIe souI (wIIcI, becuuse LIe body
Is movIng, Is movIng uIong wILI IL). TIIs Is wIy, even II |LIe souI| Is noL
uppurenL, we suy LIuL LIe body Is moved by IL.
1oq.,
TIIs Loo seems puzzIIng Lo me: n wIuL wuy Ius ACB been ussumed Lo be
movIng? or II IL |Ius been ussumed Lo be movIng| onIy us u body, wIuL
In IL wouId be LIe mover? BuL II |IL Ius been ussumed Lo be movIng| us un
unImuI, wILI CB movIng onIy, on LIe grounds LIuL IL Is u body, und wILI AC
ussIgned Lo LIe unImuI's souI und Ior LIIs reuson sImuILuneousIy ImpurL-
Ing moLIon und movIng, Iow Is IL cIuImed LIuL LIe wIoIe Is movIng In ILs
own rIgIL und prImurIIy, sInce AC, LIuL Is, LIe souI, Is movIng IncIdenLuIIy
becuuse IL Is In LIe movIng body? How couId AC be movIng uL uII II CB Is
uL resL, sInce LIe souI Is unmoved In ILs own rIgIL buL moves becuuse IL Is
In u movIng LIIng, |numeIy,| LIe body? ConsequenLIy, AB couId noL even
be cIuImed Lo be movIng In vIrLue oI u purL on LIe grounds LIuL AC In IL Is
movIng, Ior II CB (ussIgned Lo LIe body) Is uL resL, LIen AC (empIoyed Ior
LIe souI) wouId be uL resL Loo.
1oqo.16-1, 1oq1.S
Muybe, LIen, ArIsLoLIe, IuvIng proposed Lo prove LIuL LIuL wIIcI Is movIng
In ILs own rIgIL und prImurIIy, beIng LIe body, does noL Iuve ILs source
oI beIng Irom ILseII buL Is moved by someLIIng, proves LIIs uILer IuvIng
ussumed In udvunce LIuL unyLIIng wIIcI Is uL resL becuuse some "oLIer
LIIng Ius ceused movIng" Is beIng moved "by someLIIng" und does noL Iuve
LIe moLIon due Lo ILseII und uIso does noL move ILseII... AIso, In repIy Lo my
puzzIe, cIuImLIuL LIe movIng LIIng AB Is u body, wIIcI Indeed Ie proved
wus noL movIng due Lo ILseII on grounds oI ILs purLILIoned und LIe wIoIe's
beIng uL resL wIen IL Ius been IypoLIesIzed LIuL u purL In IL Is uL resL.
;;
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;q
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