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MC LC

MC LC
MC LC ................................................................................................................................. 1 CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U ......................... 3 1.1 Tng quan mng 3G - UMTS ....................................................................................... 3 1.1.1 Lch s pht trin ca thng tin di ng..................................................................... 3 1.1.2 S tin ha i ln 3G .................................................................................................. 4 1.1.3 Cp pht ph tn trong 3G ......................................................................................... 4 1.1.5 Cu trc mng 3G WCDMA...................................................................................... 6 1.1.5.1. Thit b ngi s dng (UE) .................................................................................. 7 1.1.5.1.1. Cc u cui (TE) ............................................................................................... 7 1.1.5.1.2. UMTS IC SIM (UICC) ....................................................................................... 8 1.1.5.1.3 UMTS SIM ........................................................................................................... 8 1.1.5.2 Mng truy nhp v tuyn UMTS ............................................................................ 8 1.1.5.2.1 B iu khin mng v tuyn (RNC) ................................................................... 9 1.1.5.2.2. Node B................................................................................................................. 9 1.1.5.3 Mng li ................................................................................................................ 10 1.1.5.3.1 Nt h tr GPRS phc v (SGSN)..................................................................... 10 1.1.5.3.2. Nt h tr cng GPRS ( GGSN) ....................................................................... 10 1.1.5.3.3. Cng bin gii BG ........................................................................................... 10 1.1.5.3.4 B ghi nh v tm tr ....................................................................................... 11 1.1.5.3.5. Mobile switching center MSC .......................................................................... 11 1.1.5.3.6. GMSC ............................................................................................................... 11 1.1.5.3.7. Mi trng nh ................................................................................................. 11 1.1.5.4 Cc giao din ......................................................................................................... 12 1.2 Gii thiu bi ton ti u v cc KPI trong mng 3G ................................................. 13 1.2.1 Mc ch ca ti u .................................................................................................. 13 1.2.2 L do ca cng vic ti u ha ................................................................................ 13 1.2.3 Li ch ca cng vic ti u ha .............................................................................. 14 1.3. Khi qut chung v cc KPI mng 3G - UMTS ......................................................... 14 1.3.1. nh ngha, c im v mc ch ca vic s dng KPI ...................................... 14 1.3.2. Phn loi cc KPI ................................................................................................... 15 1.3.3. Cc b m ............................................................................................................. 16 1.3.4. Quy trnh ti u mng ............................................................................................. 17 1.3.5. Th tc ti u mng 3G UMTS .............................................................................. 18 1.3.5.1. Cng tc chun b ................................................................................................. 18 1.3.5.2 Tp hp d liu ..................................................................................................... 18 1.3.5.3. nh hng v phn tch d liu .......................................................................... 19 1.3.5.4. Thi hnh cc thit k ti u ................................................................................. 20 1.3.5.5. Cng nhn thit k ti u ..................................................................................... 21 1.3.5.6. Bin son bo co ti u ...................................................................................... 21 CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G ........................ 22 2.1 Cc giao thc trong 3G UMTS ................................................................................ 22 2.1.1 Cc lp giao thc .................................................................................................... 22 SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 1

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

2.1.1.1 Lp iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn (RRC) ......................................................... 22 2.1.1.2 iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC) ...................................................................... 23 2.1.1.3 iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC) ............................................................ 24 2.1.2. Cc knh WCDMA ................................................................................................. 24 2.1.2.1 Cc knh logic, LoCH: .......................................................................................... 25 2.1.2.2. Cc knh truyn ti, TrCH ................................................................................... 25 2.1.2.3 Cc knh vt l: ..................................................................................................... 26 2.2 Cc k thut chnh s dng trong 3G - UMTS ........................................................... 29 2.2.1 Tri ph .................................................................................................................... 29 2.2.1.1 Cc loi m trong k thut tri ph ....................................................................... 30 2.2.2 iu khin cng sut WCDMA .............................................................................. 31 2.2.2.1 iu khin cng sut vng h (OLPC) ................................................................ 32 2.2.2.2 iu khin cng sut vng lp ng (CLPC) ...................................................... 33 2.2.2.2.1. iu khin cng sut vng trong (Nhanh): ....................................................... 33 2.2.2.2.2. iu khin cng sut vng ngoi (Chm): ........................................................ 34 2.2.3 Chuyn giao trong WCDMA .................................................................................. 34 2.2.3.1 Chuyn giao mm (SHO) ...................................................................................... 36 2.2.3.2 Chuyn giao cng (HHO) ..................................................................................... 37 2.2.3.3 Chuyn giao gia cc h thng (IHO) .................................................................. 38 CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS ............................................................................ 39 3.1 Ni dung ca chng .................................................................................................. 39 3.2. Ti u t l rt cuc gi (CDR) ................................................................................. 39 3.2.2. Gii thiu KPI t l rt cuc gi (CDR) ................................................................. 39 3.2.4. Phn tch nhng nguyn nhn gy nn CDR cao v bin php khc phc ............ 42 3.2.4.1 Rt cuc gi do c vn v li thit b ............................................................... 42 3.2.4.2. Rt cuc gi do vn chuyn giao .................................................................... 44 3.2.4.3. Rt cuc gi lin quan n vn vng ph ....................................................... 47 3.2.4.4. Rt cuc gi do nghn.......................................................................................... 48 3.2.4.5. Rt cuc gi do xung t m xo trn (SC)......................................................... 48 3.2.4.6. Rt cuc gi do vn nhim hoa tiu (Pilot pollution) ................................. 49 3.2.4.7. Rt cuc gi do vn v nhiu .......................................................................... 50 3.2.4.8. Rt cuc gi do bn knh phc v ca cell qu ln ............................................ 51 3.2.4.9. Rt cuc gi do cc tham s ca h thng 2G ..................................................... 52 3.3. Ti u t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi (CSSR) ................................................... 53 3.3.1. Gii thiu KPI t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi (CSSR) .................................. 53 3.3.3. Ti u CSSR .......................................................................................................... 56 3.3.3.1. V vn li phn cng ...................................................................................... 56 3.3.3.2. V vn nhiu ng ln.................................................................................. 59 3.3.3.3. Cc vn thng gp ......................................................................................... 59

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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U 1.1 Tng quan mng 3G - UMTS 1.1.1 Lch s pht trin ca thng tin di ng
Th h u tin l mng thng tin di ng t bo tng t xut hin t gia nm 1970 cho n gia nm 1980. t ph quan trong nht trong thi gian ny l khi nim mng t bo c xut bi phng nghin cu Bell t nhng nm 1970. H thng mng t bo c thc hin bng cch ti s dng tn s do lm tng dung lng h thng. Th d v h thng thng tin di ng th h u c th k n h thng in thoi di ng tin tin (AMPS) v phin bn pht trin v sau TACS ca M, NMT ca Bc u (Hnh 1.1).

Hnh 1.1 Cc dch v v cng ngh khc nhau trong 3G


Ti M, mng in thoi di ng AMPS c phn b trong mt bng thng 40 MHz trong di tn t 800 n 900 MHz. H thng ny c s dng ti Bc v Nam M. TACS hot ng ti tn s 900 MHz vi bng tn dnh cho mi ng l 25 MHz v bng thng mi knh l 25 kHz c s dng phn ln Anh, Nht Bn v mt s quc gia Chu . c im chnh ca cc h thng thng tin di ng th h u tin l s dng cng ngh ti s dng tn s, thc hin iu ch tng t cho cc tn hiu thoi v cung cp mt knh thu bao tng t cho mt ngi dng k c khi ngi khng m thoi. Nhng nhc im ca th h u bao gm: s dng khng hiu qu ph tn s, gii hn v dch v, cung cp dch v d liu tc thp, tnh bo mt thp v rt d b tn cng, chi ph u t thit b cao. Nh vy, khc phc nhng im yu v cng ngh ca h thng tng t, cng ngh thng tin di ng s xut hin vo gia nhng nm 1980. Cc h thng
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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

thng tin di ng th h th hai c th k n l GSM v IS-95. Ti Chu u, h thng ton cu cho thng tin di ng (GSM) c trin khai, s dng cng ngh a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA). GSM h tr tc d liu 64 kbps v c th kt ni vi ISDN. GSM s dng di tn 900 MHz trong khi h thng DCS1800 s dng di tn 1800 MHz. H thng GSM s dng phng thc song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD) v TDMA. Mi knh c rng 200 kHz, mi mt sng mang gm 8 khe thi gian nn trong h thng GSM c tt c 125 sng mang hay 1000 khe thi gian. H thng in thoi di dng tin tin s (DAMPS), cn c gi l IS-54, s dng bng tn 800 MHz l tiu chun t bo s u tin ti Bc M, s dng cng ngh TDMA. Tiu chun t bo s cn li Bc M l IS-95, s dng ti bng tn 800 MHz hoc 1900 MHz, s dng cng ngh CDMA v tr thnh s la chn hng u gia cc cng ngh ca cc mng h thng di ng c nhn (PCS) ti M. Do cc h thng thng tin di ng th hai tp trung vo truyn dn cc dch v thoi v dch v d liu tc thp, nn h thng thng tin di ng th h 2,5 xut hin vo nm 1996 nhm cung cp cc dch v truyn dn tc trung bnh cn thit. C th k n GPRS v IS-95B. H thng CDMA c dung lng rt ln, nu so snh vi h thng tng t c th gp 10 ln, thm ch 20 ln. Nhng cng ngh CDMA bng hp i vo hot ng ti thi im mun hn so vi GSM. ng dng ca CDMA lc thua xa GSM. Cc ng dng CDMA c thc hin thng mi quy m ln ti Bc M, Hn Quc v Trung Quc. Cc dch v chnh vn tp trung vo thoi v dch v d liu thp. H thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 c th cung cp nhiu loi dch v a phng tin cht lng cao, chuyn vng ton cu v xem nh vng ph sng khng c ranh gii, tng thch hu ht vi cc mng in thoi c nh, thc hin lin lc ti bt k thi im v thi gian no vi thit b u cui di ng.

1.1.2 S tin ha i ln 3G
H thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 c xy dng vi mc ch cung cp mt mng di ng ton cu vi dch v phong ph bao gm thoi, nhn tin, Internet v d liu bng rng. Ti Chu u, h thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 c tiu chun ha bi U ban tiu chun vin thng Chu u (ETSI) ph hp vi tiu chun IMT - 2000 ca ITU. H thng c tn l UMTS (H thng di ng vin thng ton cu). UMTS c xem l h thng k tha h thng 2G GSM nhm p ng cc yu cu pht trin ca cc dch v di ng v ng dng Internet vi tc truyn dn ln ti 2 Mbps v cung cp mt tiu chun chuyn vng ton cu. UMTS c pht trin bi d n i tc th h th ba (3GPP) l d n pht trin chung ca nhiu c quan tiu chun ha (SDO) nh: ETSI (Chu u), ARIB/TCC (Nht Bn), ANSI (M), TTA (Hn Quc) v CWTS (Trung Quc).

1.1.3 Cp pht ph tn trong 3G


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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

Hi ngh v tuyn th gii nm 1992 a ra cc ph tn s dng cho h thng UMTS (Hnh 1.2).

Hnh 1.2 Cp pht ph tn trong 3G Ti Vit Nam, cng ngh 3G UMTS s dng bng tn s theo chun IMT 2000 trong bng tn s 1900 2200 MHz. Bng tn ng ln 1920 1980 MHz v bng tn ng xung 2110 2170 MHz. Mi mt tn s sng mang c bng thng 5 MHz v khong cch song cng 190 MHz. S knh tn s v tuyn tuyt i (URAFCN) = Tn s trung tm 5 v tn s trung tm = URAFCN 200 kHz (200 kHz l mnh knh). URAFCN ng ln t 9612 9888 v ng xung 10562 10838 (Hnh 1.3).

Hnh 1.3 Bng tn ca WCDMA


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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

1.1.4 Cc loi dch v trong 3G

Hnh 1.4 Cc loi dch v trong 3G Ni v dch v ca UMTS, Hnh 1.4 cho chng ta thy tt c. Vi s ra i ca WCDMA, h thng UMTS cho php trin khai tt c cc loi dch v trn mi trng v tuyn. UMTS chia cc dch v c h tr thnh 4 lp nh sau: - Lp cao nht l lp m thoi (Conversational class): c im ca lp ny yu cu dch v phi m bo c sai lch v thi gian ca thng tin gia bn gi v bn nhn (variation), ng thi yu cu v tr rt kht khe. Cc dch v ca nhm ny nh thoi (voice), hi ngh hnh nh, video game... - Lp th hai l lp lung (Streaming class): vi lp ny khng yu cu kht khe v tr nhng bt buc phi m bo c sai lch v thi gian ca thng tin l nh nhau (variation). Cc dch v ca lp ny nh streaming multimedia, video on demand... - Lp th ba l lp tng tc (Interactive class): cc dch v lp ny yu cu phi m bo c tnh tng tc ca ng dng v ton vn d liu. C th k n cc dch v nh duyt web, tr chi online... - Lp cui cng l lp nn (background): c im ca lp ny yu cu tnh ton vn d liu nhng khng yu cu v mt thi gian. Cc ng dng nh ti file, c emails...

1.1.5 Cu trc mng 3G WCDMA


Mt mng UMTS bao gm ba phn: thit b di ng ( UE: User Equipment), mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS ( UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Network), mng li (CN: Core network).

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Lp: 08VTA1

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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

UE bao gm ba thit b: thit b u cui (TE), thit b di ng (ME) v module nhn dng thu bao UMTS ( USIM: UMTS Subscriber Identity Module). UTRAN gm cc h thng mng v tuyn ( RNS: Radio Network System) v mi RNS bao gm cc RNC ( Radio Network Controller: b iu khin mng v tuyn) v cc node B ni vi n. Mng li CN bao gm min chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch gi v HE ( Home Environment: mi trng nh). HE bao gm cc c s d liu: AuC ( Authentication Center: Trung tm nhn thc), HLR ( Home Location Register: B ghi nh v thng tr) v EIR ( Equipment Identity Register: B ghi nhn dng thit b)

Hnh 1.5: Kin trc mng 3G

1.1.5.1. Thit b ngi s dng (UE)


UE (User Equipment: thit b ngi s dng) l u cui mng UMTS ca ngi s dng. C th ni y l phn h thng c nhiu thit b nht v s pht trin ca n s nh hng ln ln cc ng dng v cc dch v kh dng. Gi thnh gim nhanh chng s to iu kin cho ngi s dng mua thit b ca UMTS. iu ny t c nh tiu chun ha giao din v tuyn v ci t mi tr tu ti cc card thng minh.

1.1.5.1.1. Cc u cui (TE)


V my u cui by gi khng ch n thun dnh cho in thoi m cn cung cp cc dch v s liu mi, nn tn ca n c chuyn thnh u cui. Cc nh sn xut chnh a ra rt nhiu u cui da trn cc khi nim mi, nhng trong thc t ch mt s t l c a vo sn xut. Mc d cc u cui d kin khc nhau v kch thc v thit k, tt c chng u c mn hnh ln v t phm hn so vi 2G. L do chnh l tng cng s dng u cui cho nhiu dch v s liu hn v v th u cui tr thnh t hp ca my thoi di ng, modem v my tnh bn tay. u cui h tr hai giao din. Giao din Uu nh ngha lin kt v tuyn (giao din WCDMA). N m nhim ton b kt ni vt l vi mng UMTS. Giao din th

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

hai l giao din Cu gia UMTS IC card (UICC) v u cui. Giao din ny tun theo tiu chun cho cc card thng minh. Mc d cc nh sn xut u cui c rt nhiu tng v thit b, h phi tun theo mt tp ti thiu cc nh ngha tiu chun cc ngi s dng bng cc u cui khc nhau c th truy nhp n mt s cc chc nng c s theo cng mt cch. Cc tiu chun ny gm: Bn phm (cc phm vt l hay cc phm o trn mn hnh) ng k mt khu mi Thay i m PIN Gii chn PIN/PIN2 (PUK) Trnh by IMEI

iu khin cuc gi Cc phn cn li ca giao din s dnh ring cho nh thit k v ngi s dng s chn cho mnh u cui da trn hai tiu chun (nu xu th 2G cn ko di) l thit k v giao din. Giao din l kt hp ca kch c v thng tin do mn hnh cung cp (mn hnh nt chm), cc phm v menu.

1.1.5.1.2. UMTS IC SIM (UICC)


UMTS IC card l mt card thng minh. iu m ta quan tm n n l dung lng nh v tc b x l do n cung cp. ng dng USIM chy trn UICC.

1.1.5.1.3 UMTS SIM


Trong h thng GSM, SIM card lu gi thng tin c nhn (ng k thu bao) ci cng trn card. iu ny thay i trong UMTS, Modul nhn dng thu bao UMTS c ci nh mt ng dng trn UICC. iu ny cho php lu nhiu ng dng hn v nhiu ch k (kha) in t hn cng vi USIM cho cc mc ch khc (cc m truy nhp giao dch ngn hng an ninh). Ngoi ra c th c nhiu USIM trn cng mt UICC h tr truy nhp n nhiu mng. USIM cha cc hm v s liu cn nhn dng v nhn thc thu bao trong mng UMTS. N c th lu c bn sao h s ca thu bao. Ngi s dng phi t mnh nhn thc i vi USIM bng cch nhp m PIN. iu ny m bo rng ch ngi s dng ch thc mi c truy nhp mng UMTS. Mng s ch cung cp cc dch v cho ngi no s dng u cui da trn nhn dng USIM c ng k.

1.1.5.2 Mng truy nhp v tuyn UMTS


UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network: Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS) l lin kt gia ngi s dng v CN. N gm cc phn t m bo cc cuc truyn thng UMTS trn v tuyn v iu khin chng. UTRAN c nh ngha gia hai giao din. Giao din Iu gia UTRAN v CN, gm hai phn: IuPS cho min chuyn mch gi v IuCS cho min chuyn mch knh;
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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

giao din Uu gia UTRAN v thit b ngi s dng. Gia hai giao din ny l hai nt, RNC v nt B.

1.1.5.2.1 B iu khin mng v tuyn (RNC)


RNC (Radio Network Controller) chu trch nhim cho mt hay nhiu trm gc v iu khin cc ti nguyn ca chng. y cng chnh l im truy nhp dch v m UTRAN cung cp cho CN. N c ni n CN bng hai kt ni, mt cho min chuyn mch gi (n GPRS) v mt n min chuyn mch knh (MSC). Mt nhim v quan trng na ca RNC l bo v s b mt v ton vn. Sau th tc nhn thc v tha thun kha, cc kho bo mt v ton vn c t vo RNC. Sau cc kha ny c s dng bi cc hm an ninh f8 v f9. RNC c nhiu chc nng logic ty thuc vo vic n phc v nt no. Ngi s dng c kt ni vo mt RNC phc v (SRNC: Serving RNC). Khi ngi s dng chuyn vng n mt RNC khc nhng vn kt ni vi RNC c, mt RNC tri (DRNC: Drift RNC) s cung cp ti nguyn v tuyn cho ngi s dng, nhng RNC phc v vn qun l kt ni ca ngi s dng n CN. Vai tr logic ca SRNC v DRNC c m t trn hnh 1.9. Khi UE trong chuyn giao mm gia cc RNC, tn ti nhiu kt ni qua Iub v c t nht mt kt ni qua Iur. Ch mt trong s cc RNC ny (SRNC) l m bo giao din Iu kt ni vi mng li cn cc RNC khc (DRNC) ch lm nhim v nh tuyn thng tin gia cc Iub v Iur. Chc nng cui cng ca RNC l RNC iu khin (CRNC: Control RNC). Mi nt B c mt RNC iu khin chu trch nhim cho cc ti nguyn v tuyn ca n.

Hnh 1.6. Vai tr logic ca SRNC v DRNC

1.1.5.2.2. Node B
Trong UMTS trm gc c gi l nt B v nhim v ca n l thc hin kt ni v tuyn vt l gia u cui vi n. N nhn tn hiu trn giao din Iub t RNC v chuyn n vo tn hiu v tuyn trn giao din Uu. N cng thc hin mt s thao tc qun l ti nguyn v tuyn c s nh "iu khin cng sut vng trong". Tnh nng ny phng nga vn gn xa; ngha l nu tt c cc u cui u pht cng mt cng sut, th cc u cui gn nt B nht s che lp tn hiu t cc u cui xa. Nt B kim tra cng sut thu t cc u cui khc nhau v thng bo cho chng gim cng sut hoc tng cng sut sao cho nt B lun thu c cng sut nh nhau t tt c cc u cui.
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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

1.1.5.3 Mng li
Mng li (CN) c chia thnh ba phn, min PS, min CS v HE. Min PS m bo cc dch v s liu cho ngi s dng bng cc kt ni n Internet v cc mng s liu khc v min CS m bo cc dch v in thoi n cc mng khc bng cc kt ni TDM. Cc nt B trong CN c kt ni vi nhau bng ng trc ca nh khai thc, thng s dng cc cng ngh mng tc cao nh ATM v IP. Mng ng trc trong min CS s dng TDM cn trong min PS s dng IP.

1.1.5.3.1 Nt h tr GPRS phc v (SGSN)


SGSN (SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node: nt h tr GPRS phc v) l nt chnh ca min chuyn mch gi. N ni n UTRAN thng qua giao din IuPS v n GGSN thng quan giao din Gn. SGSN chu trch nhim cho tt c kt ni PS ca tt c cc thu bao. N lu hai kiu d liu thu bao: thng tin ng k thu bao v thng tin v tr thu bao. S liu thu bao lu trong SGSN gm: IMSI (International Mobile Subsscriber Identity: s nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t) Cc nhn dng tm thi gi (P-TMSI: Packet- Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity: s nhn dng thu bao di ng tm thi gi) Cc a ch PDP (Packet Data Protocol: Giao thc s liu gi) S liu v tr lu trn SGSN: Vng nh tuyn thu bao (RA: Routing Area) S VLR Cc a ch GGSN ca tng GGSN c kt ni tch cc

1.1.5.3.2. Nt h tr cng GPRS ( GGSN)


GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node: Nt h tr cng GPRS) l mt SGSN kt ni vi cc mng s liu khc. Tt c cc cuc truyn thng s liu t thu bao n cc mng ngoi u qua GGSN. Cng nh SGSN, n lu c hai kiu s liu: thng tin thu bao v thng tin v tr. S liu thu bao lu trong GGSN: IMSI Cc a ch PDP S liu v tr lu trong GGSN: a ch SGSN hin thu bao ang ni n GGSN ni n Internet thng qua giao din Gi v n BG thng qua Gp.

1.1.5.3.3. Cng bin gii BG


BG (Border Gatway: Cng bin gii) l mt cng gia min PS ca PLMN vi cc mng khc. Chc nng ca nt ny ging nh tng la ca Internet: m bo mng an ninh chng li cc tn cng bn ngoi.

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Lp: 08VTA1

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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

1.1.5.3.4 B ghi nh v tm tr
VLR (Visitor Location Register: b ghi nh v tm tr) l bn sao ca HLR cho mng phc v (SN: Serving Network). D liu thu bao cn thit cung cp cc dch v thu bao c copy t HLR v lu y. C MSC v SGSN u c VLR ni vi chng. Cc s liu c lu trong VLR: IMSI MSISDN TMSI (nu c) LA hin thi ca thu bao MSC/SGSN hin thi m thu bao ni n Ngoi ra VLR c th lu gi thng tin v cc dch v m thu bao c cung cp. C SGSN v MSC u c thc hin trn cng mt nt vt l vi VLR v th c gi l VLR/SGSN v VLR/MSC.

1.1.5.3.5. Mobile switching center MSC


MSC thc hin cc kt ni CS gia u cui v mng. N thc hin cc chc nng bo hiu v chuyn mch cho cc thu bao trong vng qun l ca mnh. Chc nng ca MSC trong UMTS ging chc nng MSC trong GSM, nhng n c nhiu kh nng hn. Cc kt ni CS c thc hin trn giao din CS gia UTRAN v MSC. Cc MSC c ni n cc mng ngoi qua GMSC. 1.1.5.3.6. GMSC GMSC c th l mt trong s cc MSC. GMSC chu trch nhim thc hin cc chc nng nh tuyn n vng c MS. Khi mng ngoi tm cch kt ni n PLMN ca mt nh khai thc, GMSC nhn yu cu thit lp kt ni v hi HLR v MSC hin thi qun l MS.

1.1.5.3.7. Mi trng nh
Mi trng nh (HE: Home Environment) lu cc h s thu bao ca hng khai thc. N cng cung cp cho cc mng phc v (SN: Serving Network) cc thng tin v thu bao v v cc cn thit nhn thc ngi s dng v tnh cc cho cc dch v cung cp. Tt c cc dch v c cung cp v cc dch v b cm u c lit k y. B ghi nh v thng tr (HLR) HLR l mt c s d liu c nhim v qun l cc thu bao di ng. Mt mng di ng c th cha nhiu HLR ty thuc vo s lng thu bao, dung lng ca tng HLR v t chc bn trong mng. C s d liu ny cha IMSI (International Mobile Subsscriber Identity: s nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t), t nht mt MSISDN (Mobile Station ISDN: s thu bao c trong danh b in thoi) v t nht mt a ch PDP (Packet Data Protocol: Giao thc s liu gi). C IMSI v MSISDN c th s dng lm kho truy nhp n cc thng tin c lu khc. nh tuyn v tnh cc cc cuc gi, HLR cn lu
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 11

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

gi thng tin v SGSN v VLR no hin ang chu trch nhim thu bao. Cc dch v khc nh chuyn hng cuc gi, tc s liu v th thoi cng c trong danh sch cng vi cc hn ch dch v nh cc hn ch chuyn mng. HLR v AuC l hai nt mng logic, nhng thng c thc hin trong cng mt nt vt l. HLR lu gi mi thng tin v ngi s dng v ng k thu bao. Nh: thng tin tnh cc, cc dch v no c cung cp v cc dch v no b t chi v thng tin chuyn hng cuc gi. Nhng thng tin quan trng nht l hin VLR v SGSN no ang ph trch ngi s dng. Trung tm nhn thc (AuC) AUC (Authentication Center) lu gi ton b s liu cn thit nhn thc, mt m ha v bo v s ton vn thng tin cho ngi s dng. N lin kt vi HLR v c thc hin cng vi HLR trong cng mt nt vt l. Tuy nhin cn m bo rng AuC ch cung cp thng tin v cc vect nhn thc (AV: Authetication Vector) cho HLR. AuC lu gi kha b mt chia s K cho tng thu bao cng vi tt c cc hm to kha t f0 n f5. N to ra cc AV, c trong thi gian thc khi SGSN/VLR yu cu hay khi ti x l thp, ln cc AV d tr. B ghi nhn dng thit b (EIR) EIR (Equipment Identity Register) chu trch nhim lu cc s nhn dng thit b di ng quc t (IMEI: International Mobile Equipment Identity). y l s nhn dng duy nht cho thit b u cui. C s d liu ny c chia thnh ba danh mc: danh mc trng, xm v en. Danh mc trng cha cc s IMEI c php truy nhp mng. Danh mc xm cha IMEI ca cc u cui ang b theo di cn danh mc en cha cc s IMEI ca cc u cui b cm truy nhp mng. Khi mt u cui c thng bo l b mt cp, IMEI ca n s b t vo danh mc en v th n b cm truy nhp mng. Danh mc ny cng c th c s dng cm cc seri my c bit khng c truy nhp mng khi chng khng hot ng theo tiu chun.

1.1.5.4 Cc giao din


Vai tr cc cc nt khc nhau ca mng ch c nh ngha thng qua cc giao din hc nhau. Cc giao din ny c nh ngha cht ch cc nh sn xut c th kt ni cc phn cng khc nhau ca h. Giao din Cu: Giao din Cu l giao din chun cho cc card thng minh. Trong UE y l ni kt ni gia USIM v UE Giao din Uu: Giao din Uu l giao din v tuyn ca WCDMA trong UMTS. y l giao din m qua UE truy nhp vo phn c nh ca mng. Giao din ny nm gia nt B v u cui. Giao din Iu: Giao din Iu kt ni UTRAN v CN. N gm hai phn, IuPS cho min chuyn mch gi, IuCS cho min chuyn mch knh. CN c th kt

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

ni n nhiu UTRAN cho c giao din IuCS v IuPS. Nhng mt UTRAN ch c th kt ni n mt im truy nhp CN. Giao din Iur: y l giao din RNC-RNC. Ban u c thit k m bo chuyn giao mm gia cc RNC, nhng trong qu trnh pht trin nhiu tnh nng mi c b sung. Giao din ny m bo bn tnh nng ni bt sau: - Di ng gia cc RNC - Lu thng knh ring - Lu thng knh chung - Qun l ti nguyn ton cc Giao din Iub: Giao din Iub ni nt B v RNC. Khc vi GSM y l giao din m.

1.2 Gii thiu bi ton ti u v cc KPI trong mng 3G 1.2.1 Mc ch ca ti u


Mc ch ch yu ca vic ti u ha mng l duy tr v ci thin ton b cht lng v dung lng hin thi ca mng di ng. nhn bit c: Lm cho mng hin ti c hiu sut cao hn song song vi vic u t hiu qu c s h tng, thu hi vn nhanh v sinh li. Nhn din chnh xc cc suy gim hiu sut mng. Cc suy gim ny c nhn din thng qua vic gim st lin tc cc KPI mng c nh ngha hay qua cc phn nh ca khch hng. Khi bt u thit k mng, cht lng dch v (QoS) phi c ngh n khch hng. Ti u chc chn hiu sut mng c duy tr vi cht lng dch v khng thay i.

1.2.2 L do ca cng vic ti u ha


Sau khi hon thnh trin khai mng, pht hin li khi gim st KPI do vic hoch nh ban u khng tt bi tn hiu ng truyn v tuyn tht s khng nh cng c thit k d on, do c s d liu u vo thit k khng chnh xc v phn b ti lu lng tht s th khc so vi cc d on da trn cc thng k khi thit k. Do vic b sung cc tnh nng mi, dch v mi (v d nh nng cp ln HSDPA, HSUPA, cc dch v gii tr...) trong n lc gii thiu cc dch v mi vi nh hng thp nht n cht lng dch v hin ti v vi chi ph u t b sung thp nht. Ti u hiu chnh cc vn c nhn din lm gim hiu sut mng sau khi kim tra (Audit) mng. Thc hin hiu chnh, ti u khi gim st v nhn din c tnh v cht lng mng cc KPI suy gim. Ci thin hiu sut mng t c cc yu cu kinh doanh.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 13

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

Do lu lng ngy cng tng, cu trc mng thay i nhanh chng v ngy cng phc tp.

1.2.3 Li ch ca cng vic ti u ha


Duy tr, ci thin cht lng dch v hin ti. Gim t l ri b mng ca khch hng. Thu ht khch hng mi qua vic cung cp cc dch v hay cht lng dch v tt hn bng vic nng cao c tnh mng. t c ti a li nhun do cc dch v to ra bi vic s dng ti a hiu sut ca cc phn t chc nng mng. Nh vy, ta nhn thy tm quan trng ca cng vic ti u mng, tip theo s i tm hiu v KPI v n c s dng nh th no nh gi cht lng mng.

1.3. h i qu t chung v c c PI ng 3G - UMTS 1.3.1. nh ngha, c im v mc ch ca vic s dng KPI


nh ngha v c c c im ca KPI KPI l cc ch th c th nh lng c trong mt iu kin, th tc v thit b o lng cho trc, hn na cn l cc ch th then cht hng dn cho vic xc nh cc mc tiu ti u mng sau ny. Cc KPI c cc nh vn hnh s dng theo di trng thi v cht lng dch v ca mng mt cch ton din, c p ng tt cc yu cu tho thun vi khch hng hay khng. KPI phi c nh ngha, biu thc r rng v trn vn trong phi bao gm c th tc v im o lng. Khng th so snh cc KPI ch da trn tn hay biu thc ca chng. Khi cc KPI c so snh rt cn thit phi bit nh ngha chnh xc, c bit l ch tiu lc c s dng la chn u vo, cc mc tho thun v cc lin h v tham s. Vic nh ngha v vic xc nh cch thc o lng KPI thng t thay i v thng l cc quan tm c tnh di hn. Cho n thi im hin ti, cc KPI vn cha c chun ho gia cc nh cung cp thit b. Cc nh vn hnh mng v cc nh cung cp thit b s phi tho thun v kt hp mt s cc o lng ch yu v s dng chng tnh ton cc KPI. V vy, nh ngha v biu thc tnh ton cng mt KPI c th c th khc nhau gia cc nh cung cp khc nhau. Cc KPI cn c phn tch mt cch chi tit cho mi dch v (thoi, thoi video, video hoc gi), cho mi phn t mng (cell, Node B, RNC, SGSN, MSC), cho mi loi thu bao (da trn IMSI) iu hnh qua cc kt qu d liu thu nhn c v hn ch phm vi ca cc vn gip d dng tch bit, v tm ra cc nguyn nhn c bn gy ra cc s c ca mng. Mc ch ca vic s dng KPI Mc ch ch yu ca vic s dng KPI l o lng cht lng ca dch v theo mt cch ph hp v duy nht. Qua vic kim sot s thay i ca cc KPI ta c th pht hin cc vn ca mng nhanh nht c th.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 14

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

Vic kim tra cc KPI cho mt mng l mt chc nng ca cng vic qun l cht lng mng hng ngy. Vic kim tra ny s cho nh vn hnh cc thng tin lin quan n vic mng ang thc hin chc nng ca n nh th no: Mng c p ng y cc yu cu cht lng khng? Cht lng mng c thay i khng? Tng ln hay gim i? Khu vc gp s c u? gp phi nhng loi vn g? Cch thc o c KPI: Cc o lng KPI c th c tp hp bng cch c ch ng ln b ng. Kim tra ch ng bao gm vic s dng mt cch ch ng mt dch v xc nh (v ch mt dch v ) ti mt thi im cho trc v c lng cht lng ca n. t c cc kt qu r rng, rt quan trng phi gii hn cc kim tra vi mt khung thi gian b hn ch v gi mi trng mng mt cch n nh nht c th trong khi thc hin. X l s c v ti u nn c phn bit vi o lng KPI. u im ca kim tra ch ng l n sinh ra thng tin c tnh c trng cao. Kim tra b ng ngha l thng k tt c lu lng thu bao v vic s dng dch v c kim sot mt cch lin tc trong cc nt mng, c th c thc hin vi s h tr ca cc cng c phn mm dnh ring cho cc o lng b ng. Vi cch tip cn ny tht d dng thu thp mt s lng d liu ln, tuy nhin s khng bit c nhiu v tng trng hp ring s dng dch v (khng c thng tin trong ti cell, loi RAB c s dng...).

1.3.2. Phn loi cc KPI


Phng ph p phn loi theo nhm cht lng dch v Theo ITU-T E800, cc KPI cht lng dch v c chia thnh 4 nhm l: Nhm cc KPI lu lng. Nhm cc KPI kh nng truy cp dch v. Nhm cc KPI v kh nng duy tr dch v. Nhm cc KPI tnh di ng. - Nhm KPI lu lng: ch ra lu lng ca mng, s thay i ca lu lng theo thi gian, v s phn b theo khu vc. Cc KPI lu lng c s dng kim sot ti ca cc cell im nng v mng. Cc KPI l cc tham chiu cho vic pht trin dung lng mng. - Nhm KPI kh nng truy cp dch v: l kh nng ca mt dch v c th t c trong phm vi cc dung sai c trng v cc iu kin cho trc khc nhau khi c yu cu bi ngi dng. V d nh kh nng lin lc vi mng. Ni cch khc, cc nh vn hnh phi theo di t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi, t l thnh cng tm gi v xc sut nghn...
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 15

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

- Nhm KPI kh nng duy tr dch v: l kh nng ca mt dch v mt khi t c c th tip tc c cung cp di cc iu kin cho trc trong khong thi gian c yu cu. V d cc nh vn hnh phi theo di t l rt cuc gi (CDR). - Nhm KPI tnh di ng dch v: ch ra kh nng cung cp cc dch v mt cch lin tc. V d nh vn hnh phi theo di t l thnh cng chuyn giao mm, t l thnh cng chuyn giao lin tn s. Phn loi theo i tng o lng Theo cch phn loi ny, cc KPI c chia thnh 2 nhm l: - Nhm KPI mc RNC s dng gim st trng thi vn hnh v cht lng ton din ca mng. - Nhm KPI mc cell c s dng gim st trng thi vn hnh v cht lng ca mi cell trong mng. Phn loi theo phng thc thu thp d liu x c nh KPI Theo cch phn loi ny KPI c chia thnh 2 nhm l: Cc KPI c xc nh bng qu trnh drive test v CQT. Cc KPI ly t h thng OSS-RC.

1.3.3. Cc b m
Nh c trnh by trn. Cc b m l cc chng trnh c t vo phn mm ca cc thit b trong mng nh Node B, RNC, OSS-RC... Chng m cc s kin xy ra trong qu trnh vn hnh ca mng v d: s ln c gng thit lp, c li thit lp, hay thnh cng thit lp kt ni v tuyn. Cc KPI c tnh ton trn c s d liu ca cc b m t h tr tt vic qun l, x l s c v ci thin cht lng mng. Mi nh cung cp thit b c mt k hiu b m ring v ngha ca chng cng khc nhau. K hiu b m c ghi u tin trong tn b m. V d: Huawei k hiu b m l VS, Erisson k hiu b m l PS. Cc b m c ba thuc tnh sau: i tng o lng: ch ra th tc hoc thut ton, nh thit lp kt ni RRC hay gii phng RAB. H thng o lng: ch ra phm vi o lng, vi phm vi rng l mc RNC v phm vi hp l mc Cell. Dch v c o lng: ch ra loi dch v c o lng nh: cc dch v AMR, dch v PS, dch v CS. Bng 1.2 cho v d d liu thng k c o vo ngy 1/3/2011 trong d n ti u cht lng dch v 3G ti khu vc Ngh An. Thc hin o ti RNC c tn l RCPD05. Trong : RAB Congestion: m s ln RAB b tc nghn. RAB Est Att: S ln khi to kt ni RAB.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 16

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

RAB Est Success: S ln khi to kt ni RAB thnh cng. SHO Attempt: S ln c gng chuyn giao mm. Call Attempt: s ln c gng thit lp cuc gi Call Drop: s cuc gi b rt. HHO att: S ln c gng thc hin chuyn giao cng HHO Success: S ln thc hin chuyn giao cng thnh cng HHOSR: t l thnh cng chuyn giao cng CS InRAT HO Attempt: s ln c gng thc hin chuyn giao gia cc h thng khc nhau min chuyn mch knh.

Bng 1.2 Thng k cc b m

1.3.4. Quy trnh ti u mng


Cng vic ti u mng v tuyn UMTS bao gm vic thc hin nh gi phn tch cht lng, x l cc vn ci tin cht lng h thng bi nhiu phng tin v o lng k thut khc nhau. C c giai on ti u ng 3G UMTS Sau khi thit k v k hoch mng, kim tra th v cu trc mng, cng vic ti u v k hoch mng i vo giai on ti u mng. Cng vic ti u c phn chia thnh ti u k thut v ti u duy tr v vn hnh tu theo thi gian, mc tiu cng vic v ni dung cng vic.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 17

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

Ti u mng 3G-UMTS c chia thnh 5 giai on nh sau:


Thit k v k hoch mng G ri, kim tra th v cu trc mng Ti u k thut: Thm tra v tr n Ti u cm v tr Ti u ton mng Ti u mng: Ti u ti giai on chy th Ti u duy tr v vn hnh Cung cp mng v dch v duy tr v vn hnh

Hnh 1.6 Quy trnh ti u mng 3G UMTS

1.3.5. Th tc ti u mng 3G UMTS 1.3.5.1. Cng tc chun b


Mc tiu Xc nh ti u v mc tiu ti u l g, chun b, phi hp cc cng c ti u, t chc nhn s v phn cng trch nhim. Xc nhn ch tiu nghim thu v ln k hoch lm vic. Ni dung cng vic Phn tch yu cu. - Phn tch yu cu ca khch hng vi vic ti u mng bao gm vng ph, dung lng v Qos ca mng ... - Xc nh thi gian v ch tiu ca vic nghim thu d n. iu tra v tp hp ti liu. - Gm: bo co m phng mng v tuyn UMTS khu vc cn ti u trong giai on k hoch mng, thng tin v v tr, fi- v thit lp tham s h thng c k hoch, cc vn cn tn ng trong mng. Chun b cng c ti u. - Cc cng c Drive test, my thu v GPS, card siu tc, my phntch bo hiu, my phn tch ph, la bn ... Pht trin d n. - Vic k hoch s c thc hin tu theo quy m d n, ngun lc con ngi v yu cu ca khch hng ti mng, bin ch cu thnh m a ra phng php v k hoch ti u.

1.3.5.2 Tp hp d liu
Mc tiu Tp hp d liu mng cho cc phn tch v nh hng cc vn . Ni dung lm vic Thu thp d liu CQT, Driving test. Thu thp d liu OMC. Thu thp cc than phin ca ngi dng.
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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

Thu thp d liu cnh bo. Thu thp d liu bm bo hiu. Ni dung c th Thu thp d liu Driving test: s dng cc my qut v UE ghi d liu ca c ng ln v ng xung, c gng trnh kim tra lp li. S dng cc my qut thu thp cng sut hoa tiu, Ec/Io, cng sut pht UE, cc cell hng xm, RSSI, v FER/BLER... Thc hin kim tra cht lng cuc gi (CQT): kim tra vic truy cp v m thoi c bnh thng khng thng qua kim tra quay s. CQT trong min CS bao gm: t l thnh cng tm gi, t l rt cuc gi, t l QoS ti v tr tm gi trung bnh. Cc thnh phn ca CQT trong min PS bao gm: t l thnh cng thm nhp, t l thnh cng kch hot 6 phin PDP, thi gian kch hot trung bnh phin PDP, t l rt cuc gi, tc truyn d liu trung bnh ng ln. Thu thp d liu OMC: p dng cho giai on ti u duy tr vn hnh c thc hin c bng vic s dng bo co mc nh v bng vic hi ngu nhin d liu thng k h thng trong khung thi gian khc nhau. Thu thp than phin ca ngi dng: p dng cho giai on ti u duy tr v vn hnh. Cc than phin ca ngi dng l tri nghim ca chnh h v thng c km theo vic m t mng v thng tin a l. Cc than phin s c x l mt cch cn thn bng phng php phn loi. Thu thp d liu cnh bo: phng thit b OMC c trang b cc hp cnh bo v phn ng nhanh s a ra cc cnh bo ca h thng. Thu thp d liu bm bo hiu: l phng php thng c s dng trong qu trnh ti u c th c thc hin trn c UE v RNC. D liu c thu thp trong UE l bo hiu giao din v tuyn v d liu c tp hp trong RNC c phm vi rng m c th c phn loi thnh a ngi dng, n ngi dng v ngi dng trong mt cell c bit trong RNC.

1.3.5.3. nh hng v phn tch d liu


Mc tiu c lng cht lng mng da trn vic phn tch d liu c thu thp, tp trung vo nh hng vn v cung cp hng dn cho bc ti u tip theo ca mng. Ni dung cng vic Cc phn tch Drive test v CQT. Cc phn tch thng k cht lng OMC. Cc phn tch cc than phin ngi dng. Cc phn tch d liu cnh bo.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 19

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN MNG 3G UMTS V BI TON TI U

Cc phn tch bo hiu. C c phng ph p phn tch d liu thng c s dng: Cc phn tch a chiu - phn tch d liu t nhiu kh nng khc nhau. V d: nh vn rt cuc gi th c nguyn nhn khc nhau g? Cc phn tch xu hng - kt lun t xu hng thay i theo thi gian a ra cc ch dn. V d: xu hng t l rt cuc gi theo thi gian c minh ho trong (Hnh 1.7).

Hnh 1.7 Biu xu hng ca t l rt cuc gi theo thi gian Cc phn tch thng thng - tm ra d liu thng thng bao gm cc bin i qu ln, qu thp v tm ra thng tin v cc nguyn nhn. Cc phn tch tng phn - to ra s tng phn t tp d liu khc nhau t cng mt kh nng v tm ra s khc bit. Cc phn tch nh hng v nguyn nhn - vi mt kt qu c trng, chng ta s o su cc nhn t v phn tch mc quan trng ca cc nhn t khc nhau hoc kt hp chng li. Qua vic phn tch cc thng k cht lng OMC, cc KPI ca cell, ca mt v tr, ca mng c th thu c v cc vn ch yu trong mng c th c xc nh. Tt c cc vic trn s kt hp vi vic phn tch d liu Drive test, d liu kim tra quay s (CQT), cc phn tch bo hiu c trng v cc than phin ngi dng s nh hng c vn gip cho vic tm ra cc phng php x l s c t a ra k hoch iu chnh ti u mng phc v cho giai on trin khai ti u.

1.3.5.4. Thi hnh cc thit k ti u


Mc ch: Thc hin trin khai ti u mng da trn thit k ti u. Ni dung cng vic: Thi hnh cc yu cu trong bn thit k ti u mng v ghi li kt qu v cc th tc cn thit da trn iu kin thc t. Ni dung c th: Cc bng ghi iu chnh c in vo theo bn k hoch ti u v c gi ti cc k s thit b, sau chuyn tip ti ngi qun l d n v cc
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 20

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

nhm lin quan. Cc thnh phn c iu chnh phi trnh by mt cch r rng. V d, cell 1011 thm vo mt cell hng xm c ID l 1042. Cc yu cu iu chnh c gi ti phng thit b OMC trong sut qa trnh Drive test s c ghi li mt cch chnh xc. Nu vic thi hnh yu cu ko theo i th ba v d nh i k thut iu chnh anten, lm mt bng ghi iu chnh ti u v in ra ba bn hai bn giao cho i k thut, qun l d n v gi li mt bn. nh gi nh hng sm sau khi thi hnh bn thit k ti u. Nu cn thit, khi phc li trng thi trc.

1.3.5.5. Cng nhn thit k ti u


Mc ch: Sau khi thi hnh phng php ti u mng, cng nhn kt qu ti u bng cc kim tra khc nhau. Ni dung cng vic: Sau khi phng php ti u c thi hnh, da trn bn ghi iu chnh ti u v d liu cht lng mng trc khi iu chnh thc hin mt cch c trng im cc th tc thu thp d liu v thc hin phn tch d liu trc, sau khi iu chnh. Tu theo s tng phn d liu cht lng mng trc v sau khi iu chnh, chc chn rng cc vn mng c gii quyt cha v cht lng mng c cao hn yu cu khng. Nu cc yu cu khng c p ng, thc hin li cc th tc thu thp d liu. Ch : m bo s chnh xc ca kt qu thm tra, khuyn ngh nn la chn cng mi trng thc hin cc kim tra d liu tng phn.

1.3.5.6. Bin son bo co ti u


Mc ch: Bin son bo co ti u mng, ghi cc o lng c p dng trong ti u v hiu qu thu c. Ni dung cng vic: Hon thnh bo co ti u, ghi li cc o lng c thc hin v kt qu t c trong bao gm qu trnh v phng php iu chnh ti u cng vi bng ca cc tham s k thut trc v sau khi ti u, cc phn tch vn cn tn ti, cc khuyn ngh cho vic pht trin mng, kt lun v ph lc. Kt lun chng 1 Chng 1 nu mt cch khi qut v s tin ha i ln mng 3G. ng thi cng nu ra c l do v mc ch chn nghin cu ti. Kt thc chng ta c mt ci nhn tng qut v khi nim, mc ch v cch phn loi cc KPI. Chng 2 s tm hiu v giao thc v cc k thut chnh c s dng trong 3G.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 21

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G 2.1 Cc giao thc trong 3G UMTS 2.1.1 Cc lp giao thc

Hnh 2.1 Kin trc giao thc v tuyn WCDMA CP: Mt phng iu khin UP: Mt phng ngi s dng - Lp vt l h tr tt c cc chc nng yu cu truyn cc lung bit trn mi trng vt l. N cng chu trch nhim o c, v d nh t l li frame, t s tn hiu trn tp m, cng sut nhiu, cng sut phtv ch th ti lp cao hn. Mt cch c bn, lp vt l bao gm thc th qun tr lp 1, thc th knh vn chuyn v mt thc th knh vt l. - Lp 2 chu trch nhim cung cp cc chc nng nh nh x, m ha, truyn li v phn on. Gm c 4 lp con l iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC), iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC), giao thc hi t d liu gi (PDCP) v iu khin qung b/a phng (BMC). - Lp 3 c chia thnh hai mt phng: mt phng iu khin (C-Plane) v mt phng ngi s dng (U-Plane). PDCP v BMC ch c mt phng ngi dng. Trong mt phng iu khin lp 3 bao gm iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn (RRC) kt cui ti RAN v cc lp con cao hn: qun l di ng (MM), qun l kt ni (CC), qun l di ng GPRS (GMM), qun l phin (SM) kt cui ti mng li (CN).

2.1.1.1 Lp iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn (RRC)


Lp con iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn (RRC) nm trong mt phng iu khin v cha tt c cc thut ton cn thit cho vic cu hnh v vn hnh ngn xp giao

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 22

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

thc UTRAN. Cc thut ton trong phm vi lp RRC c nh hng trc tip ln cht lng ca mng. Chc nng chnh ca lp RRC: - Thit lp, thit lp li, duy tr v gii thot mt kt ni RRC gia UE v UTRAN bao gm thit lp lin kt bo hiu lp 2, iu khin truy nhp, la chn li cell. Yu cu thit lp kt ni RRC c gi t UE. - Thit lp v gii thot vt mang v tuyn (RB), c th c nhiu vt mang v tuyn c thit lp cho mt UE ti cng mt thi im. Nhng vt mang ny c thit lp ph thuc vo cht lng dch v (QoS) c yu cu. RNC phi chu trch nhim m bo rng cht lng dch v yu cu phi t c. - Cp pht, tinh chnh v gii thot cc ti nguyn v tuyn cho kt ni RRC. X l vic cp pht cc ti nguyn v tuyn (m, cc knh chia s). RRC lin lc vi UE ch th cp pht ti nguyn mi khi chuyn giao c qun l. - Nhn gi, thng bo: RRC qung b thng tin nhn gi t mng ti cc UE. - Qung b thng tin c cung cp bi tng khng truy nhp (mng li) hoc tng truy nhp. y chnh l qung b thng tin h thng lp li mt cch nh k. - UE o c bo co v iu khin theo bo co: RRC ch th ci g cn phi o, khi no v nh th no bo co. - iu khin cng sut vng ngoi dng thit lp gi tr SNR ch. - iu khin m ha cung cp cc th tc thit lp m ha.

2.1.1.2 iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC)


Chc nng chnh ca RLC l truyn d liu t mt phng ngi dng hay mt phng iu khin trn giao din v tuyn. Hai ch truyn khc nhau c s dng: trong sut (khng thm vo nhn giao thc) v khng trong sut. Trong ch truyn khng trong sut li gm c 2 ch con l c phn hi (giao thc truyn li c s dng v vic phn phi d liu c bo m) v khng c phn hi (giao thc truyn li khng c s dng, nn vic phn phi d liu khng c m bo). RLC cung cp cc dch v ti cc lp cao hn gm truyn d liu (trong sut, c phn hi v khng c phn hi), thit lp cht lng dch v giao thc truyn li ch cho c phn hi c a ra bi lp 3 cung cp cc cht lng dch v khc nhau v thng bo cc li khng sa c bi RLC ln lp cao hn. Tm li cc chc nng ca RLC l nh x gia cc n v d liu giao thc (PDU) lp cao ln cc knh logic, thc hin m ha nhm ngn chn d liu thu khng chnh xc c thc hin cho ch RLC khng trong sut, phn on/ kt hp d liu cc PDU lp cao c di bin i vo trong/t cc n v ti RLC b hn nn kch thc ca RLC c th iu chnh ti cc nh dng vn chuyn thc t (quyt nh khi dch v c thit lp), sa li quyt nh truyn li ch trong ch truyn d liu c phn hi, iu khin lung, cho php RLC thu c iu khin tc m ti thc th truyn RLC ngang hng c th gi thng tin.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 23

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

2.1.1.3 iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC)


Lp MAC chu trch nhim iu phi truy cp ti mi trng vt l m trn d liu c truyn. iu ny c ngha l lp MAC cha cc hng i trn c t vo cc dng d liu khc nhau cn truyn. Lp MAC cng c trch nhim cho cc o lng lin quan n lu lng trn cc knh logic sau bo co cho lp 3. Ngoi ra n cn c chc nng: - Cung cp cc dch v truyn d liu trn cc knh logic v nh x cc knh logic vo cc knh truyn ti. - La chn cc khun dng truyn ti tng ng (TF), nh trnh v qun l u tin, m ho (nu ch RLC trong sut c s dng). Cng thuc lp 2 nhng cc giao thc PDCP v BMC ch c trong mt phng ngi dng. PDCP ch cho d liu gi, vi chc nng ch yu l thc hin nn cc n v d liu gi (PDU) ti pha pht v gii nn ti pha thu trong ba ch vn hnh: trong sut, c phn hi v khng phn hi. Cc chc nng BMC ch c trong ch khng phn hi v trong sut cung cp nh trnh broadcast/ multicast v truyn dn d liu ngi dng. Tm li, lp vt l l lp thp nht giao din v tuyn. Lp vt l c s dng truyn dn giao din v tuyn. Mi knh vt l lp ny c xc nh bng mt t hp tn s, m ngu nhin ho (m nh knh) v pha (ch cho ng ln). Cc knh c s dng vt l truyn thng tin ca cc lp cao trn giao din v tuyn, tuy nhin cng c mt s knh vt l ch c dnh cho hot ng ca lp vt l. truyn thng tin giao din v tuyn, cc lp cao phi chuyn cc thng tin ny qua lp MAC n lp vt l bng cch s dng cc knh logic. MAC sp xp cc knh ny ln cc knh truyn ti trc khi a n lp vt l lp ny sp xp chng ln cc knh vt l.

2.1.2. Cc knh WCDMA


Cc knh ca WCDMA c chia thnh cc loi knh sau y: Knh vt l (PhCH): Knh mang s liu trn giao din v tuyn. Mi PhCH c mt tri ph m nh knh duy nht phn bit vi knh khc. Mt ngi s dng tch cc c th s dng cc PhCH ring, chung hoc c hai. Knh ring l knh PhCH dnh ring cho mt UE cn knh chung c chia s gia cc UE trong mt . Knh truyn ti (TrCH): Knh do lp vt l cung cp cho lp 2 truyn s liu. Cc knh TrCH c sp xp ln cc PhCH Knh Logic (LoCH): Knh c lp con MAC ca lp 2 cung cp cho lp cao hn. Knh LoCH c xc nh bi kiu thng tin m n truyn.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 24

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

2.1.2.1 Cc knh logic, LoCH:


Ni chung cc knh logic (LoCH: Logical Channel) c chia thnh hai nhm: cc knh iu khin (CCH: Control Channel) truyn thng tin iu khin v cc knh lu lng (TCH: Traffic Channel) truyn thng tin ca ngi s dng. Cc knh logic v ng dng ca chng c tng kt trong bng di Bng 2.1. Danh sch cc knh logic Knh logic BCCH(Broadcast Control CCH (Control Channel: Knh iu khin Channel: Knh qung b) iu khin) PCCH (Paging Control Nhm knh ng dng Knh ng xung pht qung b thng tin h thng

Knh ng xung pht qung b Channel: Knh iu khin tm thng tin tm gi gi) CCCH (Common Control Channel: Knh iu khin chung) Knh hai chiu pht thng tin iu khin gia mng v cc UE. c s dng khi khng c kt ni RRC hoc khi truy nhp mt cell mi Knh hai chiu im n im pht thng tin iu khin ring gia UE v mng. c thit lp bi thit lp kt ni ca RRC Knh hai chiu im n im ring cho mt UE truyn thng tin ca ngi s dng. DTCH c th tn ti c ng ln ln ng xung Knh mt chiu im a im truyn thng tin ca mt ngi s dng cho tt c hay mt nhm ngi s dng quy nh hoc ch cho mt ngi s dng. Knh ny ch c ng xung.

DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel: Knh iu khin ring). DTCH (Dedicated Traffic Channel: Knh lu lng TCH (Traffic Channel: Knh ring) lu lng) CTCH (Common Traffic Channel: Knh lu lng chung)

2.1.2.2. Cc knh truyn ti, TrCH


Cc knh lgic c lp MAC chuyn i thnh cc knh truyn ti. Tn ti hai kiu knh truyn ti: cc knh ring v cc knh chung. im khc nhau gia chng l: knh chung l ti nguyn c chia s cho tt c hoc mt nhm cc ngi s dng trong cell, cn knh knh ring c n nh ring cho mt ngi s dng duy nht. Cc knh truyn ti chung bao gm: - BCH (Broadcast channel): Knh qung b - FACH (Fast Access Channel): Knh truy nhp nhanh - PCH (Paging Channel): Knh tm gi
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 25

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

- DSCH (Down Link Shared Channel): Knh chia s ng xung - CPCH (Common Packet Channel): Knh gi chung. Knh ring ch c mt knh duy nht l DCH (Dedicated Channel: Knh ring). Knh truyn ti chung c th c p dng cho tt c cc ngi s dng trong cell hoc cho mt ngi hoc nhiu ngi c th. Khi knh truyn ti chung c s dng pht thng tin cho tt c cc ngi s dng th knh ny khng cn c a ch. V d: knh BCH pht thng tin qung b cho tt c cc ngi s dng trong cell. Khi knh truyn ti chung p dng cho mt ngi s dng c th, th cn pht nhn dng ngi s dng trong bng (trong bn tin s c pht). Knh PCH l knh truyn ti chung c s dng tm gi mt UE c th s cha thng tin nhn dng ngi s dng bn trong bn tin pht. Danh sch cc knh truyn ti v ng dng ca chng dc cho bng di Bng 3.3. Danh sch cc knh truyn ti

Knh truyn ti
DCH (Dedicated Channel: Knh ring) BCH (Broadcast Channel: Knh qung b) FACH (Forward Access Channel: Knh truy nhp ng xung) PCH (Paging Channel: Knh tm gi) RACH (Random Access Channel) CPCH (Common Packet Channel: Knh gi chung) DSCH (Dowlink Shared Channel: Knh chia s ng xung)

ng dng
Knh hai chiu c s dng pht s liu ca ngi s dng. c n nh ring cho ngi s dng. C kh nng thay i tc v iu khin cng sut nhanh Knh chung ng xung pht thng tin qung b (chng hn thng tin h thng, thng tin cell) Knh chung ng xung pht thng tin iu khin v s liu ca ngi s dng. Knh chia s chung cho nhiu UE. c s dng truyn s liu tc thp cho lp cao hn Knh chung ng xung pht cc tn hiu tm gi Knh chung ng ln pht thng tin iu khin v s liu ngi s dng. p dng trong truy nhp ngu nhin v c s dng truyn s liu thp ca ngi s dng Knh chung ng ln pht s liu ngi s dng. p dng trong truy nhp ngu nhin v c s dng trc ht truyn s liu cm. Knh chung ng xung pht s liu gi. Chia s cho nhiu UE. S dng trc ht cho truyn dn s liu tc cao.

2.1.2.3 Cc knh vt l:
Mt knh vt l c coi l t hp ca tn s, m ngu nhin, m nh knh v c pha tng i (i vi ng ln). Knh vt l (Physical Channel) bao gm cc knh vt l ring (DPCH: Dedicated Physical channel) v knh vt l chung (CPCH: Common Physical Channel). Cc knh vt l c tng kt hnh 3.7 v bng 3.4.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 26

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

Hnh 3.7. Tng kt cc kiu knh vt l Bng 3.4. Danh sch cc knh vt l Tn knh DPCH (Dedicated Physical Channel: Knh vt l ring) ng dng Knh hai chiu ng xung/ng ln c n nh ring cho UE. Gm DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel: Knh vt l iu khin ring) v DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel: Knh vt l iu khin ring). Khi s dng DPCH, mi UE c n nh t nht mt DPDCH. Knh c s dng pht s liu ngi s dng t lp cao hn Khi s dng DPCH, mi UE ch c n nh mt DPCCH. Knh c s dng iu khin lp vt l ca DPCH. DPCCH l knh i km vi DPDCH cha: cc k hiu hoa tiu, cc k hiu iu khin cng sut (TPC: Transmission Power Control), ch th kt hp khun dng truyn ti. Cc k hiu hoa tiu cho php my thu nh gi hng ng xung kim ca knh v tuyn v thc hin tch sng nht qun. TPC iu khin cng sut vng kn nhanh cho c ng ln v ng xung. Knh chung ng ln. c s dng mang knh truyn ti RACH Knh chung ng ln. c s dng mang knh truyn ti CPCH Knh chung ng xung. C hai kiu knh CPICH: PLp: 08VTA1 Trang 27

DPDCH (Dedicated Physical Data Channel: Knh vt l s liu ring DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel: Knh vt l iu khin ring)

PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel: Knh vt l truy nhp ngu nhin) PCPCH (Physical Common Packet Channel: Knh vt l gi chung) CPICH (Common Pilot
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

Channel: Knh hoa tiu chung)

CPICH (Primary CPICH: CPICH s cp) v S-CPICH (Secondary CPICH: CPICH th cp). P-CPICH m bo tham chun nht qun cho ton b cell UE thu c SCH, P-CCPCH, AICH v PICH v cc knh nay khng c hoa tiu ring nh cc trng hp knh DPCH. Knh S-CPICH m bo tham kho nht qun chung trong mt phn cell hoc on cell cho trng hp s dng anten thng minh c bp sng hp. Chng hn c th s dng S-CPICH lm tham chun cho S-CCPCH (knh mang cc bn tin tm gi) v cc knh DPCH ng xung. Knh chung ng xung. Mi cell c mt knh truyn BCH

P-CCPCH (Primary Common Control Physical Channel: Knh vt l iu khin chung s cp) S-CCPCH (Secondary Common Control Physical Channel: Knh vt l iu khin chung th cp) SCH (Synchrronization Channel: Knh ng b) PDSCH (Physical Downlink Shared Channel: Knh vt l chia s ng xung) AICH (Acquisition Indication Channel: Knh ch th bt) PICH (Page Indication Channel: Knh ch th tm gi)

Knh chung ng xung. Mt cell c th c mt hay nhiu S-CCPCH. c s dng truyn PCH v FACH Knh chung ng xung. C hai kiu knh SCH: SCH s cp v SCH th cp. Mi cell ch c mt SCH s cp v th cp. c s dng tm cell Knh chung ng xung. Mi cell c nhiu PDSCH (hoc khng c). c s dng mang knh truyn ti DSCH Knh chung ng xung i cp vi PRACH. c s dng iu khin truy nhp ngu nhin ca PRACH. Knh chung ng xung i cp vi S-CCPCH (khi knh ny mang PCH) pht thng tin kt cui cuc gi cho tng nhm cuc gi kt cui. Khi nhn c thng bo ny, UE thuc nhm kt cui cuc gi th n s thu khung v tuyn trn S-CCPCH Knh chung ng xung i cp vi PCPCH iu khin truy nhp ngu nhin cho PCPCH

AP-AICH (Access Preamble Acquisition Indicator Channel: Knh ch th bt tin t truy nhp) CD/CA-ICH (CPCH Collision Detection/ Channel Assignment Indicator Channel: Knh
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Knh chung ng xung i cp vi PCPCH. c s dng iu khin va chm PCPCH

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 28

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

ch th pht hin va chm CPCH/n nh knh) CSICH (CPCH Status Indicator Channel: Knh ch th trng thi CPCH) Knh chung ng xung lin kt vi AP-AICH pht thng tin v trng thi kt ni ca PCPCH

Hnh : Qu trnh chuyn i knh gia cc lp.

2.2 Cc k thut chnh s dng trong 3G - UMTS 2.2.1 Tri ph


Trc khi i nghin cu v tri ph, ta s lm r khi nim v tng quan. bit c tn hiu thu l trc giao vi nhau hay l tn hiu mong mun nhn c.

a 9

Hnh 2.3 Tng quan gia 2 tn hiu bt k Tng quan c s dng kim tra s ging v khc nhau gia 2 tn hiu thu c ty . N c tnh ton bng cch nhn hai tn hiu vi nhau v kt hp li. Hai tn hiu ca hnh 2.3a ging nhau nn tng quan gia chng l 1 hay 100%. Trong hnh 2.3b, 2 tn hiu khng tng quan, do bit c 1 trong 2 tn hiu khng cung cp bt k thng tin no cho tn hiu cn li.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 29

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

Hnh 2.4 Nguyn l tri ph Trong iu ch tri ph (Hnh 2.4) mi ngi s dng c pht mt chui m ring, chui m ny c s dng m ha tn hiu mang tin khi pht. Ti pha thu s tin hnh gii m tn hiu thu c bng chnh chui m ny. iu ny thc hin c l do tng quan cho gia m ca ngi s dng mong mun v m ca nhng ngi s dng khc rt thp. Do qu trnh m ha s tri rng ph ca tn hiu cn pht nn bng tn ca tn hiu m ln hn rt nhiu so vi bng tn ti thiu cn thit mang tin. V vy ngi ta gi phng php ny l iu ch tri ph, tn hiu thu c gi l tn hiu tri ph.

2.2.1.1 Cc loi m trong k thut tri ph


M tri ph (M phn knh): c s dng trn ng xung phn bit nhng ngi dng v cc knh trong phm vi mt cell, cn trn ng ln chng c s dng phn bit d liu v cc knh iu khin t cng thit b ngi dng. Cc m tri ph l cc m trc giao c gi l cc m h s tri ph bin i trc giao (OVSF). Tt c cc m OVSF c cng h s tri ph cho trc u trc giao vi nhau. Cc m OVSF c cc h s tri khc nhau t 4 n 512 ph thuc vo cc d liu c tc symbol khc nhau. Trn ng ln SF dao ng t 4 - 256 cn trn ng xung SF dao ng t 4 - 512. Cc m OVSF c to ra nh cc cy m OVSF (Hnh 2.6) V d v vic s dng m OVSF. i vi dch v thoi AMR, SF ng xung l 128 nh vy c ngha c nhiu nht 128 dch v thoi c th c h tr trn mt sng mang WCDMA.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 30

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

Hnh 2.6 Cy m OVSF M xo trn: c s dng sau v b sung cho cc m tri (OVSF). D liu c tri ti mt tc chip l 3,84 Mcps sau xo trn bng thng khng b thay i. Mc ch ch yu ca xo trn l phn bit cc ngi dng trn ng ln v cc cell (trm gc) trn ng xung. Cc m xo trn c s dng l cc m gi tp m c gi l cc m vng. Trn ng xung cc m xo trn c chia thnh 512 nhm, mi nhm c mt m xo trn cp 1 v 15 m xo trn cp 2. Theo nguyn tc th c 8192 m xo trn c th c s dng trn ng xung. Trn ng ln c tt c 224 m xo trn. Cc m ng ln c chia thnh cc m ngn v cc m di. Nh vy cc m phn knh tri cc symbol d liu thnh cc chip c tc 3.84 Mcps v cc m xo trn khng lm tng bng thng ca tn hiu m ch tin hnh xo trn phn bit cc UE trn ng ln, cc cell trn ng xung. Mt ngi dng trn ng ln c th c nhiu m phn knh nhng ch c duy nht mt m xo trn, tng t trn ng xung cell ch c 1 m xo trn duy nht v cung cp cho mi UE mt hay nhiu m phn knh OVSF.

2.2.2 iu khin cng sut WCDMA


Trong h thng phn chia theo m, nhiu ngi dng s dng chung bng tn truyn tn hiu, do vic gy ra nhiu ln nhau l iu ng quan tm. Mc d, vi k thut s dng cc m trc giao vi nhau, s giao thoa nhiu gia cc tn hiu c trnh khi. Tuy nhin, vn cn s nh hng ca nhiu t mi trng tc ng ln mc tn hiu nhn c ti u thu lm suy gim cht lng tn hiu v c th khng th gii m c. Tht khng may, vi h thng m trc giao, cc tn hiu khng giao thoa ln nhau, nhng tn hiu ny li tr thnh nhiu mi trng vi tn hiu khc. Nu khng c thut ton iu khin cng sut th tn hiu gn thit b thu s khin cho tn hiu cn nhn c pht xa b ln lt hon ton v khng gii m c. Trong h thng UMTS khi xem xt n vn nng lng. Mt gii thut tng t c p dng trong UMTS, nhm m bo tt c cc tn hiu ti c u thu c
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 31

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

mc tn hiu gn bng nhau. lm c iu ny, trong h thng UMTS, t s tn hiu trn nhiu c quan tm mt cch t bit. y cng chnh l thng s gip h thng t iu chnh cng sut m bo tiu ch ra. Ta s thy t s ny c s dng nh th no trong cc th tc iu khin cng sut vng trong nhanh (Inner Loop), vng h (Open Loop), vng ngoi (Outer Loop) c UE, Node B v RNC thc hin trong c hai hng ln v xung. - iu khin cng sut vng h ch c s dng trong hai trng hp: khi to cng sut truyn m u ca knh PRACH v knh DPCCH/ DPDCH. - iu khin cng sut vng kn ch c p dng cho hai knh DPCCH v DPDCH. - i vi cc knh vt l chung th iu khin cng sut khng c p dng do chng s dng lng cng sut pht c nh (dBm) trong cng sut pht ca knh PCPICH l c nh v cng sut pht cc knh cn li tham chiu theo knh PCPICH (dB). Bng 2.4 iu khin cng sut c thc hin trn cc knh vt l Knh vt l iu khin cng sut vng h Vng trong DPDCH DPCCH SCH PCCPCH SCCPCH PRACH AICH PICH x x x x x x x x x x x iu khin cng sut vng kn Vng ngoi x x x x x x Khng iu khin cng sut x x x

C th p dng x Khng p dng

2.2.2.1 iu khin cng sut vng h (OLPC)


iu khin cng sut vng h c thc hin trn c 2 hng ln v xung. i vi ng xung cng sut pht m u ti Node B c tnh ton da vo tn hao ng truyn ng xung gia Node B v UE. i vi hng ln do tn s ng ln v xung trong WCDMA cng nm trong mt di tn nn tn ti mt lng tng quan ng k tn hao ng truyn trung bnh gia hai hng, do UE c th tnh ton cng sut pht i m u trong ng ln da vo tn hao ng xung. Tuy nhin tn ti phn cch tn s 190 MHz gia ng ln v xung, fa-inh gia hai
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 32

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

ng khng tng quan vi nhau do iu khin cng sut vng h khng tuyt i chnh xc. Xt trng hp cho hng ln: iu khin cng sut vng h c s dng khi UE ln u tin truy cp h thng. Ti thi im UE c lng cng sut yu cu nh nht cn cho mng thu c tn hiu ca n trong iu kin khng c phn hi UE tng hoc gim cng sut. iu khin cng sut vng h da trn cc tnh ton tn hao ng truyn trn ng xung v t s tn hiu trn nhiu yu cu. Trong th tc truy cp ngu nhin, UE thit lp cng sut pht tin t u tin nh sau: Preamble_Initial_power = CPICH_Tx_power CPICH_RSCP+ UL_interference +UL_required_CI Trong CPICH_Tx_Power - CPICH_RSCP l c tnh suy hao ng truyn t Node B n UE, CPICH_Tx_power l cng sut pht ca P_CPICH, CPICH_RSCP l cng sut P_CPICH thu ti UE, UL_interference (gi l tng cng sut thu bng rng) c o ti Node B v c pht qung b trn BCH, UL_required_CI l hng s tng ng vi t s tn hiu trn nhiu c thit lp trong qu trnh quy hoch mng v tuyn. Nhng nh vy ta t ra cu hi nu UE c lp i lp li pht i phn m u m vn khng thu c phn hi trn knh AICH, n lc cng sut pht ca UE cc i gy nhiu n nhiu ngi dng khc m Node B vn khng ch th th gii quyt th no. Tht may trong WCDMA c quy nh sn thi gian gia hai ln pht m u truy cp, s ln tng cng sut cc i. Nu vt qu s ln tng cng sut cc i hoc cng sut UE ln nht th mng s ra quyt nh xa b IMSI hay TMSI ca UE ra khi HLR v cuc gi n UE ny coi nh UE ang tt my.

2.2.2.2 iu khin cng sut vng lp ng (CLPC)


c thc hin khi UE kt ni vi h thng. N thc hin iu khin cng sut pht trn c ng ln v ng xung. CLPC da trn ba bc c bn l thc hin vic truyn dn, o lng pha thu v c phn hi c cung cp cho pha pht xem c nn tng hay gim cng sut hay khng. iu khin cng sut vng kn gm c hai phn: - iu khin cng sut nhanh vng trong tc 1500 Hz - iu khin cng sut chm vng ngoi tc 10-100 Hz

2.2.2.2.1. iu khin cng sut vng trong (Nhanh):


Ti mi Node B lun c thng s chun v t l tn hiu trn nhiu (SIR_target), SIR_target c RNC gi xung cho Node B. Nh ta bit, cc UE gi cc thng ip DPCCH n Node B, trong thng ip DPCCH mang thng tin Pilot, thng tin ny cho bit mc tn hiu trn nhiu hin ti c nh gi ti UE (SIR_estimated). Khi Node B nhn c thng ip DPCCH, s tin hnh so snh gi tr gia SIR_target v SIR_estimated. Nu SIR_estimated ln hn, Node B s gi thng ip DPCCH vi gi tr trng TPC=0 yu cu UE gim cng sut mt lng (ngha l
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 33

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

ln sau UE s pht tn hiu vi cng sut Pw=Pw-). Ngc li nu SIR_estimated nh hn, Node B s gi thng ip tng cng sut mt lng vi trng TPC=1 trong DPCCH. Vic ny din ra rt nhanh 1500 ln/s, b tr cho cc iu kin fainh thay i nhanh. PC ng ln vt qua nh hng ca hiu ng gn-xa, nhm tit kim cng sut UE. PC ng xung tit kim cng sut Node B v gim nhiu cho cc Node B khc. Vy ta gi s UE pht ti a cng sut m tn hin Node B nhn c vn b li (trong trng hp ny Node B pht hin CRC trong thng tin nhn c) th nh th no v cuc gi b rt khng. May mn l UMTS c h tr th tc khc hn ch nhng bt li trong trng hp ny, c gi l iu khin cng sut vng ngoi ng ln c thc hin gia Node B v RNC nhm iu chnh li mc SIR_target ti RNC (nu c).

2.2.2.2.2. iu khin cng sut vng ngoi (Chm):


Thng thng ngi vn hnh mng s khai bo thng tin BER_target, t RNC tnh ton mc SIR_target gi xung cho Node B. Trong trng hp Node B pht hin CRC, n s gi thng tin cho RNC , RNC so snh hai mc BER, nu BER_estimated > BER_target, RNC s tin hnh tnh ton li SIR_target ri gi li thng tin mi cho Node B. Nh vy trn ta thy hot ng iu khin cng sut hng ln, trong hng xung UE ng vai tr tch cc trong qu trnh iu khin cng sut. Trong th tc iu khin cng sut vng trong ng xung gia UE v Node B, trong Node B t cn chnh cng sut da vo tn hiu DPCCH nhn c t UE. Thng qua qa trnh thit lp cuc gi, RNC gi thng tin BER_target cho UE thng qua tn hiu thit lp RRC (th tc ny cn c gi l iu khin cng sut vng ngoi ng xung). Khi UE nhn c gi tin DPDCH t Node B, n s thc hin php so snh BER_estimated vi BER_target quyt nh thng ip DPCCH tip theo gi cho Node B c trng TPC mang gi tr 0 hoc 1. Khi Node B nhn c thng ip DPCCH t UE, ty vo gi tr ca trng TPC n quyt nh tng hay gim cng sut mt khong . Ty theo thit b v nh sn xut, gi tr c th l 0.5 dB, 1 dB, 1.5 dB hoc 2 dB, cng nh ngi vn hnh c c can thip vo cc thng s trong cc qu trnh ny hay khng. 2.2.3 Chuyn giao trong WCDMA Khi UE di chuyn t mt cell n mt cell khc trong mng, UE cn cp nht thng tin v cell ng thi tin hnh th tc chuyn giao. quyt nh chuyn giao hay khng v nu c th s thc hin chuyn cuc gi qua cell no. UE thc hin o lng cc thng s v cht lng mng qua knh CPICH ri gi v cho RNC. Khi mt cell c thit k, danh sch cc cell hng xm ca n phi c to ra v khai bo trn RNC. Vi mi UE ang hot ng (ang kt ni vi mt cell chnh-primary cell),

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 34

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

RNC qun l hai tp hp cell tng ng phc v qu trnh di chuyn ca UE, l Active Set v Monitored Set. - Active Set l tp hp cc cell s tr thnh primary cell ca UE khi qu trnh chuyn giao thc hin thnh cng (cng chnh l cc ng c vin c la chn thc hin th tc chuyn giao). - Monitored Set l tp hp cc cell c UE o kim cht lng lin tc nh gi cht lng v quyt nh xem cell c th l ng c vin cho qa trnh chuyn giao hay khng (c iu kin tr thnh cell trong Active Set hay khng). Ban u Monitored Set l danh sch cc cell hng xm ca cell chnh c khai bo. Sau Monitored Set c th c thay i v m rng ty theo thut ton c s dng thnh lp Monitored Set. Khi UE kt ni vi mt cell no (primary cell), RNC s gi thng ip yu cu UE o kim cht lng ca cc cell trong Monitored Set. Ngoi vic cp nht thng xuyn cc thng tin v cc cell ny cho RNC, UE cn kch hot cc s kin yu cu RNC thm vo mt cell trong Active Set (s kin 1A), lai b mt cell t Active Set (s kin 1B) hoc thay th mt cell trong Active Set (s kin 1C) ty thuc vo cht lng o c so snh vi ngng (Ec/No v RSCP) c RNC gi xung trong thng ip yu cu o kim. iu kin thm, b mt cell trong Active Set (Hnh 2.7). Trong UMTS ta c chuyn giao mm (SHO), chuyn giao cng (HHO) v chuyn giao gia cc h thng khc nhau (IHO). Trong i vi SHO kt ni mi c thit lp trc khi kt ni c b loi b, cn HHO kt ni mi thit lp sau khi kt ni c b loi b. Hay ni mt cch khc vi SHO cc UE c th c nhiu kt ni v tuyn trong Active Set trong khi HHO ti mi thi im ch c mt v ch mt kt ni v tuyn vi mng.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 35

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

S kin 1A

S kin 1B

Hnh 2.7 Cc s kin chuyn giao WCDMA 2.2.3.1 Chuyn giao mm (SHO)
Khi khai bo mt cell mi trn mng, ta lun thit lp cho cell mt danh sch cc hng xm ca n. Khi UE kt ni n mt cell no h tr SHO, RNC s gi thng ip yu cu o kim cht lng tn hiu n UE. Hai thng s yu cu c o kim l RSCP v Ec/No. Trong thng ip ny RNC s cho UE bit ngng trn v ngng di ca hai thng s ny thc hin qu trnh cp nht cht lng theo cc s kin 1A, 1B Sau khi gi thng ip kch hat vic o kim cho SHO. RNC s gi cho UE danh sch cc cell (danh sch cc m xo trn) cn c o kim (Monitored Set). UE tin hnh vic o kim v gi bo co nh k v cho RNC. Tuy nhin khi pht hin cell c cht lng tt hn ngng, UE s kch hat gi thng ip 1A v RNC yu cu RNC cp nht cell vo trong AS. Khi nhn c yu cu ny, RNC kim tra v gi li thng ip xc nhn thm cell vo AS, ng thi tnh ton li danh sch cc cell trong UE da vo AS mi, sau gi xung yu cu UE o kim cht lng theo danh sch mi ny. Tng t, khi UE pht hin cell c cht lng xu

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 36

CHNG 2: CC GIAO THC V K THUT CHNH TRONG 3G

hn ngng, n s kch hot gi thng ip 1B yu cu xa cell ra khi AS. Sau khi AS thay i, MS c cp nht li v gi xung cho UE. Ta thy SHO lin quan mt thit n tp AS, v vy khi xc nh cc cht lng mng lin quan n SHO ta thng tp trung xem xt cc vn ca AS. V cng cn nhn mnh rng mt cell c th tr thnh thnh vin ca AS, n phi c mt trong UE. UE li lin quan mt thit n danh sch cc hng xm ca cc cell. V vy cng tc quy hach cell hng xm rt quan trng trong vn ny. Tuy nhin, nh ni phn trn, UE c xy dng da trn thut ton c ci t, v vy m cc nh cung cp thit b thng ci tin sn phm ca h thng qua cc thut ton ny nhm ti thiu nh hng ca vic khai bo nhn cng danh sch hng xm n vic xy dng UE. iu ny rt quan trng khi vn hnh v pht trin mng, hy hnh dung trng hp mng ang hat ng v ta cn thm cc cell mi vo mng th lc ny vic qui hach v khai bo hng xm cho cell l kh phc tp c th nh hng n UE v SHO. Chnh v vy nu gim thiu c nhng tc ng ca vic khai bo nhn cng, th vic nh hng ti SHO trong trng hp ny gim ng k. Tuy nhin vic c nhiu kt ni vi mng cng l mt khuyt im, l gy nn hin tng nhim hoa tiu v cng gy lng ph ti nguyn ca h thng do vic s dng ti nguyn lp vt l d tha t cc cell ln cn. 2.2.3.2 Chuyn giao cng (HHO) Tng t nh SHO, trong lc ang hot ng UE lun o kim v gi bo co cht lng tn hiu v cho RNC thng qua hai thng s RSCP v Ec/No ca tn s ang hat ng. Nu nh cell c cu hnh cho php HHO gia cc tn s khc nhau th cc mc ngng ca RSCP v Ec/No phi c thng bo cho UE bi RNC sau khi cuc gi c thit lp. Trong qu trnh o kim, nu nh cht lng ca tn hiu thp hn mc ngng cho php, UE s kch hot s kin 2D bo v cho RNC. Sau khi nhn c tn hiu ca s kin 2D, RNC cng kch hot mt b m thi gian k t khi s kin 2D c pht hin. Nu trong khong thi gian ny, RNC nhn c s kin 2F c gi bi UE bo tn hiu tt tr li (vt trn mc c khai bo), b nh thi s b xa b. Ngc li, khi b nh thi kt thc m khng c tn hiu 2F, RNC s gi thng ip kch hat ch nn (Compress Mode) cho php o kim cht lng ca tn hiu khc tn s. Cn ch c im ny, cc UE ch c th o kim cc tn s khc khi bc vo ch nn. ch ny, d liu truyn i c
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 37

nn li c mt khong thi gian ri cho php o kim tn s khc (trong tc d liu khng thay i). ng thi RNC cng gi danh sch cc cell cn o kim cho HHO xung UE yu cu o kim cht lng. Mt khi kt qu o kim sn sng v RNC vn khng nhn c tn hiu 2F, qu trnh HHO s xy ra. Tt cc cc cell c cht lng tt hn cell hin ti u tr thnh ng c vin cho HHO, cell c chn s l cell c cht lng tt nht. Phi ch n hiu ng ping-pong lm cho UE chuyn giao cng khi di chuyn trong v ngoi bin gii ca cell, ngha l khng cn bit l do l g, c h thy cng trng UE nhn c thp l n thc hin chuyn giao ngay, i lc do hiu ng mng chn nn sng m UE nhn c yu v n s mnh tr li ngay khi UE di chuyn lch qua min b che khut , nhng hiu ng ping-pong li khng bit iu , c h thy yu l n chuyn giao. T phi ti ra mt d tr D hay cn gi l tr hon chuyn giao, ngha l khi cng trng ca UE nhn c yu th n s c mt khong thi gian tr hon sau mi thc hin chuyn giao. Nn d tr D cng ln th nh hng ca hiu ng ping-pong cng gim. Tuy nhin nu d tr ln qu th iu ny cng ng ngha vi tr hon tng ln. Hn na UE cng s gy thm nhiu i vi cc cell ln cn. Do i vi chuyn giao cng th d tr D l kh quan trng. 2.2.3.3 Chuyn giao gia cc h thng (IHO) Vi cc cell c h tr c HHO3G3G v HHO3G2G th ty thuc vo thng s c cu hnh s cho php u tin thc hin lai HHO no trc. Sau khi chn c cell thc hin HHO, RNC s lin h vi ch qun ca cell (DRNC hoc BSC thng qua MSC) yu cu thc hin HHO qua cell mi. Sau khi c chp nhn, SRNC s gi thng ip cho UE yu cu thc hin kt ni vi cell mi v ch qun mi, ng thi xa kt ni ti UE, gii phng ti nguyn.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 38

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS


3.1 Ni dung ca chng
Chng ny s tp trung ti u hai KPI chnh c s dng trong cng tc ti u mng 3G UMTS. Di y s i su vo chi tit phn tch cc nguyn nhn v cch khc phc vi hai KPI t l rt cuc gi (CDR) v t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi (CSSR) c xy dng bi nh cung cp thit b Huawei (Trung Quc). Hin cc KPI ny ang c Viettel s dng gim st cht lng mng 3G ti cc khu vc s dng cc thit b ca nh cung cp Huawei. Cc KPI ny c tnh da theo gi tr ca cc b m (counter).

3.2. Ti u t l rt cuc gi (CDR) 3.2.2. Gii thiu KPI t l rt cuc gi (CDR)


ngha ca KPI CDR KPI ny c s dng nh gi kh nng cung cp dch v mt cch lin tc v v vy s trc tip ch r cht lng ca mng. Mt t l rt cuc gi cao s dn ti s tha mn ca ngi dng thp. Trong KPI ny c chia thnh 2 KPI l t l rt cuc gi trong min chuyn mch knh (CS CDR) v t l rt cuc gi trong min chuyn mch gi (PS CDR). Cng thc tnh KPI CDR c phn loi thnh 2 mc l mc cell v mc RNC. Cng thc tnh chung cho c CS CDR v PS CDR T l rt cuc gi = (s ln gii phng RAB CS c kch hot bi RNC + s ln gii phng Iu CS c kch hot bi RNC + s ln gii phng RAB PS c kch hot bi RNC + s ln gii phng Iu PS c kch hot bi RNC) / (s ln thnh cng gn RAB CS + s ln thnh cng gn RAB PS) x 100%. Gi tr tham chiu CS CDR < 1% PS CDR < 2% i o lng Nu nh mt cuc gi hon thnh v kt thc th s khng c hin tng rt mng, tuy nhin nu cuc gi cha hon thnh m khng tip tc c na, y chnh l con s phn nh t l rt cuc gi b rt (kt thc khng bnh thng) / (tng s cuc gi kt ni thnh cng). Nh vy ta cn phi nm c th tc gii phng kt ni khi cuc gi hon tt xc nh c cuc gi no l bnh thng, cuc gi no l b rt mng. Hnh 3.1 cho ta ci nhn tng qut v th tc kt thc cuc gi bnh thng cng nh bt bnh thng.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 39

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Hnh 3.1 im o lng KPI CDR Nh ta thy, khi mt cuc gi kt thc bnh thng, RNC s nhn c thng ip yu cu gii phng kt nt t mng li, sau gi thng ip kt thc cho UE. Sau khi UE xc nhn, th tc gii phng ti nguyn v tuyn mi tht s bt u bng vic Node B nhn yu cu t RNC v thc hin th tc gii phng kt ni. Tuy nhin trong trng hp UE b rt mng, Node B s khng pht hin c tn hiu ng b ca UE. Node B s gi thng ip cnh bo n RNC v s c kt ni v tuyn b hng. RNC s gi yu cu gii phng kt ni n mng li. Nh vy r rng ta thy chc nng ca RNC trong 2 trng hp l khc nhau. iu kin bnh thng, RNC ch yu cu gii phng kt ni v ngc li RNC s yu cu gii phng kt ni khi c li xy ra. Da vo vai tr ca RNC v cc thng ip ca n ta c th xc nh c cuc gi no b rt v c c t l rt cuc gi qua cc s liu thng k.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 40

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

3.2.3. C c bc thc hin ti u CDR


Phn tch t l rt cuc gi mc RNC

Phn tch t l rt cuc gi mc cell

Kim tra xem c li phn cng khng


NO

YES

Gii quyt vn v phn cng

Phn tch l do rt cuc gi


NO L do gy bi bo hiu vt mang v tuyn khng NO YES

Gii quyt cc vn v vng ph

L do bi vn chuyn giao
NO

YES S

Gii quyt cc vn v chuyn giao

L do gy bi nhiu

YES S

Gii quyt cc vn v nhiu

Thc hin drive test xc nh vn

Kt thc

Hnh 3.2 Cc bc ti u CDR

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 41

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

1. Phn tch t l rt cuc gi mc RNC. 2. Phn tch t l rt cuc gi mc cell gm t l rt AMR, t l rt cuc gi hnh nh, t l rt cuc gi min chuyn mch gi, t l rt cuc gi do chuyn giao cng, chuyn giao gia cc h thng vi nhau s c phn tch. Sp xp tt c cc cell bng cch s dng cc ch s trn v chn ra cc cell vi hiu sut ti nht v tm ra nguyn nhn. 3. Xem xt cc cell bt thng. Kim tra cc cnh bo ca cell v loi b cc nguyn nhn gy ra s bt thng ny. 4. Phn tch l do rt cuc gi. Nu tn hiu bo li l UciuError v li lin kt v tuyn v nguyn nhn l khng khi phc li c kt ni RRC (li RB1, RB4 v RB5 trn) n c th b gy ra bi cc vn v vng ph. Phn tch cc ch s chuyn giao (t l thnh cng chuyn giao n v chuyn giao i) ca cell v chc chn rng rt cuc gi c phi do li chuyn giao hay khng. Thng qua cc ch s c phn tch lin quan n cng sut thu c trn ng ln trong khung thi gian rt cuc gi cao s nhn bit c c phi rt cuc gi gy bi nhiu ng ln cao hay khng. 5. Thc hin xc nh v tr ca vn bng cch thc hin Drive test. Khi d liu OMCR-R khng gii quyt vn rt cuc gi, Drive test s c thc hin, bm theo lung lu lng ca UE v RNC. C nhng nguyn nhn khc nhau gy nn rt cuc gi v cc gii php cng rt khc nhau. Hu ht c lit k trn Hnh 3.2. Rt cuc gi l tri nghim chnh xc ca ngi dng v s c rt nhiu l do, do s quan tm s c ch trng vo t l rt cuc gi v lm gim n n mc c th chp nhn c.

3.2.4. Phn tch nhng nguyn nhn gy nn CDR cao v bin php khc phc 3.2.4.1 Rt cuc gi do c vn v li thit b
Nguyn nhn: Do li phn cng ca UE, Node B, RNC, li phn truyn dn, li anten, li fi Khc phc: Vi cc vn v phn cng thit b mng nh RNC hay Node B ta cn kim tra thng tin cnh bo ca thit b. Nu khng c cc cnh bo sau khi loi b cc cnh bo m ch th vn khng bnh thng, ta cn thc hin phn tch v ti v lu lng ca cell. Phn tch li lp t sai fi-: Lp sai fi- l mt trong nhng nguyn nhn gy nn st gim cht lng cuc gi, rt cuc gi, lm gim cht lng mng. Bi v khi lp sai fi- s nh hng v phn b tn s gy nn nhiu cho vng v quan h cc cell hng xm b sai lch cng dn n rt cuc gi. Trong qu trnh Drive test vic pht hin sai fi- l mt trong nhng vn rt n gin.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 42

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Thng 1 Node B s c 3 sector (hoc 2 sector) tng ng vi gc phng v (Azimuth) nm trong khong 0- 360o c tnh theo chiu kim ng h. Sector 1 l sector u tin tnh t hng chnh Bc (North) v tnh theo chiu kim ng h. V d : trm 3NA7312 c cc tham s c thit k nh sau: Tham s thit k Sector 1 (A) Sector 2 ( B) Sector 3 (C) o o Gc (Azimuth) 40 120 320o S-3 (C) S-1 (A) 3NA7312 S-2 (B) Hnh Vic u nhm fi- c nhn bit bng cc thao tac kim tra nh sau: - S dng la bn xc nh gi tr gc ca cc sector t xc nh cell A, cell B, cell C. - Dng my Alcatel di chuyn theo hng ca mi cell vi khong cch t 10 100 (m) xc nh m xo trn, m nhn dng trm gc hin ti trn mi cell. - So snh vi tn s thit k xc nh cc cell pht ng tn hay sai. Trc khi sa li 3NA144

b Hnh 3.3 Trc khi sa li sai fi-

Phn tch Nhn vo Hnh 3.3, ta c th nhn thy ti 2 im kim tra. Node B ang xt 3NA144 xy ra tnh trng u sai fi-. - Hnh 3.3 a, ti im kim tra (mu ) hin c phc v bi cell 3NA1443 trong khi v tr ca n gn cell 3Na1441 hn.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 43

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Tng t th Hnh 3.3 b, ti im kim tra hin c phc v bi cell 3NA1441 trong khi v tr ca n gn cell 3NA1443. iu chnh Thc hin cm li gic fi-, y xy ra tnh trng cm sai v tr. i ch 2 u cm t Node B tng ng vi 2 cell phn tch trn, tc l i v tr ca 2 gic cm ni n anten ca cell 3NA1441 v 3NA1443. Sau khi tin hnh iu chnh, o c li bng Drive test. Kt qu Hnh 3.4 Sau khi sa li 3NA144 -

Hnh 3.4 Sau khi sa li sai fi-

3.2.4.2. Rt cuc gi do vn chuyn giao


Rt cuc gi do mt cu hnh cell hng xm Mt cu hnh cell hng xm l vic khai thiu danh sch cell hng xm ca mt cell ang phc v khin cho khi UE di chuyn ra xa khi cell phc v nhng vn khng chn c cell cht lng tt tin hnh chuyn giao dn ti rt cuc gi. Danh sch cell hng xm ca Node B phc v cng c thnh phn vi tp c kim sot ca UE. pht hin vn mt cu hnh cell hng xm, ta phn tch nh sau. Kim tra Ec/Io tp hot ng c ghi bi UE v Ec/Io c ghi bi my qut v kim tra m xo trn ca best server (hoa tiu khe nht) c ghi bi my qut c trong danh sch cell hng xm khng. Nu cc iu kin sau xy ra c th khng nh l xy ra mt cu hnh cell hng xm. - Ec/Io c ghi bi UE l km. - Ec/Io ca best serve l tt. - M xo trn ca best server khng c trong danh sch cell hng xm. Ngoi ra ta cn c th xc nh bng cch ghi li tt c cc m xo trn (SC) trong tp hot ng (Active set) trc khi cuc gi b rt, sau xc nh SC u tin khi UE khi to cuc gi tip theo. Mt cu hnh cell hng xm xy ra khi SC u tin khi UE khi to cuc gi tip theo khc vi tt c cc SC c trong tp hot ng trc .
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 44

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Cc ch tiu v mt khu vc c kho st l: - Ch tiu v RSCP knh hoa tiu CPICH l -88 dBm. - Ch tiu v Ec/No ca knh hoa tiu CPICH l -12 dB.

Hnh 3.5 Khu vc xy ra tnh trng thiu cu hnh cell hng xm Phn tch Ta nhn thy cell phc v l 3NA7452 c ch th Ec/No CPICH l -11,5 dB v cell hng xm kim sot c 3NA3633 c ch th Ec/No CPICH l -16 dB v cell 3NA1772 cng c Ec/Io CPICH l -18 dB u thp hn ch tiu (-12 dB). Ch th RSCP CPICH ca cell phc v l -100 dBm v cell hng xm kim sot c 3NA3633, 3NA1772 ln lt l -105 v -107 dBm u nh hn ch tiu l -88 dBm. Trong khi cell 3NA5772 c ch th Ec/No CPICH l -4,5 dB ln hn ch tiu -12 dB v RSCP CPICH l -92 dBm tuy vn thp hn ch tiu -88 dBm nhng vn chp nhn c v cc ch tiu ny u tt hn nhiu so vi cell phc v v cell kim sot c. V vy c th kt lun rng xy ra vn mt cu hnh cell hng xm. Khc phc C th khc phc tnh trng ny bng cch thay i gc phng v v gc ngng ca cell 3NA3632 cho n ph sng im ny v thc hin drive test li kim tra. Tuy nhin khng phi vn chnh gc quay ca cell l n gin v c th n s gy nhiu cho nhng cell hng xm. Nn trong trng hp ny bi php n gin l khai b sung quan h hng xm vi cell 3NA5772 trn RNC. Rt cuc gi do chc nng chuyn giao mm v chuyn giao mm khng thc hin c Nguyn nhn C th do cu hnh giao thc AAL2PATH trn Iur sai dn n t l rt cuc gi AMR qua giao din Iur tng cao (Iur l giao din dng truyn thng tin iu khin trong chuyn giao mm). Khc phc Cu hnh li AAL2PATH hoc nu cn thit nng cao u tin cho chuyn giao cng cng tn s khng s dng n giao din Iur.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 45

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Rt cuc gi do chc nng chuyn giao lin tn s v chuyn giao gia cc cng ngh truy cp khng thc hin c Nguyn nhn - UE c th khng c h tr bi h thng. - Tn hiu 2G qu yu hoc nhiu qu ln. - Khai bo thiu cell hng xm chuyn giao t 3G-2G. - Tc nghn trong 2G gy ra li truy cp. Rt cuc gi do nguyn nhn c bit. Nguyn nhn Trong mi trng thnh ph c bit, vng chuyn giao gia 2 cell c th qu nh. Nu UE vt qua mt vng vi mt tc rt nhanh, cuc gi c th b rt. C th c s thay i t ngt ca cng tn hiu ti ng t ng ph.

hnh Phn tch iu chnh cc tham s tr hon chuyn giao (D) ph hp, cho php vng chuyn giao ln m bo UE hon thnh qu trnh cp nht tp ch ng trc khi b gy nhiu hay b nn. iu chnh C nhiu cch khc phc hin tng ny: l thay i tham s lin quan n chuyn giao trn RNC, tuy nhin lc thay i tham s th s nh hng n cc khu vc khc trong vng ph ca cell. Do thc t trong trng hp ny khng thc hin iu chnh cc tham s chuyn giao m tin hnh lp t trm trm gc cell ny ph sng trong phm v ng t. Nh vy li t ra cu hi l nh th th c lng ph qu khng. Lp t thm trm mi phi c tnh ton k cng, hn na khng phi ng t no cng xy ra CDR cao.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 46

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Hnh 3.7 iu chnh tham s D hp l

3.2.4.3. Rt cuc gi lin quan n vn vng ph


Vng ph mng km c th dn n t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi thp, t l rt cuc gi cao, t l thnh cng chuyn giao thp. Phn tch vng ph tp trung vo s phn b ca tn hiu v bao gm phn tch vng ph ng ln v vng ph ng xung. Cc vn v vng ph thng gp - Khu vc m: l khu vc cng sut hoa tiu thp hn ngng truy cp. V d -115 dBm cho RSCP hay -18 dB cho Ec/Io. - Lm vng ph: l khu vc c cng sut hoa tiu thp hn yu cu thp nht ca cc dch v, nhng cao hn ngng truy cp ca UE. - Mt cn bng gia vng ph ng ln v vng ph ng xung l trng hp vng ph ng ln hoc ng xung b gii hn trong khu vc vng ph mc tiu. Nu vng ph ng ln b gii hn, cng sut UE t ti a nhng vn khng p ng c yu cu BLER ng ln. Nu vng ph ng xung b hn ch, cng sut m pht DCH ng xung t ti a vn khng p ng c yu cu BLER ng xung. Xc nh cc vn vng ph th phng php n gin nht l theo di d liu thu thp c bi my qut. Nu c RSCP v Ec/Io ca cell tt nht u thp th c th xc nh c rng c vn v vng ph. Tiu chun vng ph cho khu vc ny: - RSCP > - 88 dBm - Ec/Io > -12 dB

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 47

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Hnh 3.8 Khu vc c vn v vng ph Phn tch Khu vc cn ti u (ng khung trn) c phc v bi cell 3NA3641 c m xo trn SC l 40. Ta nhn thy ch s RSCP CPICH ca cell phc v l -105 dBm v cc cell hng xm kim sot c ln lt l -101 dBm (3NA3633), -106 dBm (3NA1772), - 106 dBm (3NA7452) u thp hn mc tiu RSCP > -88 dBm. V vy c th kt lun y l khu vc c vng ph km. Khc phc Thc hin thay i gc phng v (azimuth) v gc ngng (tilt) ca cell 3NA7452 v cell 3NA3641 cell 3NA7452 ph sng chnh v tr thnh cell phc v khu vc cn ti u. iu chnh gc tilt ca cc cell 3NA3633, 3NA1772, 3NA0323 l cc cell hng xm ca cell 3NA7452.

3.2.4.4. Rt cuc gi do nghn


Cuc gi c th b rt do chc nng iu khin nghn ca mng UMTS. Rt cuc gi xy ra khi ti ca cell tr nn qu cao ng ln, c pht hin khi RTWP vt qu mt ngng c cu hnh trc trong mt khong thi gian di hn tr. Vic phn tch lu lng c th gip kim sot v pht hin cc khu vc im nng, tm ra cc cell c lu lng cao bng vic so snh cc thng k cht lng, phn tch s thay i ca lu lng trong mt chu k o lng v thc hin o lng trn cc cell vt qu ngng cnh bo lu lng.

3.2.4.5. Rt cuc gi do xung t m xo trn (SC)


UE c th thy 2 cell trong cng mt tp hot ng (AS), cng tp hng xm kim sot c (MN), hoc hng xm pht hin c (DN) c cng SC. iu ny dn n gim Ec/Io, tng BLER v cui cng dn n rt cuc gi. Phn tch T l CS CDR qu cao trong thi gian di ti cell 3G60483. Bng vic kim tra cc cell hng xm cng tn s, nhn thy rng cell 3G60063 khng c trong danh sch
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 48

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

cell hng xm ca cell 3G60483 nhng ngc li cell 3G60483 li c mt trong danh sch hng xm ca cell 3G60063. Nh vy l do y l g. Ta tip tc phn tch. Cell 3G60063 l hng xm quan trng ca cell 3G60483, tuy nhin n ch c thm vo danh sch hng xm mt chiu t 3G60483 ti 3G60063. L do cho iu ny l m xo trn ca cell hng xm 3G61173 c cng m xo trn vi cell 3G60063. C th cell 3G61173 c SC = 400 v cell 3G60063 mong mun c thm danh sch hng xm vi cell 3G60483 cng c SC = 400.

Hnh sahjkalsda Khc phc M xo trn ca cell 3G61173 phi c thay i v cell 3G60063 s c thm vo danh sch cell hng xm cng tn s vi cell 3G60483. V kt qu CDR thay i mt cch r rt.

3.2.4.6. Rt cuc gi do vn nhim hoa tiu (Pilot pollution)


nhim hoa tiu ngha l c qu nhiu hoa tiu thu c ti mt im nhng khng c hoa tiu no khe tr thnh hoa tiu chnh. nhim hoa tiu s gy nh hng xu ti qu trnh la chn li cell trong ch ri v gy nhiu trong ch dnh ring. Vi Nth l gi tr cu hnh h thng quy nh s hoa tiu ti a tha mn iu kin RSCP ln hn mt ngng cho trc ti mt khu vc khng xy ra nhim hoa tiu. nhim hoa tiu tn ti nu c 2 iu kin sau. - S lng hoa tiu tha mn RSCP CPICH > -95 dBm ln hn Nth. - (RSCP hoa tiu CPICH th 1 RSCP CPICH th (Nth+1)) < 5dB. Tin hnh kho st Phn tch Ta thy rng mc thu RSCP CPICH ca cell 3QB0663 kh tt vi gi tr l -77 dBm. Nhng Ec/Io CPICH ca n li rt thp vi gi tr -12,5 dB thp hn ch tiu l -12db. V vy ta c th kt lun l khu vc ny xy ra vn nhiu hoc nhim hoa tiu
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 49

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Hnh Tip tc phn tch ta thy rng gi tr CPICH ca cell phc v v cc cell hng xm pht hin c (MN) ln lt l -77 dBm (3QB0663), -75 dBm (3QB0722), -73 dBm (3QB0633), -75 dBm (3QB0062), -73 dBm (3QB0012) v -75 dBm (3QB0092). C 6 hoa tiu tha mn iu kin mc thu RSCP > -95 dBm (tha mn iu kin 1). Mc chnh lch RSCP hoa tiu CPICH gia RSCP CPICH th 1 (3QB0663) v RSCP CPICH th 4 (3QB0633) ch l: (-77 dBm -(-73dBm)) = 4 dB. Gi tr ny ch nm trong khong thng ging ca fa-inh 5 dB (tha mn iu kin 2). Tc l c qu nhiu hoa tiu mnh nhng khng c hoa tiu no ng vai tr l hoa tiu tri trong s cc hoa tiu thu c. Nh vy c th kt lun khu vc ny xy ra nhim hoa tiu. Khc phc Thc hin mt s iu chnh gc phng v, gc ngng cng d tn hiu ca cell 3QB0662 ti khu vc cn ti u l ln nht. Gim cng tn hiu ti khu vc cn ti u ca cc cell 3QB0722, 3QB0663, 3QB0062, 3QB0012, 3QB0092 bng cc hnh ng chnh tilt v azimuth. Ch : khi iu chnh cn m bo hn ch gy nhiu cho cc cell khc.

3.2.4.7. Rt cuc gi do vn v nhiu


H thng WCDMA l h thng t gy nhiu. Nhiu c nh hng r rt n vng ph, dung lng, iu khin ti v l nguyn nhn trc tip dn n li truy cp v rt cuc gi. Cc phn tch nhiu gm phn tch nhiu ng ln v phn tch nhiu ng xung.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 50

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Phn tch nhiu ng xung Nu Ec/Io hoa tiu CPICH thp hn mt gi tr ngng (thng l -12 dB) v cng sut m tn hiu thu (RSCP) thp hn mt gi tr ngng (thng -85 dBm) iu chng t tn ti nhiu ng xung. Phn tch nhiu ng ln Nu cng sut bng rng tng cng thu c (RTWP) cao trong khi lu lng thp chng t c nhiu ng ln. Khi ti ca cell l 0% th gi tr trung bnh ca RTWP s giao dng trong khong -106~-104 dBm. Khi ti tng ln 50% th nhiu s nng ln 3 dB, do RTWP thp hn -100 dBm s c coi l bnh thng. Bng 3.1 s cho thy 4 cell (biu din bng ch in thng) c RTWP thu c qu cao v 6 cell cn li (biu din bng ch in nghing) c coi l bnh thng. Bng 3.1 Thng k RTWP bt thng Cell Id Cng sut RTWP cc i (dBm) Cng sut RTWP trung bnh (dBm) -90.6516 -91.9201 -95.4289 -98.0375 -100.3754 -100.9658 -101.7778 -102.3416 -102.439 -102.8435

11211 10011 10012 13003 11212 12091 11003 12331 11213 13203

-88.0998 -86.0998 -92.4998 -91.6998 -97.0998 -98.2998 -73.7998 -93.8998 -98.0998 -99.0998

3.2.4.8. Rt cuc gi do bn knh phc v ca cell qu ln


Bn knh vng ph ca cell 3G qu ln v cc tham s la chn li cell khng hp l cng s dn n CDR tng cao. Kho st thc t. Phn tch Bng vic kim tra bn knh ca cell 3G62273 nhn thy bn knh ca n ln ti 10 km. Cc tham s la chn li cell Ssearch (mc ngng 3G trong ch idle, nu vt qu UE s thc hin o c la chn li cell h thng 2G) l 2 (-14 dB) v Fdd_Qmin (mc ngng trong ch idle ca 2G m nu vt qu UE s tin hnh la chn li cell trong h thng 3G) l 5 (-10 dB). CS CDR cao phn ln l do s m rng ca bn knh cell ti 10 km v nhng ngi dng xa (ti ra cell) m u cuc gi ti cell 3G s lm cho CDR tng vt khi ngi dng di chuyn ra xa.
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 51

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Hnh 3.11 Rt cuc gi do bn knh ca cell qu ln Khc phc Phi ngn chn nhng ngi dng xa khi to cuc gi trong 3G bng cch thay i cc tham s Ssearch ti 3 (-12 dBm) v Fdd_Qmin ti 3 (-8 dB).

3.2.4.9. Rt cuc gi do cc tham s ca h thng 2G


Phn tch Thit lp cc tham s ca h thng 2G khng hp l dn n li khi la chn li cell t mng 2G ti 3G. Khc phc Thay i cc tham s (Qsearch_I, Qsearch_P) trn h thng 2G. Tuy nhin thng gp vi mt vi nh mng trong nh cung cp c th ch mun cho la chn li cell t 2G ti 3G nhng khng cho chuyn giao. gim CDR ta c th thm bng tay cell 3G mong mun vo danh sch BA ca cell 2G. Nh vy cuc gi din ra trong khu vc ny c th chuyn giao v khng gy rt cuc gi. Nh vy t vic phn tch cc nguyn nhn nh trnh by trn s gip xc nh c cc vn tn ti trong mng v gip xy dng c thit k ti u chnh xc v ph hp phc v cho qu trnh thi hnh thit k ti u mng. Tip theo s trnh by ti u mt KPI quan trng na trong 3G l t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi CSSR.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 52

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

3.3. Ti u t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi (CSSR) 3.3.1. Gii thiu KPI t l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi (CSSR)
ngha Dng nh gi t l thit lp dch v thnh cng, gm c 2 phn: thit lp phn v tuyn RRC v thit lp dch v RAB. KPI ny phn nh kh nng truy cp dch v ca cell v RNC. Trong RAB gm 3 loi dch v: thoi, AMR, video call v dch v nn PS. Do s c 3 gi tr khc nhau cho 3 RAB ny, tng ng c 3 t l thit lp dch v thnh cng cho tng dch v. Cng thc tnh T l thnh cng thit lp cuc gi = T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC (lin quan n dch v) x T l thnh cng gn RAB x 100% Trong . T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC = S ln hon thnh thit lp kt ni RRC (lin quan n dch v) / S ln yu cu thit lp kt ni RRC x 100% Cc loi dch v y gm: T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC dch v hi thoi i. T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC dch v dng i. T l thit lp kt ni RRC dch v tng tc i. T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC dch v nn i. T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC dch v hi thoi n. T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC dch v dng n. T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC dch v tng tc n.

T l thnh cng thit lp kt ni RRC dch v c s n.


T l thnh cng gn RAB = (S ln thnh cng gn RAB CS + S ln thnh cng gn RAB PS) / (S ln thnh cng gn RAB CS + S ln thnh cng gn RAB PS) x 100% Vic gn RAB l bc cui cng ca kt ni dch v. Nu n c gn thnh cng, kt ni ti mt phng ngi dng c thit lp mt cch thnh cng. Cc loi dch v y gm: T l thnh cng gn RAB CS T l thnh cng gn RAB PS T l thnh cng gn RAB AMR T l thnh cng gn RAB 64/64 C CS T l thnh cng gn RAB 64/64 I PS. T l thnh cng gn RAB 64/384 I PS. Gi tr tham chiu CSSR > 98,5% im o lng

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 53

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

B Hnh 3.12 im o lng KPI CSSR


o lng KPI ny c kch hot ti im B nh hnh khi RNC gi mt bn tin phn hi gn RAB ti SGSN da trn vic RNC thu c mt bn tin hon thnh thit lp knh mang v tuyn t mt UE.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 54

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

3.3.2. C c bc thc hin ti u CSSR v c c nguyn nhn nh


Phn tch d liu

hng

Xy ra li cuc gi khng
YES

NO

M u cuc gi b li khng
YES

NO

YES

C thu c nhn gi khng

NO

Cc vn v nhn gi

Li do thit lp kt ni RRC
NO

YES

Vn v thit lp kt ni RRC

Truy cp v tuyn b li
NO

YES

Vn v thit lp lin kt v tuyn hay vt mang v tuyn

Vn v la chn v la chn li cell


NO

YES

Vn v tham s la chn v la chn li cell

Vn v cc tham s truy cp ngu nhin


NO

YES

Vn v cc tham s truy cp ngu nhin

Cc vn cn li

Kt thc

Hnh:
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 55

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Cc cng c ti u d liu OMC-R c th c s dng lc ra cc cell top N, t l truy cp ca cell khng p ng c cc yu cu. Cc thng k lin kt khc nh s ln c gng truy cp, thng lng cell v thng lng d liu ca cc cell cng rt quan trng cho vic ti u t l truy cp v s c cung cp. Cc nguyn nhn nh hng ti t l thit lp v tuyn: 1. Cuc gi khi to trong khu vc vng ph ngho v li. 2. Cc tham s truy cp ngu nhin khng ng lm cho vic thit lp RRC khng thnh cng v gy li truy cp. 3. Nghn knh PCH do ti tm gi cao, cng sut pht PCH thp gy ra li tm gi. 4. Cu hnh cc tham s la chn li cell nh ngng v tr la chn li cell, dch cell khng ph hp. Bn cnh mt cell hng xm, vng ph km v nhiu u dn n vic UE khi u truy cp ngu nhin trong mt cell c cht lng tn hiu ti (Ec/Io thp) nn d UE tng cng sut ti a vn khng thc hin c truy nhp ngu nhin thnh cng. 5. Nghn iu khin truy nhp l khi ti h thng cao dn n chc nng iu khin truy nhp s khng cho php s dng ti nguyn b sung (m knh, ti nguyn truyn dn). Ngoi ra vn mt ng b gia UE v UTRAN, cng sut pht knh FACH thp cng dn n vic UE khng gi c bn tin hon thnh kt ni RRC cng dn n li thit lp kt ni RRC. 6. Cu hnh tham s cho vic thit lp RAB khng ph hp, chc nng iu khin tc nghn v vn v dung lng gy ra li thit lp RAB. 7. Vn xung t m xo trn SC cng l nguyn nhn gy ra li truy cp.

3.3.3. Ti u CSSR 3.3.3.1. V vn li phn cng


Li gy ra bi dy cp E1/T1 ti v tr Node B Hin tng Xut hin cnh bo ti Node B v E1/T1 Nguyn nhn - u ni dy cp E1/T1 khng c hn chc chn. - u sai gia phn thu v phn pht ca dy cp E1/T1. - Dy cp b li. - Li tn hiu ch thi E1/T1 l do u sai v tr cp E1 vo cng SDH/PDH. Khc phc i vi cnh bo mt tn hiu E1/T1 Tc ng vo 1 n led trn u kt ni E1/T1. Nu n led sng th l dy cp pht, nu n khng sng c th l do u kt ni khng c hn ng cch. chc chn ta c th th li bng 1 dy cp E1/T1 cn tt. Thc hin kim tra vng lp c phn hi ti Node B. Cm 1 u dy cp ny vo phn pht, 1 u vo phn thu. Ti dng lnh MML g vo lnh DSP E1t1 (dng kim tra lung E1/T1) v kim tra kt qu. Nu u ni khng c vn g th kt qu s hin ln l "Link in Physical
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 56

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Loop" (iu ny ging nh thc hin lnh ping vo a ch 127.0.0.0 kim tra card mng ca my tnh cn tt hay khng). Nu u ni hn khng chc chn, kt qu s ch ra "Abnormal" (bt thng). Mt vi dy cp E1/T1 ti khung phn phi s (Digital Distribution Frame) c lp t khng chnh xc ni v v tr pht v thu u ngc ln nhau, nu c u ni m mm theo nhn ti DDF, truyn dn s b li v xut hin cnh bo mt tn hiu E1/T1 do phn pht ca dy cp ni vo phn pht ti Node B v ngc li. i vi cnh bo ch ch E1/T1 Phi tip cn khch hng khc phc s c ti phn (SDH/PDH). Cnh bo ny ch yu gy ra bi vic nh x sai gia RNC v Node B. Tm li: thc hin kim tra c phn hi (loopback) ti Node B m bo rng dy cp E1/T1 hay u ni c hn chc chn. Ngoi ra ta cng c th xc nhn c truyn dn trn lung E1/T1 c tt khng bng cch thc hin loopback ti RNC. n led cng cung chp s ch th bit c rng u ni ca dy cp no c hn ng hay khng. Li bo mt tn hiu E1 trn BBU m rng (BBU l khi x l bng gc c t trong nh, c kt ni thng qua cp si quang) c xp vo li do cu hnh d liu, hin tng, sau khi ci t m rng BBU, mc phi cnh bo li mt tn hiu E1/T1 trn BBU m rng. Phn tch Sau khi nghin cu phn cu hnh, nhn thy rng khng c bt k li no trn c 2 BBU nhng c 1 ngun lin kt ca xung ng h cu hnh trn BBU th 2 l BBU t. BBU ny khng c lung E1 kt ni ti n. Cnh bo xut hin trn BBU th 2, khng c lung E1 ni ti n. Nhn ra cnh bo ny xut hin khi kim tra cu hnh ngun lin kt E1 trong t u dy (Cabinet), n l 1 thit lp s dng phn ln ng b ngun xung nhp ng h. Tt c lung E1 kt ni ti v tr c kt ni ti BBU ch, nh th ta khng cn c bt k cu hnh no lin quan n lung E1 trn BBU t (bao gm c ng b ng h, do BBU t s nhn c t BBU ch). Khc phc Thc hin xa b ngun lin kt trn BBU t bng dng lnh xa b cnh bo. Nh vy khi m rng thm BBU th trn BBU phi xa b i cc cu hnh ngun lin kt ca n c t trc. Li do module giao din quang BBU xung cp Cch n gin l thay th module quang RRU (khi RRU c t pha di anten, c nui bng ngun 48v) Li do gii hn CE ng ln (CE l khi ni cp n gii hn v phn cng ca Node B vng x l bng gc, trong t CE tng ng vi yu cu x l cho mt knh thoi (speech call). S lng CE yu cu cho mi loi RAB l c nh).

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 57

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

Phn tch T d liu o c, ta c th nhn thy li xy ra phn ln t 10 gi sng cho ti na m, ph thuc vo s lng cell. Bi v iu ny ch xy ra trong mt Node B, ta c th loi tr l do thuc v RNC v tp trung trn mc Node B. T kt qu kim tra 1 li xy ra trong sut qu trnh thit lp li lin kt v tuyn vi 1 l do ti nguyn ng ln khng cn. Thng thng l do ny ch ra rng li gy ra bi gii hn CE ng ln. Sau khi kim tra d liu hin th, khng c li no vi l do CE ng ln. Nghi ng rng CE ng ln b hn ch gy ra bi kh nng ca phn cng. Sau khi gim st ti nguyn v tuyn trong thi gian thc cho tt c 3 cell trong Node B nhn ra rng tng s CE ng ln s dng vn ti 128. Chc nng h tr HSDPA c bt, nn 64 CE ng ln c d tr cho HSUPA. Nh th 128 CE ng ln ht, l do c pht hin. Khc phc M rng thm phn cng, tnh ton lu lng tng vo gi cao im v d tr tnh ra s CE ph hp cho v tr Node B . Li do tc nghn CE ti Node B Phn tch Bm theo bo hiu ca IUB trn RNC, ta c th thy rng c rt nhiu NBAP_RL_SETUP_FAIL and NBAP_RL_RECFG_FAIL t Node B ti RNC. Ta kim ta nguyn nhn v tm ra rng tt c l khng c ti nguyn ng ln. iu ny c ngha rng ti nguyn ng ln Node B n gii hn. Tip chng ta kim tra tnh trng CE ti Node B. Bm theo du vt ti nguyn dch v cell, nhn ra rng ti nguyn CE tp hp lin kt v tuyn (Radio Link Set) ng ln ti Node B khng d. Ngi dng mun truy cp ti mng th ti nguyn CE lin kt v tuyn (RL) ng ln phi v ng ln ca RLS phi d. RLS CE c s dng cho chuyn giao mm hn v RL CE c s dng cho cc dch v truy cp khc. Khc phc Khuyn co m rng BBU Thng thng cc vn lin quan n CE, chng ta c th gii quyt theo cch sau. 1. M rng BBU. 2. Thay i tham s chuyn giao chuyn giao bt ngi s dng sang nhng cell hng xm gim bt tc nghn trn Node B ny. 3. Tt HSUPA, v iu ny c th tng thm ti nguyn 64 CE cho mi BBU. 4. Cho php chuyn mch CE ng v iu ny cn thit phi c bn quyn. 5. Tng s lng Node B trong khu vc . Sau khi loi b cc vn v phn cng Node B, RNC, UE ta s i phn tch cc l do trn mi trng v tuyn, trong c nhiu nguyn nhn gy st gim CSSR cng lin quan n cc nguyn nhn lm gim CDR nn khng nhc li na.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 58

CHNG 3: TI U MNG 3G UMTS

3.3.3.2. V vn nhiu ng ln
Chnh lch RTWP nhnh thu qu cao Phn tch Trong khong thi gian 100 ms c s sai lch 5 dB RTWP gia knh thu chnh v knh thu phn tp. y c th nh l kt qu ca nhiu t cc thit b truyn dn khc nh viba, cc trm c nh, u nhy sai v cc b u ni fi-, anten Khc phc Tng hp cc gi tr o c RTWP thc t v nhn thy s khc nhau gia knh thu chnh v knh s dng phn tp ln hn 5 dB. Thc hin iu chnh gc phng v ca anten cho n khi s khc nhau gia cc gi tr RTWP ca knh thu chnh v knh s dng phn tp nh hn 5 dB. Tip tc gim st cnh bo trong t nht 2 tun. Ch : khi iu chnh gc phng v ca anten phi m bo rng khng di chuyn v tr anten qu xa t v tr ban u nhm mc ch m bo c khu vc vung ph vn c duy tr. Phn ln s sai lch ny gy ra bi nhiu t bn ngoi v thng thng c gii quyt bng cch iu chnh mt t gc phng v ca anten.

3.3.3.3. Cc vn thng gp
Do trong mng 3G thc hin k thut iu khin ti, iu khin truy nhp nn khi c qu nhiu ngi dng m cell phc v n cng sut cc i ri nn khi c yu cu truy cp mi t ngi dng, h thng s t chi do thiu cng sut, thiu m OVSF trn ng xung chng hn. - khc phc tnh trng ny ta thc hin Gim t s Ec/No mong mun hng ln c s dng bi iu khin cn sut nhanh hng ln. - Thay i kch c vng chuyn giao mm cha nhiu ngi dng hn. - Chuyn giao n mt sng mang WCDMA khc (chuyn giao gia cc tn s). - Chuyn giao n mt h thng khc, v d t UMTS sang GSM. - Gim tc bit s dng cho cc dch v thi gian thc, v d m ha thoi AMR. i vi cell bin LAC thng xy ra tnh trng t l cp nht v tr cao cho thy c vn ti mc cell v c th l nguyn nhn dn n cp nht v tr khng thnh cng hoc gy nghn knh FACH. Lm cho UE khng th gi bn tin hon thnh thit lp kt ni RRC cng dn n li thit lp kt ni RRC lm cho cuc gi khng th thc hin c. Cch khc phc xem xt iu chnh tng tr la chn li cell hoc c th n nh cell ny vo vng LA khc. i khi xy ra tnh trng do khong thi gian cp nht v tr theo chu k qu ngn nn khi UE v mt l do no bn tin cp nht v tr ca UE khng gi n c Node B, th sau mt khong thi gian Node B s xem nh l UE ri khi mng. cuc gi ti UE ny d nhin s khng thc hin c. Do cn cu hnh tham s ny hp l. Song song vi iu chnh tham s ny, ta cng cn thit iu chnh tham s s ln truyn li cc i bn tin cp nht v tr ca UE sau khi ln cp nht u
SVTH: Phm Ngc Li Lp: 08VTA1 Trang 59

tin b li do khng thu c phn hi t mng nhm mc ch hn ch bt li do mi trng v tuyn. V vn tm gi (pagging) c nhiu nguyn nhn dn n tm gi khng thnh cng gm: - IMSI attach/detach khng c s dng, nu khng th kch hot c tnh Thi gian cp nht v tr theo chu k qu ln, xy ra khi UE di chuyn sang khu vc LAI khc m bn tin cp nht ca UE gi ti mng b li, mng khng bit c v tr hin thi ca UE nn tm gi khng thc hin c, khc phc bng cch gim thi gian cp nht nh k xung.

SVTH: Phm Ngc Li

Lp: 08VTA1

Trang 60