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Critical Reading: Section 3

Critical Reading Question 25 Choice (C) is correct. In this context, a “channel” is a means of communication or expression. The sentence indicates that “The professor believed” that “writing” might allow her students to discover” something “through which their feelings might flow.” It makes sense to suggest that writing could help students “command their emotions” and could give them a means of expression “through which their feelings might flow.” Choice (A) is incorrect. In this context, a “chasm” would be a marked division or separation. The sentence indicates that “The professor believed” that “writing” might allow her students to discover” something “through which their feelings might flow.” It does not make much sense to say that writing might give the students “a chasm through which their feelings might flow.” It is not clear how writing would offer an obvious division through which students could express their feelings, and it would be unusual to refer to feelings flowing through a chasm. Choice (B) is incorrect. A “barricade” is a barrier or obstruction meant to prevent or delay movement. The sentence indicates that “The professor believed” that “writing” might allow her students to discover” something “through which their feelings might flow.” It does not make sense to say that writing might give the students “a barricade through which their feelings might flow.” A barrier or obstruction would block the flow of something, not allow it. Choice (D) is incorrect. A “pinnacle” is the highest point of something. The sentence indicates that “The professor believed” that “writing” might allow her students to discover” something “through which their feelings might flow.” It does not make much sense to say that writing might give the students “a pinnacle through which their feelings might flow.” It is not clear how writing would offer a high point through which students could express their feelings, and it would be unusual to refer to feelings flowing through the pinnacle of something Choice (E) is incorrect. A “margin” is the outside limit or edge of something. The sentence indicates that “The professor believed” that “writing” might allow her students to discover” something “through which their feelings might flow.” It does not make much sense to say that writing might give the students “a margin through which their feelings might flow.” It is not clear how writing, a common practice, would offer an outside edge through which students could express their feelings; it would be unusual to refer to feelings flowing through the margin of something. Critical Reading Question 26 Choice (B) is correct. A “trendsetter” is one that starts a trend, or a style or line of development. The structure of the sentence indicates that the part of the sentence after the colon elaborates on or explains the idea in the first part of the sentence. Because the sales of “Oprah Winfrey‟s O” magazine have “encouraged other celebrities to attempt magazine publishing,” it makes sense to say that O “is considered a publishing trendsetter.” In other words, O magazine started a trend of celebrity-published magazines. Choice (A) is incorrect. An “omission” is something neglected, left out, or left undone. The structure of the sentence indicates that the part of the sentence after the colon elaborates on or explains the idea in the first part of the sentence. Because “Oprah Winfrey‟s O” magazine has had “strong sales,” it does not make sense to say that it “is considered a publishing omission.” It is very unlikely that many people would purchase a magazine that had been neglected or unfinished; indeed, such a magazine might not even be available to buy.

2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations

© 2013 The College Board. All Rights Reserved

Choice (C) is incorrect. A “condition” is an essential requirement, something that is necessary to something else. The structure of the sentence indicates that the part of the sentence after the colon elaborates on or explains the idea in the first part of the sentence. Although the sentence indicates that sales of “Oprah Winfrey‟s O” magazine have “encouraged other celebrities to attempt magazine publishing,” it does not make much sense to say that O “is considered a publishing condition.” Other celebrities may have been inspired by Oprah‟s success, but there is no reason to believe that other celebrity-published magazines can only be published because O is published, or that O is necessary for something else in publishing. Choice (D) is incorrect. In this context, a “relic” is an object associated with a past time or an outmoded practice or custom. The structure of the sentence indicates that the part of the sentence after the colon elaborates on or explains the idea in the first part of the sentence. There is no reason to suggest that “Oprah Winfrey‟s O” magazine “is considered a publishing relic”; there is no indication that the magazine was published in the past or has anything to do with an out-of-date practice. Further, a magazine that “encourage[s] other celebrities to attempt magazine publishing” would not necessarily be considered a relic. Choice (E) is incorrect. “Compensation” is something, typically money, given to make up for loss, injury, or suffering. The structure of the sentence indicates that the part of the sentence after the colon elaborates on or explains the idea in the first part of the sentence. It does not make sense to say that “Oprah Winfrey‟s O” magazine “is considered a publishing compensation.” It is not clear how a magazine could be given to compensate for a loss or suffering. Further, there is no logical connection between compensating for something and encouraging others to do something. Critical Reading Question 27 Choice (A) is correct. In this context, to confirm something is to establish it as true or make it valid. A “hunch” is a sense or a strong intuitive feeling, especially concerning a future event or result. The sentence indicates that Elise had a “sense that her candidate would lose the school election,” and that “the opposing candidate won in a landslide.” It makes sense to say that Elise‟s feeling that her candidate would lose “was confirmed”; clearly, her sense was proven to be true when the opposing candidate won. Further, it makes sense to say that “Elise felt no joy that her hunch was accurate.” Even though Elise‟s intuitive feeling concerning the outcome o f the election proved to be correct, she likely felt unhappy because her candidate lost. Choice (B) is incorrect. To reject something is to refuse to accept, consider, or use it. A “forecast” is a calculation or prediction of a future event or condition, usually based on study. The sentence indicates that Elise had a “sense that her candidate would lose the school election,” and that “the opposing candidate won in a landslide.” Elise‟s feeling that her candidate was going to lose the election could be considered a prediction; because it proved to be correct, it makes sense to say that “her forecast was accurate.” However, it does not make much sense to say that Elise‟s feeling “was rejected” when the other candidate won the election. Elise‟s sense turned out to be correct, and the fact that the opposing candidate won does not mean that anyone refused to accept or consider Elise‟s sense about the outcome of the election. Choice (C) is incorrect. In this context, to support something is to substantiate or suggest the truth of it, and a “recommendation” is a suggestion as to the best course of action. The sentence indicates that Elise had a “sense that her candidate would lose the school election,” and that “the opposing candidate won in a landslide.” It might make sense to say that Elise‟s feeling that her candidate would lose “was supported,” because her sense was proven to be true when the opposing candidate won. However, it does not make sense to say that Elise‟s “recommendation was accurate.” Elise‟s sense concerned what she thought would happen in the election, not what she thought should happen; further, it is unlikely that a person would recommend that her own candidate lose.
2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. All Rights Reserved

Although the scientists made many mistakes. The structure of the sentence indicates that “The scientists‟ presentation” was considered something as a result of the scientists having “misstated. All Rights Reserved . Further. and thoroughly misunderstood” every part of the subject at hand. “Irresolute” means uncertain or showing hesitancy. faulty interpretations.” It does not make sense to say that Elise‟s feeling “was undone” when the other candidate won the election. In this context. sometimes in order to mislead or confuse.” and that “the opposing candidate won in a landslide. the scientists may have been very confident. faulty interpretations. “Mundane” means commonplace or ordinary. it does not make much sense to say that her sense “was accepted”. A scientific presentation filled with inaccurate statements.” Although Elise‟s feeling that her candidate would lose the election proved to be true. not anyone else‟s recognition of her feeling. misinterpreted.” Choice (E) is incorrect. Further. Elise‟s sense had nothing to do with an accusation. misinterpreted. it does not make sense to say t hat Elise‟s “charge was accurate. and misunderstandings would not necessarily be considered irresolute. the sentence is focused on Elise‟s feeling. it does not seem that the presentation was ambiguous. and misunderstandings would not necessarily be considered mundane. and a “charge” is an accusation. there is no indication that they intended to mislead others. A “suggestion” is an idea put forward for consideration. Choice (B) is incorrect. The structure of the sentence indicates that “The scientists‟ presentation” was considered something as a result of the scientists having “misstated. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. A scientific presentation filled with inaccurate statements. there is no direct connection between showing hesitancy and making mistakes. The structure of the sentence indicates that “The scientists‟ presentation” was considered something as a result of the scientists having “misstated. “Equivocal” means ambiguous or open to more than one interpretation. faulty interpretations. Choice (A) is incorrect. Further. faulty interpretations. misinterpreted. A scientific presentation filled with inaccurate statements. To undo something is to reverse it or make it null. there is no reason to say that Elise‟s “suggestion was accurate”. to accept something is to believe it or to recognize it as true. Indeed. and thoroughly misunderstood” every part of the subject at hand. and misunderstandings certainly would be considered bad and deserving of contempt. The sentence indicates that Elise had a “sense that her candidate would lose the school election. it was clearly full of errors. Elise‟s sense was proven correct by the outcome. and misunderstandings would not necessarily be considered equivocal. Choice (C) is incorrect. there is no indication that Elise told others about her feeling and asked them to consider it. she was predicting the outcome of the election. and thoroughly misunderstood” every part of the subject at hand. not made null by it. The sentence indicates that Elise had a “sense that her candidate would lose the school election. so the term “deplorable” fits the blank. Therefore.Choice (D) is incorrect. misinterpreted. The structure of the sentence indicates that “The scientists‟ presentation” was considered something as a result of the scientists having “misstated.” and that “the opposing candidate won in a landslide. “Deplorable” means very bad and deserving censure or contempt. and thoroughly misunderstood” every part of the subject at hand. not accusing her own candidate of anything. Critical Reading Question 28 Choice (D) is correct. indeed. A scientific presentation filled with inaccurate statements. it might be unusual for scientists to make so many mistakes in a presentation.

far from camp. misinterpreted. The sentence indicates that “The themes of the painter‟s work” showed “little drama or imaginative flair. “Pedestrian” means commonplace and unimaginative.” Choice (A) is incorrect. themes that require knowledge only a small group possesses might or might not be dramatic and imaginative. The sentence indicates that “The themes of the painter‟s work” showed “little dr ama or imaginative flair. The narrator tells us that Chen was hiding and looking through a telescope at a Mongolian wolf. Choice (E) is incorrect. the “fine hairs on [Chen‟s] body rose up like porcupine quills.” Further. Critical Reading Question 29 Choice (D) is correct. a creature he was afraid of (“still had not lost his fear of Mongolian wolves” ). .” and “sweat oozed from his pores. only skimming the surface.” In other words.” and “sweat oozed from his pores. not that he was hot. the paintings were commonplace and unimaginative rather than dramatic and imaginative.” Although perspiring is a typical reaction to being hot.” There is no reason to suggest that these themes “were largely esoteric”. Choice (B) is incorrect. he was hiding in a “snow cave.” Because the painter‟s work was not dramatic.Choice (E) is incorrect. faulty interpretations. there is no logical connection between temporary themes and themes that are not dramatic or imaginative. and thoroughly misunderstood” every part of the subject at hand. The references to “fine hairs” and “sweat” suggest that Chen was frightened of the wolf. Upon seeing the wolf. there is no logical connection between unpredictable or impractical themes and themes that are not dramatic or imaginative. and misunderstandings would not necessarily be considered superficial. Nothing in the sentence indicates that the painter‟s work was quixotic. The sentence indicates that “The themes of the painter‟s work” showed “little drama or imaginative flair.” it makes perfect sense to say that “The themes of the painter‟s work were largely pedestrian. the narrator‟s references suggest that Chen was frightened to find himself “face-to-face with a large pack . and they could be considered imaginative. Upon seeing the wolf. “Superficial” means not thorough or deep. indeed. scientists could make many mistakes in a very thorough presentation. But.” or overblown. “Ephemeral” means lasting only a very short time. Bombastic paintings likely would be considered dramatic. “Bombastic” means pompous or overblown. A scientific presentation filled with inaccurate statements. there is no indication that Chen was overheated—in fact. The narrator tells us that Chen was hiding and looking through a telescope at a Mongolian wolf. body hair rising up is not necessarily connected to being hot. The structure of the sentence indicates that “The scientists‟ presentation” was considered something as a result of the scientists having “misstated. a creature he was afraid of (“still had not lost his fear of Mongolian wolves”). the “fine hairs on [Chen‟s] body rose up like porcupine quills. “Quixotic” means unpredictable and foolishly impractical. All Rights Reserved . Because the “painter‟s work” showed “little drama or imaginative flair.” There is no reason to suggest that these themes “were largely quixotic” .” These are typical bodily responses to fear. Critical Reading Question 30 Choice (D) is correct.” A painting‟s themes might be considered ephemeral if they were deemed unimportant and unlikely to have lasting significance. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. Choice (A) is incorrect. it does not make sense to suggest that its themes “were largely bombastic. “Esoteric” means requiring knowledge that is restricted to a small group. The sentence indicates that “The themes of the painter‟s work” showed “little drama or imaginative flair. Choice (C) is incorrect. Nothing in the sentence indicates that the painter‟s work was meant to be understood only by a small group. .

In this context. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board.” The sentence contains a simile.” but he or she does not suggest that the body hairs exhibit human personality traits. The narrator tells us that Chen was hiding and looking through a telescope at a Mongolian wolf. Choice (E) is incorrect. The narrator tells us that Chen was hiding and looking through a telescope at a Mongolian wolf. There is nothing contradictory about body hair rising in reaction to fear. Choice (C) is incorrect. usually using “like” or “as.” These are not typical reactions to curiosity. . Chen‟s overall emotion seems to be fear rather than surprise. far from camp. .” Critical Reading Question 31 Choice (B) is correct.” Choice (E) is incorrect. . the narrator states that “The fine hairs on [Chen‟s] body rose up like porcupine quills. Body hair rising is a physical reaction. virtually pulling his shirt away from his skin. sweating is not usually associated with being surprised. especially since he is “face-to-face with a large pack . the “fine hairs on [Chen‟s] body rose up like porcupine quills.” These are not typical reactions to weariness. a creature he was afraid of (“still h ad not lost his fear of Mongolian wolves”). the narrator is expressing Chen‟s fear. The sentence in lines 3-5 does not contain an example of personification. the description provides specific details. Upon seeing the wolf. a creature he was afraid of (“still had not lost his fear of Mongolian wolves”). All Rights Reserved . and there is no other indication in the passage that Chen was curious.” In lines 3-5.Choice (B) is incorrect. The narrator compares Chen‟s body hairs to porcupine quills and notes that they were “virtually pulling [Chen‟s] shirt away from his skin. A “generalization” is a statement that draws general conclusions from particular instances. far from camp. The sentence in lines 3-5 does not contain an example of generalization. “irony” would likely be the use of words to express the opposite of the literal meaning. the narrator compares Chen‟s body hairs to porcupine quills. the “fine hairs on [Chen‟s] body rose up like porcupine quills. the narrator presents Chen‟s reaction as truth and without apparent contradiction. The narrator tells us that Chen was hiding and looking through a telescope at a Mongolian wolf.” and “sweat oozed from his pores. Choice (A) is incorrect. the “fine hairs on [Chen‟s] body rose up like porcupine quills.” and “sweat oozed from his pores. Chen seems to have been frightened to find himself “face-to-face with a large pack .” Although body hairs rising might be an understandable reaction to a surprise. but does not generalize about what they mean. but that contains a truth. A “simile” is a figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared. The sentence in lines 3-5 does not contain an example of irony. he seems to have been very alert and frightened of the Mongolian wolf. Choice (C) is incorrect. and there is no indication that the narrator does not mean what he or she says. Upon seeing the wolf. Upon seeing the wolf. Choice (D) is incorrect. and it certainly could nearly push fabric up and away from one‟s skin. “Personification” is the attribution of human qualities to something nonhuman. A “paradox” is a statement that seems to contradict itself. rather. Rather than wanting to know more about the wolf.” and “sweat oozed from his pores. a creature he was afraid of (“still had not lost his fear of Mongolian wolves”). and there is no other indication that Chen was tired. The sentence in lines 3-5 does not contain an example of paradox. .

not of its basic simplicity. After stating that “People look at you like you are making it up” when you offer them a brief scientific explanation of tides. An incongruity is an inconsistency or incompatibility.” The author‟s point in line 8 is not that tides are only now coming to be understood. The sentence does not so much imply that people have trouble comprehending the ocean as that they do not really try to comprehend it.Critical Reading Question 32 Choice (B) is correct. An incongruity is an inconsistency or incompatibility. The sentence does not characterize the unique nature of the ocean. it does not speak of people‟s unimaginative language in describing the ocean. an inconsistency or incompatibility. it does not speak of the clarity with which the ocean can be represented. The sentence relates the ocean‟s enormous size (“covers twothirds of the planet”) and further relates how little people know about it (“few take the time to understand even a gallon of it”). 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. Further. the sentence does not refer to the ocean as a substance. and it does not refer to the ocean as a system. Choice (A) is incorrect. Additionally. Rather. tides are so commonplace that they are easily ignored. Choice (E) is incorrect. An incongruity is an inconsistency or incompatibility. All Rights Reserved . Choice (A) is incorrect. further. The author of the passage is explaining that most people are not interested in understanding much about the ocean. An incongruity is an inconsistency or incompatibility. the author adds. it does not speak of practical applications of the ocean. indeed. The author of the passage is explaining that most people are not interested in understanding much about the ocean. tides aren‟t news. The sentence does not characterize the complexity of the ocean. “Plus. Choice (C) is incorrect. further.” He or she explains that tides “don‟t crash like floods or exit like rivers” and that they “operate beyond the fringe of most attention spans. the sentence does not refer to the ocean as an event. the sentence speaks of the ocean‟s overwhelming size. “Plus. he or she does not indicate that the scientific explanation of tides is new or unfamiliar. the author adds. The opening sentence of the passage relates the ocean‟s enormous size (“covers two-thirds of the planet”) and further relates how little people know about it (“few take the time to understand even a gallon of it”). After stating that “People look at you like you are making it up” when you offer them a brief scientific explanation of tides. it is not clear what would be considered a practical application of the enormous entity. The opening sentence of the passage relates the ocean‟s enormous size (“ covers two-thirds of the planet”) and further relates how little people know about it (“few take the time to understand even a gallon of it”).” He or she explains that tides “don‟t crash like floods or exit like rivers” and that they “operate beyond the fringe of most attention spans. The opening sentence of the passage relates the ocean‟s enormous size (“covers two -thirds of the planet”) and further relates how little people know about it (“few take the time to understan d even a gallon of it”). Critical Reading Question 33 Choice (C) is correct. Although the sentence does imply that people approach the ocean with some indifference. his or her point is that tides are so ordinary that they do not capture people‟s attention. Choice (D) is incorrect. but of their reluctance to think about it.” The author‟s point in line 8 is that unlike dramatic events—news events—that capture people‟s limited attention. The author is emphasizing the incongruity between the immense size of an entity—the ocean—and the small amount of knowledge most people have of it. tides aren‟t news. but rather its immense size. The opening sentence of the passage points to an incongruity—that is. but rather its immense size. Additionally. The opening sentence of the passage relates the ocean‟s enormous size (“covers two-thirds of the planet”) and further relates how little people know about it (“few take the time to understand even a gallon of it”).

Indeed. In other words.” The passage indicates that Duncan is more popular with the students than is his supervisor. “Plus. tides are the only phenomenon to which the author is referring. After stating that “People look at you like you are making it up” when you offer them a brief scientific explanat ion of tides. . indeed. In the paragraph that begins at line 20. the author adds. his or her point is that tides are so ordinary that they do not capture people‟s attention. In the paragraph that begins at line 20.” He or she explains that tides “don‟t crash like floods or exit like rivers” and that they “operate beyond the fringe of most attention spans.Choice (B) is incorrect. The statement in lines 1-3 does not establish Professor Mo as a shrewd judge of character: at no point does the passage suggest that Professor Mo is a good judge of character when it comes to his students or to Duncan. Rather. his or her point is that tides are so ordinary that they do not capture people‟s attention. Rather. tides aren‟t news. the narrator indicates “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating” ) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. Choice (E) is incorrect. Duncan‟s ability as a teacher. The passage begins with Professor Mo criticizing Duncan: “You must assign more homework .” He or she explains that tides “don‟t crash like floods or exit like rivers” and that they “operate beyond the fringe of most attention spans. the students will loaf about and make trouble.” The author‟s point in line 8 is not that tides are only one of many significant ocean phenomena. The author of the passage is explaining that most people are not interested in understanding much about the ocean. The author of the passage is explaining that most people are not interested in understanding much about the ocean. Professor Mo‟s criticism seems designed both to lessen Duncan‟s popularity with the students and to play down Duncan‟s ability as a teacher. .” The author‟s point in line 8 is not that tides are still mysterious in many ways. Critical Reading Question 34 Choice (A) is correct. the author adds. Professor Mo. In the context of the passage. The passage begins with Professor Mo criticizing Duncan: “You must assign more homework . not that there are many other ocean phenomena. tides aren‟t news. the scientific explanation in the passage seems to be valid.” He or she explains that tides “don‟t crash like floods or exit like rivers” and that they “operate beyond the fringe of most attention spans. but the author makes no mention of erosion. . Choice (B) is incorrect. the students will loaf about and make trouble. there is no indication that Professor Mo is correct and that Duncan needs to change his teaching habits. Duncan also seems to be a more effective teacher. Duncan also seems to be a more effective teacher. Choice (D) is incorrect. the author adds. .” The passage indicates that Duncan is more popular with the students than is his supervisor. All Rights Reserved . Professor Mo‟s criticism seems designed both to lessen Duncan‟s popularity with the students and to obscure the fact of Duncan‟s superiority. although this is undoubtedly true. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. or play down. The author‟s point is that tides are so ordinary that they do not capture people‟s attention. tides aren‟t news. the statement in lines 1-3 establishes that Professor Mo wants to minimize. Otherwise. “Plus. the narrator indicates “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Prof essor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. “Plus. The author of the passage is explaining that most people are not interested in understanding much about the ocean. Professor Mo. After stating that “People look at you like you are making it up” when you offer them a brief scientific explanation of tides. In the context of the passage.” The author‟s point in line 8 is not that tides are responsible for erosion. Otherwise. this may or may not be true. After stating that “People look at you like you are making it up” when you offer them a brief scientific explanation of tides.

In the paragraph that begins at line 20. In the paragraph that begins at line 20. Indeed. Choice (A) is incorrect. In lines 15-17. The passage begins with Professor Mo criticizing Duncan: “You must assign more homework . on the contrary. Choice (E) is incorrect. Duncan‟s students seem well-behaved: they tape every word spoken in class and seem to treat Duncan with respect. The passage begins with Professor Mo criticizing Duncan: “You must assign more homework . Otherwise. In the context of the passage.” A blush is a physical response often related to feelings of self-consciousness. Professor Mo‟s criticism seems designed both to lessen Duncan‟s popularity with the students and to play down Duncan‟s ability as a teacher. the opposite seems true. Professor Mo‟s criticism seems designed both to lessen Duncan‟s popularity with the students and to play down Duncan‟s ability as a teacher. whereas Professor Mo‟s students do not use their mac hines. William seems quite self-conscious about his “task” of speaking for the entire class. in fact. The description in lines 15-17 does not demonstrate that William does not belong in the class. the narrator indicates “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the cl assroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead.Choice (C) is incorrect.” The passage indicates that Duncan is more popular with the students than is his supervisor. he does seem to be quite effective. . Professor Mo‟s criticism seems designed both to lessen Duncan‟s popularity with the students and to play down Duncan‟s ability as a teacher. at least in comparison to Professor Mo (for example. Critical Reading Question 35 Choice (E) is correct. he “blushed red as a pomegranate. Duncan‟s students tape every word spoken in class. In the paragraph that begins at line 20. Although Professor Mo indicates that students might make trouble. Duncan‟s students tape every word spoken in class. . 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. It is clear from the description in lines 15-17 that William is blushing because he is self-conscious about his “task” of speaking for the entire class. or shame. . The statement in lines 1 -3 does not establish that Duncan does not know how to maintain control in his classroom. the narrator indicates that when William —a very strong and “square-headed. The passage begins with Professor Mo criticizing Duncan: “You must assign more homework . the narrator indicates that when William —a very strong and “square-headed. The statement in lines 1-3 does not establish Duncan‟s lack of expertise in teaching language courses.” A blush is a physical response often related to feelings of self-consciousness. the narrator indicates “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. whereas Professor Mo‟s students do not use their machines). Nothing in the passage indicates that Duncan has trouble controlling his students. . . modesty. square-bodied man”—presented “the class request” for songs. In lines 15-17. he “blushed red as a pomegranate. Choice (D) is incorrect. In the context of the passage. the narrator indicates “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. .” The passage indicates that Duncan is more popular with the students than is his supervisor. the students will loaf about and make trouble. In fact. The statement in lines 1-3 does not establish that Duncan‟s and Professor Mo‟s students have been misbehaving. Otherwise. since the class has apparently chosen him as their spokesman.” The passage indicates that Duncan is more popular with the students than is his supervisor. the students will loaf about and make trouble. In the context of the passage. or shame. although Duncan is a young teacher and may lack experience. feeling the difficulty of his task. feeling the difficulty of his task. All Rights Reserved . there is no indication that Professor Mo‟s and Duncan‟s students have already caused trouble. the students will loaf about and make trouble. square-bodied man”—presented “the class request” for songs. modesty. Otherwise.

he seems to be respectful as he makes the request. Professor Mo tells Duncan. Professor Mo tells Duncan. there is no mention of William‟s academic skills at all. Choice (A) is incorrect. Duncan‟s defense of his students‟ request for songs. Further. Choice (D) is incorrect. The description in lines 15-17 does not demonstrate that William is embarrassed because he is not a good student. modesty. the student who blushed when making the request for songs on the class‟s behalf. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. or shame.” A blush is a physical response often related to feelings of self-consciousness. he “blushed red as a pomegranate. Duncan seems to have understood that William likely was blushing because he felt there was some “difficulty” in the “task” of speaking for the class—because he felt self-conscious. or shame. William. Indeed. Choice (C) is incorrect.Choice (B) is incorrect.” Duncan responds in the fourth paragraph by protesting that his students like songs. and thinks about William. or that his students are controlling him through clever or unfair means. modesty. the student who blushed when making the request for songs on the class‟s behalf. the narrator indicates that when William —a very strong and “square-headed. The fourth paragraph does not establish that Duncan was mystified or confused by William‟s discomfort. William. modesty. The fourth paragraph does not establish that Duncan can be manipulated by his students. blushing usually is not a sign of a lack of respect. the student who blushed when making the request for songs on the class‟s behalf.” Duncan responds in the fourth parag raph by protesting that his students like songs. In lines 15-17. feeling the difficulty of his task. reveal that Duncan is a teacher who cares about his students. William‟s self -consciousness suggests that he is not usually blunt. Critical Reading Question 36 Choice (D) is correct. indeed. Although one might not expect a strong man to blush when asking a teacher a question. In the third paragraph. Duncan. In lines 15-17. reveal that Duncan is a teacher who cares about his students. The description in lines 15-17 does not demonstrate that William lacks respect for his teacher. You are not engaged in a popularity contest.” Duncan responds in the fourth paragraph by protesting that his students like songs. In the third paragraph. combined with his interest in the feelings of his student. square-bodied man”—presented “the class request” for songs. square-bodied man”—presented “the class request” for songs.” A blush is a physical response often related to feelings of self-consciousness. William. You are not engaged in a popularity contest. William seems quite self-conscious about his “task” of speaking for the entire class. feeling the difficulty of his task. combined with his interest in the feelings of his student. he “blushed red as a pomegranate.” A blush is a physical response often related to feelings of self-consciousness. the narrator indicates that when William—a very strong and “square-headed. square-bodied man”—presented “the class request” for songs. reveal that Duncan is a teacher who cares about his students. The primary purpose of the fourth paragraph is to establish that Duncan is sympathetic to his students‟ requests—in this case. The description in lines 15-17 does not demonstrate that William is unusually blunt in making suggestions. “no more songs. and thinks about William. Duncan‟s defense of his students‟ request for songs. In lines 15-17. In the third paragraph. feeling the difficulty of his task. Although it is clear that Duncan wants to honor his students‟ request. Duncan‟s defense of his students‟ request for songs. William seems quite self-conscious about his “task” of speaking for the entire class. Choice (B) is incorrect. “no more songs. there is no indication that he is being manipulated. William seems quite self-conscious about his “task” of speaking for the entire class. combined with his interest in the feelings of his student. All Rights Reserved . “no more songs. or shame. there is no indication that he is particularly direct when making the request. the narrator indicates that when William —a very strong and “square-headed. a request for songs. he “blushed red as a pomegranate. You are not engaged in a popularity contest. and thinks about William. Professor Mo tells Duncan.

In the third paragraph. In line 20. he is recalling William‟s self-consciousness. It does seem that his students respect and admire him. the student who blushed when making the request for songs on the class‟s behalf. Choice (B) is incorrect. The fourth paragraph does not establish that Duncan is embarrassed by his students‟ admiration of him.” Duncan responds in the fourth paragraph by protesting that his students like songs. Duncan‟s defense of his students‟ request for songs. Professor Mo tells Duncan that Duncan is “not engaged in a popularity contest”. the students‟ avoidance of his class suggests the opposite. after the second of these statements. You are not engaged in a popularity contest. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. he repeats this statement in line 18. and thinks about William. Duncan‟s defense of his students‟ request for songs. Choice (E) is incorrect. The passage does suggest that Professor Mo might be a demanding supervisor. Rather than suggesting that Professor Mo is adept at dealing with students. Although Duncan protests (“‟But they like songs‟”). after the second of these statements. “no more songs. rather. Professor Mo tells Duncan that Duncan is “not engaged in a popularity contest”. Professor Mo tells Duncan. Choice (A) is incorrect. All Rights Reserved . the reader learns “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. not his own embarrassment. he repeats this statement in line 18. In line 20. the comment that teaching is not a “popularity contest” serves to suggest that Professor Mo is annoyed by Duncan‟s popularity. “no more songs. and thinks about William. Professor Mo tells Duncan.” Duncan responds in the fourth paragraph by protesting that his students like songs. the reader learns “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. in fact. the repeated statement in lines 8 and 18 suggests that he is annoyed by Duncan‟s popularity. In line 8. the student who blushed when making the request for songs on the class‟s behalf. William. the reader learns “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. reveal that Duncan is a teacher who cares about his students. after the second of these statements. The fourth paragraph does not establish that Duncan does not respond well to criticism from Professor Mo. his reaction is rather mild. he repeats this statement in line 18. You are not engaged in a popularity contest. Professor Mo tells Duncan that Duncan is “not engaged in a popularity contest”. and not about Duncan‟s interaction with Professor Mo.Choice (C) is incorrect. reveal that Duncan is a teacher who cares about his students. The passage suggests that Pr ofessor Mo is threatened by the fact that the students prefer Duncan to him —and may even be trying to lessen Duncan‟s popularity. The passage suggests that Professor Mo is threatened by the fact that the students prefer Duncan to him —and may even be trying to lessen Duncan‟s popularity. Professor Mo‟s comment that teaching is not a “popularity contest” suggests that Professor Mo is annoyed by Duncan‟s popularity. Further. William. the majority of the fourth paragraph is about Duncan‟s students. Nothing in the passage suggests that Professor Mo is particularly skillful at dealing with students. but the repeated statement in lines 8 and 18 does not reveal this. In the third paragraph. but there is no indication that Duncan feels embarrassed. In line 8. The passage suggests that Professor Mo is threatened by the fact that the students prefer Duncan to him—and may even be trying to lessen Duncan‟s popularity (by telling Duncan to assign more homework and stop giving songs to his students). combined with his interest in the feelings of his student. Critical Reading Question 37 Choice (C) is correct. In line 8. combined with his interest in the feelings of his student. In line 20.

” or speaking in a pompous way. In line 28 the narrator describes Professor Mo “pontificating. Choice (C) is incorrect. not in a treacherous manner. There is no indication that Professor Mo is trying to cause any harm when he expresses his views.” This description indicates that Professor Mo expresses his views in an arrogant way. “at the front of the room. the reader learns “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. nothing in the passage suggests that Professor Mo is especially careful or timid when expressing his views. The passage suggests that Professor Mo is threatened by the fact that the students prefer Duncan to him —and may even be trying to lessen Duncan‟s popularity. nothing in the passage suggests that he is successful at intimidating Duncan.” or speaking in a pompous way. the reader learns “what the real problem was”: “few students bothered to come” to Professor Mo‟s classes (likely because he spends his time in the classroom “pontificating”) and were choosing Duncan‟s classes instead. not insidious. not in a friendly 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. indeed. In line 28 the narrator describes Professor Mo “pontificating. In line 28 the narrator describes Professor Mo “pontificating. The repeated statement in lines 8 and 18 does not suggest that Professor Mo knows Duncan better than Duncan knows himself. the repeated statement in lines 8 and 18 suggests that he is annoyed by Duncan‟s popularity.” This description indicates that Professor Mo expresses his views in an arrogant way. Although Professor Mo might be trying to intimidate Duncan. Choice (A) is incorrect. The details that follow.Choice (D) is incorrect. the statement that teaching is not a “popularity contest” suggests that Professor Mo is annoyed by Duncan‟s popularity. Rather. “at the front of the room.” or speaking in a pompous way. not in an angry manner.” or speaking in a pompous way. Critical Reading Question 38 Choice (B) is correct. In line 20. In line 8. “Amiable” means friendly or sociable. “at the front of the room. after the second of these statements. Indeed.” confirm that Professor Mo‟s manner of express ing his views is pompous. Professor Mo tells Duncan that Duncan is “not engaged in a popularity contest”. In line 28 the narrator describes Professor Mo “pontificating. nothing in the passage suggests that Professor Mo is particularly knowledgeable about human nature or has a deep understanding of Duncan. All Rights Reserved . In line 20. Rather than suggesting that Professor Mo knows how to intimidate Duncan. Choice (E) is incorrect. not in a careful manner. There is no indication that Professor Mo is angry or upset in any way when expressing his views. “at the front of the room. even timid. Duncan does not seem particularly anxious about Professor Mo‟s statements. Rather.” This description indicates that Professor Mo expresses his views in an arrogant way. he repeats this statement in line 18. In line 8. he is pompous. he repeats this statement in li ne 18. after the second of these statements. “at the front of the room. “Cautious” means careful. Rather. in which in it is revealed that Professor Mo “had a microphone on his desk” (even though only three students were in the room) and “swooped down importantly into the mike.” This description indicates that Professor Mo expresses his views in an arrogant way. He is pompous.” This description clearly indicates that Professor Mo expresses his views in an arrogant or self-important manner.” or speaking in a pompous way. Professor Mo tells Duncan that Duncan is “not engaged in a popularity contest”. Choice (D) is incorrect. In line 28 the narrator describes Professor Mo “pontificating. he is pompous. Choice (E) is incorrect. The passage suggests that Professor Mo is threatened by the fact that the students prefer Duncan to him —and may even be trying to lessen Duncan‟s popularity. “pompous” means arrogant or self-important. indeed. In this context. “Insidious” means treacherous or subtly harmful.

” Choice (B) is correct.” The statement that none of Professor Mo‟s students were using their tape recorders contrasts strongly with an earlier statement about Duncan‟s students: “Duncan‟s own class was punctuated by the constant sound of cassette tapes running out and being flipped. but that Professor Mo‟s students are choosing not to use them. When Duncan “peek[ed] in the door” of Professor Mo‟s classroom.” The statement that none of Professor Mo‟s students were using their tape recorders con trasts strongly 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. however. Choice (D) is correct. When Duncan “peek[ed] in the door” of Professor Mo‟s classroom. in this instance.” The statement in lines 44-45 does not serve to demonstrate the limitations of a technology. however.” The statement that none of Professor Mo‟s students were using their tape recorders does not serve to depict a typical classroom situation. however. Critical Reading Question 39 Choice (E) is correct. he saw that “The students—there were three of them — looked bored” and noted that “None of the students were operating their machines. Choice (A) is incorrect. he saw that “The students—there were three of them — looked bored” and noted that “None of the students were operating their machines. but it is clear that the situation is not typical for every classroom in the school.” In other words. Indeed.” The statement in l ines 44-45 does not serve to show Duncan‟s disapproval of the students‟ behavior. Choice (C) is correct. he saw that “The students—there were three of them — looked bored” and noted that “None of the students were operating their machines. Duncan‟s students use them).or sociable manner. The passage indicates that each classroom “had been outfitted” with wires “so that students could plug in their all-important tape recorders”—presumably the students are recording teachers‟ lectures and classroom discussions. it is not that the tape recorders are outdated or inoperable (after all. Duncan does not so much disapprove of Professor Mo‟s students as sympathize with them. “Duncan‟s own class was punctuated by the constant sound of cassette tapes running out and being flipped. however. he saw that “The students—there were three of them — looked bored” and noted that “None of the students were operating their machines. The passage indicates that each classroom “had been outfitted” with wires “so that students could plug in their all-important tape recorders”—presumably the students are recording teachers‟ lectures and classroom discussions. nothing in the passage suggests that Professor Mo is an especially friendly instructor. When Duncan “peek[ed] in the door” of Professor Mo‟s classroom. the statement in lines 44-45 serves to contrast the behavior of Professor Mo‟s and Duncan‟s students. as the narrator explains. he is pompous. Indeed. Rather. When Duncan “peek[ed] in the door” of Professor Mo‟s classroom. however. The passage indicates that each classroom “had been outfitted” with wires “so that students could plug in their all-important tape recorders”—presumably the students are recording teachers‟ lectures and classroom discussions. The passage indicates that each classroom “had been outfitted” with wires “so that students could plug in their all-important tape recorders”—presumably the students are recording teachers‟ lectures and classroom discussions. the situation could be typical for a specific classroom (Professor Mo‟s). All Rights Reserved .” The statement that none of Professor Mo‟s students were using their tape recorders contrasts strongly with an earlier statement about Duncan‟s students: “Duncan‟s own class was punctuated by the constant sound of cassette tapes running out and being flipped. The passage indicates that each classroom “had been outfitted” with wires “so that students could plug in their all-important tape recorders”—presumably the students are recording teachers‟ lectures and classroom discussions. he saw that “The students—there were three of them — looked bored” and noted that “None of the students were operating their machines.” The statement that none of Professor Mo‟s students were using their tape recorders contrasts strongly with an earlier statement about Duncan‟s students: “Duncan‟s own class was punctuated by the constant sound of cassette tapes running out and being flipped. When Duncan “peek[ed] in the door” of Professor Mo‟s classroom.

“diplomatic” means tactful or conciliatory. Lines 46-48 do not serve to suggest that Professor Mo holds Duncan in high esteem. “diplomatic” means tactful or conciliatory. “in a diplomatic and sagacious manner. and “sagacious” means perceptive or wise. In lines 46-48 the narrator indicates that Duncan tries to treat his supervisor. All Rights Reserved . the ineffective and opinionated Professor Mo. not on Professor Mo‟s opinion of Duncan‟s capabilities as a “foreign expert. Lines 46 -48 do not serve to suggest that Duncan has too high an opinion of himself.” In this context. Critical Reading Question 40 Choice (C) is correct. “in a diplomatic and sagacious manner.” In this context. In lines 46-48 the narrator indicates that Duncan tries to treat his supervisor. rather. one befitting his role as a foreign expert. or a way that is shrewdly tactful and wise. but he does not want to offend the Professor by pointing out this fact. although Duncan wants to approach Professor Mo in a wise manner. These lines focus on Duncan‟s approach with Professor Mo. “in a diplomatic and sagacious manner. That Duncan “deal[s] with his supervisor in a diplomatic and sagacious manner” suggests that he wants to approach Professor Mo in a politic way.” Choice (E) is incorrect. Duncan refers to himself as a “foreign expert. the ineffective and opinionated Professor Mo. not that Professor Mo has underestimated Duncan‟s abilities. one befitting his role as a foreign expert.” In this context. there is no indication that other people Duncan‟s age would not do the same or that they are less wise than Duncan. In lines 46-48 the narrator indicates that Duncan tries to treat his supervisor. the ineffective and opinionated Professor Mo. In lines 53-54. In lines 46-48 the narrator indicates that Duncan tries to treat his supervisor. and “sagacious” means perceptive or wise. which is popular with students. Lines 46-48 serve to suggest that Duncan wants to approach Professor Mo in a shrewdly tactful and wise way. it gives a symptom of his failings—his students‟ boredom and lack of engagement. These lines focus on Duncan‟s approach with Professor Mo. and “sagacious” means perceptive or wise. Professor Mo. Duncan is in an awkward position: he has shown himself to be a much more popular and effective teacher than his supervisor. “diplomatic” means tactful or conciliatory. “in a diplomatic and sagacious manner. the passage as a whole suggests the opposite.” The statement in lines 44 -45 does not serve to explain the source of Professor Mo‟s failings as a teacher. indeed. Critical Reading Question 41 Choice (D) is correct. not on Professor Mo‟s regard for Duncan. Choice (B) is incorrect. or has great respect for him. In lines 49-54. “diplomatic” means tactful or conciliatory. Choice (A) is incorrect.” In this context.” In this context. In lines 46-48 the narrator indicates that Duncan tries to treat his supervisor. and “sagacious” means perceptive or wise. Duncan is trying to suggest some ways to increase student attendance in Professor Mo‟s classes: Mo could begin to teach singing. Choice (D) is incorrect. and there is nothing especially self-centered about wanting to deal with another person in a tactful and wise way. the narrator states that “Duncan tried to broach these ideas as delicately 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. and “sagacious” means perceptive or wise. “in a diplomatic and sagacious manner.” but there is no indication that this is not true. one befitting his role as a foreign expert. or Professor Mo‟s practice session could be required instead of optional. the ineffective and opinionated Professor Mo. the ineffective and opinionated Professor Mo. “diplomatic” means tactful or conciliatory.with an earlier statement about Duncan‟s students: “Duncan‟s own class was punctuated by the constant sound of cassette tapes running out and being flipped. L ines 46-48 do not suggest that Duncan is wiser than many people his age. one befitting his role as a foreign expert.

. which seems to have offended Professor Mo deeply. the narrator indicates that Professor Mo continues to mock Duncan: “Over the next few weeks. it is not clear how Duncan could pierce or puncture ideas.” or hostility. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. the term “broach” does not mean “veer. the term means “bring up”. but it does not make much sense to say that he was creating them or giving them a definite form. In lines 53 -54. . the term “broach” does not mean “shape.” In context. In lines 60-63. the narrator states that “Duncan tried to broach these ideas as delicately as he could.” or create. Choice (A) is incorrect. could increase attendance in his classes. In lines 53-54. Choice (A) is incorrect. could increase attendance in his classes. In lines 49-54. In lines 49-54.” In context. the narrator states that “Duncan tried to broach these ideas as delicately as he could. . How very kind of you. Duncan is trying to suggest some ways Professor Mo could increase student attendance in his classes: Mo could begin to teach singing. . But Professor Mo views Duncan‟s gesture scornfully. Duncan surely believes that he is being kind by suggesting ways in which his supervisor.” In context. Choice (C) is incorrect. Choice (B) is incorrect. Duncan is trying to suggest some ways Professor Mo could increase student attendance in his classes: Mo could begin to teach singing.” Choice (E) is incorrect. the term “broach” does not mean “pierce”. The narrator is indicating that Duncan tried to bring up his suggestions in a careful way. . it is clear that the term “broach” most nearly means “bring up. Mo did not make a comment to Duncan that did not include the word „kind. In lines 49-54. or Professor Mo‟s practice session could be required instead of optional. In lines 60-63. Duncan is bringing up certain suggestions. “„What a nice idea . the narrator states that “Duncan tried to broach these ideas as delicately as he could. Lines 60-63 give no indication that Professor Mo refuses to serve as Duncan‟s supervisor. Duncan surely believes that he is being kind by suggesting ways in which his supervisor. it does not make sense to say that Duncan “tried to veer these ideas.” In context. Professor Mo. Duncan is trying to suggest some ways Professor Mo could increase student attendance in his classes: Mo could begin to teach singing. replying sarcastically. he apparently remains Duncan‟s supervisor in spite of the “enmity.as he could.” or raise. But Professor Mo views Duncan‟s gesture scornfully. .‟” It seems that Professor Mo has interpreted Duncan‟s gesture as presumptuous rather than as genuinely kind. the narrator states that “Duncan tried to broach these ideas as delicately as he could.‟” These lines suggest that Professor Mo‟s exaggerated courtesy (“If you would be so kind . How very kind of you. which is popular with students.” or remove. Just a kindly reminder”) mocks Duncan‟s attempt at courtesy. the narrator is indicating that Duncan tried to bring up his suggestions in a careful way. which is popular with students. replying sarcastically.‟” It seems that Professor Mo has interpreted Duncan‟s gesture as presumptuous rather than as genuinely kind. not somehow removing certain ideas. . Duncan is bringing up suggestions.” In context. Rather. . . Professor Mo.‟” These lines suggest that Professor Mo‟s exaggerated courtesy (“If you would be so kind . Mo did not make a comment to Duncan that did not include the word „kind. the term “broach” does not mean “draw off. which is popular with students. In lines 53 -54. Duncan is trying to suggest some ways Professor Mo could increase student attendance in his classes: Mo could begin to teach singing.. or Professor Mo‟s practice session could be required instead of optional. In lines 53 -54. Just a kindly reminder”) mocks Duncan‟s attempt at courtesy. which is popular with students. Critical Reading Question 42 Choice (B) is correct. the narrator indicates that Professor Mo continues to mock Duncan: “Over the next few weeks. All Rights Reserved . or Professor Mo‟s practice session could be required instead of optional. or Professor Mo‟s practice session could be required instead of optional. In lines 49-54. which seems to have offended Professor Mo deeply. “„What a nice idea .” or change direction.

which seems to have offended Professor Mo deeply. . . . Just a kindly rem inder”) mocks Duncan‟s attempt at courtesy. could increase attendance in his classes. . rather. Duncan surely believes that he is being kind by suggesting ways in which his supervisor. could increase attendance in his classes. The author of Passage 2 believes that humans should not try to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials. indeed. . . These polls do not reveal that people are troubled by or anxious about space missions. referring to these attempts as “self -destructive folly. “„What a nice idea . on the other hand. The author of Passage 2 would most likely describe the attitudes revealed by these polls—that is.Choice (C) is incorrect. Lines 60-63 do not suggest that Professor Mo is amused by Duncan‟s ideas about teaching. rather. . on the contrary.” or dangerous foolishness. Just a kindly reminder”) mocks Duncan‟s attempt at courtesy. Professor Mo. .‟” It seems that Professor Mo has interpreted Duncan‟s gesture as presumptuous rather than as genuinely kind. the narrator indicates that Professor Mo continues to mock Duncan: “Over the next few weeks. he or she states that “Opinion polls . But Professor Mo views Duncan‟s gesture scornfully.‟” These lines suggest that Professor Mo‟s exaggerated courtesy (“If you would be so kind .‟” It seems that Professor Mo has interpreted Duncan‟s gesture as presumptuous rather than as genuinely kind. Lines 60-63 give no indication that Professor Mo intends to abandon his afternoon practice sessions. “„What a nice idea . or finds them humorous. popular support for space missions—as fundamentally imprudent. he seems to resent Duncan and likely wishes he did not have Duncan as a colleague at all. referring to these attempts as “self -destructive folly. he or she states that “Opinion polls . which seems to have offended Professor Mo deeply. the narrator indicates that Professor Mo continues to mock Duncan: “Over the next few weeks. notes that many people support efforts to locate extraterrestrials. or basically unwise. All Rights Reserved . In lines 60-63. replying sarcastically. notes that many people support efforts to locate extraterrestrials. But Professor Mo views Duncan‟s gesture scornfully. indicate strong support for” space missions related to the search for extraterrestrial life . in lines 4-7. could increase attendance in his classes. on the other hand. Professor Mo. Professor Mo. Duncan surely believes that he is being kind by suggesting ways in which his supervisor. Duncan surely believes that he is being kind by suggesting ways in which his supervisor. How very kind of you. replying sarcastically. .‟” It seems that Professor Mo has interpreted Duncan‟s gesture as presumptuous rather than as genuinely kind. . How very kind of you. Critical Reading Question 43 Choice (A) is correct. But Professor Mo views Duncan‟s gesture scornfully.‟” These lines suggest that Professor Mo‟s exaggerated courtesy (“If you would be so kind . This author warns that what humans should do instead is “turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection.” or dangerous foolishness. “„What a nice idea . it seems unlikely that he will change anything on the basis of Duncan‟s well-intentioned advice. Mo did not make a comment to Duncan that did not include the word „kind. Just a kindly reminder”) mocks Duncan‟s attempt at courtesy. he seems to resent Duncan and his suggestions. replying sarcastically. . the narrator indicates that Professor Mo continues to mock Duncan: “Over the next few weeks. This author warns that what humans should do instead is “turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection. . . Mo did not make a comment to Duncan that did not include the word „kind. . indicate strong support for” space missions related to the search for extraterrestrial life. In lines 60-63. . . 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. . . Lines 60-63 do not suggest that Professor Mo recognizes the value of Duncan‟s colleagueship. How very kind of you. Choice (D) is incorrect.” The author of Passage 1. Choice (E) is incorrect. In lines 60-63. The author of Passage 2 believes that humans should not try to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials. which seems to have offended Professor Mo deeply.‟” These lines suggest that Professor Mo‟s exaggerated courtesy (“If you would be so kind . Choice (B) is incorrect. Mo did not make a comment to Duncan that did not include the word „kind. .” The author of Passage 1. in lines 4-7.

referring to these attempts as “self -destructive folly. referring to these attempts as “self -destructive folly. . The author of Passage 2 believes that humans should not try to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials. These polls do not reveal that people are aggressive. . and suggests that “advanced extraterrest rials who discovered us” would not treat us 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board.” Clearly. Critical Reading Question 44 Choice (E) is correct. refers to humans‟ attempts to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials as “self -destructive folly. Choice (D) is incorrect.” The author of Passage 1 describes public support for “space missions that are linked .” The author of Passage 1. it is unlikely that the author of Passage 2 would describe the attitudes revealed by the polls as frustratingly skeptical.” The author of Passage 1.” or dangerous foolishness. he or she sees the search for extraterrestrials as unwise and potentially harmful. This author warns that what humans should do instead is “turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection. or doubtful. indicate strong support for” space m issions related to the search for extraterrestrial life. he or she states that “Opinion polls . or forceful. These polls do not reveal that people are stubborn. The author of Passage 2. As lines 9-10 indicate. Choice (C) is incorrect. the focus of Passage 1 is “the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. or justifiably anxious. . or annoyingly doubtful. they would probably “put [us] on exhibit and take over [our] habitats. to this search” and details the possibilities and implications of finding “traces of life” on Mars. . the focus of Passage 1 is “the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. to this search” and details the possibilities and implications o f finding “traces of life” on Mars. .they suggest that people are in favor of space missions. in lines 4-7. he or she states that “Opinion polls . the author of Passage 2 almost certainly would not consider such enthusiasm harmless. The author of Passage 2. on the other hand. or needlessly forceful. This author warns that what humans should do instead is “turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection. they simply indicate an enthusiasm for space missions.” or dangerous foolishness. This author warns that what humans should do instead is “turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection. Further. . indicate strong support for” space missions related to the search for extraterrestrial life. The author of Passage 2 believes that humans should not try to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials. notes that many people support efforts to locate extraterrestrials. These polls do not reveal that people are skeptical. The author of Passage 2 believes that humans should not try to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials. Therefore. in lines 4-7. when it comes to space missions. it is unlikely that the author of Passage 2 would describe the attitudes revealed by the poll as understandably agitated. indicate strong support for” space missions related to the search for extraterrestrial life. . refers to humans‟ attempts to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials as “self -destructive folly. There is no reason to suggest that the author of Passage 2 would describe the attitudes revealed by the polls as unnecessarily aggressive. they suggest that people are in favor of space missions. . on the other hand. As lines 9-10 indicate. . or inflexible. on the other hand. All Rights Reserved . he or she states that “Opinion polls . when it comes to space missions. rather. Choice (A) is incorrect. on the other hand. Passage 1 describes an activity—the human search for extraterrestrial life—that Passage 2 condemns.” The author of Passage 1. on the other hand. Choice (E) is incorrect. referring to these attempts as “self -destructive folly.” The author of Passage 1 describes public support for “space missions that are linked . they simply indicate an enthusiasm for space missions.” or dangerous foolishness. in lines 4-7.” or dangerous foolishness. . notes that many people support efforts to locate extraterrestrials. and suggests that “advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us would surely treat us” the way we have treated chimpanzees—that is.” or dangerous foolishness. Therefore. notes that many people support efforts to locate extraterrestrials.

Passage 1 does not acknowledge skeptical attitudes about the search for life beyond Earth. and Passage 2 certainly does not offer solutions for anything discussed in Passage 1. the fact that the water is in the form of permafrost may somewhat weaken the argument that life might be found on Mars. but the argument still stands. Passage 1 describes an activity—the human search for extraterrestrial life—that Passage 2 condemns. and suggests that “advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us” would not treat us well. albeit in the form of permafrost. the authors of the passages do seem to disagree. refers to humans‟ attempts to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials as “self-destructive folly. the focus of Passage 1 is “the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. The author of Passage 1 is making the point that the discovery of water has raised hopes for finding life. even though this “water” is permanently frozen. . Passage 1 does not provide any evidence for this claim.” The author of Passage 1 describes public support for “space missions that are linked . The author of Passage 2. in other words. or takes back or disavows of.” This assertion does not include the use of retraction. has raised hopes for finding traces of life there. refers to humans‟ attempts to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials as “self -destructive folly. the author of Passage 1 makes an assertion: “The recent discovery of abundant water on Mars. . on the other hand.” The author of Passage 1 describes public support for “space missions that are linked . Rather. Choice (A) is incorrect. As lines 9-10 indicate. Passage 2 condemns the activity described in Passage 1—the human search for extraterrestrial life. The author of Passage 2. Choice (D) is incorrect.” The author of Passage 1 describes public support for “space missions that are linked . The only real claim in Passage 2 is that advanced extraterrestrials would probably “put [us] on exhibit and take over [our] habitats”. Passage 1 does not address specific problems. As lines 9-10 indicate.” or dangerous foolishness. on the other hand. but not about a theory (the search for life beyond Earth is not a theory). and suggests that “advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us” would not treat us well. Choice (C) is incorrect. . than supporting a claim made in Passage 2. indeed. refers to humans‟ att empts to locate or establish contact with extraterrestrials as “self -destructive folly. A “concession” is an acknowledgment of something that may weaken or counter an argument. In lines 11-13. All Rights Reserved . he or she is not taking back a 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. Rather. Although Passage 2 is rather skeptical. although the author of Passage 1 is acknowledging that hopes for finding life on Mars might be weakened by the fact that the water discovered there is permanently frozen. and suggests that “advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us” would not treat us well. the focus of Passage 1 is “the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. . Rather. to this search” and details the possibilities and implications of finding “traces of life” on Mars. the author of Passage 1 makes an assertion: “The recent discovery of abundant water on Mars. . has raised hopes for finding traces of life there. to this search” and details the possibilities and implications of finding “traces of life” on Mars. Rather. In lines 11-13. a previous statement.” or dangerous foolishness. to this search” and details the possibilities and impli cations of finding “traces of life” on Mars. Critical Reading Question 45 Choice (B) is correct. A “retraction” is a statement that retracts. Passage 1 describes an activity—the human search for extraterrestrial life—that Passage 2 condemns.” or dangerous foolishness. albeit in the form of permafrost. As lines 9-10 indicate.well. Passage 1 does not criticize its skeptical attitude.” This assertion includes the use of concession. the focus of Passage 1 is “the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. Choice (B) is incorrect. on the other hand. The author of Passage 2. Passage 1 does not offer a theory that Passage 2 refutes. Passage 1 describes an activity—the human search for extraterrestrial life—that Passage 2 condemns. .

He or she does not mention astronomers‟ hope for technological advancements. Choice (A) is incorrect. the author of Passage 1 is acknowledging that hopes for finding life on Mars might be weakened by the fact that the water discovered there is permanently frozen. as he or she explains. the author of Passage 1 offers a good explanation for why astronomers are “eager to spend a hundred million dollars on the search for extraterrestrial life”: because “the search for life beyond Earth is deeply fascinating to the public. naturally. Critical Reading Question 46 Choice (D) is correct. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. Choice (B) is incorrect. the assertion includes a concession. as he or she explains.” The author of Passage 1 indicates that public fascination with the possibility of discovering life beyond Earth is driving astronomers‟ search for extraterrestrial life.previous statement. the author of Passage 1 makes no mention of water. “Perceiving the public‟s interest. In lines 3-4. or an acknowledgement of something that may weaken an argument. In lines 11-13. An “extended analogy” is an extended comparison between two things that are otherwise unlike.” This author is very clear about the impact of public opinion on the research agenda. or an acknowledgement of something that may weaken an argument.” This author is very clear about the impact of public opinion on the research agenda. the author of Passage 1 makes an assertion: “The recent discovery of abundant water on Mars. the author of Passage 1 is acknowledging that hopes for finding life on Mars might be weakened by the fact that the water discovered there is permanently frozen.” This assertion does not include the use of figurative language. albeit in the form of permafrost. albeit in the form of permafrost.” This assertion does not include the use of hypothetical musing. Rather. . the statement is straightforward and does not make any comparisons.” This author is very clear about the impact of public opinion on the research agenda. . . Rather.” This assertion does not include the use of extended analogy. All Rights Reserved . naturally. has raised hopes for finding traces of life there. “Figurative language” is language that is metaphorical or uses figures of speech. NASA has founded the Astrobiology Institute . Mars. the author of Passage 1 makes an assertion: “The recent discovery of abundant water on Mars. Rather. Indeed.” The author of Passage 1 indicates that public fascination with the possibility of discovering life beyond Earth is driving astronomers‟ search for extraterrestrial life. has raised hopes for finding traces of life there. or permafrost before lines 11-13. Choice (D) is incorrect. . In lines 3-4. has raised hopes for finding traces of life there. . the assertion includes a concession. the author of Passage 1 offers a good explanation for why astronomers are “eager to spend a hundred million dollars on the search for extraterrestrial life”: because “the search for life beyond Earth is deeply fascinating to the public. NASA has founded the Astrobiology Institute . the assertion includes a concession. the statement is straightforward and does not include metaphors or figures of speech. albeit in the form of permafrost. is the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. In lines 3-4. the author of Passage 1 is stating facts. “Perceiving the public‟s interest. as he or she explains. “Hypothetical musing” involves the consideration of different possibilities. Choice (E) is incorrect. the author of Passage 1 is acknowledging that hopes for finding life on Mars might be weakened by the fact that the water discovered there is permanently frozen. . the author of Passage 1 makes an assertion: “The recent discovery of abundant water on Mars. At the top of the agenda. At the top of the agenda. not musing about possibilities. the author of Passage 1 offers a good explanation for why astronomers are “eager to spend a hundred million dollars on the search for extraterrestrial life”: because “the search for life beyond Earth is deeply fascinating to the public . Choice (C) is incorrect. In lines 11-13. or an acknowledgement of something that may weaken an argument. is the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. In lines 11-13.

. In other words. At the top of the agenda. Choice (E) is incorrect. . Choice (C) is incorrect. since any life found on Mars will likely be quite simple (“scientist s expect to find no more than simple bacteria”). In lines 41-42. indeed.” This author is very clear about the impact of public opinion on the research agenda. but not for any reason having to do with technological capacity. the author of Passage 1 likely would argue that the claim in Passage 2 is irrelevant.” However. In lines 3-4. in fact. is the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. and that it would be silly to concern ourselves with threats from simple life-forms. “Perceiving the public‟s interest. The author of Passage 1 likely would view the warning as irrelevant. Although the author of Passage 1 refers to humans facing a “philosophical crisis” if life beyond Earth is discovered. In lines 41-42. as he or she explains. any life found on Mars will likely be quite simple.” This author is very clear about the impact of public opinion on the research agenda. . they would “put [us] on exhibit and take over [our] habitats. he or she probably would refute it. . Critical Reading Question 47 Choice (C) is correct. the author of Passage 1 would most likely say that the claim in Passage 2 is irrelevant. Choice (A) is incorrect. . “Perceiving the public‟s interest. as he or she explains.” There is no reason to suggest that the author of Passage 1 would view this claim as irrefutable. the author of Passage 1 explains that “scientists expect to find no more than simple bacteria” on Mars—in other words. NASA has founded the Astrobiology Institute . All Rights Reserved . since any life found on Mars will likely be quite simple. NASA has founded the Astrobiology Institute .” The author of Passage 1 indicates that public fascination with the possibility of discovering life beyond Earth is driving astronomers‟ search for extraterrestrial life.” The author of Passage 1 indicates that public fascination with the possibility of discovering life beyond Earth is driving astronomers‟ search for extraterrestrial life. . Rather.” The author of Passage 1 might view this claim as foolish or misguided.” The author of Passage 1 indicates that public fascination with the possibility of discovering life beyond Earth is driving astronomers‟ search for extraterrestrial life. they would “put [us] on exhibit and take over [our] habitats. Choice (B) is incorrect.“Perceiving the public‟s interest. “scientists expect to find no more than simple bacteria” on Mars. naturally. At the top of the agenda. the author of Passage 1 offers a good explanation for why astronomers are “eager to spend a hundred million dollars on the search for extraterrestrial life”: because “the search for life beyond Earth is deeply fascinating to the public. naturally. He or she does not discuss the fears of the public. as he or she explains. is the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. the author of Passage 1 would likely not see this warning as relevant to the issue of life on Mars. In lines 3-4. . the author of Passage 2 warns that “Any advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us would surely treat us” the way humans have treated chimpanzees—that is. the author of Passage 1 offers a good explanation for why astronomers are “eager to spend a hundred million dollars on the search for extraterrestrial life”: because “the search for life beyond Earth is deeply fascinating to the public. or undeniable. 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. . they would “put [us] on exhibit and take over [our] habitats. the author of Passage 2 warns that “Any advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us would surely treat us” the way humans have treated chimpanzees—that is. At the top of the agenda. For this reason. he or she does not mention astronomers‟ objective philosophical inquiry. He or she does not mention public resistance to scientific progress. it seems the public is eager for progress. In lines 41-42. . NASA has founded the Astrobiology Institute . naturally. is the race to find life elsewhere in the solar system. the author of Passage 2 warns that “Any advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us would surely treat us” the way humans have treated chimpanzees—that is.

the tone of Passage 2 tone can be characterized as more passionate. A “pretentious” tone expresses an exaggerated sense of one‟s importance or worth. Critical Reading Question 48 Choice (D) is correct. or we‟re doomed. or we‟re doomed. Indeed. and he or she indicates that the public is enthusiastic when it comes to the idea of life beyond Earth. the author of Passage 1 does not discuss radical ideas about life on Mars. The author‟s passionate incredulity is evident from the first sentence of Passage 2.Choice (D) is incorrect. not that it is predictable. they would “put [us] on exhibit and take over [our] habitats. This author likely would say that the claim in Passage 2 is irrelevant. The tone of Passage 2 is not more remorseful than is the tone of Passage 1. The tone of Passage 2 is not more pretentious than is the tone of Passage 1. Choice (E) is incorrect.” There is no reason to suggest that the author of Passage 1 would view this claim as predictable or connect it to any history of opposition to radical ideas about life on Mars. or a sense of guilt. The author clearly has strong negative feelings concerning “the search for extraterrestrial life” and wants to communicate his or her passion to readers. . the author of Passage 1 likely would dismiss the warning as irrelevant. warning them.” 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board.” or emotional and intense. although the author of Passage 2 makes some claims that seem somewhat exaggerated. The author clearly has strong negative feelings concerning “the search for extraterrestrial life” and wants to communicate his or her passion to readers.” The discussion that follows further reveals the author‟s intensity.” or emotional and intense. The author of Passage 2 clearly feels strongly about “the search for extraterrestrial life” and wants to communicate this passion to readers. warning them. All Rights Reserved . the tone of Passage 2 is not at all confidential.” Choice (A) is incorrect. The tone of Passage 2 is not more confidential than is the tone of Passage 1. Rather. In lines 41-42. the author is boldly stating his or her opinions. or we‟re doomed. The tone of Passage 2 can be characterized as “passionate. “for heaven‟s sake let‟s turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection. the author of Passage 2 warns that “Any advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us would surel y treat us” the way humans have treated chimpanzees—that is. A “confidential” tone is one characterized by a willingness to confide secrets. “for heaven‟s sake let‟s turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection. warning them. or if it found us. In lines 41-42. it includes loaded questions (“Has our response been to sit down . the tone of Passage 2 is not at all remorseful. warning them.” Although it seems that the search for life on Mars is being furthered by new programs. ? Of course not”) and extreme claims (“that act rivals the folly of the last Inca emperor”) . the author of Passage 2 warns that “Any advanced extraterrestrials who discovered us would surely treat us” the way humans have treated chimpanzees—that is. rather than confiding any secrets.” or emotional and intense. the tone of Passage 2 can be characterized as “passionate. or welltimed. Rather.” Choice (C) is incorrect. the author does not seem to be expressing any guilt. in which the author describes as “mind-boggling” astronomers‟ failure to “seriously” consider “What would happen if we found [extraterrestrial life]. Indeed. the tone of Passage 2 can be characterized as “passionate. A “remorseful” tone is one characterized by remorse. The author clearly has strong negative feelings concerning “the search for extraterrestrial life” and wants to communicate his or her passion to readers. . or we‟re doomed. he or she does not seem to be focusing on or exaggerating his or her own importance. Rather. A “passionate” tone is an emotional and intense one. they would “put [us] on exhibit and take over [our] habitats. Compared with the relatively moderate tone of Passage 1. there is no reason to suggest that the author of Passage 1 would view the warning in Passage 2 as timely. “for heaven‟s sake let‟s turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection.” Choice (B) is incorrect. given that any life found on Mars will likely be quite simple (“scientists expect to find no more th an simple bacteria”). Indeed. “for heaven‟s sake let‟s turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection.

” 2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. and not accepting of. the tone of Passage 2 is not at all resigned. All Rights Reserved . “the search for extraterrestrial life. “for heaven‟s sake let‟s turn off our transmitters and try to escape detection. the author is strongly opposed to.Choice (E) is incorrect. warning them.” The author of Passage 2 clearly has passionate feelings concerning the search and wants to communicate his or her passion to readers. The tone of Passage 2 is not more resigned than is the tone of Passage 1. A “resigned” tone has to do with an acceptance of something as inevitable. and a lack of resistance. Indeed. or we‟re doomed.

2013 PSAT/NMSQT Answer Explanations © 2013 The College Board. All Rights Reserved .