This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Options Méditerranéennes Série B n.55 Directory of Infectious Diseases of Grapevines and Viroses and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine: Bibliographic Report 1998-2004
Opinions, data and facts exposed in this number are under the responsibility of the authors and do not engage either CIHEAM or the Member-countries.
Les opinions, les données et les faits exposés dans ce numéro sont sous la responsabilité des auteurs et n'engagent ni le CIHEAM, ni les pays membres.
Martelli.P.CIHEAM Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes Options méditerranéennes Directeur de la publication: Bertrand Hervieu Directory of Infectious Diseases of Grapevines and Viroses and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine: Bibliographic Report 1998-2004 Editors: G. Boudon-Padieu 2006 . E.
Italy. Boudon-Padieu Bari : CIHEAM (Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes) p. 279 Options Méditerranéennes. E.P.it Directory of Infectious Diseases of Grapevines and Viroses and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine: Bibliographic Report 1998-2004 Editors: G. 2006 Reproduction partielle ou totale interdite sans l'autorisation d'«Options Méditerranéennes» Reproduction in whole or in part is not permitted without the consent of «Options Méditerranéennes» .This volume of Options Méditerranéennes Series B has been formatted and paged up by the IAM Bari Editing Board La maquette et la mise en page de ce volume de Options Méditerranéennes Series B ont été réalisées à l'Atelier d'Edition de l'IAM Bari Copy number : 500 Printed by IDEAPRINT -Bari.September 2006 tel. 55 ISSN : 1016-1228 ISBN : 2-85352-338-1 © CIHEAM. +39 080 542 45 87 e-mail: ideaprint@virgilio. Martelli. Série B : N.
TABLE OF CONTENTENTS PREFACE INTRODUCTION INFECTIOUS AGENTS OF GRAPEVINES INFECTIOUS DEGENERATION (GRAPEVINE FANLEAF VIRUS) INFECTIOUS DEGENERATION (EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN NEPOVIRUSES) GRAPEVINE DEGENERATION AND DECLINE (AMERICAN NEPOVIRUSES) GRAPEVINE LEAFROLL RUGOSE WOOD COMPLEX GRAFT INCOMPATIBILITY FLECK COMPLEX MINOR VIRUS DISEASES VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES VIROIDS GRAPEVINE YELLOWS: GENERAL PROPERTIES GRAPEVINE YELLOWS: INDIVIDUAL DISEASES GRAPEVINE YELLOWS: REFERENCES PIERCE'S DISEASE THE VIROSES AND VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES OF THE GRAPEVINE: BIBLIOGRAPHIC REPORT .1998-2004 INTRODUCTION SUBJECT INDEX REFERENCES 7 11 15 17 33 49 59 76 93 99 107 117 127 133 149 173 195 203 205 207 219 5 .
which reflect on the commercial value and productive life of the vineyards. and practitioners. they reduce graft compatibility of scions and rootstocks. being a recognized authority in this field. or induce subtle debilitating effects which are difficult to percieve. a distinguished virologist of worldwide reputation and one of the father founders of ICVG. Martelli and E. so as to produce a document which can readily be used by scientits. whose Secretatiat he has admirably conducted since its very establishment in 1962. Special care was taken in the organization of the subject matter. virus-like and phytoplasma diseases of grapevines constitute a major limiting factor to the development and well-being of the world viticultural industry. promoting the publication of the Bibliografic Report 1985-1997 on virus and virus-like diseases of the grapevine. This raises the question of how to offer to those interested in a particular field the means for following with the least difficulty the research work being done in so many laboratories throughout the world and the information stemming from it. up to date as to the time of publication. in the belief of rendering a good service to the scientific community and. technicians. by and large. As to the authors. The “Bibliographic Report” is another most precious achievement by R. The present issue of Options Méditerrnéennes. Improving the sanitary conditions of the industry. these diseases cause loss of vigour and often a decline of affected stocks. is contributing with direct involvement in international research projects and through the activity the Mediterranean Network on Certification of Grapevines. grouping diseases and setting them in a well thought out order. Furthemore. Bovey The “Directory” is a work of great thoroughness and accuracy. Martelli is the President of ICVG and a widely known virologist who has much contributed to the advancement of the knowledge on grapevine viruses for the last forty years or so. except when virus-free vines are grown for comparison alongside with non-sanitized sister vines. hosts a new edition of the “Directory of Infectious Diseases of Grapevines” by G. produced under the auspices of ICVG. As a whole. whose publication IAM-B is happy to support. students. Bovey. ICVG has a long-lasting tradition in these endeavours. Cosimo Lacirignola Director of IAM Bari. One way of achieving this goal is to produce and make available updated accounts of the state-of-theart of grapevine virology and comprehensive bibliographic reports. that fosters coperative studies in grapevine virology. although the technology is now available for detection and elimination of most of the pathogens occurring in propagation material. Boudon-Padieu and the latest Bibliographic Report (1998-2004) on “The Viroses and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine” by R. taking also into account the future role of the Mediterranean as a free-trade area. Sincere thanks are espressed to the authors of these contributions. Boudon-Padieu has a long lasting experience in the study of phytoplasmas. Notwithstanding these efforts and the promoting activity of the International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG). to all those interested in viticultural matters.P. to which IAM-B was happy to contribute. is therefore a goal of utmost importance to which the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (IAM-B). it is most unfortunate that dissemination of infectious diseases continues. Scientific knowledge is nevertheless advancing rapidly and one consequence of this is the increased number of publications in specialized journals and of papers delivered during technical Meetings and Congresses. Italy 7 . whereas E. and to the quality and quantity of the crop.PREFACE Virus. G.P.
Martelli University of Bari.International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG) DIRECTORY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF GRAPEVINES G. Italy E.P. Boudon-Padieu INRA Dijon. France 2006 .
recognizes that a number of the 60 or so infectious agents (viruses. 1972. Bibliographie de 1965-1970. having a negative impact on the plant vigour and longevity. 205-279. has fostered intensive research. A bibliographic report 1998-2004. Bibliographie des viroses de la vigne des origines à 1965. A bibliographic report 1971-1978. From the very beginning. causing heavy losses. Les virus de la vigne. A bibliographic report 1979-1984. Caudwell A. The increased attention paid to grapevine virological problems and the like. ICVG was established in 1962 by a group of American and European plant pathologists who realized the importance of creating an organization for promoting research on grapevine virology and favouring the exchange of information among students. 1979. and P..B. phloem-and xylemlimited prokaryotes) play a major role. 2003). Bovey. and endangering the survival of affected vines.. nurserymen. Infected propagating material is largely responsible for the spread of diseases among and within viticultural countries. Vitis 18. ICVG has been instrumental in fostering basic and applied research in grapevine virology. Hewitt and R. The importance of the grapevine industry and the magnitude of the problems caused by these pathogens has generated wide interest which. and a highly valuable agricultural commodity. 2003.. shortening the productive life of vineyards. among other things. The viroses and virus-like diseases of the grapevine. 2006. 303-324. The viroses and virus-like diseases of the grapevine. ICVG has met regularly every 3 to 4 years. The viroses and virus-like diseases of the grapevine. viroids. Bovey R. A short history of ICVG. and administrators on the detrimental effects of infectious diseases on the well-being of the industry. 1965. 29 (Series B.. Thus. As most of the vegetatively propagated crops. all efforts should be made to improve its sanitary conditions.INTRODUCTION The grapevine (Vitis spp. Office International de la Vigne et du Vin. The papers up to 2004 are listed and commented upon in six bibliographic reports: Caudwell A.P. 11 . viroids. attracting the attention of scientists. and R. 10-172. Since its foundation. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. The viroses and virus-like diseases of the grapevine. its 14th Conference having taken place in Italy in 2003 (Bovey and Gugerli. Bovey R. To this effect. Options Méditerranéenes. as well as on the quality and quantity of the yield. 3rd part). Locorotondo 2003. 1-2. that has been especially active at the international scale from the late 1950's onwards. Bovey R. W. 1999. growers. which were compiled under the auspices of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG). 3rd part). Paris.400. Vitis 25..B. Bovey R. and supporting initiatives for the establishment and implementation of clean stock and certification programmes. grapevines are exposed to the attacks of a variety of pests and pathogens among which infectious intracellular agents (viruses. xx (Series B. ICVG has issued the recommendations that follow: The International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG).) undoubtedly represents one of the horticultural crops most widely grown in temperate climates. Options Méditerranéenes. 227-275. 1986. in turn. and phytoplasmas) recorded from the grapevine can be highly detrimental to this crop. 76 pp. has produced an impressive series of papers which now number about 5. Gugerli. 316-376. A bibliographic report 1985-1997. Vitis 11. Martelli. Bovey. and G. Hewitt W.
Martelli. we propose two sanitary classes. 1980. Martelli and A. Uyemoto. all efforts should be made to improve its sanitary conditions. Certified selections should be tested for specific pathogens. Martelli and A. St. Set 1 (O. Goheen. They represent a most valuable source of information. having a negative impact on plant vigour and longevity. No other stock should move outside regulatory regions. leafroll disease and associated closteroviruses (grapevine leafroll associated viruses 1. ensure clonal integrity. many of which can be highly detrimental to this crop.W. Minnesota. Inadequate certification standards have repeatedly resulted in disease problems for growers and nurserymen.D. eds) Clemson University.P. bois noir. Wilcox. that enables vineyards to economically and sustainably maintain quality and productivity. Uyemoto will be published in 2005). regional viticultural conditions. (issued and approved in 1997 at the 12th ICVG Meeting. Compendium of Grape Diseases. Locorotondo. Clemson. (a 2nd revised edition edited by W. and 3). 181 pp. G. It would move freely between regulatory boundaries. Certified grapevines are derived from pathogen tested. 100 slides. G. leafroll. Dias. Bovey R. and fleck. Gärtel. rugose wood (GVA. In order to preserve valuable grape clones and varieties. Tolin.C. and permit tracing the certified grapevines to the originally selected and tested plants. G. Grapevine (Vitis) virus and virus-like diseases. Lausanne. As efforts are made to harmonize grapevine certification protocols. Class 1 should include only grape nursery stock which tests negative for the most damaging diseases/pathogens. Lisbon. Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Grapevines. Rowhani will be published in 2005 in the series APS Plant Virus Image CD-ROM. W.F.C.A. Woodham. recognises over 70 infectious agents affecting grapevine (viruses. and phytoplasmas (flavescence dorée. valuable grape genetic resources exist which are infected with virus but are essential to the preservation of world viticultural heritage.G. Improvement of the sanitary level can be achieved through selection and sanitation. Barnett and S. high standards are essential to ensure that no viticultural area is compromised by the introduction and spread of diseases. Infected propagation material is largely responsible for the spread of diseases among and within viticultural countries.P. as Extended Abstracts. 1988. rugose wood. The American Phytopathological Society Press. Thus. under the name of Grapevine Viruses.B. Pearson R. Goheen and H. 1978. including the causal agents of fleck and rupestris stem pitting. The regional certification standards for Class 2 stock should be created at a local level based on the rate of endemic infection. In addition. GVB and GVD). Paul. Gubler and J. and the need for preservation of heritage germplasm.K. (issued and approved in 2003 at the 14th ICVG Meeting. R. Virus-like Diseases and Other Disorders).K. W. 93 pp. Class 2 would be a specific pathogen-tested certification system for stock which remains within regulatory regions and is only distributed with disclosure of health status. W. 2. The agents that should be controlled by the Class 1 certification program are those associated with infectious degeneration and grapevine decline (nepoviruses). Hewitt. The certification process should specify conditions to prevent and detect subsequent infection of nursery plants by regulated pests. Portugal ) The International Council for the Study of Virus and Virus-like Diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG). which are best performed in the framework of certification programmes encompassing also clonal selection. clonally selected primary sources. and A. However. Grape Section. 12 . Plant Virus Slide Series. as well as on the quality and quantity of the yield. and other grapevine yellows). USA.C.. Until that time. lately.P. Certification of grapevine nursery stock is a powerful and effective tool to control these agents. Their elimination from mother vines intended for propagation should therefore be pursued. In the future. technology should make it possible to exclude additional disease-causing viruses from the certified stock. A. the virological problems of grapevines have been extensively treated and illustrated in a number of books and major review articles: Uyemoto J. viroids and phytoplasmas). Italy) The Proceedings of all the international ICVG Conferences have been published in extenso or.The presence of diseases such as infectious degeneration.K.F. a moratorium will be established for these viruses. is regarded as incompatible with an accepted sanitary status. Editions Payot. 29 pp. (a revised edition by J. Vuittenez.
P. 1999. Walter.A. 945-971.P. Ikin. They express their deep gratitude to Prof. Scott. C.P. Taylor. Hadidi. Paris. Bovey and G. Collingwood.137 pp. Walter B. Italy. of the Centre International des Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes. M. Martelli G. Khetarpal. bactéries et phytoplasmes de la Vigne. Walter B. Rome /International Board for Plant Genetic Resources.Université de Bourgogne Dijon. Maladies à Virus. n° 86. M. Sélection sanitaire de la vigne: sélection sanitaire et sélection pomologique. Influence des viroses et qualité. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO Publication Division. In: Plant Virus Disease Control (A. 1997. Giovanni P. Detection and Diagnosis of Graft-transmissible Diseases of Grapevines.A. Rezaian and R. St. Paris.R. and G. B. Rome. The authors hope that this endeavour may serve as a useful guideline and working tool for both experienced researchers and those who are now approaching the intriguing but intricate field of grapevine virology. Sanitary selection of the grapevine. Koganezawa. N.H.S.P. 54 pp. 1997. a body now estinguished. (ed. FAO/IBPGR Technical Guidelines for the Safe Movement of Grapevine Germplasm.Frison E. Bari. Martelli. and to Dr. Martelli Professor of Plant Virology. 1993.. and G. CSIRO Publishing. Editions Féret. 192 pp. Ridé. Sélection sanitaire de la vigne: sélection sanitaire et sélection pomologique. Influence des viroses et qualité. 2ere partie: Sélection sanitaire. Bulletin de l'OIV 69. Bulletin de l'OIV 70. 1996.). Bordeaux. Director of the Mediterrenean Agronomic Institute of Bari for supporting the publication of this work. which was established in the framework of the International Project RAB/88 sponsored by the United States Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Paul. 261-276. At the 14th ICVG Meeting. 1998. Notwithstanding this wealth of published information a "Directory of Major Virus and Virus-like Diseases of Grapevines" was compiled in 1992 by R. University of Bari. Martelli and published under the auspices of the Mediterranean Fruit Crop Improvement Council (MFCIC). Rome. and R.P. Krake L. INRA Editions. (ed). Martelli G. Hervieu. Boudon-Padieu. and B.P. France 13 . Graft-transmissible Diseases of Grapevines. Walter B. H. Martelli and E. Lacirignola.K. 5-23. American Phytopathological Society Press.CNRS . 225 pp. Protocols for detection of viruses and virus-like diseases: Les Colloques.). Hamze and Mr. Elisabeth Boudon-Padieu Directeur de Recherches Head Biologie et Ecologie des Phytoplasmes Plante Microbe Environnement INRA . 2000. Virus certification of grapevines. Martelli. eds.. R. E. 1991. Boudon-Padieu and M. sélection pomologique. 263 pp. Walter B. Chairman of the Board of Directors and Secretary General. respectively. 1ere partie: Effets des viroses sur la culture de la vigne et ses produits. the Steering Committee of ICGV decided to update the Directory and to entrust this task to G.
and insecttransmitted xylematic bacteria (1) have been recorded form grapevines.INFECTIOUS AGENTS OF GRAPEVINES More than 70 infectious agents among viruses (58). Viruses belonging to genera included into families BROMOVIRIDAE Alfamovirus Cucumovirus Ilarvirus Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV) Grapevine angular mosaic virus (GAMoV) BUNYAVIRIDAE CLOSTEROVIRIDAE Tospovirus Closterovirus Ampelovirus Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4 (GLRaV-4) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 5 (GLRaV-5) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 6 (GLRaV-6) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 (GLRaV-7) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 8 (GLRaV-8) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 9 (GLRaV-9) Two new putative ampeloviruses are being characterized in France and the USA COMOVIRIDAE Fabavirus Nepovirus Broadbean wilt virus (BBWV) Artichoke italian latent virus (AILV) Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) Blueberry leaf mottle virus (BBLMV) Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV) Grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus (GARSV) Grapevine deformation virus (GDefV) Grapevine Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) Grapevine Tunisian ringspot virus (GTRV) Peach rosette mosaic virus (PRMV) Raspberry ringspot virus (RpRV) Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) Tomato blackring virus (TBRV) FLEXIVIRIDAE Foveavirus Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) chrome mosaic virus (GCMV) 15 . phytoplasmas (8). This represents the highest number of intracelluar pathogens ever found in a single crop. The viral scenario of Vitis: viruses and their taxonomic affiliation(a) FAMILY GENUS SPECIES A. viroids (5).
(eds). The names of tentative species are written in Roman characters.M.A. London. Taxonomically unassigned viruses Unnamed filamentous Grapevine Ajinashika virus (GAgV) Grapevine stunt virus (GSV) Grapevine labile rod-shaped virus (GLRSV) Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV) Sowbane mosaic virus (SoMV) Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) Scientific names of definitive virus species are written in italics. The updated taxonomy of all classified grapevine viruses can be found in: Fauquet.. Maniloff. Desselberger. Virus Taxonomy. pp. Mayo. U. 1258.Potexvirus (GINV) Potato virus X (PVX) Trichovirus Vitivirus Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus Grapevine virus A (GVA) Grapevine virus B (GVB) Grapevine virus C (GVC) Grapevine virus D (GVD) Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) Petunia asteroid mosaic virus (PAMV) Grapevine asteroid mosaic-associated virus (GAMaV) Grapevine redglobe virus (GRGV) Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV) Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virrus (GRVFV) TOMBUSVIRIDAE Carmovirus Necrovirus Tombusvirus Marafivirus Maculavirus TYMOVIRIDAE A new putative marafivirus is being characterized in the USA POTYVIRIDAE Potyvirus(?) Unidentified potyvirus-like virus isolated in Japan from a Russian cultivar B. L. 2005.. M. (a) 16 .A. J.. Elsevier/Academic Press. C. Viruses belonging to unassigned genera Idaeovirus Sadwavirus Sobemovirus Tobamovirus C. 8Ith Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. and Ball.
INFECTIOUS DEGENERATION .
however.and zigzag growth. especially in the basal internodes. are diagnostic of grapevines infected by GFLV. Reisigkrankheit (partly). Description Fanleaf is the oldest known and one of the most important and widespread virus disease of the grapevine. GFLV and several of the other grapevine-infecting European nepoviruses have distorting and chromogenic strains and may occur in mixed infections.). fasciations. i. FANLEAF 1. parenchyma. or endocellular cordons. The name of this virus comes from the peculiar malformation of infected leaves. short internodes. The characterizing symptoms of "Vein banding". are small-sized and set poorly. radial bars crossing the lumen of epidermal. The consensus is that fanleaf degeneration may have existed in the Mediterranean Basin and the Near East since the earliest time of grape cultivation. With increased ambient temperatures during summer. This disorder was first reported from California as a syndrome elicited by a specific strain of GFLV. and acute denticulations. asymmetrical.). Leaves are variously and severely malformed.INFECTIOUS DEGENERATION (GRAPEVINE FANLEAF VIRUS) Several nepoviruses infect grapevines in Europe and the Mediterranean area. Tolerant cultivars produce fairly good crops whereas sensitive cultivars are severely affected. chlorotic mottling may accompany foliar deformations. and the yield may be much reduced. mosaico giallo. Trabeculae. The foliage and shoots show little if any malformation. and inflorescences). and xylem cells. a disorder induced by Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV). Yellow mosaic is induced by chromogenic virus strains. panachure. Infectious malformations are induced by virus strains causing distortions. showing progressive decline. consist of chrome yellow flecks first localized along the main veins of mature leaves and progressing into the interveinal areas which appear in mid to late summer in a limited number of leaves. and berries ripen irregularly. Now the disease is known to occur worldwide. 19 . Their economic impact varies with the tolerance of the cultivar to the viruses. or indistinguishable from those of fanleaf. may show open petiolar sinuses. bunches are straggly. degenerazione infettiva (Ital. causing degenerative diseases whose symptoms are similar to. vein banding symptoms were shown to be caused by a co-infection by Grapevine yellow speckle viroid and GFLV. phloem. Often infected grapevines occur in patches. urticado (Port. sometimes appearing as rings or lines to extensive mottling of the veins and/or interveinal areas to total yellowing . shoots. showing abnormal branching. that give the leaf the appearance of an open fan. Symptomatic leaves show little malformation. deep lobes. Occasionally. tendrils. and decreased resistance to adverse climatic factors. More recently. Main synonyms: court-noué. but bunches are small and few. which exhibit widely open petiolar sinuses and abnormally gathered primary veins. shortened productive life. Gelbmosaik (Germ. low yields and low fruit quality.). reduced rooting ability of propagation material. Foliar symptoms develop early in the spring and persist throughout the vegetative season becoming less distinct in summer. arricciamento. Fruit set is poor. These structures are readily visible by light microscopy in lignified shoots. Chromatic alterations of the leaves vary from a few scattered yellow spots.). records of this disease date back some 150 years. Main symptoms: Two distinct syndromes caused by different strains of the causal agent characterize this disease. and grapevine leaves with typical symptoms were found in herbaria established before the introduction of American rootstock hybrids. roncet. double nodes. Bunches are smaller and fewer in number. another disease sometimes occurring in vineyards affected by infectious degeneration. dégénérescence infectieuse (Fr. the yellowing fades rapidly and the canopy develops a normal green color. In the European literature. The foliage develops bright chrome yellow discolorations early in the spring that may affect all vegetative parts (leaves.e. Shoots are also malformed. puckered. low proportion of graft take.
Observation of symptoms in the field is useful as a first step in selection. GFLV was the first grapevine virus to be recovered by mechanical inoculation and to be thoroughly characterized physicochemically and molecularly. Specific transmission by X. rotundifolia hybrids is thought to be controlled by a single dominant gene. This resistance is controlled by two unlinked recessive genes. with variable levels of sensitivity. M. rotundifolia hybrid rootstocks (e. use of fumigants is more and more questioned for environmental reasons and is being progressively banned. varieties are susceptible. In contaminated soils. Virus elimination is readily achieved from vegetating shoot tips by heat treatment (38-40 °C for as little as four weeks). amaranticolor. vinifera. and is transmitted through seeds of C. RT-PCR is estimated to be four to sixfold more sensitive than ELISA. and redistribution and are thought to be sites of viral polyprotein processing and RNA replication. GFLV has been detected in small groups of viruliferous X. by in vitro meristem tip culture. both required for infectivity. vinifera x M. are toxic to many plants but not to V. the endosperm of grapevine seeds. index in V. Dissemination over medium and long distances is through infected vegetatively propagated scionwood and rootstocks. vuittenezi has been suspected but not proven. GFLV can be transmitted by mechanical inoculation from infected grapevine tissues to various herbaceous hosts (e.g. index is determined by the viral coat protein. quinoa. Chenopodium quinoa. A satellite RNA 1114 nt in size is associated with some virus isolates. index (10 individuals) by ELISA and in single nematodes by RT-PCR and immunosorbent electron microscopy. serologically rather uniform and occurring as a family of minor molecular variants. Molecular assays using radioactive or digoxigenin-labelled probes. C. Muscadinia (Vitis) rotundifolia and Vitis munsoniana are highly resistant to X. encapsidated in different particles. Control: Use of virus-tested scionwood and rootstock material in the framework of clean stock or certification programmes. These inclusions derive from membrane proliferation. Cytopathology: GFLV elicits the formation of intracellular cytopathic structures known as vesiculatevacuolate inclusion bodies which are often apposed to the nucleus. and very sensitive method. Resistance to X. a number of selectable marker genes toxic to non engineered vines are used. but show few symptoms. Detection: ELISA using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies is a quick. In the laboratory. The best antigen sources for serological diagnosis are leaves collected in spring or cortical shavings from mature dormant canes. Nematode populations transmit local virus isolates with a higher efficiency than those from other geographical areas. American rootstocks are also susceptible and are generally very sensitive. Transmission: At a site. Natural GFLV infections have been detected in weeds in Hungary and Iran. However. but it is still regarded as necessary for confirming freedom from virus infection.Agent: Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is a nepovirus with polyhedral particles of about 30 nm in diameter. but is not reliable. the use of fumigants against nematode vectors gives only a temporary but economically valuable control of the disease. reorganization. Endocelluar cordons or “trabeculae” are abnormal straight cylindrical spool-like o ribbon-like structures of pectocellulosic nature that cross the cell lumen in different tissues and are especially oustanding in vascular bundles. Positive sense single-stranded RNA genome. Detection of trabeculae can give information on the health of American rootstocks. and transmission by X. but is not a specific test. consisting of two functional molecules 7342 nt (RNA-1) and 3774 nt (RNA-2) in size. 20 . amaranticolor. Varietal susceptibility: Almost all known Vitis vinifera L. However. rupestris x M. mannose and xylose. where they occur in a radial orientation. For transformation. tolerance to infection is widespread in European grapes and a high resistance level of the "host plant resistance" type was found in two accessions from Afghanistan and Iran. The virus occurs in the pollen of infected grapevines and herbaceous hosts. Virus particles are often within tubular structures that accumulate in bundles in the cytoplasm or nucleus. Some V. index feeding. which are desirable as they cause no harm to human health. or by somatic embryogenesis. However. rotundifolia can be infected by GFLV when graft inoculated. but resists infection when the virus is transmitted by the nematode.g. Transmission by Xiphinema italiae has not been consistently documented. Gomphrena globosa). in a persistent manner by the longidorid nematode Xiphinema index feeding on the roots of grapevines and retaining the virus for several months. O36-16) show interesting levels of field resistance to GFLV. cheap. Work is under way in different laboratories to create GFLV-resistant rootstocks or cultivar through traditional breeding methods or genetic transformation technology. Indexing on Vitis indicators by grafting takes a lot of time and field or greenhouse space. although some like Vitis labrusca can be infected. Indexing on herbaceous hosts by mechanical inoculation requires climatized greenhouses and is less reliable than ELISA. and soybean. There are conflicting reports on seed transmission in grapevines. C. RT-PCR and immunocapture RT-PCR are becoming increasingly popular.
(b) Galet P. viroses et phanérogames). Report on first experiments on heat treatment of grapevine in order to eliminate fanleaf. 2. 21 . 1954 1958 Hewitt: Review on grapevine virus and virus-like diseases found in California. Imprimerie du "Paysan du Midi".2. Petri: Grapevine "arricciamento" (fanleaf) has a viral origin Arnaud and Arnaud: Hypothesis of a viral origin for grapevine court-noué (fanleaf). Pantanelli: Fanleaf caused by contamination through the roots possibly due to heat-labile toxic substances Petri: Disinfection of contaminated soil at 120 oC or filtration of liquid leached from contaminated soil through porcelain filter prevents infection through the roots of grapevine. With soil containing phylloxera. the ICVG Bibliographic Reports (a) have recorded more than 1000 papers dealing with fanleaf. 3. Healthy rooted cuttings or seedling of Rupestris du Lot were contaminated: 1. bactéries. For a comprehensive review on early observations. Heating whole plants in a thermostatic chamber at 37 °C for several weeks provides a temporary elimination of symptoms on the new growth but no lasting cure. research and hypotheses on fanleaf. Historical review From the late 1800 to 1997.b Hewitt: Fanleaf and yellow mosaic recorded from California. Hypothesis that fanleaf is a fungal disease. France. With individual phylloxera (radicicolous or gallicolous) fed on infected vines. Bovey: Review on grapevine virus and virus-like diseases. With roots of fanleaf-infected grapevines with phylloxera feeding on them. but only circumstantial evidence. 1977.: Experiments on the capacity of phylloxera to transmit fanleaf. Branas et al. Montpellier. Tome 1: Les maladies dues à des végétaux (champignons. Hypothesis about a possible role of phylloxera as a vector. Schiff-Giorgini: Graft-transmission of fanleaf disease Pantanelli: Fanleaf disease can be trasmitted through the soil Pantanelli : Fanleaf disease has a patchy distribution in the field Petri: Association of trabeculae with fanleaf. 871 pp. 1929 1931 1937 1937 1946 1950a. (a) See references in the Introduction. No conclusive results were obtained. see the book by Galet. Description of grapevine degeneration in Frontignan (France) Rathay: Description of fanleaf disease from Austria (Zwiewipflereben) Ruggeri : Description of fanleaf disease from Italy (Roncet) Cholin: Description of fanleaf disease from Germany (Reisigkrankheit) Baccarini: First suggestion that fanleaf may be due to a virus. as well as on controversies about transmission by phylloxera. Arnaud: Court-noué is considered as a soil-borne virus disease.: Hypothesis that court-noué (fanleaf) is caused by a virus transmitted by phylloxera.. Les maladies et les parasites de la vigne. 1977(b) 1865 1882 1895 1896 1902 1906 1910 1912 1912 1917 1918 Cazalis-Allut. Branas et al. No direct proof of transmission by this aphid.
Dias and Harrison: Relationships between the viruses causing fanleaf. amaranticolor is confirmed.: Transmission of fanleaf virus from grapevine to herbaceous hosts by mechanical inoculation and preliminary characterization of the virus. Yield was increased by 400 % in comparison with that of untreated controls. 1965 1967 1968 1968 1969 1969 1970 22 . Potted plants to be cured are grown at 38°C for several weeks and shoot extremities are cut and rooted under mist in a greenhouse. Das and Raski: Studies on the relationships of GFLV with its vector X. whereas insecticide treatment has no effect.1958 1958 1960 Vuittenez: Fumigation of fanleaf-contaminated soil with nematicides prevents infection of healthy grapevines replanted immediately. latex test and barium sulfate test. yellow mosaic and ArMV 1960a 1960b 1961 1961 1962 1962 1963 1963 1963a. Hewitt et al.: Detection of GFLV particles in thin-sectioned grapevine root tissues. Bercks: Research on the use of three serological methods for detecting plant viruses. Gifford and Hewitt: Use of heat therapy and in vitro shoot tip culture to eliminate fanleaf virus from infected grapevines. Graniti and Russo: A light microscope and cytochemical study of endocellular cordons. Discussion on the possible role of weeds in the epidemiology of the disease. Vuittenez: New observations on the effects of soil fumigants on fanleaf in contaminated soils. Description of the chipbudding method for indexing. Reproduction of fanleaf symptoms in mechanically inoculated grapevine seedlings is confirmed Galzy: Heat treatment of grapevine plantlets grown aseptically in vitro. Vuittenez: Mechanical transmission of fanleaf virus to Chenopodium quinoa and C. index. Gerola et al.b Martelli and Hewitt: Comparative studies showed that Californian and Italian GFLV isolates are the same. Control of the vector by soil fumigation. Reproduction of fanleaf symptoms in mechanically inoculated grapevine seedlings 1964 1964 1965 Taylor and Hewitt: Description and characterization of Australian isolates of GFLV.: Fanleaf virus is transmitted by the nematode Xiphinema index Cadman et al. Bercks and Querfurth: Use of latex-test for detecting GFLV and other nepoviruses in grapevine tissue extracts in Germany.: Description of the Davis method of heat therapy of grapevines. Goheen et al. Transmission of fanleaf virus by X. index occurred during the 6 year period of observation.: Investigations on grapevine virus diseases in California. Hewitt et al. Serological relationship with ArMV reported. Boubals and Dalmasso: Experiments on soil disinfection against X. Brückbauer and Rüdel: The virus (or viruses) of Reisigkrankheit (GFLV and/or other nepoviruses) are seed transmitted in some herbaceous indicator plants. index.: Transmission of GFLV by Xiphinema italiae in Israel. index in France. Cohn et al. Dichloropropane-dichloropropene (DD) at 1000 l/ha gave satisfactory results. Goheen and Hewitt: Description of vein banding as a GFLV-induced disease Dias: Host range and properties of fanleaf and yellow mosaic viruses. and no reinfestation by X. including fanleaf virus: bentonite flocculation test.
quinoa. Mission or LN 33. Bass and Vuittenez: Thermotherapy was improved by growing shoot apices of heat treated vines aseptically on nutritive media or by grafting them on aseptic grape seedlings in vitro. Vuittenez: Review paper on grapevine fanleaf. Vineyards replanted in contaminated but treated soils remained healthy for at least 5 years. Goheen and Luhn: New method of heat therapy. Both methods give satisfactory and similar results. quinoa. 1970 1970 1970 1971 1971 1972 1972 1973 1973 1973a 1973b 1974 1974 1975 1976 1976 1977 1979 1979 23 .: Detailed physico-chemical characterization of GFLV. George.: Comparison between PALLAS latex test and ELISA for detecting GFLV in France. Hévin et al.: Description of GFLV in the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses Taylor and Robertson: GFLV and ArMV are retained as a monolayer of particles adsorbed onto the cuticle lining the lumina of odontophore. Raski et al. rupestris St.: GFLV and marbrure (fleck) are not transmitted through the seeds of grapevine. Van Velsen and Niejalke: Green budding for indexing grapevine with the indicator cvs.: Control of fanleaf by soil fumigation with 1. Raski et al. Bercks: Serological detection of grapevine viruses in West Germany.: Use of green grafting as a quick and secure method for graft-indexing. After bud take.3 dichloropropene or methyl bromide. Dias: Review paper on grapevine yellow mosaic.1970 1970 Hewitt et al. The sensitivity of the latex test is increased. the plant is placed in a heat cabinet for treatment Hévin et al. Martelli and Piro: Evidence from a herbarium of dried specimens collected between 1880 and 1886 that fanleaf and yellow mosaic occurred in field-grown grapevine in Sicily in the second half of the 19th century Quacquarelli et al. Taylor: Review paper on grapevine vein banding. yellow mosaic and vein banding) are transmitted in the same way by X. The acquisition time threshold is less than 5 minutes. Raski and Schmitt: Progress in the control of the fanleaf-nematode complex by soil disinfection with 1.: GFLV particles observed in the lumen of the oesophagus of X. Alfaro and Goheen: The different strains of fanleaf virus (fanleaf sensu stricto. index.: Heat therapy of grape plantlets grown in vitro causes changes in some characteristics of the variety. this lining is shed and ingested in the intestine. anterior oesophagus and oesophageal bulb of their nematode vectors. Uyemoto et al. PALLAS is quicker and cheaper than ELISA. A dormant bud of the variety to be cured is grafted onto a healthy potted rootstock. Mur et al. Walter et al. Querfurth and Paul: Protein A-coated latex-linked antiserum (PALLAS) method for detecting GFLV and other viruses. rupestris is more accurate than mechanical transmission to C. St. During the moult of the nematode. but ELISA is more sensitive.: Comparison of indexing by mechanical inoculation to Chenopodium quinoa and by graft-transmission to V. Both tests are more sensitive than mechanical inoculation to C.3-dichloropropene or methyl bromide. especially with low titre antisera. Indexing by budding on V. George for detecting GFLV. index.
: Detection of fanleaf virus in grapevine tissues by ELISA and ISEM in different periods of the year. index. index. the possibility that a few X. vuittenezi population used for the experiments could not be entirely ruled out. rotundifolia is resistant to fanleaf virus transmission by X. Bouquet: M.3-dichloropropene (1. vuittenezi might be a vector of GFLV is therefore uncertain. Monette: Heat therapy of GFLV and ArMV--infected grapevines with alternating temperatures. Rüdel: Discussion on the possible role of X. Russo et al.: Use of systemic nematicides for the control of X. in California.: Identification of several Vitis species and interspecific hybrids resistant to fanleaf virus. a very common species in vineyards of Rheinhessen and Palatinate. index feeding. Brown and Roberts: Detection of fanleaf virus in its vector X. vinifera accession represent an excellent example of host plant resistance to GFLV. Savino et al. index.: In vitro translation of genomic RNAs of GFLV yields two large polyproteins (220 Kd and 125 Kd) which are subsequently processed by proteolytic cleavage to form mature structural and non structural proteins. These are promising sources of germplasm for obtaining resistant rootstocks. Raski et al. index by ISEM Bovey et al. Walker et al. Forty days of treatment. Carbon disulfide gave less satisfactory results. vuittenezi. Even in the cases where the virus was transmitted.: Detection of fanleaf virus and other sap-transmissible viruses in grapevine tissues by ISEM. Efficiency of both methods is compared.: Experiments with systemic nematicides for controlling X. Krake and Woodham: Possibility that the agent of yellow speckle is involved together with GFLV in the etiology of vein banding. 1980 1980 1980 1981 1981 1981 1981 1983a 1983b 1983 1983 1983 1985 1985 1986 1986 24 . Lear et al.1979 1980 1980 Kalasian et al. RNA-2 contains the cistron coding for the viral coat protein. Raski et al.: Study on the effectiveness of soil fumigation for the control of X.: Comparison of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for detecting fanleaf virus with ELISA in various grapevine tissues. Bouquet: Serological detection of GFLV in its vector X. Transmission trials gave a few positive results.3-D (1400 l/ha) and 50-75 cm deep with 165 cm spacing for methyl bromide (448 kg/ha) gave a good control of X. Hafez et al.3-D) or methyl bromide applied 75-90 cm deep with 90 cm spacing for 1. Bouquet: Muscadinia rotundifolia becomes infected by GFLV when the virus is transmitted by grafting but resists infection when transmission is by X.: GFLV particles are arrayed in long parallel rows in thin-sectioned mesophyll cells of infected grapevines. as vector of GFLV. index and fanleaf in grapevines. The use of methyl bromide requires a continuous cover with polyethylene sheeting for some time after the treatment.3-dichloropropene failed to eradicate either nematodes or fanleaf virus from the soil but reduced the incidence of the disease to acceptable levels. Morris-Krsinich et al. with temperatures of 39 °C for 6 h followed by 22 °C for 18 h made it possible to eliminate both viruses from the developing shoot tips (2 mm) of in vitro cultured plantlets. index larvae were present in the X. although it is not resistant to the virus itself. index by ELISA. especially in wood shavings of dormant canes during winter. Vuittenez: Review on serological methods of detection and identification of grapevine viruses.: Soil fumigation with 1. index. That X. Methyl bromide and 1.: Identification of a natural serological variant of GFLV from Tunisia Huss et al. A Middle Eastern V.
RpRV.1987 1987 1987 Huss et al. Rüdel: Review on the most important virus diseases of grapevines in West Germany. Mild and severe strains were discriminated on the basis of field performance of infected Vitis.3-dichloropropene and methyl bromide for controlling X. Fuchs et al.3-dichloropropene or methyl bromide fumigation following one year fallow period can give a satisfactory control of the disease for at least 12-15 years. Treated vines yielded more for over 4 years. Previous experience showed that 1.: Identification of a satellite RNA of GFLV. Etienne et al. Walter et al. Martelli and Taylor: Review article on nematode-transmitted viruses. rotundifolia showed good resistance to GFLV in California. Lázár et al. Positive.: Evidence of a differential efficiency of GFLV transmission by Xiphinema index populations from different geographical origins. Walter et al. Viruliferous nematodes were crushed in standard extraction buffer and tested in batches of 1-50 by means of DAS-ELISA. 1988 1988 1988 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1990 1990 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991 1991 25 .: Determination of the complete sequence of GFLV RNA-2. index and GFLV. Catalano et al. quinoa and transmitted by heterografting to Vialla and Kober 5BB rootstocks. RNA-3 encodes a non structural protein.: Two rootstock selections derived from crossings V. but less consistent results were obtained with 1-10 nematodes. Catalano et al. vinifera x V. Mild strains were shown to confer protection towards severe challenging strains in Chenopodium and grapevine. TBRV and leafroll from infected grapevines by in vitro meristem tip culture. Pinck et al. SLRV. RpRSV and ArMV are common. Altmayer: Elimination of GFLV. and has strong homologies with the satellite RNA associated with ArMV. GFLV. No eradication was obtained. Walter and Etienne: Detection of GFLV in wood shavings of dormant canes. Rüdel: Severe restrictions set on the use of soil fumigants in West Germany for environmental reasons make control of "Reisigkrankheit" very difficult.: Improvement in the serological detection of GFLV and ArMV viruses using monoclonal antibodies. ArMV. Resistance is controlled by two unliked recessive genes Walter et al. The selection of resistant cultivars and rootstocks is considered of primary importance. Walker and Meredith: Identification of two accessions of Vitis vinifera resistant to GFLV. Serghini et al.: Production and use of monoclonal antibodies to GFLV.: Detection of GFLV in grapevine seeds and seedlings by ELISA.: Detection of GFLV in the vector Xiphinema index by ELISA. cultivation of non-host plants and organic soil amendments are recommended. Raski and Goheen: Comparison of 1. the latter being especially damaging on the variety Kerner.: Study of interactions between GFLV and ArMV isolates grown in C.: Use of green grafting technique for sensitive and quick GFLV detection under greenhouse conditions. Walker et al. Long term fallow (about 5 years). Reliable results were obtained with samples of 20-50 nematodes. Treatments with soil fumigants are no longer permitted in Germany. Effect on yield and economic importance.: Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the satellite RNA (RNA-3) of GFLV.: Possibility of detecting several nepoviruses or serotypes of nepoviruses in grapevine leaves or wood shavings in a single DAS-ELISA test using a mixture of different polyclonal antisera.
quinoa with biologically active transcripts of GFLV F-13 satellite RNA and GFLV strains devoid of satellite. index by biotin-avidin ELISA Bardonnet et al.: Detection of GFLV in X. This represents the first substantiated record of a natural GFLV infection in hosts other than Vitis.: Co-inoculation of C. Ritzenthaler et al. 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 26 . Fuchs et al. Walker et al.: GFLV isolated in Hungary from naturally infected symptomatic plants of Aristolochia clematis and Lagenaria siceraria turbinata.:Detection of GFLV in single nematodes by RT-PCR.b Hans et al. Spielmann et al. Satellite RNA appears to have a modulating effect on virus pathogenicity.: Development of cDNA probes to GFLV genomic and satellite RNAs and their use for virus detection directly in grapevine extracts.: Genomic RNA-1 of GFLV is completely sequenced and its genetic organization determined. Viry et al. GFLV is eliminated from somatic embryos obtained from tissue cultures grown at 35 °C 1991 1991 1992 1992 1992a. identification of their replication determinants and evidence of replication in Chenopodium quinoa protoplasts 1993 1993 1993 1993 Martelli et al.: Use of modified GFLV coat protein genes for transformation of different Nicotiana species for inducing resistance.: Production of GFLV satellite RNA transcripts.: Evidence that transgenic tobacco plants expressing the coat protein of GFLV are protected from GFLV infection. Goussard and Wiid: First application of somatic embryogenesis for sanitation of grapevines. Esmenjaud et al. GFLV is a quasispecies occurring in the field as a series of minor molecular variants. thus qualifying for use in X.: Production of biologically active transcripts from cloned cDNA of genomic RNAs of GFLV. Esmenjaud et al. Walter et al.: European virologists propose a certification scheme for grapevine Gemmrich et al: Development and use digoxigenin-labelled cDNA probes for molecular detection of GFLV Nolasco and De Sequeira: Design and use of primers for specific amplification of GFLV sequences by IC-PCR Nolasco and De Sequeira: Molecular variability in the genome of GFLV isolates coming from the same vineyard assessed by IC-PCR combined with RFLP and SSCP analysis. delays symptom expression by 1-2 days and adversely affects virus replication.: Two Vitis vinifera x Muscadinia rotundifolia rootstock hybrids (O39-16 and O4343) grafted with Cabernet sauvignon showed a high level of tolerance to GFLV. index infested soils. O39-16 in particular. Both became infected in the course of a 12-year trial but had no reduced crop yields. Staudt: Study of the spread of GFLV in several Vitis species.: In naturally GFLV-infected vineyards the hypovirulent ArMV A1 isolate induces delayed infection by GFLV Saldarelli et al.: GFLV satellite RNA detected in 5 of 34 virus isolates from different geographical locations. index. hybrids and breeding stocks after infection of the roots by means of viruliferous X.1991a 1991b Fuchs et al. Staudt and Weischer: Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis munsoniana resist infection by GFLV transmitted by X. index. which is also resistant to phylloxera. Horvath et al.
Pinck: A comprehensive review of the molecular aspects of GFLV genome and its replication strategy. 1997 1998 1998 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2003 2003 27 . Ritzenthaler et al. rupestris x M.: Demostration that the movement protein of GFLV is located on the intracellular tubular structures containing rows of virus particles.: Variations observed following RT-PCR and RFLP analysis of the coat protein gene of nine GFLV isolates grown in different hosts confirm the quasispecies nature of this virus. index feeding.: Transformation of Nicotiana species and Vitis rupestris with different virusderived (coat protein. index populations by PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS region. except for four.: Identification of the molecular signal accounting for the systemic spread of GFLV in infected hosts. This resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene.: Genetic transformation of American roostocks with the coat protein gene of GFLV for resistance induction. Belin et al. rotundifolia hybrids show high resistance to X.: Attempts to characterize molecularly X. 5 oligoadenylate synthase. Fuchs: Review article on genetic transformation of grapevines for resistance to GFLV and other pathogens.: Development of a GFLV detection system based on PCR analysis of immobilized virions. Martelli and Walter: Review article on certification of grapevines. Lahogue and Boulard: Search for genes of resistance in grapevines. De Luca et al.: The membranous structures appressed to the nucleus of infected cells known as vacuolate-vesiculate inclusion bodies are virus factories as they are the likely site of RNA replication and processing of viral polyproteins.: Identification of membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum as sites of GFLV replication. Naraghi-Arani et al. : Identification of RNA2-encoded proteins in the specific transmission of GFLV by X. Gölles et al. Krastanova et al. The level of resistance obtained looks promising. Pfeiffer et al.: Up to date account of GFLV replication strategy.1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 Brandt and Himmler: Use of immunocapture RT-PCR for GFLV detection in host tissues. replicase) and exogenous (2. and Asian Vitis species inoculated by green grafting with a GFLV source. Walker and Jin: V. Walter and Martelli: Review article on detrimental effects of viruses on grape yields. Spielmann et al. Of 531 accessions of European. including the two accessions reported as resistant by Walker and Meredith (1990). Belin et al. Gaire et al. Rowhani et al.: Demonstration that a 28 kDa protein coded by GFLV RNA-2 is involved in the replication of this RNA. RNase L) genes for inducing resistance to GFLV. American.: Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera with the coat protein gene of GFLV for resistance induction. truncated or nontranslatable coat protein gene of GFLV.: Successful transformation of somatic embryos of an European grape cultivar (Russalska 3) with the normal. index. Ritzenthaler et al. all were susceptible to the virus. Mauro et al. Pfeiffer et al.
161-171. Schmitt. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 58. et al. V. Les maladies à virus des plantes. C. Belin C. Arnaud G. Ritzenthaler. 2003. 1. 138-141. 12-22.. Serghini and L. 357-360. index individuals survive up to four years and remain viruliferous for at least 12 months. The specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus by its nematode vector Xiphinema index is solely determined by the viral coat protein. Komar and M. vol. Fuchs. Vigne et al. References Alfaro A. Involvement of RNA2encoded proteins in the specific transmission of grapevine fnaleaf virus by its nematode vector Xiphinema index. Elimination of different nepoviruses and grapevine leafroll by in vitro apical culture of grapevines. 1977. Demangeat. Andret-Link et al. Grapevine fanleaf virus: still a major threat to the grape industry. Journal of Plant Pathology 86. 1931. Demangeat et al. High frequency of mixed infections by distinct molecular variants in natural virus populations and evidence for intraspecific recombination.: Study of the pouplation structure and genetic variability of GFLV. Pinck. Amélioration de la thermothérapie des vignes virosées au moyen de la culture d'apex sur milieux nutritifs ou par greffage de vignes de semis. 539-540. and A. G. obtenues aseptiquement in vitro. 241-248.: Evidence that in soil samples stored at 7 °C and 20 °C X. 611630.A. 183-195. 1902. Kiryat Anavim. epidemiological and molecular properties of GFLV and of its interaction with the host. G. Goheen. L. Vigne. Demangeat. Stussi-Garaud and M. Gaire. Traité de pathologie végétale. 1994. Fuchs. Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of ICVG.: Mannose and xylose proved not suitable for use as selectable marker genes for transformation of cv. index. C.2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 a Martelli et al. Court-noué et Roncet. Schmitt-Keichinger. Laval.: Movement protein of GFLV is transported via Golgi-derived vesicles along microtubules to specipic receptors present in plasmodesmata. P.. and M. Pinck and M.: Improved method for the detection of GFLV in single individuals of X. index from greenhouse rearings of field populations. Andret-Link P. Vigne et al. Komar. Pinck. E.. C. Maladies à virus de la vigne et court-noué. 113. Bouyahia H. 2004. Annales de Phytopathologie 9.. Arnaud G. Journal of General Virology 80. Schmitt. Valat. Paul Lechevalier & Fils. VI. 2001. L. G. B.. Plant Disease Reporter 58. and A. Altmayer B. Andret-Link P. Bardonnet N. 903 pp. Demangeat and L. F. C. C. 1999. The nine C-terminal residues of the grapevine fanleaf nepovirus movement protein are critical for systemic virus spread. Bass P. Viticoltura Moderna 8. C. 1347-1356.: Updated review of the biological. Roncet.C. Izadpanah K. Belin C. Andret-Link et al. Virology 291.. V.: Comparison of sampling methods for ELISA detection of GFLV. 155-158. M. Vuittenez. F. Paris. 1989. 549-552. Baccarini P. 28 . Hans. Chardonnay.: Detection of GFLV in Cynodon dactylon and Polygonum aviculare. F. Fischer and Schillberg: Generation of recombinant single chain antibody fragments to GFLV and ArMV for resistance induction in grapevines. Pfeiffer. Laporte. Laporte et al. G. Fuchs. et al. Transmission of strains of grapevine fanleaf virus by Xiphinema index. Arnaud. 1937. 2004b 2004 2004 2004 3..: The coat protein of GFLV is the sole determinant for the specific transmission of the virus by X.: Genetically transformed grapevines expressing the coat protein of GFLV do not assist in the emergence of viable recombinant virus strains.: Redescription of GFLV in the AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Protection against virus infection in tobacco plants expressing the coat protein of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus. Virology 291. Walter. 1974. 1987. Demangeat.. Demangeat et al. Plant Cell Reports 13. tome 1. Kieffer et al.
29 . 1989. Untersuchungen über die Viruskrankheiten der Rebe. Brown D. Lamberti. Branas J. 1958. Savino and F. Brandt S.. Raski. Cohn E. Nematologia Mediterranea 19. 2003.Extended Abstracts of the 14th Meeting of ICVG. 82-83.F. XVth International Nematology Symposium.F. 259-275. F.. Etat actuel des connaissances sur les maladies à virus de la vigne. Rüdel.J. 2004. 237-256.D. Locorotondo 2003 . Gugerli. Locorotondo 2003 . Roberts. Brugger and P. 271-273. Xiphinema italiae. Serologische Untersuchungen über Vorkommen und Nachweismöglichkeit von Viren in Weinbergen von Baden-Württemberg. 1937. 1865. Progrès Agricole et Viticole 58..Bercks R. O. Nature. Agostinelli. Boubals D.. E.. Dalmasso. N. Die Wein-Wissenschaft 26. Nematologica 14. Esmenjaud. Sap-transmissible viruses associated with diseases of grape vines in Europe and North America. 161-165. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 58. 127-128. Bouquet A. III.. Komar. 55-62. Himmler. Cadman C. A.. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 65. 791-793. R. Harrison. 1980. 349-351. Detection of nepoviruses in their nematode vectors by immunosorbent electron microscopy. 1960. Progrès Agricole et Viticole 85. Esmenjaud and M. 181-182. ELISA for the detection of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus in Xiphinema index. Niagara Falls 1980 .. 243-246. V.J.J. P.. Demangeat G.. Querfurth.A. Nitzany. Bovey R. Dias H. 2003. Phytopathology 60. Nouvelles observations sur la transmission du court-noué de la vigne. 1963. 1980. Détection immunoenzymatique du virus du court-noué de la vigne dans son vecteur Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen. d'une résistance à la transmission du virus du court-noué (grape fanleaf virus) par son nématode vecteur Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen. 29-37. Survival of Xiphinema index and retention of Grapevine fanleaf virus in a nematode population from a natually GFLV-infected vineyard.. Bovey R... Sur les circonstances qui favorisent le développement du court-noué.. Castellano. Molecular characterization of Xiphinema index populations by PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of the ITS region.C. 1990. London 187. Fuchs. Volos. Bari. 1967. J. Detection of nepoviruses in ligneous grapevine material by using RTPCR. and G. Comptes Rendus Hebdomataires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences. Samenübertragbarkeit der Reisigkrankheit des Silvaners bei einer Testpflanze sovie Untersuchungen über das evtl. Bouyahia H. 1995. Bernon and L. Branas J. and I. Cazalis-Allut L.E. Dias and B. Mitteilung über Weinbau und Kellerwirtschaft 8. 1991. 1983b. 1971. Weitere methodische Untersuchungen über den Latextest zum serologischen Nachweis pflanzenpathogener Viren. and M. Efficiency of transmission of an isolate of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFV) by three populations of Xiphinema index (Nematoda: Dorylaimida). Resistance to grape fanleaf virus in muscadine grape inoculated with Xiphinema index. Die WeinWissenschaft 16. and D. Plant Disease 65. 328-334. 1970. M. 1946. Catalano L. 94-95. Paris. Vitis 1. 57-61.H. Boscia. Tanne and F. 42-48. Lamberti. Vector efficiency of Xiphinema index in the transmission of grapevine fanleaf virus. Bouquet A. Ouvres Agricoles. Minot. 1968. J. Voisin.. 20-25. Bouquet A. Locorotondo 2003 . De Luca F. Potere and D. Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of ICVG. 243-256. Bercks R.M. 204. Roca and M. 187-189. 577-579. Bosselut. 1969. Vitis 34.. S. Annals of Applied Biology 51. H. a new vector of grape fanleaf virus. V..Cx.J. Agronomie 3. Progrès Agricole et Viticole 67. Fatemy and F. Mise en évidence chez l'espèce Muscadinia rotundifolia (Small) Michx. 1896. Methodische Untersuchungen über den serologischen Nachweis pflanzenpathogener Viren mit dem Bentonit-Flockungstest. 2003. Sampling methodology for the detection of Grapevine fanleaf virus by ELISA. dem Latex-Test und dem Bariumsulfat-Test. Detection of fanleaf virus in grapevine tissue extracts by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immune electron microscopy (IEM). 220.. 1-17.. Greece. 296. and A. 208. Cornuet. 1968. 36-37. 63-64. D. Das S. Résultats d'essais de désinfection de sols à vigne du sud de la France par des fumigants. Demangeat G.. G. 1961. Cholin J. Catalano L. Journal of Virological Methods 122: 79-86. Beobachtungen über die “Reisigkrankheit” der Reben an Ahr. Bernon and L. Extended Abstracts of the 14th Meeting of ICVG. 74-81. Levadoux. 1983a.F. Fuchs and D. 85-95. Bercks R. Levadoux. Brückbauer H. 1981. Proceedings of the 7th Meeting of ICVG. G. De la dégéneration des vignes. Sensitive and reliable detection of Grapevine fanleaf virus in a single Xiphinema index nematode vector. Extended Abstracts of the 14th Meeting of ICVG. Vorkommen des Virus in Veinbergsunkräutern. Host range and properties of grapevine fanleaf and grapevine yellow mosaic viruses. 1980. and G.
P. Biochimie 75. The relationship between grapevine fanleaf.C. Pinck. and S. The nucleotide sequence of satellite RNA in grapevine fanleaf virus strain F 13. 1993.. Engineering durable resistance in grapevines. 1991. 2517-2523. Link and M. Journal of General Virology 70.. M.L.M. Dias H. ed). Luhn and W. 1992. Technique de thermothérapie des viroses de la vigne. Serghini. Pinck and B. J. Minafra. M. 237-242. 255-265. 2000. M. Goheen A.C. 1087-1090 Etienne L. M. Schillberg. Hans F. Pinck and L. Luhn. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 12. 2003. Fuchs M. 228-230. D.B. Esmenjaud D. 1961.A.. Belli. Esmenjaud D. Ser.. Gölles R. 1991b. University of California. 53-54. Volos. Virology 264. Walter. 271-281. P. Pinck and C. Plant Disease 78. Seidel. Cornuet. Pinck. 955-962. Leclair and M. 224. Annals of Applied Biology 51. Vitis 32.G. Locorotondo 2003. M. A novel strategy for integrated disease management to overcome environmental impact of pesticides.W.. 9. Fuchs M. with Special Reference to Vitis.W. 1973. Katinger and M.C. V. 1964. Rives. Protein 2A of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus in implicated in RNA2 replication and colocalizes to the replication site.. Journal of General Virology 73. Grapevine yellow mosaic. 73-77. 597-603. 1965. 1963. An electron microscope study of different plants infected with grapevine fanleaf virus. Action of systemic nematicides in control of Xiphinema index on grape. California.F. 1973a. Goheen A. L. B. Walter. I. 97-105. 1962. Transgenic resistance: state of the art. 1993. 24-29. Russo. Annales des Epiphyties 15. and C. Clauzel and M. 1994. Journal of Phytopathology 131. Raski and B. Fuchs M. Pathogen-derived virus resistance in grapevine: expression of viral coat protein genes in transgenic Vitis sp. Journal of Nematology 13.. Fuchs and L. Ravelonandro. Some observations on endocellular codons (trabeculae) in fanleafaffected grapevines. 2536.M. M. and M. P. Etienne.C. The satellite RNA associated with grapevine fanleaf virus strain F13. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 13. 221-223 Gaire F. C. Goussard P. 559-565.. G. M. L.A Handbook (N. Pinck. Pinck and B. 131-137. Hans F. Davis. H. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts. 9. Pinck and B. Hewitt. Ritzenthaler. Biotin-Avidin ELISA detection of grapevine fanleaf virus in the vector nematode Xiphinema index. grapevine yellow mosaic and arabis mosaic viruses. Graniti A. Wiid.R. C. 1965. Jr. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts. L. R.. Ser.A. 89-100. 30 . Location of the replication determinants of the satellite RNA associated with grapevine fanleaf nepovirus (strain F-13) . Hewitt. 287-289. Vein banding. 1991a. 1965.IV.Dias H. Locorotondo 2003.F. Da Camara Machado. Laimer da Camara Machado. N. L. 1970. Extended Abstracts of the 13th Meeting of ICVG. A. Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of ICVG. Schmitt. M. 1969. Frazier N. Hewitt. Inactivation of grapevine viruses in vivo. Berkeley. Greece.. Walter.. 2003.P. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. Characterization and detection of grapevine fanleaf virus by using cDNA probes. G.J. A. 1989. 245256. Green-grafting as a quick and secure method for graft-indexing viruses in the grapevine.. Fischer R. In : Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines .B. 1992a Replication of grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNA transcripts in Chenopodium quinoa protoplasts. Bassi and G. Gifford E.. Phytopathology 81.Saldarelli. Fuchs. and B. Journal of Nematology 25. 271-290.. 401405. Abad. 1992b. Hévin M. and W. 277-278. and J. J. California.. Fuchs M. Stussi-Garaud. Galzy R. Goheen A. Detection of a region of the coat protein gene of grapevine fanleaf virus by RT-PCR in the nematode vector Xiphinema index. Harrison. 1981. M. Extended Abstracts of the 14th Meeting of ICVG. The use of heat therapy and in vitro shoot tip culture to eliminate fanleaf virus from the grapevine. Gribaudo. Davis. Walter. Detection of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in infected grapevines by non-radioactive nucleic acid hybridization. Savino. Pinck..F. The elimination of grapevine fanleaf virus from grapevines using in vitro somatic embryogenesis combined with heat therapy. Pinck. Simultaneous detection of several nepoviruses infecting grapevine in a single DAS-ELISA test using mixed antisera. with Special Reference to Vitis. Gerola G.. C.. Serghini. Adelaide 2000.F. Division of Agricultural Sciences. Pinck. Buzkan. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.D. 129-130. 81-83. Giornale Botanico Italiano 103. B. L. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 13. Voisin. 1990. Hafez S. Lear. Walter and L. 1999. M. 1965. a new virus diseases of grapevines. Martelli. P. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. and W. Heat inactivation of viruses in grapevines.. Minot.B. Gemmrich A. IV.
A.. L. C. Otten. 1973b.P. Raski and A. M. Taylor.M. G. 1995. Martelli G. Plant Science 12. IV. S. 2004. R. Otten. (A. Virus diseases of the grapevine in a Sicilian herbarium of the past century.F. GCMV. Kassemeyer. Grapevine yellow speckle agent implicated in the aetiology of vein banding disease.A. 4 pp.P. A. 28. New York. Grapevine fanleaf virus. D. D.Hévin M. 1990. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 2. Martelli G. Barbier.... Etienne and M. Hewitt W. 550-554. Boulard.. Izadpanah K. 208-211. V. 1986. Springer-Verlag. and C. 40-50. Kölber and J. Ritzenthaler.P.B. Walter. 358-370. Goheen and D. C. 586-595. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. L. and R. B. eds) American Phythopathological Society Press. 58-72. AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses Mauro M. A. Investigating the transmission of marbrure and fan-leaf through the seed in the grapevine. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 39. New natural herbaceous hosts of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus. In: Plat Virus Disease Control. Martelli G. and G. De Sequeira. M.B.V.B. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 32. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 2. Bertsch. Rumbos. Virus certification of grapevines. Hewitt W. Lehoczky. Leva dand B. 261-276.... Effectiveness of soil fumigation for control of fanleafnematode complex in grapevines. Fanleaf virus of grapevine.E. 1975. 253-258. Grapevine fanleaf virus movement protein traffics along the secretory pathway and the cytoskeleton for its proper targeting to plasmodesmata.B. and L. E. H. B. 43-48. ArMV) in the seeds and seedlings of grapevines by ELISA. P. Piro.P. and W.another vine disease found in California. Cornuet. Vitis 43.B.C. Demangeat. Savino. Grapevine mosaic. Woodham. Rives. Ottenwaelter. Zaki-Aghl and A. L.H. Robinson. D. Horticultural Science 26. S. Walter. Taylor. Mannose and xylose cannot be used as selectable marker genes for Vitis vinifera L. 1993.P. 57-83. Locorotondo 2003. transformation.P. 279-284. Studies on virus diseases of the grapevine in California. Khertapal. Koganezawa. Hewitt W. Refatti. N. 210 Kalasian J. Hewitt. Bardonnet. Grapevine fanleaf virus detection in various organs using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. 1995. Doazan and M. Hillmer and C. Vitis 22.G. B..H.F.B. Rowhani . Goheen. L. Nematode vector of soil-borne fanleaf virus of grapevines. 1954. 1979. A scheme for grapevine certification in the European Economic Community. and B.V.. St. Plant Cell Reports 14.H. Detection of some nepoviruses (GFV. Ser. 1962.A. Lahogue F.. Walter. I. Toutain. P.G. Vitis 25.J. 329-335. Hunyadi.V. Triouleyre. 12 Lazar J. Stussi-Garaud. Hewitt W. 62-63. and G. 2003.R. Sommermeyer. J. Purification and serology of Italian strains of grape fanleaf virus. A. V.M. Tobias and K. Prota. Vitis 13. Journal of Phytopathology 119. P. 1998. Martelli G. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 39. 373-376 Kieffer F. M. B.C. Marinesku. Walter.Distribution of viruses and their nematode vectors. 151-189. Transformation of grapevine rootstocks with the coat protein gene of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus. Van Regenmortel. Raski and G. Pinck. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 43. Vitis 3.P. Kertgazdasag 22(4). 1990.P. O. Walter. Gooding. L. Hadidi. H. 1958.. Huss B. Horvath J. BCPC Monograph 54. 285-294. Walter. Barbier.C. Quacquarelli. 31 . 178-188. 47-64. 275-284. Vetter. Perrin.. GFV-YM. Huss B. Recherche de gènes de résistance naturelle à deux viroses de la vigne: le court-noué et l'enroulement. Rudel.. Jr. M. 31-32. G. Lear B. 1950a.. Extended Abstracts of the 14th Meeting of ICVG. Non-Vitis hosts of Grapevine fanleaf virus and their possible epidemiological significance. and H.C. Walter. Krastanova S. 2003. I. Locorotondo 2003. Extended Abstracts of the 14th Meeting of ICVG.K. and W.B. Martelli G. 1963a. A. Martelli. 9. Tubülaren Strukturen in Gewebven der Weinrebe nach Infektion mit dem Virus der Reisigkrankheit (grapevine fanleaf virus).A. 1970. Farine. Krake L. 1963b. 1994. 97-106. Coutos-Thevenot.C. Hewitt W. Muller. Martelli G. 1950b. Vitis 35. Litvak and V. Paul.P. Loudes. 1981. Laporte C.H. Raski. Hewitt. C. Pinck. Walter and M. S. B. In: K. Hewitt W... Martelli G. L. U. Grapevine fanleaf virus monoclonal antibodies: their use to distinguish different isolates. Archivs für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz 6. Dias and R.B. 61. 35-39. Goheen. S.J. Deloire and P. G. 1996.) Advances in Disease Vector Research 6.. G. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. Padilla. 1987.C... Fanleaf -. Harris (ed. Phytopathology 48. High efficiency regeneration of grapevine plants transformed with the GFLV coat protein gene. M. 1983. Comparative studies on some Italian and Californian virus diseases of grapevine. Pick and B. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines.J. Y. Van Regenmortel.
9. Raski D. Rowhani and M. Genome diversity of field isolates of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) analyzed by single stranded conformation (SSCP) and restriction fragment length polyphormism (RFLP). Petri L.V. C.L. Se Sequeira. J. C. and O. Hewitt and R..V. 1973. 1910. 1993. C. Mossop. Valat and J. W. Adelaide 2000. Gaire.. 101-130. 1929. Adelaide 2000. Ritzenthaler C. Protein A-coated latex-linked antisera (PALLAS): new reagents for a sensitive test permitting the use of antisera unsuitable for the latex test.B. 334-336. Strategies against grapevine fanleaf virus and its nematode vector. Laporte.. 71 Nolasco G. Pfeiffer. Pantanelli E... F.J. Journal of Phytopathology 116. Adelaide 2000.3-dichloropropene and methyl bromide for control of Xiphinema index and grapevine fanleaf degeneration complex. Jones. 32 . Kissler and D.A. 27. Properties of grapevine fanleaf virus.M. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 39. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. 379-387. Esperienze di innesto con viti arricciate. (I sem. N. C. Fuchs and L. 349-360. R.W. Petri L. Extended Abstracts of the 13th Meeting of ICVG. Schmitt.L. Rendiconti Regia Accademia dei Lincei.).S.R. M.Fuchs. LLoudes. 1976. Hafez. Piequet. 271-275. Quacquarelli A. Sul significato patologico dei cordoni endocellulari nei tessuti della vite. L.J. Progress in control of nematodes by soil fumigation in nematodefanleaf infected vineyards. M. Montreux 1993. Plant Disease 67.A. N. Gaire. P. The fanleaf nepovirus challenge: where do we stand? Extended Abstracts of the 13th Meeting of ICVG. Savino and G. Pantanelli E. Schmitt. Dunoyer. Jones. 88-91. A. 245-300. D.. Controlling fanleaf virus -dagger nematode disease complex in vineyards by soil fumigation. 282-285. Ritzenthaler. M.L.. 60-62. Bollettino della Regia Stazione di Patologia Vegetale. C. Systemic nematicides tested as alternative to DBPC. Maggenti and N. Pantanelli E. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 8. Pinck.. and A. Margis.A. 1993. S. Raski D. Se Sequeira. Martelli.J. Plant Disease Reporter 56. Die Gabler oder Zwiewipflereben. Extended Abstracts of the 11th Meeting of ICVG. Ritzenthaler C. 395-401. 125127. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 94. Roma. Journal of General Virology 69. Meredith. 1918. Branas.Monette P.C. Ser. 22. A.. Petri L. 1971. Laporte. Raski D. M. 208-211. Österreiches Botanische Zeitscrift 32. R. 1979.O. Montreux 1993. Goheen.J.. Ser. O.J. P. 1912.P. Forster and D. Rendiconti. Walter. Journal of Virology 17. Journal of General Virology 32. Ritzenthaler C. 2000.V.L. Querfurth G.J. 1913. A.. 1917. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. 1983. Raski D. 10-12. Pinck L.. 316-320.A. 2000. Gallitelli. Rathay E.. 11-14. V. Le Stazioni Sperimentali Agrarie Italiane 50. 1981.V.. Ravelonandro and B. C. Naraghi-Arani P. Pinck and C... Goheen. 31-32. M. Scmitt. S.J. 2000. 523-526.. C. Grapevine fanleaf virus replication occurs on endoplamic reticulum-derived membranes. A satellite RNA in grapevine fanleaf virus strain F13. Location of grapevine fanleaf and yellow mosaic virus particles in Xiphinema index. A. Le Stazioni Sperimentali Agrarie Italiane 45. L. 1995. 1882. Lider and C. O. and O. Rohfritsch. Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus putative movement protein is located on tubules in vivo. Viry. M.P. Paul. Elimination in vitro of two grapevine nepoviruses by an alternating temperature regime.. Pinck. Influenza del terreno su lo sviluppo del Roncet od arricciamento della vite..A. S. Schmitt. Walker. Effets de la thermothérapie. Pinck L. 2357-2365. RFLP analysis indicates that the genome of grapevine fanleaf virus is complex.V. 63-64.. 335-339.O.. and R. Luvisi. 158-159. Pinck. Mur G. Pinck. 1972. 233-239. California Agriculture 35 (5/6). Stussi-Garaud and P. Extended Abstracts of the 11th Meeting of ICVG. Generation of the viral replication compartment in cells infected with grapevine fanleaf virus. 1991. C. Nuove vedute sulle cause dell'arricciamento della vite. F. Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus RNA1. Journal of Nematology 5.S. 8808-8819.C.M. 1983. A. Immunocapture polymerase chain reaction (IC/PCR) in the diagnosis of grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in grapevine field samples. 1986. Stussi-Garaud and L. Schmit. Sulle cause dell'arricciamento della vite.. Rohfritsch. Su la ripartizione dell'arricciamento (roncet) della vite secondo la natura e la giacitura del terreno. and H. The synthesis and processing of the nepovirus grapevine fanleaf virus proteins in rabbit reticulocyte lysate.. Morris-Krsinich B. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. C. Duval. Rendiconti. Pfeiffer P. 19. Comparison of 1. Virology 130.. 154-161. California Agriculture 25(4). Stussi-Garaud. Progrès Agricole et Viticole 89. A.A. Raski D. 167-224. 1031-1035. Journal of General Virology 72. 1988. 1972. 1988. Michler. 2002. Nolasco G. Raski D.
344-346. C. 24-25. A natural serological variant of grapevine fanleaf virus.H. 169-174. Vuittenez A. 571-585. 2435-2445. Resistance to transmission of grapevine fanleaf virus by Xiphinema index to Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis munsoniana. 375-380.Rowhani A. 1992. 1993. Staudt G.) and X.C. ed. S.. In: Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines .) University of California. 1991. 89-96. Biologically active transcripts from cloned cDNA of genomic grapevine fanleaf nepovirus RNAs. Journal of General Virology 71. F. Maningas. A. Bekämpfung von Rebvirosen: notwendig und durchführbar? Rebe und Wein. Fuchs.. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24.W. Fuchs. Russo M. Proceedings of the 7th Meeting of ICVG. Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micol. Serghini. 1987. Uyemoto J. 1990. Ramel and P. L. Marc-Martin. Robertson. 1960a. Vuittenez A. Die WeinWissenschaft 35. 56-61. Golino. A. Savino. 347-352. Walter and L.. Activité comparée des fumigants. Petersen. Taylor R. 33 . Paris 251. Goheen. Schiff-Giorgini R. C.. Annals of Applied Biology 66.. Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of ICVG.A Handbook (Frazier N. 1988. 1970. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences. Weischer. Vuittenez A. Mise en évidence chez les vignes atteintes de dégénérescence infectieuse. and B. Bollettino Ufficiale del Ministero dell'Agricoltura.. 1980. Martelli. B. Rüdel M. Saldarelli P. 1985. 1974. Immunosorbent electron microscopy for detecting saptransmissible viruses of grapevine. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France 44. 1995. Vitis 32. Spielmann A.. Wein-Wissenschaft 47. A survey of grapevine fanleaf nepovirus isolates for the presence of satellite RNA. N. RNA2 of grapevine fanleaf virus: sequence analysis and coat protein cistron location. Van Velsen R. Population structure and genetic variability within Grapevine fanleaf virus isolates from a naturally infected vineyard in France: evidence for mixed infection and recombination. M. Cherif and G. Rüdel M. Field safety assessment of recombination in transgenic grapevines expressing the coat protein gene of Grapevine fanleaf virus. 1980. V. 251-257. Krastanova. M.S. Spreading of grapevine fanleaf virus in grapevines after inoculation by Xiphinema index. and B. 29-34. Rebe und Wein. M. Komar. Nouvelles observations sur l'activité des traitements chimiques du sol pour l'éradication des virus de la dégénérescence infectieuse de la vigne. Taylor C..P. 1976.S. 1970. M. 1906. Minafra A. Green budding of grapevines (Vitis vinifera). 2004b. S. Transgenic Research 13.. Sites of virus retention in the alimentary tract of the nematode vectors. G. 138-142. Agricultural Record 1. Pinck. Plant Disease Reporter 60. Extended Abstracts of the 12th Meeting of ICVG. Greece. Serghini M.M.J. Il roncet delle viti americane in Sicilia. 971-979.. 173-174..E. Taylor R. Rüdel M. Montreux 1993. and M. 165-179.. 536-538. M. Vein banding of Vitis. 177-194. index (Thorne and Allen).A. Staudt G. quinoa). 1990.F. Hewitt. Guyader and M.. M. J. Walter.M. Vigne E. Xiphinema vuittenezi (Nematoda: Dorylaimidae) Virusüberträger bei Reben. 1964. Savino V. Extended Abstracts of the 11th Meeting of ICVG. Daubert and D. Martelli and V. Pick. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France 46.E.. S. Pinck and L.A. Luhn and L. and J. des insecticides et de divers produits appliqués en traitements du sol sur les contaminations par la dégénérescence infectieuse de la vigne.A. and W. Berkeley. 901-907. Reinbolt.H. Gugerli. Lile. 99-102. Spielmann A. 1993. Properties and serologial relationships of Australian and Califonian soil-borne viruses of the grapevine and arabis mosaic virus. Fuchs.P.. 143-144. Volos. Development of a detection system for viruses of woody plants based on PCR analysis of immobilized virions. 783-785. Weinsberg 40. Gugerli. Use of Chenopodium quinoa in indexing for grapevine fanleaf virus. V. 6. Division of Agricultural Sciences. d'un virus transmissible mécaniquement aux Chénopodes (Chenopodium amaranticolor et C.J. 1958. Lisbon 1997. Vigne E.S. Journal of General Virology 74.H. 2004a. M. Hans..B. 1960b. C. Niejalke.K. and W. 1997. D. 230-232.. 14331441. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 15. Viry M. Prince Sigrist and P. Douet-Ohrant. Expression of several modified grapevine fanleaf nepovirus coat protein genes in transgenic tobacco plants. 1993. Schadnematoden im Weinbau und ihre Bekämpfung. Niagara Falls 1980 . M. Marc-Martin. Journal of General Vrology 85. 2931. Bergold. Pinck. Weinsberg 42.. Ritzenthaler.A. Resistance to nepoviruses in grapevine: expression of several putative resistance genes in transgenic plants. Phytopathology 85..
St. 1989. Extended Abstracs of the 11th Meeting of ICVG. Jin. Walker M.W. 225-243. Fuchs. 1ere partie: Effects des viroses sur la culture des vignes et ses produits. 1994. Guillaume 1993. Walker M. 568-569. J. 218-228. Meredith.. 1987. Wolpert and E.A. P. Research Branch). The new improvements of serological methods and their possible application to detect and identify viruses and virus-like diseases of the grapevine.. Cornuet. Proceedings of the 7th Meeting of ICVG. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Grape Breeding. 1990. 167-168. Meredith. 209-216. and C. Walter B. California Agriculture 43(2). and C.P. Wolpert..C. 1991 Interactions between arabis mosaic virus and grapevine fanleaf virus isolates. Walker M. Bass. Walter B. R. Walker M. and L. 217-228. Martin/Pfalz 1989. 1990. B.A. Resistant rootstocks may control fanleaf degeneration of grapevines. Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Grape Breeding.. Improvements in the serological detection of ArMV and GFV. Application aux virus de la rhizomanie de la betterave et du court-noué de la vigne. Walker M. Division of Agricultural Sciences. 1979.. Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of ICVG. C. 1970. Kiryat Anavim1987. 137-145. 945-971. Lider. Niagara Falls. Bulletin de l'OIV 69. Proceedings of the 9th meeting of ICVG. 228-238. The use of a green grafting technique for detection of virus-like diseases of the grapevine.A. Walker M. P.A..A.Vuittenez A. Vesselle. Vilas. Vitis 33. E. The genetic of resistance to grapevine fanleaf virus in Vitis vinifera. Viticultural characteristics of VR hybrid rootstocks in a vineyard site infected with grapevine fanleaf virus. Cornuet and P. Walter B.P. Goheen.A. Influence des viroses et qualité. Bass. Collas abd G. Vitis special issue. Etienne. and G. 120128. Annales de Phytopathologie 11. Walter B.P. 19-23. R. Canada. Volos 1990. The genetics of resistance to grapevine fanleaf virus in Vitis vinifera. 228-238.. 1990. Bass. Legin. J. Berkeley. Diagnostic sérologique par les tests PALLAS et ELISA. Preliminary results of cross protection experiments against grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in the vineyards. Sélection clonale de la vigne: sélection sanitaire et sélection pomologique. Martin. Journal of Phytopathology 128. 1996. 1980 (Canada Agricuture. Breeding Vitis rupestris x Muscadinia rotundifolia rootstocks to control Xiphinem index and fanleaf degeneration. Detection of the grapevine fanleaf viruses away from the period of vegetation. 1989.. Montreux 1993. 1998.P. Legin and M. A. Etienne. Vuittenez A. In: Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines . Acta Horticulturae 528. and Y. Goheen and L. Huss and L. R. Fanleaf of grapevine. 13-14. St. P.A. Kuszala and A.. C. C. Vernoy. Martin 1989. J.A Handbook (Frazier N. Sources of resistance to grapevine fanleaf virus (GFV) in Vitis species. 355-364. ed. Vitis 24. 1980. Walter B.A. Walter B. Journal of Phytopathology 120.P.C. Martelli.A. Weber. C.) University of California. 1985. Meredith and A. Vuittenez. A. Walter B. 34 .
P.P. 1997) and their satellite RNAs (Mayo et al. Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses. eds).. Piazzolla. Murphy et al. the Mediterranean and Middle East. Iwanami. Van Regenmortel et al. H.M. Several of these viruses have distorting and chromogenic strains and may occur in mixed infections with GFLV. Yoshikawa. 1977) . Maniloff. Taliansky. 1981. 945-971. Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (F. Brown. Amsterdam. Milne.E and D. Influence des viroses et qualité. Mayo. Simons and M. Sanfaçon. In: Virus Taxonomy.. Leibowitz. Gallitelli. 1996. A tentative grouping of nepoviruses Phytopathologia Mediterranea 17. P. G. Oxon. T. Vol. 3. 1955. eds). Family Comoviridae. Sélection clonale de la vigne: sélection sanitaire et sélection pomologique. Le Gall et al. Harrison B. 2000) are available.. Ball. epidemiological. Eight Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (C. Nepoviruses. Savino and P. (E. Karasev. Serological (ELISA. A. Desselberger and L. 2000. ed). Nepoviruses of grapevine and their nematode vectors in the EEC. Many are transmitted by longidorid nematodes (Rüdel. physico-chemical.). Palukaitis. In: Virus Taxonomy. RT-PCR) are routinely used for their detection in grapevine tissues (primarily cortical scrapings from dormant canes). Murant 1981. Their detrimental effects to grapevine culture and products have been summari zed by Walter and Martelli (1996).J. 23-39. San Diego. C. Le Gall O.e. J.A. 1992). These viruses can readily be eliminated by heat therapy or in vitro meristem tip culture. Martelli and R. Quaderno No. Plenum Press. 10281032 Murant A.. 2005. causing diseases whose symptoms are similar to. Martelli. has now been assigned to the newly established genus Sadwavirus (Le Gall et al. Polyhedral Virions and Bipartite RNA Genomes. and molecular characteristics of nepoviruses (Harrison and Murant.D. which were originally included in the Nepovirus group (Harrison and Murant. Wellink.F. Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV).G. a nematode-borne virus originally classified as a tentative species in the genus Nepovirus. Quacquarelli. London. Nepovirus Group. Mechanical transmission to herbaceous hosts or indexing on Vitis indicators can also be used. Scholtof. J.. family Comoviridae (Goldbach et al.P. (G. G. 807-818. Bari. Taylor C. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. All have polyhedral particles about 30 nm in diameter and a positive sense. M.F. Wetzel and N. and A. a non-taxonomic clustering. subgroup C.. Fauquet. References Goldbach R.A. 1997. In: Virus Taxonomy. Martelli. Satellite nucleic acids. Elsevier/Noth Holland. Lehto. Murant. 1978. Family Comoviridae.. Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo. Taylor and Brown. M. 1978. In: Handbook of Plant Virus Infections: Comparative Diagnosis. 35 .. 1992. 2005) Extensive reviews of the biological. Kurstak. Fritsch. Martelli G.J. single-stranded RNA genome occurring as two functional species (RNA-1 and RNA-2). 1ere partie: Effects des viroses sur la culture des vignes et ses produits.A.INFECTIOUS DEGENERATION (EUROPEAN AND MEDITERRANEAN NEPOVIRUSES) Besides GFLV several other nepoviruses can infect grapevine in Europe.A. T. or indistinguishable from those of fanleaf. which are separately encapsidated.. ISEM) and molecular assays (hybridization. Harrison B. The Plant Viruses. Springer-Verlag. K.B.V. 185. Academic Press. typified by Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) (Martelli et al. ed. 1977. typified by Tomato black ring virus (TBRV)..P. Jones. subgroup B. Bulletin de l'OIV 69.V. Murant (eds).D.H. and G. A. 197-238. subgroup A typified by Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV). 1996.. are now classified in the genus Nepovirus. K. i. 145-147. 341-347. Vienna. Rüdel M. 1955) and are subdivided into subgroups based on physico-chemical properties of member viruses. Walter B..F. U.A. T. 362 pp. D. Mayo M.. CAB International. 1996. 5. 2005). In: Grapevine Viruses and Certification in EEC Countries: State of the Art.F. Nepoviruses. New York. and A. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (M. V. eds) Elsevier/Academic Press. 286 pp.
ArMV. have a angular outline. and circular about 350 nt in size.: Isolation of ArMV from grapevine in Italy. Jankulova and Kaitasova: ArMV found in grapevine in Bulgaria.: Physico-chemical properties of GFLV. Vuittenez et al. Iran. Rüdel: Transmission of ArMV to grape seedlings by Xiphinema diversicaudatum. The genome is a positive sense ssRNA. is serologically related to GFLV. Belli et al. whereas components M and Bcontain RNA. In other V. Israel. TBRV. USA (California). SLRSV and TBRV found in grapevines with atypical Reisigkrankheit in West Germany. Murant: ArMV description in the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses series. 2. Component T is made up of empy protein shells. always in Germany the severe dieback disease of the cv. and B). The virus supports the replication of two types of satellite RNAs.4 x 106 and a size of 1104 nt. Hungary. Two types of RNA-2 molecules have been found which differ slightly in size (3852 and 3711 nt ) but contain a single ORF encoding polypeptides with Mr of 119 and 124 kDa. Description ArMV.95-2. wt of 0. and. Dalmasso et al. vinifera varieties. and sediment as three components (T. Canada. Stellmach: Review paper on ArMV in grapevine.2 x 106 (RNA-1) and 1.: Xiphinema diversicaudatum can transmit ArMV to grapevine. and Japan. It can infect many woody and herbaceous plants and is transmitted to grapevine by the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum but not by X. Its particles are about 30 nm in diameter. Brückbauer and Rüdel: Symptoms of atypical Reisigkrankheit in the vineyard are associated with ArMV in West Germany Bercks et al.: ArMV. This virus has also been found in grapevine in Switzerland. Yugoslavia. Turkey. index. symptoms are of the fanleaf type. AILV and GCMV.: Detection of ArMV by ISEM Tanne: Detection of GFLV. respectively. 36 . Kerner appears to be caused by ArMV infection. Gerola et al. Quacquarelli et al. consisting of two separately encapsidated molecules with Mol. accounting for 27% (component M) and 41% (component B) of the particle weight. losses up to 50 % have been recorded. M. Kobayashi et al. the vector of GFLV. Coat protein has a single type of subunits with Mr 54 x 103. Historical review 1963 1964 1968 1970 1970 1972 1976 1977 1978 1978 1979 1979 1980 1980 1980 1982 Panjan and Saric: ArMV detected in grapevine in Yugoslavia.1 x 106 (RNA-2). ArMV and TBRV by ELISA in Israel. Transgenic plants expressing the coat protein gene of the virus have been produced. In Germany. Bulgaria. wt 2.Genus NEPOVIRUS ARABIS MOSAIC VIRUS (ArMV) 1. Russo et al. Romania.: Interactions between nepoviruses in grapevine and herbaceous hosts. Cross-protection between ArMV and GFLV has been reported. linear with Mol.: ArMV detected in Japan in grapevines imported from Europe.: Ultrastructure of ArMV infections in plant tissues Martelli and Lehoczky: Detection of ArMV in grapevine in Hungary. and with other nepoviruses in the Reisigkrankheit complex of western Germany. ArMV occurs often in mixed infections with GFLV in certain areas of France and Italy. a typical nepovirus belonging in subgroup A of the genus Nepovirus.
: Transformation of grapevines with the coat protein gene of ArMV. Becker et al.: Nicotiana plants engineerd with ArMV coat protein gene show different degrees of tolerance to the virus Flak and Gangl: ArMV recorded from Austria Loudes et al.: ArMV recorded from Romania Huss et al. Steinkellner et al.: Survey for the presence of ArMV in Canadian vineyards Lahogue and Boulard: Search for genes of resistance in grapevines.: Nucleotide sequenece of a small circular satelllite RNA Steinkellner et al. Study of histological changes at the graft union level. whereas the rootstock remains infected. Ipach et al.: Nucleotide sequence of the ArMV satellite RNA Liu et al.: Transgenic Nicotiana plants transformed with the coat protien of ArMV produce empty viral shells. Of 407 accessions of 1986 1987 1988 1989 1989 1989 1989 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991 1992 1992 1993 1993 1994 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 37 . Kaper et al. Marc-Martin et al. Walter et al. RRV. Rüdel: In the Palatinate (West Germany) ArMV is transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum and occurs often in mixed infections with GFLV in grapevine.: Properties of a strain of ArMV isolated from grapevine in Italy.: Association of ArMV-infected rootstocks with Kerner disease in West Germany. When a healthy scion is grafted onto an infected rootstock. whereas other nepoviruses.1982 1984 1985 Brückbauer: Possibility of distinguishing GFLV.Kerner to ArMV seems to be limited in time. MacKenzie et al. Stellmach and Berres: The susceptibility of cv.: Use of cDNA probes for ArMV detection. SLRV and TBRV Belli et al. Stellmach: Kerner disease is probably caused by ArMV. The virus cannot be recovered from leaves or buds of the Kerner scions.: A hypovirulent ArMV isolate delays GFLV infection in grapevines under field conditions. : Comparison of coat proteins of ArMV and other nepoviruses. ArMV.: ArMV in Switzerland Lázár et al.: Cross-protection experiments in Chenopodium quinoa between ArMV and GFLV Gugerli et al.: Detection of ArMV by PCR in herbaceous hosts and grapevines Steinkellner et al.: ArMV is not seed-transmitted in grapevines Liu et al.: The presence of ArMV satellite RNA can attenuate symptoms in certain hosts Bertioli et al. the virus is recovered from the scion only during the first year.: Evidence that ArMV has two RNA-2 molecules and complete nucleotide sequence of both RNAs Etscheid et al. Hypothesis of a graft incompatibility when the rootstock is infected with ArMV. such as RpRSV or GFLV can be found in both rootstock and scion.: Properties of ArMV small satellite RNA. Yield losses may reach 77% in cv. Faber. Molecular assays are as good as ELISA for routine testing. Eppler et al.
European, American, and Asian Vitis species inoculated by green grafting with a ArMV source, 42 were apparently resistant. 1998 2000 2003 2004 Akbas and Erdiller: ArMV recorded from Turkey Goelles et al. : Transgenic grapevines expressing ArMV coat protein gene Fuchs: Review on transgenic resistance of grapevines to pathogens Pourrahim et al.: ArMV identified in Iranian grapevines by mechanical transmission to herbaceous hosts and ELISA
3. References Akbas B. and G. Erdiller, 1998. Grapevine virus diseases in Karaman, Konya and Nevsheir provinces. Proceedings VII Congress of the Turkish Phytopathological Society, Ankara 1998, 149-153. Becker A., J. Jäger and B. Altmayer, 1989. Association of arabis mosaic virus-infected rootstocks with the dieback of the Vitis vinifera cv."Kerner" in Germany. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG, Kiryat Anavim, 1987, 57-61. Belli G., A. Fortusini and G. Vegetti, 1982. Il virus del mosaico dell' Arabis isolato da vite in Italia. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, S IV, 18, 175-177. Belli G., G. Vegetti, S. Cinquanta, C. Soncini, S. Prati and D. Tolentino, 1984. Properties of a strain of arabis mosaic virus isolated from grapevine in Italy. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, S IV, 20, 56-64. Bercks R., H. Brückbauer, G. Querfurth and M. Rüdel, 1977. Untersuchungen über die Viruskrankheiten der Rebe unter besonderer Berücksichtigung "atypischer Formen" der Reisigkrankheit. Weinberg und Keller 24, 133-180. Bertioli D.J., R.D. Harris, M.L. Edwards, J.I.Cooper and W.S. Hawes, 1991. Transgenic plants and insect cells expressing the coat protein of Arabis mosaic virus produce empty virus-like particles. Journal of General Virology 72, 1801-1809. Brückbauer H. and M. Rüdel, 1976. Untersuchungen über eine "atypische" Form der Reisigkrankheit bei der Rebsorte Silvaner. Weinberg und Keller 23, 53-79. Dalmasso A., M.C. Munck-Cardin and R. Legin, 1972. Résultats préliminaires d'essais de transmission de sérotypes de la mosaïque de l'Arabis trouvés sur vigne, par l'intermédiaire de Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Annales de Phytopathlogie 4, 410 Eppler A., V. Lesan and A. Lázár, 1989 Viruses and virus diseases in some vineyards in Romania. Meded. Facultet Landbouwwetenschappen Rijkuniversiteit Gent 54, 491-497. Etscheid M., M.E. Tousignat and J.M. Kaper, 1995. Small satellite of arabis mosaic virus autolytic processing of in vitro transcripts of (+) and (-) polarity and infectivity of (+) strand transcripts. Journal of General Virology 76, 271-282. Flak W. and H. Gangl, 1994. Grobkartierung des Rebenvirosenbefalls in der Weinbauregion Bungerland mittels ELISA. Mitteilung Klosterneuburg 44, 163-167. Fuchs M., 2003. Transgenic resistance: state of the art. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG, Locorotondo 2003, 221-223. Gerola F.M. M. Bassi and E. Betto, 1964. Shape and localization of arabis mosaic virus in experimentally infected cells of Chenopodium amaranticolor. Phytopathologische Zeitscrift 51, 192-194. Goelles R., R. Moser, H. Puhringer, H. Katinger, M.L. da Camara Machado, A. Minafra, V. Savino, P. Saldarelli, G.P. Martelli and M. Laimer da Camara Machado, 2000. Transgenic grapevines expressing coat protein gene sequences of grapevine fanleaf virus, arabis mosaic virus, grapevine virus A and grapevine virus B. Acta Horticulturae 528, 305-311. Gugerli P., J.J. Brugger and P. Basler, 1990. Les maladies de l'enroulement, du bois strié et de l'ècorce liégeuse de la vigne (grapevine leafroll, rugose wod and corky bark). Revue Suisse de Viticulture, Arboriculture et Horticulture 22, 35-36. Kaper J.M., M.E. Tousignant and M. Steger, 1988. Nucleotide sequence predicts circularity and selfcleavage of 300-nucleotide satellite of arabis mosaic virus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 154, 318-322. Lahogue F. and G. Boulard, 1996. Recherche de gènes de résistance naturelle à deux viroses de la vigne: le court-noué et l'enroulement. Vitis 35, 43-48. Liu Y.Y., C.U.T. Hellen, J.I. Coper, D.J. Bertioli, D. Coates and G. Bauer, 1990. The nucleotide sequence of a satellite RNA associated with arabis mosaic nepovirus. Journal of General Virology 71, 1259-1263. Liu Y.Y., J.I. Cooper, M.L. Edwards and C.U.T Hellen, 1991. A satellite RNA of arabis mosaic virus and its pathological impact. Annals of Applied Biology 118, 557-587.
Loudes A.M., C. Ritzenthaler, M. Pinck, M.A. Serghini and L.. Pinck, 1995. The 119 kDa and 124 kDa polyprotiens of arabis mosaic nepovirus (isolate S) are encoded by two distinct RNA2 species. Journal of General Virology 76, 899-906. MacKenzie D.J., R.C. Johnson and C. Warner, 1996. Incidence of four important viral pathogens in Canadian vineyards. Plant Disease 80, 955-958. Murant A.F, 1970. Arabis mosaic virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 16 Pourrahim R., A. Ahoonmanesh, Sh. Farzdfar, F.Rakhshandehro and A.R. Golanaraghi. Occurrence of Arabis mosaic virus and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in Iran. Plant Disease 88, 424. Quacquarelli A., D. Gallitelli, V. Savino, P. Piazzolla and G.P. Martelli, 1979. Some properties of grapevine fanleaf and other nepoviruses infecting the grapevine. Proceedings 6th Meeting of ICVG, Cordoba, 1976. Monografias INIA No. 18 , 41-49. Rüdel M., 1978. Übertragung des Arabis-Mosaik-Virus (AMV) durch den Nematoden Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzki) Thorne auf Rebensämlinge (Vorläufige Mitteilung). Die WeinWissenschaft 33, 243-247. Rüdel M., 1985. Grapevine damage induced by particular virus-vector combinations. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24, 183-185. Steinkellner H., G. Himmler, M. Laimer, D. Mattanovich, G. Bisztray and H. Katinger, 1989. Konstruktion von cDNA von Arabis Mosaik Virus und deren Anwendung für Diagnose. Mitteilung Klosterneuburg 39, 242-246. Steinkellner H., G. Himmler, R. Sagl, D. Mattanovich, and H. Katinger, 1992. Amino acid sequence comparison of nepovirus coat proteins. Virus Genes 6, 197-202. Steinkellner H., A. da Camara Machado, M. Laimer-da Camada Machado, M. Gölles and H. Katinger, 1993. Studies on coat protein mediated cross protection of nepoviruses. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG, Montreux 1993, 175. Stellmach G., 1970. Arabis mosaic in Vitis. In: Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines- A Handbook (N.W. Frazier, ed). University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences Berkeley, 233-234. Stellmach G., 1987. Die Kerner Krankheit: Theoretische und praktische Aspekte einer tödlichen Rebenvirose. Die Wein-Wissenschaft 42, 421-427. Stellmach G. and R.-E. Berres, 1986. Begrenzte Infektionsanfälligkeit der Vitis vinifera- Sorte "Kerner" gegenüber dem Arabismosaik-Virus? Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 93, 356-360. Walter B, P. Bass, P. Cornuet and P.M. Guillaume, 1993. Preliminary results of cross protection experiments against grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in the vineyards. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG, Montreux 1993, 167-168 ARTICHOKE ITALIAN LATENT VIRUS (AILV) 1. Description Artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV), a member of subgroup B of the genus Nepovirus, was isolated in Bulgaria from vines with fanleaf-like symptoms. AILV has isometric particles with angular outline, sedimenting as three components: T (empty shells), M (particles contaning a molecule of RNA-2 with Mol. wt of 1.5 x 106 daltons accounting for 34% of the particle weight) and B (particles containing a molecule of RNA-1 with Mol. wt of 2.4 x 106 daltons, accounting for 41% of the particle weight). Coat protein is made up of a single type of subunits with Mr 54 x 103. AILV is transmitted by the Dorylaimoid nematode Longidorus apulus in vegetable crops but no field transmission to grapevines has been recorded. The virus has limited distribution and economic importance. 2. Historical review 1976 Jankulova et al.: AILV isolated in southern Bulgaria in 1976 from a grapevine with fanleaf-like symptoms. Properties of the virus, cultured in Chenopodium quinoa determined and positive serological reaction with an antiserum to an Italian strain of AILV ascertained. Savino et al.: Comparison of a Bulgarian grapevine isolate of AILV with an Italian isolate from artichoke and two Bulgarian isolates from sowthistle and gladiolus. Martelli et al.: AILV description in the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses series.
3. References Jankulova M., V. Savino, D. Gallitelli, A. Quacquarelli and G.P. Martelli, 1979. Isolation of artichoke Italian latent virus from the grapevine in Bulgaria. Proceedings of the 6th Meeting of ICVG, Cordoba 1976. Monografias INIA 18, 143-148. Martelli G.P., G.L.. Rana and V. Savino, 1977. Artichoke Italian latent virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 176. Savino V., D. Gallitelli, M. Jankulova and G.L. Rana, 1976. A comparison of four isolates of Artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV). Phytopathologia Mediterranea 16, 41-50. CHERRY LEAFROLL VIRUS (CLRV) 1. Description Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) is a cosmopolitan virus. In Chile it was recovered from vines with fanleaflike symptoms and in Germany from vines with yellow mosaic-like symptoms. Although CLRV is a definitive nepovirus species classified in subgroup C of the genus Nepovirus it differs from most of the other members in the genus being transmitted by pollen rather than nematodes. The vector to grapevine, if any, is unknown. CLRV occurs in nature as multiple strains but is not serologically related to any of the known nepoviruses. Virus particles are isometric, about 30 nm in diameter have angular outline and sediment as three components (T, M, and B). Their coat protein consists of a single type of subunits with Mr of about 54 kDa. The genome is a bipartite, positive sense, single-stranded RNA which has been sequenced only in part. Genomic RNA consists of two separately encapsidated functional molecules with Mol. wt of 2.8 x 106 (RNA-1) , accounting for 46% of the particle weight, and 2.3 x 106 (RNA-2), accounting for 41% of the particle weight. In grapevines CLRV is readily detected by DAS-ELISA. The best woody indicator for the German isolate is reported to be Pinot noir. 2. Historical review 1985 1993 2001 2003 Jones: Description of Cherry leafroll virus in the AAB Descriptions of Plant viruses series. Scott et al.: Partial nucleotide sequence of CLRV RNA-2. Herrera and Madariaga: First record of CLRV from Chile. Field infection is estimated to be 0.2% Ipach et al.: Isolation of CLRV from German vines showing yellow mosaic-like symptoms and reduced crop.
3. References Herrera M.G and V.M. Madariaga, 2001. Presence and incidence of grapeivne viruses in central Chile. Agricultura Tecnica 61, 393-400 Ipach U., L. Kling and D.E. Lesemann, 2003. First record of Cherry leafroll virus on grapevine in Germany. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG, Locorotondo, 2003, 17-18 Scott N.W., J.I. Cooper, and M.L Edwards, 1993. The identification, cloning, and sequence analysis of the coat protein coding region of a birch isolate of cherry leafroll nepovirus. Archives of Virology 131, 209-215. GRAPEVINE ANATOLIAN RINGSPOT VIRUS (GARSV) 1. Description Grapevine Anatolian ringspot Virus (GARSV) was isolated from Turkish grapevines with mild fanleaflike symptoms. The virus belongs in subgroup B of the genus Nepovirus but is not serologically related to any of the known grapevine nepoviruses. Virus particles are isometric c. 30 nm in diameter and sediment as three centrifugal components. RNA-1 has a Mol. wt of 2.2 x 106 Da and RNA-2 a Mol. wt of 1.4 x 106 Da and a size of 4607 nt. Coat protein subunits have a Mr 56 x 103 Da. GARSV can be readily detected by ELISA and PCR using primers designed on the coat protein sequence. The virus has no recognized
a virus serologically related to GBLV found in Concord grapes in New York State vineyards is a strain of Blueberry leaf mottle virus (BLMoV) a North American nepovirus species related to.: Description of GBLV. consisting of two separately encapsidated molecules with Mol. but different from GBLV..95-2. B1. 35-41. 2.P. GBLV has also been recorded from Hungary and Yugoslavia.1 x 106 (RNA-2). Description Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV) owes it name to the fact that it was found for the first time in Bulgaria in 1971. 2005. Properties of a previously undescribed nepovirus fron south-east Anatolia.P. and B2). By contrast. Digiaro and G. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 32.vector. isolated in 1970 in Portugal from symptomless vines. 335-340. I. Sabanadzovic. The virus can be detected directly in grapevine leaf extracts by immunodiffusion in agar plates. Component T is made up of empy protein shells. accounting for 39% (componet B1) and 42% (component B2) of the particle weight.: GBLV description in the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses series. The genome is a positive sense ssRNA. Biological. whereas components B1 and B2 contain RNA. Martelli. The scattered distribution of infected vines in the field suggests that the virus is spread primarily by infected propagative material. Cigsar I. A strain of this virus had been found previously in Portugal and described as virus CM112. Two isolates of GBLV have been transmitted by mechanical inoculation to seedlings and rooted cuttings of several grapevine cultivars without inducing symptoms. M. GBLV is a typical nepovirus belonging in subgroup C of this genus but its vector is not known. N.: Isolation of virus CM112 from in vitro cultures of grapevine tissues. Boscia and G. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic. wt of 2. Kizlar tahtasi showing mild fanleaf-like symptoms Gokalp et al. Digiaro. is not seed borne and was reported only from south-eastern Turkey. The virus occurs as different closely related but serologically distinguishable strains. Martelli et al. Martelli et al. The economic importance of the virus is minor. Coat protein has a single type of subunits with Mr 54 x 103. The virus supports the replication of a satellite RNA with Mol. 2002.: Complete nucleotide sequence of GARSV RNA-2 3.5 x 106 (less than 1800 nt). Virus Genes 30. Martelli.P. S.2 x 106 (RNA-1) and 1. Uyemoto et al. Virus particles are about 30 nm in diameter and sediment as three components (T. wt 0. physico-chemical and serological characterization of the virus and assignment to the Nepovirus group (now genus Nepovirus). 471-475 Gokalp K. Digiaro and G.: First isolation by mechanical transmission of an unknown nepovirus from cv. M. GRAPEVINE BULGARIAN LATENT VIRUS (GBLV) 1. Historical review 2002 2003 2005 Cigsar et al.. Sanitary status of grapevine in south eastern and central Anatolia.: A virus serologically related to GBLV isolated from Vitis labrusca cv. Journal of Plant Pathology 85. where it is widespread and infects latently several grapevine varieties growing in widely separared areas. Cigasr. Historical review 1972 1972 1977 Ferreira and De Sequeira: Description and preliminary characterization of an unidentified virus denoted CM112. De Stradis. De Mendonça et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of RNA-2 of two Turkish nepoviruses. A. 2003. D. Concord in New York State. Martelli. M. References Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic N. 1977 1978 41 .: Description and thorough characterization of GARSV identified as a new species in the subgroup B of the genus Nepovirus Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic et al. 2.
1985. Dimitrijevic: GBLV found in Yugoslavia De Mendonça et al.A.. 269-272. The Portuguese strain supports the replication of a satellite RNA. quinoa. De Sequeira and Vasconcelos-Costa: Use of an immunoradiometric assay for the titration of the Portuguese strain of GBLV. Gallitelli et al. Martelli G. Proceedings 6th Meeting of ICVG. Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus. D. Savino and O. Quacquarelli and D. Russo et al.A. Cordoba 1976. P.C. 1980. Monografias INIA 18 . 1981. O. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. and J. A.. M. Ferreira A. Physical and chemical properties of the particles and ribonucleic acid of blueberry leaf mottle virus. Quacquarelli. 1979. Pocsai: Occurence of GBLV in Hungary. V. D.A.. Numéro hors série. A. D.P. Numéro hors série... Applicability of immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) for the detection and identification of CM112 virus in grapevine. De Sequeira. Proceeding 4th Meeting of ICVG. Colmar 1970. Phytopathology 71. Properties of a distinctive strain of Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus. and R. Abracheva.. Colmar. 1972. De Sequeira O. Martelli et al. Niagara Falls 1980. Pocsai E. 1981. O. 1970. Gallitelli D. 143-145 De Mendonça A. M..Sur l'isolement d'un virus à partir de cultures de tissus de vigne. Martelli G. Mota. 21-24. Vasconcelos-Costa. Savino. Some properties of grapevine Bulgarian latent virus. 186 Martelli G.Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG. Jankulova. V.P. 27-32.. Possibilities for the whole-year ELISA detection of viruses infecting grapevines. Ramsdell and Stace-Smith: The New York isolate of GBLV is a strain of BLMoV. Di Franco.: A comparative study of Bulgarian GBLV isolates and the Portuguese virus CM112 establishes that CM112 is a serologically close but distinguishable strain of GBLV. Krastanova et al. 95-101. De Sequeira. Annals of Applied Biology 85. References De Mendonça A.: Detection of virus CM112 in grapevine leaf extracts by ISEM. 1980. Niagara Falls 1980. Varennes and De Sequeira: First application of ELISA for the detection of virus CM112.A. Savino and A. Niagara Falls 1980. Ferreira.A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 22. 1992. The ultrastructure of grapevine Bulgarina latent virus infections in natural and artificial hosts. A preliminary report.A. Dimitrijevic B.N.: Ultrastructural study of GBLV infections in grapevine and C.A.1979 Martelli et al. Simoes.P. V. 1980. 349-354. 1977. 113-120. 1983. 245-250. 1972. Proceeding 4th Meeting of ICVG. P. Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG. Annales de Phytopathologie.: Improvement of ELISA protocol for GBLV detection the whole year round. Gallitelli. 1978. Preliminary studies on an undescribed grapevine virus. Annales de Phytopathologie. De Sequeira and A. Krastanova S. Savino and A. Abracheva. 42 .: A comparative study of three GBLV isolates from Bulgaria shows that they are closely related but serologically distiguishable and that can infect seedlings and rooted cuttings of different grapevine cultivars without inducing symptoms. 1980 1980 1980 1980 1981 1981 1982 1983 1985 1992 3. Gallitelli.P. Martelli G. A manually transmissible latent virus of the grapevine from Bulgaria.. Yankulova. Russo and V.. Pereira and V. and O. Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG. 468-472. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 16. France. Garcia de Orta Estacao Agronomica 12. A. 135-141. De Sequeira. Ramsdell D. No. Rasteniev'dni Nauki 29. 217-222. Quacquarelli. Stace-Smith. Ganeva and M. Some properties of the new latent virus from grapevine rootstocks in Yugoslavia.: Detection of GBLV in grapevine leaf extracts by ISEM. An immunoradiometric assay for the titration of a Portugese strain of grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV). Gallitelli. M. Occurence of grapevine Bulgarian latent virus in Hungary. 51-58.
Martelli et al. The genome is bipartite. Croatia and Austria. sometimes together with X. wt of 2. Some virus strains induce leaf deformity. RNA-2 has Mol. Pozsár et al.A. Description Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV) was first found in Hungary. transmitted to herbaceous hosts from Hungarian grapevines with symptoms similar to those of fanleaf and yellow mosaic. wt of 1. Historical review 1966 Martelli et al. Tobacco pants and the rootstock 110R have been successfully transformed with the viral coat protein for induction of resistance. 1982. It has been recorded also from Czechoslovakia. Varennes A. 269-277. near Lake Balaton. Plant Disease Reporter 61. symptomless infection may occur. and O. a size of 7212 nt and accounts for 40% of the particle weight. Evaluation of short reaction times and re-use of a-globulin and conjugate. Although GCMV particles have been detected by immunosorbent electron microscopy in Xiphinema index fed on infected hosts.: The isometric virus associated with Hungarian chrome mosaic is serologically distantly related to Tomato black ring virus (TBRV). index.: Host range and properties of a spherical virus.8 x 106 . Taschenberg and D. Virus re-named Grapevine chrome mosaic virus. 1977. The virus belongs in the same subgroup of TBRV (subgroup B) to which is distantly related serologically. E. However. Lehoczky and Tasnady: A study of the effect of HCMV on yield and sugar content of infected grapevines. called Hungarian chrome mosaic virus. Leaves of infected vines are partially or entirely bright yellow or whitish.Uyemoto J.6 x 106 . early reports that this nematode could transmit the virus have not been confirmed. index. vuittenezi transmits GCMV or GFLV. The virus is not serologically related with GFLV. index as vector of the virus (unconfirmed results). Affected vines lack in vigour and may decline and die. GRAPEVINE CHROME MOSAIC VIRUS (GCMV) 1. double nodes and short internodes. Martelli and Quacquarelli: Description of HCMV in the CMI/AAB Descripitons of Plant Viruses series. a symptom virtually indistiguishable from GFLV-induced yellow mosaic. and was originally called Hungarian chrome mosaic virus.: GCMV recorded from Slovakia and report of X. The coat protein has a single type of subunits of Mr 52 x 103. RNA-1 has Mol. The virus appears to be unrelated serologically to GFLV and is not transmitted by X. pretty much like GFLV. Martelli and Sarospataki: X. vuittenezi is very frequently found in vineyards with chrome mosaic patches. Hummer..K. Saric and Hranuelli: GCMV recorded from Croatia. No evidence that X. Isolation and identification of a strain of grapevine Bulgarian latent virus in Concord grapevines in New York State. Detection of CM122 latent grapevine virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 2. a size of 4441 nt and accounts for 31% of the particle weight. GCMV is transmitted through grapevine seeds. Mali et al. Martelli: Purification and serology of the virus isolated from Hungarian grapevines with fanleafand yellow mosaic-like symptoms. 1966 1968 1968 1969 1969 1971 1972a 1972b 1972 1975 1977 43 .F.: HCMV adversely affects photosynthetical carbon dioxide fixation. De Sequeira. Kenten: GCMV is distantly serologically related to Cacao necrosis virus.K. Jakó et al: HCMV affects pigment and sugar content of infected grapevine leaves. 949-953. Agronomia Lusitana 41. Martelli and Quacquarelli : Physico-chemical characterization of HCMV and comparison with TBRV.
Dimou D. Brault V. Laimer da Camara Machado and V. Russo et al. 89-97. Savino. Taylor and Brown: Results of GCMV transmission trials with X. Dunez. Bretout C. T. D'Onghia. References Brandt S. O. Brandt and Himmler: Development of a IC-PCR protocol for GCMV detection in cortical scrapings from dormant grapevine canes. M.: Complete nucleotide sequence of GCMV RNA-2. Roberts and Brown: Detection of GCMV in X. M. and G. Detection of nepoviruses in ligneous grapevine material using IC/PCR. M. Dunez.: Characterization of a GCMV strain and confirmation of its serological relationship with TBRV. A. Candresse. Further demonstration that the two viruses are related.: Description of a certification scheme for the production of virus-free propagating material in Hungary. Dimou et al.: Up-to-date report on virus diseases of grapevines in Hungary and description of the clean stock programme implemented in the country. Virus and RNAspecific molecular hydridization probes for two nepoviruses.M. Le Gall. T.: Detection of GCMV in leaf dips by ISEM. Kölber et al. Le Gall et al. Candresse. Journal of Phytopathology 142.: GCMV and TBRV can recombine.: GCMV cross-protects Chenopodium quinoa from the severe apical necrosis induced by a TBRV strain. Le Gall et al. 127-128. Genetically engineered resistance against grapevine chrome mosaic virus. Lehoczky: Pinot noir and Jubileum 75 are good indicators for GCMV. 231-238. Doz et al.: GCMV recorded from Austria. Le Gall et al. 1993. 3. Nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of Hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus RNA2. V.. Lázár et al. 1994. Le Gall.. Hilbrand. index extracts by ISEM. Nucleic Acid Research 17. Vitis 34..: Transformation of roostock 110R with the coat protein gene of GCMV. 1989. 1989. 44 . No assessment of resistance made. Plant Molecular Biology 21. Acta Horticulture 235. The virus vector is yet to be identified. Brault V. Le Gall and J. Candresse. Brault et al. 7809-7819. This finding does not imply vectoring capacity by this nematode. Bretout et al. Occurrence of grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus in Austria. O. 1995. Brault.P. Himmler. Lanneau and J. T. O.: Development of molecular probes for GCMV detection. R.: GCMV detected by ELISA in infected field-grown vines. Lehoczky et al.: Tobacco plants genetically engineered with the coat protein gene of GCMV are resistant to infection. Delbos. L. Dodd and Robinson: GCMV and TBRV are molecularly related. Dunez. index are inconclusive. Ravelonandro and J.: Complete nucleotide sequence of GCMV RNA-1. Lázár et al: Seed transmission of GCMV in grapevine.1979 1980 1980 1982 1984 1985 1985 1989 1989 1989 1990 1993 1993 1994 1994 1995 1995 1997 2000 Lehoczky et al. 258-262. Brault et al.
1968. with Special Reference to Vitis.. 1-7. 567-568. Kölber M. R. 3. Martelli G. Le Gall O.. Candresse and A. Beczner. J. Studies on the nitrogen metabolism of vines infected with yellow mosaic virus. Numero hors série. 1966. Pacsa and J. 102. A Handbook. J. Lehoczky J. Serologische Verwandschaft eines mit dem ungarischen "chrome mosaic" vergesellschafteten Virus mit einem Stamm des "tomato black ring virus". Horváth. Jakó N. Szonyegi and M. G. Lázár J. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 8. and D. J. Pol'nohopodarska Veda . Sarospataki. Hungarian chrome mosaic of grapevine and tomato black ring: two similar but unrelated plant viruses. J. Martelli G. Davis 1965. Dunez. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts. Effect of the grape chrome mosaic and grape fanleaf-yellow mosaic virus infection on the photosynthetical carbon dioxide fixation in vine leaves. Torregrosa . Division of Agricultural Sciences.. Lázár J. L. Le Gall O.Tasnady.. ArMV) in the seeds and seedlings of grapevine by ELISA. Sznyegi. and A.P. GFV-YM. NW Frazier (ed. S. G. Nematodes of the family Longidoridae (Thorne 1935) Meyl 1960 found in Hungarian vineyards and virus transmission trials with Xiphinema index Thorne et Allen. Nouvelle évidence d'une parenté sérologique éloignée entre ce virus et celui deas anneaux noirs de la tomate (tBRV). Luntz. 236-237. Danglot. Lehoczky. 1990. Lehoczky and G. V. 171-170. 1731-1740.. 49-64.R. and A. Kiserletugyi-Kozlemenyek 64 (1-3). Robinson. S. Nucleic Acid Research 17. 402-410.. 103. Dunez. Lázár. Bojnansky. J. Martelli G. University of California. Quacquarelli. Kertgazdasag 22. Quacquarelli. Sarospataki. and G. The effect of fanleaf and chrome mosaic virus diseases on yield and the fruit sugar content of grapevine. Kuszala and A. 1285-1289. Detection of some nepoviruses (GFV. O. Nucleotide sequence of Hungarian grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus RNA1.P. 58-72.J. Caractérization d'une souche du virus de la mosaïque jaune crome de la vigne (GCMV) isolée en Hongrie de vignes non panachées. Martelli G. Transfer of the 3' non-translated region of grapevine chrome mosaic virus RNA-1 by recombination to tomato black ring virus RNA-2 in pseudorecombinant isolates. Weinberg und Keller 15. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Pozsár B. Lehoczky . Lehoczky and A.. Candresse.. 185-192. Martelli G.P. Kölber M.P.P. Jakó N. No. 1989. 165-173. 1975. 206-210. Lehoczky J. 1970. 1972b. 172-173.. Quacquarelli. Cardin.. 45 . 1984. Journal of General Virology 65. Candresse and J. 1995. Detection of grapevine chrome mosaic virus in naturally infected vines by indexing..C. In: Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines. Lehoczky and A. Adelaide 2000. Certification scheme for production of virus-free grape propagating material and its results in Hungary. Hungarian chrome mosaic. 1966. Montreux 1993. Host range and properties of a virus associated with Hungarian grapevines showing macroscopic symptoms of fanleaf and yellow mosaic.. L. J. Muranyi . Dunez. M. Kölber. a serotype ot tomato black ring virus.P... Vanek and V.. 1982. 1979. Sarospataki and J. 119-126. Journal of General Virology 76. Transmission by nematodes of some grapevine viruses occurring in Czecholovakia and Hungary. 1985. 2000. Davis 1965. Berkeley. Y. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. 1972. E. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of grapevine somatic embryos and regeneration of transgenic plants expressing the coat protein of grapevine chrome mosaic nepovirus (GCMV). Mikulás. Kölber and J. The change of pigment and sugar content in the chrome mosaic virus infected leaves of grapevine. 389-401. 123-141. 1966. 7795-7807. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. 1985. 1972a. Prémunition: une competition entre souches faibles et souches sévères pour un voie commune d'expression de symptômes. Martelli G. Quacquarelli. 1-130.) University of California. 169-170. Les Colloques de l'INRA 11. Kenten R. L. A. 129-134. Annales de Phytopathologie. with Special Reference to Vitis. Sarospataki. Bouquet.. S. 1971. 505. and G. 1968. Le Gall O. Nucleotide sequence homologies among RNA species of strains of tomato black ring virus and other nepoviruses. A. L. 1969. Vitis 8. Lehoczky and G. Quacquarelli and J. Division of Agricultural Sciences. T. Vuittenez.P. J. 1993. Acta Phytopathologica Academia Scientiarum Hungaricae 3. Doz B. Martelli G. Farkas. G. Delbos and J. Plant Science. 1969.. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Grapevine virus diseases and clean stock program in Hungary. Hajdú. 135-140. Lehoczky. Devergne. G. Preliminary report on purification and serology of a virus associated with Hungarian grapevines showing macroscopic symptoms of fanleaf and yellow mosaic. M. Acta Phytopathologica Academia Scientiarum Hungaricae 1.. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts. Brault and J.. 29-44. T. Lehoczky J. Lehoczky. Grapevine chrome mosaic virus.Dodd S. 1994. T.M. The purification and some properties of cocoa necrosis virus. Sarospataki. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. and S. University of California. Detection of grapevine chrome mosaic virus in field-grown vines by ELISA.. Division of Agricultural Sciences. GCMV. Annals of Applied Biology 71. J. Mali V. Annales de Phytopathologie 11.J.Ser.H. Lehoczky J.
2003. Historical review 1991 Ouertani et al.. Martelli and V. Complete nucleotide sequence of RNA-2 of two Turkish nepoviruses.800 nt. Martelli. 251-257. 471-475 Cigsar I. and belongs in the subgroup C of the genus Nepovirus. Taylor C. Particles are isometric c. References Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic N. Based on its properties the virus appears to be a new nepovirus serologically unrelated to any of 19 members of the genus and has no known vector. Oxon. mol. Investigations on grapevine viruses in Croatia.. 149-151.Russo M. S.P. distantly serologically related with ArMV. Description Grapevine Tunisian ringspot virus (GTRSV). wt of 2. Grapevine deformation virus. 35-41. Boscia and G. The scattered distribution of infected vines in the field suggests that the virus is spread primarily by infected propagative material. Coat protein subunits have a Mr 53 x 103. Savino.: First isolation by mechanical transmission of an unknown nepovirus from cv. RNA-1 has a mol. 1997. Sabanadzovic. wt of 1. and T. identified as a new species in the subgroup A of the genus Nepovirus. a novel nepovirus from Turkey. 2.The virus has no recognized vector. GRAPEVINE DEFORMATION VIRUS (GDefV) 1. G. M. CAB International. M. wt of 2. Mostar 1977. The virus belongs in the subgroup A of the genus Nepovirus. and D.. Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses. was isolated from a Tunisian grapevine with mild fanleaflike symptoms. 1980. D. 46 .: A mechanically transmissible virus was recovered by sap inoculation from Tunisian grapevines showing mild fanleaf-like symptoms. 6. is distantly related serologically to ArMV but not to GFLV. M. Niagara Falls 1980.F Brown. 335-340 Cigsar I. wt of 2 x 106 daltons and apparent size of c. Hranuelli. 5.: Description and thorough characterization of GDefV. Proceedings of the Conference on Excoriosis and Virus Diseases of Grapevine. Journal of Plant Pathology 85. N. Proceedings of the 7th Meeting of ICVG.P. GRAPEVINE TUNISIAN RINGSPOT VIRUS (GTRSV) 1. The genome is bipartite. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 32.). De Stradis. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic et al. GTRSV is serologically unrelated to any of 19 nepoviruses tested. Immunosorben electron microscopy for detecting saptransmissible viruses of grapevine. 2002. Digiaro and G.800 nt) and B (particles containing a molecule of RNA-1 with Mol. showing leaf and cane deformations Cigsar et al. E.6 x 106 Da and RNA-2. Historical review 2002 2003 2005 Cigsar et al. Martelli. GDefV is readily detected by ELISA and PCR using primers designed on the coat protein sequence.P.3 x 106 Da and a size of 3753 nt. 2005.. Digiaro and G. A. including all those known to infect grapevine.J. 286 pp. No vector is known and no information is available on the distribution and economic importance of the virus. : Complete nucleotide sequence of GDefV RNA-2 3. Digiaro. Saric A. is not seed-borne and reported only from south-eastern Turkey. Martelli. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic. The virus sediments as three components: T (empty shells). Gokalp. 2. Virus Genes 30.P. K. M (particles contaning a molecule of RNA-2 with Mol. 1977. 30 nm in diameter and sediment as three components.4 x 106 daltons and apparent size of c.. Description Grapevine deformation virus (GDefV) was recovered from Turkish grapevines showing distinct fanleaf-like symptoms. Sanitary status of grapevine in south eastern and central Anatolia.
The type strain of RpRSV is transmitted by Longidorus macrosoma but the grapevine strain is transmitted by Paralongidorus maximus. Murant: Description of RpBRSV in the CMI/AAB Plant Virus Description series Stellmach and Querfurth: Study of a strain of RpRSV isolated from cv. Journal of General Virology 73. 2. RNA-2 is 3928 nt in size and contains a single ORF encoding a polypeptide with Mr of 124 kDa. The coat protein has a single type of subunits with Mr 54 x 103.. Savino. Wardell J. Wetzel. McGavin. V. No. Elbling in West Germany. 47 . 2189-2194.P. G. References Ouertani R. 1978. 1982. Archives of Virology 126. 198. D.L. The nucleotide sequence of RNA 2 of raspberry ringspot nepovirus. A.J. Mögliche Beziehungen zwischen Virus und Symptomausprägung bei der Rebe. Brückbauer H. Description Raspberry ringspot virus (RpRSV) is a nepovirus belonging in subgroup A of this genus.6 x 106 (RNA-2). Minafra. Scottish and English. D. 107-117.M. Ebel R. Castellano. The viral genome is a bipartite positive sense ssRNA. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. G. Robinson. References Blok V. Crop losses can be higher than 30 %. A. Jolly.. Two strains of different virulence occur in the Palatinate. and differs from the type strain for it often sediments as if it were a single centrifugal component.C. Symptoms are similar to those of fanleaf. Altmayer. Jones A. Locorotondo 2003.: Biological and physico-chemical characterization of the grapevine strain of RpRSV. Heat therapy of infected grapevines. consisting of two separately encapsidated molecules with Mol.A.6 x 106 (RNA-1) and 1. Brown. Boscia. Brückbauer: RpRSV can be distinguished from other nepoviruses on the basis of symptoms induced on Vitis idicator plants Blok et al. FS4 is a good indicator. Raspberry ringspot virus. Reustle. 283-300.F.A. The grapevine strain of this virus is serologically very distantly related to the two main serotypes.. 88-118. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. RASPBERRY RINGSPOT VIRUS (RpRSV) 1. Particles are about 30 nm in diameter. 1992.J. G. 1992.. Manoukian. 1994. C. Die Wein-Wissenschaft 37. M. Properties of an unusual isolate of raspberry ringspot virus from grapevine in Germany and evidence of its possibile transmission by Paralogidorus maximus.J.3. Molecular characterization of two German Raspberry ringspot virus isolates infecting grapevines and construction of full length infectious clones. Murant A. D. accounting for 29% (component M) and 43% (component B) of the particle weight.: Recovery of RpRSV from grapevines of Palatinate. Annals of Applied Biology 124. Historical review 1970 1978 1978 1982 1992 1994 Vuittenez et al. Rüdel and B.A. 2003. Krczal and T. W. Martelli and N. 16. Edwards and M. The virus has only been found in grapevine in western Germany. and sediment as three components (T. Mayo. and B). M.T. wt of 2.: Sequencing and molecular characterization of two German isolates of RpRSV from grapevine 2003 3. Greco.F. have angular outline. These differences strongly suggest that the grapevine-infecting RpRSV may be a different viral species.: Nucleotide sequence of RpRSV RNA-2 Jones et al. M. A Schnabel. M. This strain differs considerably from the English type strain of the virus although is serologically closely related to it. Properties of a previously undescribed grapevine nepovirus from Tunisia. The virus is transmitted by Paralogidorus maximus Ebel et al.
Their coat protein consists of a single type of subunits with Mr of about 57 kDa. Rüdel and H Brückbauer. Losses are not known precisely. and Ontario (Canada). Greece. Vuittenez A. Description Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) was first found in grapevines in Germany. or directly in grapevine leaf extracts using bentonite flocculation test. The genome is a bipartite positive sense single-stranded RNA occurring as two separately encapsidated functional molecules with Mol. chlorotic spots. Stellmach: Review paper on TBRV in grapevine. Turkey.5 x 106 daltons and a size of 1327 nt. mottling of the older leaves. but they can be high. Israel. Stobbs and Van Schagen: First record of TBRV from Canada. SLRV and TBRV found in grapevine in the Palatinate. M.: Nucleotide sequence of a TBRV satellite RNA. The latex test is considered as the most sensitive and the least time consuming method. Lehoczky and Burgyan: Occurrence of TBRV in grapevines in Hungary. RpRV and TBRV detected serologically in grapevine in West Germany. Pathologie und Thermo-Labilität mehrerer Reben-Isolate des Himbeerringflecken-Virus (raspberry-ringspot. TBRV supports the replication of a satellite RNA with Mol.7 x 106 (RNA-1) and 1. Ontario as the cause of severe damage to cv.virus). Historical review 1963 1965 1966 Stellmach and Bercks: TBRV detected in rootstock Aramon x V. 2. Bercks: Comparison of three serological tests for detecting several viruses. Joannes Seyve virus. M. riparia 143 A in West Germany. and G. respectively. Joannes Seyve. du virus des anneaux noires de la tomate (tomato black ring) et du virus des taches annulaires du framboisier (raspberry ringspot) chez des vignes du Palatinat. Virus particles are isometric. RRV and TBRV are not transmitted by contact of roots or foliage in the vineyard. Weinberg und Keller 25. is a strain of this virus.Stellmach G. Untersuchungen zur Serologie. and an increase in graft failure. 1970. Bercks and Stellmach: ArMV. known to cause severe damage to the grapevine variety Joannes Seyve in Ontario. Annales de Phytopathologie 2. about 30 nm in diameter have angular outline and sediment as three components (T. Détection et étude selogique du virus latent des taches annulires du frasier (strawberry latent ringspot). TBRV produces a reduction in growth and yield. Rüdel: Transmission of TBRV to grapevine by Longidorus attenuatus. RNA-2 is 4662 nt in size encoding a polyprotein with Mr of 150 kDa. either by agar gel diffusion with extracts of herbaceous hosts previously infected mechanically from grapevine. Stellmach and Bercks: Further investigations on TBRV in grapevine. latex test and barium sulfate test. Querfurth. J. The virus is a definitive nepovirus species classified in subgroup A of this genus. including TBRV : bentonite flocculation test. Vuittenez et al. The vector to grapevine is Longidorus attenuatus. then in Yugoslavia. Kuszala. Meyer et al. 279-327 TOMATO BLACK RING VIRUS (TBRV) 1.65 x 106 (RNA-2) accounting for 44% and 37% of the particle weight.: RRV. 1967 1970 1970b 1976 1977 1980 1984 1984 1986 48 . The virus was detected in grapevines in the Niagara Peninsula. and B). 128-136. Bercks and Querfurth: GFLV. its own subgroup. Tanne: Detection of TBRV by ELISA in Israel. 1978. wt of 0. RNA-1 is 7356 nt in size and contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with Mr of 254 kDa. wt of 2. ArMV.. rings and lines on the leaves of recently infected plants.
A. It was also detected in imported vines in Turkey and Portugal. Journal of General Virology 65. 279-327. Kreiah et al. M. 1984. Détection et étude sérologique du virus latent des taches annulaires du Fraisier (strawberry latent ringspot). Description Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV) has been isolated from grapevine in the Palatinate (Germany) and in northern Italy. respectively. Hemmer. Historical review 1974 1977 1981 1982 1982 1987 1993 1994 2005 Murant: Description of SLRSV in the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant vrises series. Fritsch. Researches on grapevine virus diseases and determination of their incidence in Ankara. Hemmer and C. 1984. Symptoms on affected European grapes are of the fanleaf type.6 x 106 (RNA-1) accounting for 38% of the particle weight. O. The virus is transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum. Complete nucleotide sequence of a satellite RNA of tomato black ring virus. Their coat protein consists of two types of subunits with Mr 43 x 103 and 27 x 103. Canadian Plant Disease Survey 64.: Nucleotide sequence of TBRV RNA-2 Greif et al. about 30 nm in diameter have angular outline and sediment as three components (T.1986 1988 1993 Meyer et al.. Greif C. O. M. Vuittenez A. The genome is a bipartite positive sense singlestranded RNA occurring as two separately encapsidated functional molecules with Mol. Savino et al.G. 1970. Rüdel and H. O. 1988. 55-61. References Akbas B. Occurrence of tomato black ring virus on grapevine in southern Ontario. and G. Journal of Gerneal Virology 67. 2. Fritsch. 1257-1271 Stobbs L. wt 2. The virus supports the replication of a satellite RNA 1118 nt in size. and B).: SLRSV and other nepoviruses isolated from grapevines in Germany Credi et al. Fritsch.. RNA-2 is 3824 nt in size and encodes a single ORF expressing a polypetide with Mr of about 99 kDa. Assignement of SLRSV to the new genus Sadwavirus.: SLRSV found in grapevine in Turkey. Van Schagen. Virus particles are isometric. Annales de Phytopathologie 2. Turkiye. Babini and Bertaccini: Electron microscope study SLRSV infections in plant tissues.: SLRSV recorded from grapevine in Italy. Meyer M.: Nucleotide sequence of SLRSV satellite RNA. Bercks et al. Brückbauer. du virus des anneaux noirs de la Tomate (tomato black ring). Erdiller. Hemmer and C. Brückbauer: SLRSV can be distinguished from other nepoviruses on the basis of symptoms induced on Vitis idicator plants.W. and 1. 1575-1583. Mayo and C. Le Gall et al. Kuszala. 1993. The nucleotide sequence of tomato black ring virus RNA-2. Meyer M.: Nucleotide sequence of TBRV RNA-1 Abkas and Erdiller: TBRV recorded from grapevines in Turkey 3. The virus is a definitive species in the genus Sadwavirus. Kreiah et al. Journal of General Virology 69. M. J. Genus SADWAVIRUS STRAWBERRY LATENT RINGSPOT VIRUS (SLRSV) 1.6 x 106 (RNA-2). 49 . et du virus des taches annulaires du Framboisier (raspberry ringspot) chez des vignes du Palatinat. and J. 3-5.. 1517-1529. Nucleotide sequence of tomato black ring virus RNA-1. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology 22.: Nucleotide sequence of SLRSV RNA-2. 1986.
Betti. G. Lehto. (eds) 799-802 Elsevier/Academic Press.R. 1163-1165. J.M. Die Wein-Wissenschaft 37. Kreiah S. H. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No. A. Yilmaz. A.. G. Le Gall O.. 304-308. T Jones. In: Virus Taxonomy.. Yoshikawa. Weinberg und Keller 24. References Babini A. 102-104. Iwanami. Bertaccini and C. Sanfaçon. Babini. Cooper and G.I. T. Turkey.I. London. 1994. G... Untersuchungen überdie Viruskrankheited der rebe unter besonderer Berüchsichtigung “atypischer Formen” der Reisigkrankheit. Mögliche Beziehungen zwischen Virus und Symptomausprägung bei der Rebe. L.3.. L.V. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 35. Journal of General Virology. 1982. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 20. A distinctive isolate of Strawberry latent ringspot virus from grapevines in Italy. 1974.P. Karasev. Eight Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (Fauquet. Sequence analysis and location of capsid protein within RNA 2 of strawberry latent ringspot virus. Maniloff. 50 .R.M.. Wellink.A. Brückbauer H. Strunk and J. 2527-2532. J. Strawberry latent ringspot virus in grapevine. 1982. M. Murant A.A. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 104.A. 126.. The nucleotide sequence of a satellite RNA associated with strawberry latent ringspot virus. 2005. 1977. Mayo. D'Onghia and M. 74. Journal of General Virology 75. 133-180. K. Bercks R.F. Martelli. A. 1987.. Desselberger. Credi R. Querfurth and M. 88-118. Brückbauer.. H. 1993. Bertaccini. Strawberry latent ringspot virus.. Cooper. 56-63.. Viral aggregates induced by a distinctive strain of strawberry latent ringspot virus from grapevine. 1981. Wetzel and N. and A. Rüdel. U. A. Strunk. and Ball. Kreiah S. Gelli. J. Genus Sadwavirus. C. Savino V. T.
most V. X. but not conclusive. Concord it delays bud burst. ingiallimento nervale (Ital. sedimenting as three components. rupestris plasma show field resistance to the northern US strain of ToRSV and to TRSV and PRMV. ELISA and molecular tools are useful for testing field-infected material. whereas in V. mottled (oak leaf pattern. americanum sensu stricto. elongatus. except for BLMoV which may have been introduced from Europe. induces fanleaf-like symptoms on leaves and canes. Alternative weed hosts that have epidemiological significance are known for ToRSV. Vitis vinifera. interestingly. TRSV is transmitted by X. Varietal susceptibility: There are great variations in the susceptibility of Vitis species and cultivars. labrusca cv.e. berlandieri or V. Description Main synonyms: Yellow vein. labrusca is also resistant to TRSV. Adernvergilbung (Germ. Infected vines decline slowly over time. distortion of canes. californicum transmits ToRSV yellow vein strain. Peach rosette mosaic virus (PRMV) in V.g. depérissement de la vigne (Fr. A number of rootstocks containing V. Transmission: These viruses are all transmitted by grafting and mechanical inoculation. Nematicidal control of vectors is possible.).) Main symptoms: Symptomatological responses of grapevines vary according to the species (i. California) yield but not vigour is affected.GRAPEVINE DEGENERATION AND DECLINE (AMERICAN NEPOVIRUSES) 1. deperimento della vite. malformation and mottling of the leaves. exhibiting stunted growth. BLUEBERRY LEAF MOTTLE VIRUS (BLMoV) 1. grapevine decline. New York State and Ontario) own-rooted European grapes affected by Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) and Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) decline rapidly. riparia. straggly and shelled clusters. TRSV. its main host. labrusca. wt of 2.). This type of resistance is hypersensitivity. All these viruses. are involved in the aetiology of North American grapevine degeneration and decline. americanum sensu lato and PRMV by X. In warmer climates (Maryland. the infecting virus and the climatic conditions. All roostocks and. Control: Use of virus-free propagating material and resistant rootstocks. Blueberry leaf mottle virus (BLMoV) infects latently European grapes. and/or ring spots) and distorted leaves. poor fruit setting. Description Blueberry leaf mottle virus (BLMoV) is named after the disease induced in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). V. The genome is a bipartite. positive-sense. about 30 nm in diameter with angular outline. rivesi transmit ToRSV type strain (decline). TRSV and PRMV.). Partial sequence of the 3' 51 . vinifera cultivars are reported as immune to the Californian strain of ToRSV Detection: All viruses are transmissible to herbaceous hosts mechanically and to woody indicators by grafting. and poor fruit setting Agent: The above mentioned four distinct nepoviruses. labrusca causes a severe disease characterized by delayed bud burst. Their coat protein consists of a single type of subunits with Mr of about 54 x 103 Da. Longidorus diadecturus and L.15 x 106 (RNA-2). V. V.35 x 106 (RNA-1) and 2. jaunissement des nervures. ToRSV and BLMoV are also seed transmitted in grapes. No vector is known for BLMoV. little grape (Eng. BLMoV is a definitive nepovirus species assigned to subgroup C. Virus particles are isometric. and poor fruit setting. PRMV. BLMoV. Bunches are small and straggly (Maryland's grapevine little berry) and leaves may show chrome yellow flecking along the veins (California's yellow vein). In cold climates (e. and ToRSV separately or in combination. which in blueberry is transmitted by pollen. PRMV. All other viruses are transmitted by longidorid nematodes: Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto and X. Long distance spread takes place primarily through infected propagating material. are endemic in North America and thought to be native of the region. single-stranded RNA occurring as two separately encapsidated functional molecules with Mol . interspecific hybrids).
1977. which may lead to their death. wt of 2.Rasmdel and J. and has no economic importance. E. but identified as a strain of GBLV. especially) and a number of American-French hybrids have been recorded. quinoa. quinoa (90% of infected seedlings). Phytopathology 71.4 x 106 (RNA-1) and 2. : Partial nucleotide sequence of BLMoV RNA-1 and RNA-2 1981 1994 3. mostly to vines adjacent to previously infected plants. The virus is a definitive nepovirus species assigned to subgroup C.C. PEACH ROSETTE MOSAIC VIRUS (PRMV) 1. Historical review 1977 Uyemoto et al: BLMoV isolated from New York 'Concord' vines showing fanleaf-like symptoms. 2. Occasional. Hancock. Infected grapevines show shortened and crooked shoots. labrusca cultivars (Concord. PRMV can also be introduced in a site by infected planting material and be spread by vectors to adjacent vines. Healthy grapevines become infected when planted in soils from diseased vineyards. which induces fanleaf-type symptoms and is distantly related to GBLV. Description Peach rosette mosaic virus (PRMV) is named after the disease induced in peach. mottled and variously deformed leaves and delayed bud burst. RNA1 is 8004 nt in size and contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with Mr of 240 kDa. The virus is transmitted through seeds in grapevines and C. Grapevines (Vitis labrusca) are infected in New York State (USA) by a serologically distinct strain of the virus. 1994. Concord grapes are apparently virus-free but 9. As the virus is endemic and seed-borne in some perennial weeds Taraxacum officinale (dandelion). 145-156 Ramsdell D. Solanum carolinense (Carolina horse nettle) and Rumex crispus (curly dock).5% of seedlings from seeds taken from diseased vines proved to be infected.W. The virus is seed-transmitted in grapevines and C. Their coat protein consists of a single type of subunits with Mr of about 57 x 103 Da.Use of resistant roostock hybrids and of certified planting material is recommended. quinoa Ramsdell and Stace-Smith: Physico-chemical characterization of BLMoV and evidence that the New York grapevine virus is a strain of BLMoV Bacher et al. D. 468-472. Sequence analysis of the 3' temini of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of blueberry leaf mottle virus. 949-953.2 x 106 (RNA-2) accounting for 44% and 37% of the particle weight. when a vineyard is planted susceptible cultivars may become infected by nematode vectors.F.termini of both RNA molecules has been determined. vector populations . PRMV is seed-borne in both naturally infected dandelion (4% of infected seeldlings) and in artificially infected C. Uyemoto J. Isolation and identification of a strain of grapevine Bulgarian latent virus in Concord grapevines in New York State. and with extensive shelling of the berries. 52 . References Bacher J. respectively. and R.. but not eradicate. Hummer. smaller and fewer than normal . elongatus has also been reported. Virus Research 33.K. Prolonged fallow is not an effective means of control because viruliferous nematodes remain alive for many years thriving on infected surviving roots and alternative weed hosts. Vines are stunted and show a progressive decline. but in highbush blueberry the virus is pollen-borne and suspected to be pollen-transmitted . Warkentin. PRMV is soil-borne. The vector is unknown. possibily non specific transmission by L. Crop losses up to 60% and death of susceptible V. sedimenting as three components. D. Roguing of infected trees and preplanting autumn fumigation with high rates of fumigant injected at two depths (15-20 cm and 75-90 cm) can effectively reduce. Clusters are straggly. 1981.. Stace-Smith. about 28 nm in diameter with angular outline. The genome is a bipartite positive sense single-stranded RNA occurring as two separately encapsidated functional molecules with Mol. Virus particles are isometric. Physical and chemical properties of the particles and ribonucleic acid of blueberry leaf mottle virus. Vectors are the Dorylaimoid nematodes Xiphinema americanum sensu lato and Longidorus diadecturus. one of its crop plant hosts. Plant Disease Reporter 61.F. Taschenberg and D. Pollen grains of cv. where the disease occurs in more or less circular patches and spreads slowly.K.
S. Cation. Dias: Grapevine and peach strains of PRMV can be differentiated serologically. 105-106..: Xiphinema americanum is an efficient vector of PRMV.A Ebsary. 1984. 53 . and D. The characterization of a virus responsible for peach rosette mosaic and grape decline in Michigan. 1978 1979 1980 1982 1983 1984 1985 1988 1988 1995 1998 1999 3. 1988. 16-18.. Ramsdell and Gillet: Description of PRMV in the AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. Purification and some characteristics of peach rosette mosaic virus (grape isolate). References Allen W. Transmission of peach rosette mosaic virus to peach grape and cucumber by Longidorus diadecturus obtained from diseased orchards in Ontario. Lammers et al.G Van Schagen and E.F.. Dias H.G Van Schagen and B. J. Dias and Allen: Physico-chemical characterization of PRMV. The virus is seedborne in C. Ramsdell et al: High rates of fumigant injected at two depths (15-20 cm and 75-90 cm) during autumn reduce effectively but do not eradicate nematode vector populations in infested soils. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 10. Dias H. 97-103. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 4. Numero hors sèrie. Ramsdell et al: Use of ELISA for PRMV detection in grapevines. Annales de Phytopathologie. crispus) and transmission through grapevine seeds. Ramsdell and Myers: Field spread of PRMV is associated with the presence of infected weeds (T. Ramsdell and Myers: Description of PRMV-induced grapevine degeneration and association of X. Strains of peach rosette mosaic virus differentiated by cross absorption and immunodiffusion tests. quinoa and has reproduced in part the field syndrome when inoculated mechanically to Concord grape seedlings. Carolinense. Ramsdell: Review article on PRMV. Transmission of peach rosette mosaic virus by Ontario populations of Longidorus diadecturus and Xiphinema americanum (Nematoda: Longidoridae).: Nucleotide sequence of RNA-1 of the grapevine strain of PRMV.A Ebsary. 1972a. Allen et al. and B. R. Rasmdell et al. 29-32 Allen W.S Everleigh. Transmission of raspberry ringspot. Canadian Journal of Botany 54.F.: Investigation on the susceptibility to PRMV infection of American and European grapevines and hybrid rootstocks. officinale. americanum with the disease. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 6. 1982. 1972b. Allen and Ebsary: Longidorus attenuatus transmits PRMV non specifically and with low efficiency. Dias H. 1228-1239. Allen et al.: Longidorus diadecturus transmits PRMV to grapevines. Dias and Cation: Biological characterization of the grapevine strain of PRMV.R.F.R. J.R. Annales de Phytopathologie. Historical review 1972a 1972b 1974 1976 Dias: Preliminary characterization of the grapevine isolate of PRMV..2. tomato black ring and peach rosette mosaic viruses by an Ontario population of Longidorus elongatus. 1-5 Allen W. Ramsdell and Gillet: List of grapervine cultivars and roostocks showing differential susceptibility to PRMV. Numero hors sèrie. 1976.
Gillet and G.E Morris. J. Virus particles are isometric. and R. Gillet. Epidemiology of peach rosette mosaic virus in a Concord grape vineyard. 54 . 1998.M. Phytopathology 64. No.: Survey of ToRSV and TRSV in Pennsylvanian vineyards. Preventive control measures are the use of resistant roostock hybrids and of certified planting material. symptomatology and nematodes associated with grapevine 'degeneration' in Michigan. St.H.. Ramsdell D. French hybrids and European grape cultivars to infection by peach rosette mosaic virus. TRSV has a relatively wide natural host range. respectively. 51-52. Ramsdell D. J. Coat protein consists of a single type of subunits with Mr of about 57 x 103 Da. and R.L. 625-627.C. 1988. Canadian Journal of Botany 58. Ramsdell D. 1174-1178. Paul. 1983. Peach rosette mosaic virus. Myers.C.M.W. about 30 nm in diameter with angular outline. 1999. 154-157. Bird GW.. Phytopathologia Mediterrenea 24. 4143.Dias H. Stace-Smith: Description of TRSV in the AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses series. Buzayan et al. Allen.C. R.C. TRSV is soil-borne and is transmitted by Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto.: A review of viruses infecting grapevines in New York vineyards.W. G. 1978. but in European grapes responses are similar to those elicited by GFLV. 1995. .7 x 106 (RNA-1) and 1.C. M.C Ramsdell.C. American Vitis species reported to be resistant to ToRSV and TRSV.C. Plant Disease Reporter 63.M.C.. and J. 1974. Superimposed shallow and deep soil fumigation to control Xiphinema americanum and peach rosette mosaic virus reinfection a Concord vineyard. is endemic in Central and Eastern North America. 364. 1747-1754.C. 1985.R. Peach rosette mosaic virus decline. 57-73. Pearson and A.C. Ramsdell D.: Nucleotide sequence of TRSV satellite RNA. Cloning an sequencing of peach rosette mosaic virus RNA1. Ramsdell D. and J. and B). The virus supports the replication of a circular satellite RNA 359 nt in size. Plant Disease 67. Foster and Morris-Krsinich: In vitro translation of TRSV RNA-1 and TRSV RNA-2 yields major polypeptides with Mr of 225K and 116K. RNA-1 is 7514 nt in size and contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with Mr of 225 kDa. AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. RNA-2 has been sequenced only in part. Peach rosette mosaic virus. and W. 2. Rose. R. A comparison between enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Chenopodium quinoa for detection of peach rosette mosaic virus in 'Concord' grapevines.). Lammers A. Bird. Ramsdell D. In: Compendium of Grape Diseases (R.M. TOBACCO RINGSPOT VIRUS (TRSV) 1.3 x 106 (RNA-2). There is no evidence of seed trasmission in the grapevine. respectively. Uyemoto et al. Symptoms elicited by TRSV are the same as those of ToRSV in native cultivars. 1980. but was recorded from grapevines only in New York State and Pennsylvania.F Allison and D. wt of 2. Goheen eds. Powell et al. Relative susceptibility of American. Plant Disease 79. American Phytopathological Society Press. sedimenting as three components (T.C. 447-450 Ramsdell D.M.: TRSV agent of a new grapevine disease in New York State. G. Gillet and L. Andrews. Characterization of the single protein and the two nucleic acids of peach rosette mosaic virus. Gillet and C. The genome is a bipartite positive sense single-stranded RNA occurring as two separately encapsidated functional molecules with Mol. Myers. Historical review 1970 1977 1985 1985 1986 1990 Gilmer et al. Susceptibility of American grapevine scion cultivars and French hybrid roostocks and scion cultivars to infection by peach rosette mosaic virus. Description Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) is the type species of the genus Nepovirus and the prototype of subgroup A.W. 74-78. Ramsdell D. Virus Research 65. Phytopathology 68.M. accounting for 44% and 28% of B and M particle weight. Gillet.L... 1979.
Infected vines have small. Zallua et al. Uyemoto and L. Virology 151. Coat protein consists of a single type of subunits with Mr of about 58 x 103 Da.K. Preventive control measures are the use of resistant roostock hybrids and of certified planting material.: Nucleotide sequence of TRSV RNA-1 3.R. Keese and A. Description Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) is a definitive species in the genus Nepovirus and the prototype of subgroup C. 2. In California ToRSV affects the yield rather than the vine's growth. 131-136. Longenecker and L. : Partial nucleotide sequence of TRSV RNA-2.L.M. interspecific hybrids). B. 1-8. Singh. 516-519.8 x 106 (RNA-1) and 2. Morris-Krsinich. Incidence of tomato rigspot virus and tobacco ringspot virus in grapevines in Pennsylvania. Buzayan and G. The genome is a bipartite positive sense single-stranded RNA occurring as two separately encapsidated functional molecules with Mol.B. Virology 219. mottled and distorted leaves and short internodes. 619-627. Historical review 1954 1956 1962 Hewitt: Report of an "unfruitful vine" condition in California to which a yellow speckling of the leaves is associated.A. AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses. V. P.. "yellow vein" being the characterizing syndrome of its infections. the infecting virus strain. 1985. Plant Disease 74. ToRSV is soil-borne. Gooding and Hewitt: A mechanically transmissible virus found to be associated with yellow vein. Stace-Smith R. Chemical cleavage of the 5'-linked protein of tobacco ringspot virus genomic RNAs and characterization of the protein-RNA linkage. J. 1977. J.M. Virus and virus-like diseases affecting grapevines in New York vineyards. Nucleotide sequence and in vitro expression of the capsid protein gene of tobacco ringspot virus. Vines are stunted and show a progressive rapid decline. and B. Gilmer R. J. Virus Research 30. Bruening. 186-199. ToRSV-induced decline affects European cultivars.. Bruening. where it occurs iin the region of the Great Lakes and in the Pacific seaboard from California to British Columbia. wt of 2. TOMATO RINGSPOT VIRUS (ToRSV) 1. 335-349. Symptomatological responses vary according to the species (V. Nucleotide sequence of satellite tobacco ringspot virus RNA and its relationship to multimeric forms. Uyemoto J. RNA-1 is 8214 nt and RNA-2 is 7273 nt in size. Abawi.K.M. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 28. Two serological ToRSV variants are known to infect grapevines. 1990. Buzayan J. and the climatic conditions.A. Tobacco ringspot virus.L. and with extensive shelling of the berries. Hewitt: Successful graft transmission of unfruitful vine condition. 1986. Forer. Virology 144. contrary to the decline strain which is seed-transmitted. A new grapevine disease induced by tobacco ringspot virus. The yellow vein strain of the virus is pollen-borne but is not transmitted through seeds. respectively.. 55 .M. Clusters are straggly. 1993. Vines grow vigorously but bear little or no fruit..A. Virus particles are isometric. Gerlach G. especially if self-rooted. References Buckley B. smaller and fewer than normal. 1996. ToRSV has a relatively wide natural host range and is endemic in North America. 309. 1985.4 x 106 (RNA-2) accounting for 44% and 41 % of the particle weight.1993 1996 Buckley et al. Disease named yellow vein. Foster R.L. Phytopathology 60.R. Kelts. Cummins and G. about 30 nm in diameter with angular outline. Powell C. The virus has been occasionaly recorded from grapevines outside of North America. and B). Vectors are the Dorylaimoid nematodes Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto and X. californicum in California The virus can be introduced in a site by infected planting material and be spread by vectors to adjacent vines.S. Gould. Both RNAs contain a single open reading frame encoding polypeptides with Mr of 244 kDa (RNA-1) and 207 kDa (RNA-2). rivesi in north American States and Canada and X. Synthesis and processing of the translation products of tobacco ringspot virus in rabbit reticulocyte lysates. which often leads to death. sedimenting as three components (T. more severely in colder than in warmer climates. 1970.. labrusca.. W. Zalloua P.S. vinifera.M. J. Silva and S. No. 702-704.J.
: Survey of ToRSV and TRSV in Pennsylvanian vineyards. Martelli: Review of nematode-borne viruses of grapevines and their epidemiology. americanum (now X. Li et al: ToRSV identified in China in grapevine seedlings grown from seeds imported from France.: Confirmation that the grape yellow vein and the the grape decline strains of ToRSV are serological variants of the same virus. Uyemoto: Seed transmission of the decline strain of ToRSV. Bays and Tolin: ToRSV found in grapevines in Virginia Powell et al. Gilmer and Uyemoto: ToRSV agent of a decline of Baco noir in New York State.: ToRSV found in grapevines in Taiwan. Rott et al. Cory and Hewitt: The yellow vein strain of ToRSV is not transmitted through seeds. Martelli and Taylor: Review of nematode-borne viruses and their vectors. Baumgartnerova and Subikova: ToRSV recorded form grapevine in Slovakia. Stace-Smith: Description of ToRSV in the CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses series. Podlekis and Corbett: ToRSV is the agent of little grape disease in Maryland. Uyemoto et al.: A review of viruses infecting grapevines in New York State vineyards. 56 .: Xiphinema rivesi identified as the main vector of ToRSV in Ontario vineyards. American Vitis species reported to be resistant to ToRSV and TRSV. Dias: Record of ToRSV in the Niagara peninsula. Herrera and Madariaga: ToRSV recorded from grapevine in Chile. Corbett and Podleckis: Ultrastructural study of ToRSV-infected grapevine tissues.1963 1966 1968 1972 1972 1975 1977 1977 1977 1978 1980 1982 1982 1984 1985 1985 1986 1987 1987 1988 1989 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 2001 2004 Gooding: Yellow vein virus identified as a strain of ToRSV. Uyemoto and Gilmer: Spread of ToRSV through the soil of New York State vineyards recorded. Stace-Smith and Ramsdell: Review of nepoviruses of the Americas. Gonsalves: ToRSV is irregularly distributed in infected vines but can be detected by ELISA. Yang et al. Teliz et al. Allen et al. Allen and Dias: Physico-chemical characterization of ToRSV.: Complete nucleotide sequence of ToRSV RNA-2. Bitterlin and Gonslaves: ToRSV retained and transmitted by viruliferous Xiphinema rivesi stored for two years at 1-3°C. Rowhani et al: Description of sampling strategy for detection of ToRSV. californicum). Piazzolla et al. Rott et al.: Complete nucleotide sequence of ToRSV RNA-1. Allen et al.: List of grapevine roostocks and cultivars showing differential susceptibility to ToRSV in Canada.: Transmission of the yellow vein strain of ToRSV by X.
Detection and identification of plant viruses for quarantine in China. Ramsdell. Phytopathology 72. 1988. Rott M. 131-166.B. 1-27. M.M. Nematode-borne viruses of grapevine. Bays D. Transmission of tomato ringspot.F. 31-34. J. 35-44. Canada. 2004. L.K. and C. L.. Rochon. A severe outbreak of virus-induced grapevine decline in Cascade grapevines in New York. Agricultura Tecnica 61.M. Tremaine and D'A. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 43. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 4. Uyemoto. Plant Disease 72.B.A.V. and grape yellow vein viruses by Xiphinema americanum. peach yellow bud mosaic. Gooding G. Zhang and Y. 1995. R. Li. Xiang . and D. Tolin. N. 196-203. Bitterlin M. Musci. J. Tomato ringspot virus associated with little grape disease of Vidal 256 grapevines. Plant Disease 71. 290 Stace-Smith R.L.R. Lee and D'A. 408-411.. and E. Podleckis E. Association of Xiphinema species with soil types ang grapevines infected with tomato ringspot virus in Ontario. 57 . Some grapevine viruses in pollen and seed. Dias and J. and W. No. Allen W. and M. 1968. 157-164. Madariaga. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines. Cory L.. 24-28. Van Schagen.. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. identification. Lownsberry. Identification of tomato rinsgspot virus in leafroll diseased grapevines. Walker and S. and W. A comparison of Grapevine yellow vein virus and a Grapevine isolate of Tomato ringspot virus. Sampling strategies for the detection of grapevine fanleaf virus and the grapevine strain of tomato ringspot virus. 1977. 710. and J. Corbett M. Rochon.A. Stace-Smith R. Rowhani A. Stobbs. and V. Podleckis...F. Tomato ringspot virus. Incidence of tomato ringspot virus in grape in Virginia. Piazzolla P. Phytopathology 53. Dias. Membrane-associated spherical particles in extracts and tissues of virus-infected grapevines. Susceptibility of grape cultivars and rootstocks to an Ontario isolate of tomato ringspot virus. Nematologia Mediterranea 6. 1982. 1987. Proceedings 7th Meeting of IGVG.P. Hewitt. Vitis 31. 1505-1514. and H. Forer.A.F. Spatial distribution of Xiphinema rivesi and persistence of tomato ringspot virus and its vector in soil. Subikova. Phytopathology 79.W. Purification and serology of a virus associated with the grape yellow vein disease. Longenecker and L. 1975..S Whei. Gilmer R. Baumgartnerova H. Y.E.R. 47-64. 1991.W. 1954... Advances in Disease Vector Research 6.A. 1962. Works of the Institute of Experimental Phytopathology and Entomology .H.A. Martelli G. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 13. Corbett.F. 2001. Nepoviruses of the Americas. 275-277.B. 13161320 Dias H. Grape yellow vein: symptomatology. Tomato ringspot virus in "Baco noir" grapevines in New York. 1169. Gonsalves D. and S.C. J.. 702-704. Plant Disease Reporter 59. Ebsary. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses.K. Phytopathology 56.V. 1972.. Taylor. 1987. Nucleotide sequence of tomato ringspot virus RNA 1.F. and B. Plant Disease Reporter 61. Journal of General Virology 76. 1992. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Nucleotide sequence of tomato ringspot virus RNA-2. Gonsalves. G. Proceedings 15th International Plant Protection Congress.. 1028-1037.K. Rokni. Ivanka pri Dunaji 4.J. Grogan and B. Li M. 465-473. 1985.K. 151-189. Chen. 1985. 44-50. Gooding G. References Allen W. Herrera M. 1978. Niagara Falls 1980. Téliz D.3. 1977.P. M. Allen W. 475-480. Savino. Detection of tomato ringspot virus in grapevines: irregular distribution of virus. Hewitt. Current Topics in Vector Research 5. Powell C.V.. Van Schagen and B.C.G. 98-101.G.. Incidence of tomato rigspot virus and tobacco rigspot virus in grapevines in Pennsylvania.F. V. 1966. Incidence and geographic distribution of tomato ringspot virus in De Chaunac vineyards in the Niagara peninsula. A. 658-663. 1989. Presence and incidence of grapevine viruses in central Chile.. Distribution of viruses and their nematode vectors. Rott M. Plant Disease 74.E. 393-400 Hewitt W. Phytopathology 58. M. H.F. Canadian Journal of Botany 55.B. 95-106.G. 861-863.. 1980. 1989. Castellano and D. Beijing 2004. Plant Disease Reporter 56. 663 Martelli G. their epidemiology and control. Journal of General Virology 72.E. 1990. 1982. Uyemoto J. 133-135. Properties of the single protein and two nucleic acids of tomato ringspot virus.R.V. 1963. 1993. Gilchrist. and the association of a mechanically transmissible virus with the disease. 1984.G and V.
J. Deng and M. Cummins and G. Gilmer.L. J.C.. Abawi. 1972. Uyemoto J. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 28.S. and R. 58 . Journal of Agricultural Research China 35.K. Plant Disease Reporter 56. 131-136. 504-510.M. T. Virus and virus-like diseases affecting grapevines in New York vineyards. 1977. 1986. Sap-transmissiible viruses associated with grapevine yellow mottle disease in Taiwan. Spread of tomato ringspot virus in "Baco Noir" grapevines in New York.K. Yang I.Uyemoto J.. Chen.R. 1062-1064.
they are inferior in quantity and quality. and is probably the most widespread virus disease of grapevine. GLRaV-3. called grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV). Starch accumulates in degenerated chloroplasts causing increased thickness and brittleness of the leaf blades. A number of other physiological parameters are affected. reduction of protein content. Until 1995.e. brittle and rolls downwards. now is by Arabic numerals: Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4 (GLRaV-4) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 5 (GLRaV-5) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 6 (GLRaV-6) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 (GLRaV-7) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 8 (GLRaV-8) Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 9 (GLRaV-9) A potyvirus isolated in Israel from leafroll-infected vines is now regarded as an occasional contaminant. Also the composition and aromatic profile of the musts are modified.). These symptoms progress towards the top of the canes as the season advances.). potassium depletion in the leaf blade and accumulation in the petioles. nine different viruses with filamentous particles. and low in sugar. changes in the pattern of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase isoenzymes. graft take and plant vigour. i. the symptoms are similar. Leafroll is no less important than fanleaf in economic importance. Blattrollkrankheit (Germ. The leaf blade becomes thick. and GLRsV-9 in the newly established genus Ampelovirus. GLRaV-8. the risk of disseminating the disease is great if untested rootstocks are used. as estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These spots enlarge with time and coalesce so that. except for a variable decrease in vigour. Agents: To date. 61 . infection of rootstocks is symptomless. which are differentiated from one another by a progressive number. In the most severe cases. Hence. Sizes deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the CP cistron are 22 kDa for GLRaV-2 . in autumn. GLRaV-6. differentiation of GLRaVs at the species level was by Roman numerals.). The fruits often mature late and irregularly. enroulement (Fr. Careful observation of field symptoms in infected vines reveals that there are several types of leafroll. Particle length varies from 1400 to 2200 nm according to individual viruses. GLRaV-1. Main synonyms: White Emperor disease (Eng. Other such viruses may exist. depending on the climate and geographic location.5 nm.) Main symptoms: In red-berried cultivars of Vitis vinifera reddish spots develop in the lower leaves in late spring or summer. Also plant anatomy is affected. thus impairing carbohydrate translocation from foliar parenchymas. enrollado (Sp. Description The first descriptions of grapevine leafroll date back to the mid 19th century. instead of reddish. accartocciamento fogliare (Ital. GLRaV-4.). vinifera. These negative effects are reverted if the disease is eliminated by sanitation treatments. and with many cultivars. thus suggesting that there can be several causal agents. In white-berried cultivars of V. whereas GLRaV-7 is presently classified as unassigned species to the family. enrollamiento de la hoja. accartocciamento. but the leaves become chlorotic to yellowish. In most cases. exhibiting open structure and distinct cross banding with a pitch of about 3. Leafroll decreases grapevine yield (by 15-20% in average) and affects negatively rooting ability. differing somewhat in aspect and in severity. Sieve elements are obliterated and crusheds. There are reports of early reddening of grapevine leaves regarded as physiological disorders and referred to as “Rugeau” or “Rossore” in the French and Italian literature. most of the leaf surface becomes reddish. GLRaV-2 CP has a Mr of 24 kDa. the same as the size of coat protein (CP) subunits.GRAPEVINE LEAFROLL 1. and lowering of sugar content. respectively. GLRaV-2 in the genus Closterovirus. All GLRaVs belong in the family Closteroviridae. especially the phloem. the whole leaf surface becomes deep purple. have been found in leafroll-infected vines. GLRaV-5. Virus particles are very flexuous filaments about 12 nm wide. whereas the Mr of all other viruses ranges between 35 and 44 kDa. Enrolamento de la folha (Port. usually leaving a narrow green band along the primary and secondary veins. Its occurrence in viticultural areas is worldwide.). Rollkrankheit.
None of the GLRaVs is known to be seedborne. ultrastructurally.647 nt in size and contains 10 major ORFs. number an types of infecting viruses. or by molecular techniques. GLRaV-3. vinifera. Regardless of whether they belong to the genus Closterovirus or Amplelovirus. the only member of the group to be mechanically transmissible. Membranous vesicles can derive eitrher from peripheral vesiculation of mitochondria followed by disruption of the organelles (GLRaV-1. Spread at a site is mediated by mealybug and soft scale insect vectors. has a number of minor biological variants which can be differentiated by the reaction of inoculated Nicotiana species. Cytopathology: A characterizing feature of all GLRaV infections is the presence of intracellular inclusions in phloem tissues made up of aggregates of virus particles intermingled with single or clustered mebranous vesicles containing finely stranded material thought to be viral RNA. or the hybrid LN 33 is still the most popular method for identifying the disease. American Vitis species and rootstocks are the best antigen sources for serological assays. Parthenolecanium corni. but it does not discriminate between GLRaVs and was reported to be less sensitive than ELISA. grafted vines) which is largely responsible for its dissemination over medium and long distances.5 kDa for GLRaV-4 . Polyclonal antisera and/or monoclonal antibodies have been raised to each single GLRaV . Ps.528 nt in size. Indexing on red-fruited cultivars such as 'Cabernet sauvignon'. roostocks. comstocki. and some are commercially avaliable. Its soft scale insects vectors are Pulvinaria vitis and Neopulvinaria innumerabilis. and some of them are used as indicators. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: No immune variety or rootstock is known. The presence of high molecular weight double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) in phloem tissue extracts can be used as infection marker. contains nine open reading frames (ORF) and has structural organization identical to that of Beet yellow virus (BYV). calceolariae. American rootstocks are usually symptomless carriers of GLRaVs. GLRaV-5 and GLRaV-9 are phylogenetically close to one another but are serologically unrelated. only vectors of GLRaV-1.919 nt in size. Natural field spread of leafroll disease has been reported from many countries in Europe and elsewhere. 'Merlot'. GLRaV-5) or from vesiculation of the endoplasmic reticulum (GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-7) Transmission: Leafroll is graft-transmissible and persists in propagative material (budwood. Leaf tissues or petioles from mature symptomatic leaves of V. contains 13 ORFs. Symptom expression depends on the variety.35 kDa for both GLRaV-3 and GLRaV-1. GLRaV-3. Ps. GLRaV-2. maritimus.Transmission is semipersistent and does not appear to be vector-specific. which is the type species of the novel genus Ampelovirus has a genome 17. singlestranded. As to nucleic acid-based assays. Composite samples should be used to minimize false negative responses that may originate from the unven distribution of GLRaVs in chronically infected vines. Detection: In many cases. positive sense RNA molecule. climate. Disappearance of dsRNAs from vines submitted to 62 . and has structural organization differing from that of other sequenced closteroviruses. biologically. These reagents are routinely used for ISEM. viburni and Ps. GLRaV-3. GLRaVs differ in various vays (molecularly. affinis. the type member of the genus. Other GLRaVs may exist in nature as suggested by reports. longispinus. Ps. The genome of GLRaV-4 and GLRaV-9 are incompletely sequenced but show a structural organization compatible with that of the genus. So far. GLRaV-1 is transmitted in nature by the pseudococcid mealybugs Heliococcus bohemicus and Phenacoccus aceris and the soft scale insects Pulvinaria vitis. 29. 'Cabernet Franc' 'Pinot noir'. GLRaV-5 and GLRaV-9 have been identified. Pseudococcus longispinus. citri. Ps. and degenerate primers have been designed and successfully used for PCR detection of virtually all GLRaVs. The genome is a monopartite. and Neopulvinaria innumerabilis. classical double antibody sandwich ELISA (Chromo-ELISA) or Lumino-ELISA. leafroll can be detected by its symptoms in the field on red-fruited varieties. cloned cDNA probes and riboprobes to GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 have been produced from denatured double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and a number of virus-specific. in agreement with the quasispecies nature of viruses. The genome of GLRaV-2 is 15. All GLRaVs can be identified by serological and nucleic acid-based techniques. This has been ascertained experimentally for GLRaV-1. GLRaVs show molecular variations which give rise to a population of strains. vinifera varieties show symptoms most clearly because of the reddening of the leaves. soil condition and probably. Mealybug vectors of GLRaV-3 are Planococcus ficus. GLRaVs were also thought to be serologically distinct from one another until a distant serological relationship was found between GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 using monoclonal antibodies raised to GLRaV-1. vinfera and cortical shavings from mature dormant canes of V. The genome of GLRaV-1 is 17. with none of which they are serologically related. and epidemiologically) from most of the known closteroviruses. GLRaV-5 and GLRaV-9 are both transmitted by Ps. GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-3. Foliar tissues are not recommended for serological GLRaVs detection in American Vitis species and roostocks. Red-berried V. Pl. broadspectrum.
Scheu: Leafroll is widespread in German vineyards. Dimitrijevic: Leafroll in Yugoslavia. unless they are hybridized with virus-specific probes. Mendgen: Presence of filamentous particles in grapevines with symptoms of flavescence dorée in West Germany.: Leafroll virus can be inactivated in vivo by heat therapy. Vuittenez: Leafroll in France. Luhn and Goheen: Leafroll found in the original grapevine stocks imported from Europe into California in 1890. Bovey: Leafroll in Switzerland. Hypothesis of the viral origin of leafroll. However. Control: Production and use of clonally selected and sanitized propagation material is very effective and the only preventive method for leafroll control available. roostocks are suggested as the major souces of leafroll dissemination. Lehoczky et al. Historical review 1906 1924 1935 1936 1946 1954 1958 1958 1958 1960: 1965 1967 1967 1967 1968 1969 1970 1970 Sannino: Occurrence in Italy of “rossore”. Blattny et al. Later studies showed that the virus is an occasional contaminant Lider et al. Hewitt: Leafroll in California Goheen et al. Harmon and Snyder: The "White Emperor" disease is graft-transmissible and is regarded a virus disease.: Leafroll in Hungary.: Studies on the effects of leafroll on yield of grapevines in California. dsRNAs cannot be utilized for virus identification. Belli et al. 1971 1973 1974 1975 63 . The incidence if the disease was less than 20% as compared with 80 to 100% in commercial vineyards.: Leafroll in Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain: Leafroll in New Zealand. No sources of resistance are known in V. vinifera and there is no published information on how to protect healthy stocks from vector-mediated reinfection in the field. Tanne and Nitzany: Leafroll in Israel Tanne et al.: Transmission of a virus to herbaceous plants from a leafroll-infected vine in Israel. a grapevine disorder similar to leafroll Scheu: Demonstration of graft transmission of leafroll from diseased to healthy Vitis vinifera. Ravaz and Verge: Occurrence in France of “rougeau”.: White Emperor and leafroll are identical diseases. Fraser: Leafroll in Australia. These particles are probably closteroviruses associated with leafroll.sanitation treatments is regarded as evidence for successful virus elimination. 2. As no apparent spread of the disease was observed. Hoefert and Gifford: Study of the effects of leafroll infection on vine anatomy. Introduction of transgenic resistance to GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-3 is being attempted by engineering different viral genes into rootstocks and European grape cultivars. a grapevine disorder similar to leafroll. Goheen et al.: Leafroll in Italy.
Hofmann: Symptoms of leafroll in affected clones of Pinot noir and performance in West Germany. Faoro et al. 1981 1981 1982 1982 1983 1984 1984 1984 1985 1986 1986 1987 1987 1988 1988 1989 64 . Abracheva: Leafroll in Bulgaria. but not in healthy controls. Antiserum against a New York isolate also reacted with GLRaV-3 from Europe. Zee et al.: Ultrastructural study of leafroll-infected grapevine tissues. Sasahara et al.: Elimination of leafroll by in vitro meristm tip culture and apex fragmentation. Zimmermann et al. Production of rabbit and hen antibodies for ELISA and ISEM to GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3. Mossop et al. found in grapevines affected by leafroll. Presence of virus-like particles in thin sections of leafroll-diseased vines. Von der Brelie and Nienhaus: Light and electron microscope study of cytopathological changes induced by leafroll in grapevines.: Review on the detrimental effects of viral infection on grapevine physiology. Castellano et al. Confirmation that GLRaV-3 and the New York closterovirus isolate cross react serologically. A large dsRNA molecule is consistently isolated from leafroll-diseased grapes. Suggestion that a closterovirus may be the agent of the disease.1975 1976 1976 1977 1979 Martelli and Piro: Evidence from a herbarium that leafroll occurred in Sicily in the second half of the 19th century.like particles. but not in similar praparations from healthy plants. Gugerli et al. Hu and Gonsalves: Monoclonal antibodies produced against GLRaV-3. Teliz et al. Kliever and Lider: Study of biochemical changes found in grapevine infected with leafroll in California.: Extraction and first purification of closterovirus-like particles with maximum particle length of 2200 nm (type I) and 1800 nm (type II) from leafroll-diseased grapevine leaves in Switzerland. Corbett et al: Electron microscope observations by negative staining of leaf extracts from leafroll-diseased grapevines in South Africa showed the presence of closterovirus. Barlass at al. are also present in leafroll-affected grapevines from Italy. Absence of such particles in healthy grapevines.: Studies on the cytopathology of leafroll-diseased grapevines. Purification and serology of associated closterovirus-like particles.: Aggregates of closterovirus-like particles observed in thin sections of phloem from leafroll-diseased grapevines. A third closterovirus type called GLRaV-3. Rosciglione and Gugerli: GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-2 with particles of 2200 nm and 1800 nm respectively. Tanaka: Leafroll in Japan. previously found in grapevines in Switzerland. Namba et al. Martelli et al.: First record of successful elimination of leafroll in grapevine by using meristem tip culture in Japan.: Closterovirus-like particles with an estimated length of 1000 nm found in thin sections of phloem tissue and in leaf dip preparations of leafroll-diseased grapevines in Japan. Rosciglione and Gugerli: GLRaV-3 is transmitted by the mealybug Planococcus ficus.: ELISA testing reveals that GLRaV-3 has an uneven distribution in grapevine tissues.: Closterovirus-like particles and specific dsRNA found in leafroll-diseased grapevines in New Zealand.: Closterovirus-like particles purified from leafroll-diseased grapevines in France. Production of polyclonal antisera for use in ELISA.
In Mexico leafroll.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Chile Kuhn: Leafroll in Brasil Li et al. There is evidence that other GLRaVs are involved in leafroll etiology. Identification of GLRaV-5. indicating the presence of other leafroll-associated viruses. GLRaV-2. Agran et al. rupestris plasma. Zimmermann et al. especially those containing V.1989 1989 Tanne et al. Pseudococcus longispinus is present on weeds around diseased vineyards. later in the leaves.: Immunocytological detection and localization of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 by immunogold labelling in grapevine thin sections. Some vines indexing positive for leafroll do not react positively with any ofthe antisera.: Production of monoclonal antibodies to GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in China Engelbrecht and Kasdorf: Transmission of GLRaV-3 by Planococcus ficus from grapevine to grapevine in South Africa. ELISA is to be applied to cortical scrapings rather than leaf tissues. whereas meristem tip culture yields up to 100 % sanitation Walter and Zimmermann: Further characterization of closteroviruses associated with leafroll in France.: Leafroll in Tunisia Azeri: Leafroll in Turkey Borgo: Serological detection of GLRaV -1 and GLRaV-3 by ELISA in extracts of leaves or wood shavings. -2 and -3 are common whereas GLRaV-5 is rarely detected. Gugerli et al. ficus fed on infected vines.: Evidence of the irregular distribution of GLRaV-3 in American rootstocks. Good results in summer with extracts of basal leaves and in autumn or winter with wood shavings macerated in buffer. vinifera varieties used as inoculum source.: Characterization of leafroll-associated closterovirus-like particles from grapevine using also monoclonal antibodies. Savino et al. 1989 1989 1989 1990 1990 1990a. but they are easily detected in inoculated LN33 vines and in V. The virus was detected in root tissues. Gugerli: Review of grapevine closteroviruses. but not GLRaV-1. Identification of GLRaV-4 1990 1990 1990 1990 Walter et al.: Detection of leafroll-associated closterovirus in recently infected grapevines in New York. 1990 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 65 . stem pitting and corky bark spread rapidly. Transmission of GLRaV-3 by the mealybug Planococcus ficus. GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-2 were not transmitted. Auger et al. Heat therapy requires very long treatments and is only 20-30 % successful.: Use of green grafting for detecting virus-like diseases of grapevine. Faoro et al. Téliz et al. GLRaV-1. Boscia et al.: Comparison of heat therapy and meristem tip culture for eliminating GLRaV-3 from Italian grape varieties. For reliable testing.: Further characterization of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 by monoclonal antibodies. was detected in P. Credi and Santucci: GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 cannot be detected by direct ELISA in leaves of graft-inoculated American rootstock.: Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to GLRaV-3. Gugerli et al.: Transmission of GLRaV-3 from grapevine to grapevine by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus in Israel. b Hu et al. symptoms are obtained within 20-70 days. With leafroll.
: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Albania. Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Yemen.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Romania. Castellano et al. Martelli et al.: Transmission of GLRaV-3 by Pseudococcus affinis in California.: Mechanical transmission of GLRaV-2 and ultrastructural study of infected tissues of Nicotiana benthamiana. Segura et al. Tzeng et al. 66 . Katis et al: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Greece. Milkus et al.: Transmission of GLRaV-3 by the soft scale insect Pulvinaria vitis. Boscia et al.1991 Hu et al.: Production of radioactive and non-radioactive molecular probes to GLRaV-3 from denatured dsRNA template and their use for virus identification. Minafra and Hadidi: Detection of GLRaV-3 in viruliferous mealybugs by PCR. Habili et al. Golino et al.: Purification and physico-chemical characterization of grapevine corky bark associated virus.: Leafroll in Taiwan. Chasselas shows the prsence of two different GLRaV-2. Flak and Gangl: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Austria. Jordan: In a New Zealand commercial vineyard GLRaV-3 incidence increased from 9. Faoro and Carzaniga: Ustrastructural study of GLRaV-1 and GLRV-3 infections.: Comparison of different assay methods for detecting GLRaVs : ELISA. ISEM and dsRNA analysis. Bondarchuk et al.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Spain 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994a. 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 1994 1995 1995 1995 1995 Merkuri et al.: Production of antisera to GLRaVs using electrophoretically separated coat protein subunits as antigens.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Moldova. denoted GLRaV 2a and GLRaV 2b. Boehm and Martins: Leafroll in Portugal. later identified as GLRaV-2.: Analysis for the presence of double-stranded RNAs can be used for assessing virus elimination following sanitation treatments. whereas the other assays are more suitable for analyzing samples that gave inconclusive results with ELISA. Gozsczynski et al.1% in 1988 to 93. Kassemeyer: Detection of GLRaVs in Germany.: Revision of the nomenclature of GLRaVs and use of Arabic numerals in the species names.1% in 1992 Ioannou: Leafroll and natural spread of associated closteroviruses in Cyprus. Former GLRaV 2 is re-named GLRaV-6. ELISA is recommended for large screening. Gugerli and Ramel: Analysis by monolconal antibodies of a Swiss source of cv. Observation of peripherically vesiculated mitochondria. Krake: Characterization of leafroll disease based on symptoms shown by field-infected vines and graft-transmission tests. Belli et al. Namba et al.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Ukraine.b Saldarelli et al. Pop et al.
Habili and Nutter: In an Australian commercial vineyard GLRaV-3 incidence increased from 23. Choueiri et al. Haidar et al. Faoro: Comprehensive review of the ultrastructure of GLRaVs infections.: GLRaV-3 is transmitted by Planococcus citri in a semipersisten manner.: Comprehensive review of the properties of GLRaVs.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Lebanon. GLRaV-3 appears to be a typical closterovirus. MacKenzie et al.: Extensive sequencing of GLRaV-3 genome.: Serological characterization of GLRaV-6 and production of monoclonal antibodies.: Identification of two different mechanically transmissibile strains of GLRaV-2.: Identification of GLRaV-7 and production of a polyclonal antiserum. and Asian Vitis species inoculated by green grafting with a GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 sources were resistant. Guidoni et al. Zhu et al.1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Greif et al. Lahogue and Boulard: Search for genes of resistance in grapevines. Wilcox et al.: Elimination of GLRaV-3 by heat therapy improves agronomic performances of a Nebbiolo clone and the quality of the must.: Cloning an sequencing of the coat protein gene of GLRaV-3 and its expression in transgenic tobacco.: Transmission of GLRaV-1 by the soft scale insects Parthenolecanium corni and Neopuvinaria innumerabilis. Alkowni et al. Krastanova et al. No vector was identified. Gozsczynski et al. Fortusini et al. the type specied of the genus Closterovirus. Ling et al. 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 67 .GLRaV-5 induces mitochondrial vesiculation. La Notte et al. American.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Palestine. Routh et al. Rowhani and Uyemoto: Comparative trials between indexing and laboratory detection methods show that the latter are more sensitve for GLRaVs detection.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in Jordan.: GLRaV-3 detected in native American vines in Western New York.: Development of a spot-PCR technique for GLRaVs identification. Ling et al. None of 223 accessions of European.: Association of GLRaV-2 in Italy and France with a graft incompatibility revealed by Kober 5BB. Viruses are irregularly distributed in the vines. Petersen and Charles: Pseudococcus calceolariae acts as vector of GLRaV-3 in New Zealand.: Use of degenerate primers for PCR detection of GLRaV-4 and GLRaV-5. Gugerli et al.: The sequenced genome of GLRaV-2 has the same structural organization of that of Beet yellows virus.1% in 1986 to 51. Cabaleiro et al.9% in 1996.: GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-3 genes engineered in grapevine rootstocks to induce resistance. Al-Tamimi et al. Martelli et al.: Distribution and incidence of GLRaVs in Canadian viticultural districts.
maritimus. Golino et al. : Partial sequencing of GLRaV-7 genome. Mannini and Credi.: Identification of hypervariable regions in GLRaV-1 genome. Monis: Identification of GLRaV-8 and production of monoclonal antibodies. transmitted by mealybugs and soft scale insects. Ps.: New vectors of GLRaV-1 are the mealybugs Heliococcus bohemicus and Phenacoccus aceris and the soft scale insect Pulvinaria vitis. a new genus having GLRaV-3 as type species. a genus with monopartite RNA species. Kim et al.1998 2000 2000 2000 Saldarelli et al. Proposal for the establishment of Vinvirus (Ampelovirus) . Ling et al.: Identification and partial characterization of a new strain of GLRaV-2. Gugerli: Detection of GLRaVs by Lumino-ELISA.: Use of degenerate primers for PCR detection of GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-7.: Evidence that GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 are serologically related based on the cross-reactivity of a monoclonal antibody raised to GLRaV-1.: Detection in California of a GLRaV-2 strain sharing about 74% sequence homology with GLRaV-2 type strain and reacting weakly serologically with GLRaV-2. affinis and Planococcus citri transmit with various efficiency GLRaV-3 in California but not GLRaV-1.: Evidence that vines sanitized from leafroll have superior qualitative and quantitative traits. Production of a new set of monoclonal antibodies. Ps. GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-4. Rowhani et al. Martelli et al. Boscia et al.: Association of an unusual strain of GLRaV-2 with a graft incompatibility condition described from California as young vine decline. Meng et al.: New monoclonal antibodies to GLRaV-2. Demonstration that the membranous vesicles accumulating in the cytoplasm derive from proliferation of the endoplasmic reticulum. a chemiluminometric enzyme-linked immuosorbent assay. Golino et al.: Intriguing association of GLRaV-6 with cv. Digiaro et al.: Survey of GLRaVs in Mediterranean and Near East countries. Seddas et al. Cardinal in Italy and Greece. Sforza et al. one of which is especially suited for ELISA testing.: Revision of the family Closteroviridae. Little et al. Castellano et al: Ultrastructural study of GLRaV-2 and GLRV-7 infections.: Completion of the nucleotide sequence of GLRaV-2 genome. Gonsalves: Review article on the molecular traits of GLRaVs.: Leafroll and associated closteroviruses in South Korea. Fazeli and Rezaian: Partial sequencing of GLRaV-1 genome. viburni. Turturo et al.: Completion of the nucleotide sequence of GLRaV-3 genome and use of the HSP90 and coat protein genes for producing transgenic rootstocks. Zhou et al. The type species is GLRaV-3 2000 2000a 2000b 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2001 2002 68 . Evidence of the quasispecies nature of the virus. Abou Ghanem -Sabanadzovic et al. Karasev: Review article on closteroviruses. Ps.: Mealybug species Pseudococcus longispinus. Establishment and description of Ampelovirus .
ORF 2-encoded protein induces the formation of endoplasmis reticulum vesicles which may be involved in virus replication. and thylakoid membrane proteins of field-grown cv. 2004. M. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic et al. Grapevine leafroll. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Palestine. S. GLRaV-2.: Identification of a new putative ampelovirus (GLRaV-10?). photosynthetic activities.. Al-Tamimi N. 2000.. 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 3. Rastitelna Zaschtita 25 (9).P. Properties of a new isolate of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2.: Genetic variability of GLRaV-3 studied by single-strand conformation polymorphism and nucleotide sequence analysis of fragments of three different genes. Sabanadzovic. Phytopathology 94 (Supplement to n° 6): S2 Abracheva P. 189-195.: Molecular polymorphism of GLRaV-2 isolates studied by heteroduplex mobility assay identifies five clusters of molecular variants. Rowhani. : Report of a new putative grapevine leafroll associated virus. M.A. Gugerli: Updated review of leafroll and associated viruses. Digiaro and V. Locorotondo 2003. Askri. Turturo et al. Minafra . Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. RuBP. 1998. 122-126 Alkowni R. Boscia and G. thus inducing a the rapid senesce of the leaves. Nölke et al. S.: Learoll and GLRaV-1.2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 Alkowni et al. Lagrein vines.: Generation of single chain antibody fragments to GLRaV-3 for induction of antibody-based resis tance in grapevine.. G. S. V. 69 . 42. Viruses of grapevine in Jordan. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic N. Agran M. Vitis 39. Ling et al. and GLRaV-3 in Argentina.: Partial molecular characterization of Grapevine leafrollassociated virus 4. Di Terlizzi. M. nitrate reductase.. G. The presence of two ORFs conding for the coat protein duplicate is confirmed and the intracellular localization of some genome expression products is established. 43-48. D. Alkowni et al.: Identification of a putative new closterovirus in cv Carnelian from California Bertamini et al. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 37.: Nucleotide sequence of GLRaV-3 completed. Evidence of the quasispecies nature of the virus. Rowhani. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic N. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 28. Digiaro and V. Martelli and F. 1977. Vitis 29. 119-121. Castellano. References Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic N. Sabanadzovic and A. 2003. Roy and A. Savino. Zhou et al.. 1998. Occurrence of grapevine virus A (GVA) and other closteroviruses in Tunisian grapevines affected by leafroll. Boscia.. Little and Rezaian: Functional analysis of the genes of GLRaV-1. an ampelovirus first reported in 2002. Abou Ghanem -Sabanadzovic et al.: Description and extensive sequencing of GLRaV-9. Savino.P. 1990. Sabanadzovic. B. Martelli. A. later identified as a molecular variant of GLRaV-4. D. 32-33. In particular. The species quasi nature of the virus is confirmed. Partial molecular characterization of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4. Bertazzon et al. Cornuet et al.: Production of monoclonal antibodies to GLRaV-3 elicited by linear epitopes located in the first portion of the coat protein gene. Preliminary molecular data on a putative new grapevine leafroll-associated virus.: GLRaV-3 infection reduces the amount of photosynthetis pigments. Savino. Gòmez Talquenca et al.K. The genome has a size of 17 919 nt and contains 13 genes.
Auger J. Dimitrijevic B. Detection of grapevine leafroll virus in different varieties by indexing.A.. 171-175. Martelli. Barlass M. 341-346. G.P. Cornuet P.E. 1990. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Boehm J. Abou-Ghanem. 1991. 373-378. S.. 1967. 123-133. L. Savino. V. Muthuchelian and N.D. Greif. cv. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S. 21-22. Gonsalves. 2003. Adelaide 2000.. Volos1990. V. Phytopathology 92 (Supplement to n° 6). Detection of viral-like particles by electron microscopy of negatively stained extracts from grapevines.J. B.S. R. Walter and D. and A. The occurrence of leafroll of grapevine in Yugoslavia. Belli G. 9-15. Boscia and V.. 1984.. 471-478 Cabaleiro C. 23-33 Castellano M. Vigne and M. 105-112. 34. 1997. Identification and characterization of a tentative new ampelovirus specifically associated to grapevine leafroll. P. L. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology 19. Woodham and L.. Adelaide 2000. 75-76. T. Partial characterization of a new ampelovirus associated with grapevine lafroll disease Journal of Plant Pathology 86. 2004. Gugerli.P. E. Bianco and S. 103-109. Martelli. Skene. Frequent occurrence of grapevine leafroll in Lombardia (northern Italy). R. 145-152. Vitis 35. Locorotondo 2003. D.IV) 3.. Die Blattrollkrankheit der Rebe in der Schweiz. R. Bertazzon N. Rowhani. Elicio. Bondarchuk VV. Effect of grapevine leafroll on the photosynthesis of field grown grapevine plants (Vitis vinfera L. Transmission of grapevine leafroll disease and associated closteroviruses by the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus. Boscia D.Alkowni R. 1991.F. Volos 1990. Some properties of a hitherto undescribed filamentous virus of the grapevine. 1960. Martelli. E. Angelini and M. Some characteristics of the transmission of grapevine leafroll associated virus 3 by Planococcus citri Risso. Digiaro. Prati.M. Engelbrecht and J. Prochazkova. Vitis 34. Diversity among Grapevine leafroll associated virus 2 detected by heteroduplex mobility assay Journal of Phytopathology 152. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Isolation and identification of virus particles in leafroll-infected grapevines in Chile. Martelli. Fortusini. O virus do enrolamento da videira. M. N..C. and E.A. Martelli and V.. Cytopathology of two filamentous grapevine viruses and their intracellular identification by gold immunolabelling. Azeri T.. Savino. K. 1995. Golino.. 1996. Volos 1990.P. and R.V) 4. Abou-Ghanem. . 2003.P. 23-39. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Boscia D. 2004.P.P. 1990. Bertamini M. S. Rivista di Viticoltura e di Enologia 43 (3). 1970. Jebahi and G. Vida Rural 40. Weinberg und Keller 15. Litvak and I. Borgo M. Rowhani and D. Wine Review 4. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture 5. Daubert and D. Borgo. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG. European Journal of Plant Pathology 103. Andret. 418-419. Arancibia and P. G. 1994. Presslia 32. M. A.A.A. Martelli and V. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 102. Gugerli.G... Regeneration of virus-free grapevines using in vitro apical culture. 1967.. 291-295. Segura. 1983.K. Choueiri E. Savino. Alkowni. Boscia. Belli. Serological detection of grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus-like particles: apparent absence of viral antigens in leaves of graft-inoculated American rootstocks. Savino and G. Closterovirus-like particles associated with leafroll of grapevine in Moldavia. Engelbrecht D. 1991. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. 29-32. and G. Kiryat Anavim 1987.P.G. V. Vitis 22. Digiaro.. 2002. Casati. Kasdorf. Choueiri and G. Uber das virose Blatrollen der Weinrebe.A. E. 105-108. 408. Nomenclature of grapevine leafroll-associated putative closteroviruses. Journal of Phytopathology 152. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 6 and Vitis vinifera cv. 1991. Corbett M. A.. Journal of Plant Pathology 82.J. Ultrastructure of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 and 7 infections. Castellano M. Digiaro M.. Lagrein). 91-93.. 43-49. 70 . Phloem-limited viruses of the grapevine in the Mediterranean and the Near East. Kasdorf. Martelli. Nedunchezhian. Annals of Applied Biology 101. Cesati.. G.A. Fuchs. Golino. Wiid. Detection of closteroviruses in grapevine tissues.. Boscia D. Krake. 1990.R.A. 71-78. Phytophylactica 22.G. and A. M. P. 373-378. 1982... A. Dohnal and Z. Credi R. Belli G. S3. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. A. 2000. Savino. Leafroll virus in the grapevines. 416-422 Blattny C. 2000. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Transmission of grapevine leafroll associated closterovirus by the scale insect Pulvinaria vitis L. Martelli. G. 52-57. Castellano M. Virus-like particles and ultrastructural modifications in the phloem of leafroll-affected grapevines. 44-48. Kostantinova. Cardinal: an intriguing association. Partial nucleotide sequence and molecular detection of a putative new grapevine leafroll associated virus. 95. 1968. D. K. N. Determinazione sierologica dei virus dell' arricciamento e dell' accartocciamento fogliare mediante test ELISA su organi legnosi della vite. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S. G.P. Bovey R. 1995. Castellano and G. Zastita Bilja 21. Santucci.F. 2000. D. P. C. Martin. 1989.. Chamberlain E. 3-13.
Golino D. 167-173. Rowhani.. J.. 1997. 29-47. Wageningen.C.A. Rezaian. S. 51-54. Adelaide 2000. 1994. 40-51. 255-265. 2000. Hewitt. Monette (ed.. J. Adelaide 2000. J. Garcia Lampasona and O. 1993. Belli. Association of a possibile closterovirus with grapevine leafroll in northern Italy.. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. C. M. Ramel and F. and H. Bonnard. Scattini.G. 47-54. 1995.. 1-8. Golino D. P. Gracia. with Special Reference to Vitis. Gangl. Detection of two strains of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2. R.F.F. Mitteilung Klsterneuburg 44. 137-141. G. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Further characterization of grapevine leafroll disease. R. 2000b. Bonnard. Rowhani. G. The relationship of grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus 2 with a graft-incompatibility condition of grapevines. Gonsalves D. Prota. Brugger and R. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 46..N. Ramel and F. Extended Abstacts 11th Meeting of ICVG. S. M. Gugerli P. 1991.G. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S. S.A. 71 . Transmission studies of grapevine leafroll-associated virus and grapevine corky bark associated virus by the obscure mealybug. Pudoc . Revue Suisse de Viticulture Arboriculture et Horticulture 16. Proceedings Symposium Perspectives for Monoclonal Antibodies in Agriculture. Faoro F. O. Gugerli P. S. Goszczynski D. Montreux 1993. Garau.. Golino D. Walter and U. Nucleotide sequence and organization of ten open rading frames in the genome of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and identification of three subgenomic RNAs.and M.E.E. R. Ramel. Volos 1990. 85-94. Detection of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses by chemiluminometric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LUMINO-ELSA). Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S. Belli. Greif C. Weinberger... S.B.A. Locorotondo 2003.V) 17. Luhn and W. S... Grau. Goszczynski D. 121-122. Journal of Phytopathology 133. Phytopathology 48. L'enroulement de la vigne: mise en évidence de particules virales et développement d'une méthode immuno-enzymatique pour le diagnostic rapide. 1997. Harmon and J. V) 5.. Identification immuno-chimique du 6e virus associé à la maladie de l'enroulement de la vigne et amèlioration des techniques de diagnostic pour la sélection sanitaire en viticulture. Volos 1990. Wageningen 1990. Leafroll (white Emperor disease) of grapes in California. Cytochemistry and immunochemistry of the inclusion bodies induced by grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3. Tornaghi and G. Tornaghi and G. 1981. Brugger. Gugerli P.A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 34. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG.. Lisbon 1997. Trivandrum. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Flak W.. 163-167. Journal of General Virology 81. by scale insects. 605-615. Inactivation of grapevine viruses in vivo. Gugerli P. 1995. S.E. 1984. Gugerli P.E. Van Tonder. B. (Ed. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus II analyzed by monoclonal antibodies. Ramel. 408. In Shots. Carzaniga. Bovey. 1995. Etiological studies and diagnostic of grapevine leafroll improved by monoclonal antibodies. P. Fiori. Bass. 1991. 1958. 2000. 1965. 299-304. Pietersen and H. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts. Goheen A. 1991. B. 2000. 59-60 Gugerli P.E. Goheen A. D. Rosciglione.. Localization of closteroviruses on grapevine thin sections and their identification by immunogold labelling. Prati. F. Boscia. S. Tremea.A. 1958.J. Fraser L. Gugerli P. Fazeli C. Revue Suisse de Viticulture. Belli. Rosciglione. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG. 1997. Sim and A.. Sim and A.E. Gòmez Talquenca G.J. Grapevine closteroviruses. and R. A. 133-135. Brugger and M. B. Pietersen. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG.L. Rowhani. In: Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants. 1990. African Plant Protection 1.Faoro F. 1996. A survey for Closteroviridae family in Argentinean vineyards. Prota.J. Arboriculture. 2000a. 183-189 Faoro F.H. Davis 1965. Horticulture 29.C. Identification of the latent viruses associated with young vine decline in California. V. G. Tremea . Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.-J.. Kasdorf and G. Fortusini A. Faoro F..F. Experimental transmission of grapevine leafroll associated viruses by mealybugs. 1995. New South Wales Department of Agriculture Report. Transmission of grapevine leafroll virus 1 (GLRV-1) and grapevine virus A (GVA). Adelaide 2000. Sim and A.. Cinquanta and G. Production and use of antisera specific to grapevine leafroll-associated viruses following electrophoretic separation of their proteins and transfer to nitrocellulose. 23-24. 297-306. 2003. 85-86.). 6-7.): Monoclonal Antibodies in Agriculture. J. Adelaide 2000.. Vitis 35.G. Cytopathology of closteroviruses and trichoviruses infecting grapevines.. Grobkartierung des Rebvirosenbefalls in der Weinbauregion Bungerland mittels ELISA. and M. Kasdorf. 43-44. Research Signpost. G. Progress towards understanding the genomic organization and expression of grapevine closteroviruses. 19-20. Report on observations on virus diseases of grapevines in the USA and on the occurrence of leafroll and other virus diseases of grapevine in New South Wales. Brugger.F. M. 134-136.
Investigations of the occurrence. Boscia. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Hoffmann E.M. 1993. Jordan D. 322-324. Savino. Mannini. 25-31.. 47-64.B.. Digiaro. Hewitt W. Die Wein-Wissenschaft 39. Characterization of closterovirus-like particles associated with grapevine leafroll disease. F. 144-147. Hu J. Argamante and R. The Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry Journal 8. Hu J.).. Locorotondo 2003. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 26. incidencia e controle do virus do enrolamento da folha da videira no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.. Di Stefano. Phytopathology 88. G. Snyder. N. R.R. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines. Minafra and P. Plant Disease 81.W. Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in South Korea and analysis of its molecular and biological characteristics. D. Burr and D. 16-29. 103-108. Temporal and spatial analysis of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in Pinot Noir grapevines in Australia. 1992. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 48. Lehoczky J.L. 6625-628. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 27. Y. Martelli and G. Ling.W.. Habili N. 1975. Annals of Applied Biology 121. nucleotide sequencing and expression in transgenic plants. Phythopathology 80. 920-925. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science 47. Investigations about the occurrence of closterovirus-like particles in grapevines in Germany.M. 49. B. Teliz. Identifiçao. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 43. M.. Leafroll spread in New Zealand vineyards. 2000. 220-226. Annual Review of Phytopathology 38. Kassemeyer H. M. Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry Journal 8. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.M. Zhu. Barlass and M. Martelli and U.R Kim. J. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Characterization of grapevine leafroll disease by symptomatology. Hilgardia 38.. spread. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 26. L. 1101-1116. J..B.S. Presence of closteroviruses and viroids in grapevine varieites with symptoms of leafroll and stem pitting. Krake. 1946. 190-194. Journal of Virological Methods 66. Development of transgenic grape rootstocks with genes from grapevine fanleaf virus and grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses 2 and 3. 1997. Rezaian. H. Slightom and D. Krastanova T.. A comparison between healthy and leafroll-affected grapevine planting stocks. 1-14. Sarospataki. Park and M. 1954. and F. 118-124.. Kiryat Anavim 1987.Gugerli P. Kim H. 117-124. 1969. Volos 1990. D. Zhu . 1993. 31-34. Grapevine leafroll and related viruses.L. K. 147-153. and L.L. Xue.P. Lider. History and anatomical effects. The effect of grapevine leafroll and rugose wood sanitation on agronomic performance and berry and leaf phenolic content of a Nebbiolo clone (Vitis vinifera L. Karasev A.. Gonsalves. Evaluation of biological indexing and dsRNA analysis in grapevine virus elimination. M.H. Tsagris. Vitis 30.Y.R. 1996.A. Gonsalves and D. 2003.R.C. 87-95. Nutter. and E. Ferrari. Hu J. 1991. Comparison of rapid detection assays for leafroll disease associated closteroviruses.A. Cho.F. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Lee.. Ling K. I.H. 1996.Y. A spot-PCR technique for detection of phloem-limited grapevine viruses. Gifford.S. Leafroll of grapevine in Hungary. and G. 1976.1984. Gonsalves.S.M. Choi. Prota. 1991.A Roubelakis-Angelakis. Boscia and S. Grapevine leafroll virus.. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. L. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG. transmission. D. 1991. and E. 293-324. T. Harmon F. Occurrence and natural spread of grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses in Cyprus. Haidar M. 1997. 438-442. Untersuchungen über die Blattrollkrankheit und die Frührotverfärbung bei Klonen der Sorte "Blauer Spätburgunder". Hoefert L. Habili N. Vitis 35. Recherche de gènes de résistance naturelle à deux viroses de la vigne: le court-noué et l'enroulement. Gonsalves.D. 40-44.. G. Rumbos and K. Maixner and D. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Lebanon. 2000. Virus and virus-like diseases of the grapevine in the People's Republic of China. H. Ioannou N.S. 43-48. Namba 1990b.N.S. Chung. 1997.R. 1993. Influence of leafroll virus on composition of Burger fruits. Ferrandino.A.. Yiem J.. Alvizo. Hu. 111-112. 403-426. Volos 1990. Gonsalves. Archives of Virology 142. Kliewer W. Golino. S. 1989.S.. Boulard. 1998. W. 1989. 1997. 72 . M. B. M. K. La Notte P. A. Drong. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarium Hungaricae 4. A.P. Katis N. D. Adelaide 2000. Fitopatologia Brasileira 14.. Journal of Phytopathology 128. Use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize grapevine leafroll associated closteroviruses. J.. Montreux 1993.A. Genetic diversity and evolution of closteroviruses.. Saldarelli.S.. 81-88. Lider L. Li X. Khoury and V.. The coat protein gene of grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus-3: cloning. D. Goheen and N. 1990a. 1967. Kuhn G. A. 450-457.C. 277-283. Guidoni S. Krake L. Lahogue F. Hatziloukas. and effect of "white" fruit color in the Emperor grape. 24.
Results regarding the identification of closteroviruses associated with the leafroll disease of some grapevine varieties grown in Romania. J. M. V.F Fazeli and M. 28. Virus diseases of the grapevine in a Sicilian herbarium of the past century. Krastanova. Terai and R. R. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 24. P. 329-335. Untersuchungen über eine Vergilbungskrankheit der Reben an Rhein. 1-9. 109-116. Gene function analysis and improved detection of Grapevine leafroll associated virus 1. Grapevine leafroll virus. P. Castellano and V.. Complete genome sequence of grapevine lafroll-associated virus 3 and developing of transgeinc plants expressing its genes. characterization and expression of single chain antibody fragments specific to Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. A. P. S.. Journal of Virological Methods 47. type member of the genus Ampelovirus. D. 497-502. MacKenzie D. 1055-1056. A. Plant Pathology 46. E. Purification and properties of closterovirus-like particles isolated from a corky bark diseased grapevine Phytopathology 81.. G. Choueiri .. and G. 151-154. Montreux 1993. D. and R. D. Tomoioaga. S.R McFerson and D. Boscia. G. 509-515 Pop I. 2099-2102. Gugerli. Vitis 13. 1991. 1975. Savino. B or leafroll associated III from viruliferous mealybugs and infected tissue by cDNA amplification. Hu. 1986. Ercolani. Zhu.. V. Zhu. Gonsalves. Meng and D. M. Boscia. Gonsalves.. Filamentous viruses of the grapevine: Closterovirus.. D. 1970.).. H. 1994. Namba S. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 33. 1997. 215-220 Milkus B. Feld. and A. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. Ling and D. 2000. Antibody-based resistance in grapevine: generation. The family Closteroviridae revised. Proceedings 10th Meeting ICVG. Nature and physiological effects of grapevine diseases. T. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. A.. J. Goszczynski. Boscia. B.L. 1299-1307. 1996. Extended Abtracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.P. Yora. Plant Disease 80. Vetten. Martelli G. and A. H. Yioshikawa. E. Weinberg und Keller 18. Agranovsky. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Elliott and K. Zhu. 419-425. A. Little A. 1993. Gonsalves. Richards.A. Journal of General Virology 79. 858-862. O. Detection of virus diseases of grapevine in Ukraine. Karasev. Hypervariable genes in Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1. P.P.F. Locorotondo 2003. 2002.. 2039-2043. D.H. Boscia and V. Mosel und Saar. M.Y.L. Y. Ling K.W. Goheen. Minafra. 1979. Viruses in early California grapevines.S. M. Fischer and S.A. Mannini F. D. Sensitive detection of grapevine virus A. Association of closterovirus-like particles and high molecular weight double-stranded RNA with grapevines affected by leafroll disease.S. Incidence of four important viral pathogens in Canadian vineyards. Rezaian. R. S.J. 52. In: Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants. S. calceolariae. G... Yano. The 5' sequence of grapevine leafroll associated closterovirus 2 genome. 964-970 Nölke G. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 45.. Plant Disease Reporter 54. Martelli G. Azzam. Kartuzova. B. 1997.P. Minafra. 1991. Doi.G Charles. and D. 2004.Ling K. R.L. R. 73 . 232 bis. Virus Research 80. 146-151. Credi. A. and M. Research Signpost. Experientia 42. Monette (ed. 1998.E. 175-188. Plant Disease 84. Rezaian.F. Adelaide 2000. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Meng B. Martelli G. Slightom. Adelaide 2000. 2000. Volos 1990. M.A. W. P.C. H..Y. Dell'Orco. Zhu. Gonsalves.A. D.P. H. K. H.P. Hadidi.. Saldarelli and D. Banu and L. Mendgen K. Namba. Jelkmann. S. 345-431. Martelli G. Little A. Archives of Virology 147.R. Journal of General Virology 85. Golino and D.D. Namba S. 2003. Gonsalves. Martelli. Occurrence of filamentous viruses and rugose wood of grapevine in Yemen. 35. Candresse. Boscia. Yamashita. Falk. Adelaide 2000. 1985. 955-958. 2001. Drong.V. Wisler and N. Nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal two-thirds of the grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 genome reveals a typical monopartite closterovirus. Gonsalves.J. Maixner. Transmission of grapevine leafroll-associated closteroviruses by Pseudococcus longispinus and Ps. J. 1971. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. C. K.A. Xue. Saldarelli. 123-124. Minafra A. Viruses of grapevine in Albania. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Ling K. M. N. Savino. 2000.Y. D. 933-942. Piro. 2000. Locorotondo 2003. Johnson and C. Dolja.C. Warner. Coutts. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 28. Trivandrum.P. Digiaro . Muljukina and B. Martelli..V. a possible member of closteroviruses. 1994. Bar-Joseph.W. Petersen C. Merkuri J. 2003.A. Martelli G. Orecchia. B. 1994. Luhn C.C. Appraisal of agronomic and enological modification in the performances of grapevine clones after virus eradication. Y. Graniti and G.L. Schillberg. Mossop D. Monis J. Development of monoclonal antibodies reactive to a new grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus. and J. 390-395.
125-126. Revue Suisse de Viticulture. Zhang . Scheu G.. A. 156-167. 1987. 2000. Plant Disease 71. 82.. Mein Winzerbuch. 162-163. Rowhani.. 74 . I.. Tazaki. 1936. 1982a. 1973. 67-69. Minafra and M. 1989 Detection of a grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus in recently infected tissues in New York and spread of the disease in Mexico. 68-69. Digiaro. Komar and C. Non radioactive molecular probes for the detection of three filamentous viruses of the grapevine. Martelli. Y. Transmission of closterolike particles associated with grapevine leafroll by mealybugs (Pseudoccidae) in Israel. 1974. Arboriculture. Nitzany. Gonsalves and F. Harpaz.. Berlin. Gonsalves. and F. Zhang.P. V.. Tzeng. 508-517. 1994b. Sasahara H.A . 14. Tanne E.S. 1981.. Volos 1990. Greif. Cloquemin and B. Isolation and partial characterization of two new viruses from grapevine. Raccah. and P. Phytoparasitica 17. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Segura A. Indexing grapes in Japan for viruses. 80-85. Plant Disease 81.J. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Turturo C. and G.K. G. Minafra.. Walter. 176-180. 71-73. Maladies de l'enroulement et du bois strié de la vigne: analyse microscopique et sérologique.. 2000. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 80. Rowhani A. Locorotondo 2003. 433-436. E.A. Golino. Partial molecular characterization and RT-PCR detection of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7. Iri. 1998. 222-225 Tanne E. A. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 42.P. 1989. 1986. Yafeng. Rowhani A. Use of degenerate primers in a RT-PCR assay for the identification and analysis of some filamentous viruses. Boscia.Ravaz L. M. D.P. Plant Pathology 49. C. A. Rosciglione B. European Journal of Plant Pathology 104. A. Savino V. 1935. Chen and D. Reichnährstand Verlag. 157-160. Jelkmann and G. Seddas A. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Tzeng H. M.S.. Saldarelli and A. Gonzales and C. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Martelli. Phytopathology 88. Use of degenerate primers for partial sequencing and RT-PCR-based assays of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. Der Deutsche Weinbau 14. Adelaide 2000. Y. Saldarelli P. 2000. Le rugeau de la vigne. Sforza R. Virus diseses of grapevine in Israel. K. Routh G. Savino and G. M. H. New scale insect vectors of grapevine closteroviruses. Haidar. V. Guglielmi Montano and G. 207211.. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG.. Histological and cytological studies on the infectious leafroll disease of the grapevine. Tanaka S.. Tanne E. Saldarelli. Detection of grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus III by molecular hybridization. Digiaro. and F. Greif. P. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. D.M. Jacquet. Y.P.D. Presence of grapevine leafroll in North West Spain. Saldarelli P. Martelli and B. Martelli. 1924. Minafra. Kiryat Anavim 1987. 1976. Transmission of grapevine leafroll disease and an associated closterovirus to healthy grapevine by the mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret. Ben-Dov and B. Il rossore delle viti. Uyemoto. Rott. G. Teliz D. Progrès Agricole et Viticole 45. Field serological detection of viral antigens associated with grapevine leafroll disease. A comparison between serological and biological assays in detecting grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. P. Cabaleiro. Turturo C. Sela and I. 11-17. Tanne. 1906. Rowhani. A. Walter. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 50. 1994. 169175. 1994a. D. Kiryat Anavim 1987. Takezawa and M. Adelaide 2000.L. Hu and D.P. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale 1. Transmission of grapevine leafroll virus to herbaceous plants.. Vitis 33. and J. 799-801. Gugerli 1989.. D. 192-196. Effect of heat therapy and meristem tip culture on the elimination of grapevine leafroll-associated closterovirus type III. M. 1993. 8689. Tada. Uyemoto. Hummer. Teliz D. 356358. with special reference to closteroand vitiviruses of the grapevine. P. Martelli. M. Nienhaus. 1997.M. D'Onghia and G. 38. Von der Brelie D. 91-96. Verge. and J. Sannino F.P. Rosciglione B. 35-38. Plant Pathology Bulletin 3. T. 1238-1243. Die Rollkrankheit des Rebstockes.L. Vitis 12.. Horticulture 18. Saldarelli P. Plant Pathology 43. J. Establishment of a relationship between grapevine leafroll closteroviruses 1 and 3 by use of monoclonal antibodies. Zee. 2000. Montreux 1993. 17-18.K.E. 945-950. 345-346.. 222-223. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 89. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Scheu G. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG... 1998.. 135-141. The occurrence of grapevine leafroll disease among the main grapevine cultivars and breeding stocks in Taiwan. Regeneration of plantlets by meristem tip culture for virus-free grapevine.P. Adelaide 2000.C.. Preliminary investigations of genetic variability of Grapeviune leafroll associated virus 3 isolates. and P. Saldarelli. 110-113. 704-709. W. D. 1991. C. M.K. Gugerli.
Adelaide 2000. Z. Zimmermann D.R. Further characterization of closterovirus-like particles associated with the grapevine leafroll disease. Vernoy. Wilcox F. R.Y. 1062. Potere. Plant Disease 82. Walter and M..Y. N.A. D.F. 203. Gonsalves. and D. Le Gall. Sommermeyer. 1991. G. Zhou Z. R.S. B. 137-145. Monoclonal antibodies for detection and characterization of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2. Martelli. Zimmermann. Vesselle. Castellano. Goheen. Journal of General Virology 79.W. Zhu H. the closterovirus type member. Walter B. Boscia. 1990. O. Goszczynski and M. Zhou Z. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and epitope mapping of the coat protein. Bass. B. Journal of Phytopathology 130. 75 .. 2000. R. 1987. A.H. Ling.. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.V. Gonsalves. 1289-1298. Abou-Ghanem. D. 1988. Saldarelli. D. McFerson and D. Kim. Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 are similar to Beet yellows virus. Walter and O. 1998 Leafroll virus is common in cultivated American grapevines in Western New York. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific to closterovirus-like particles associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Collas and G. Journal of Phytopathology 128. P. 731-741. 2003. Legin.. Volos 1990.S. O. C. Martin. 1998.E. Purification de particules virales associées à l'enroulement de la vigne et mise au point d'un protocole ELISA permettant leur détection. 1958.E Goszczynski. A... Transmission par greffage d'une virose type enroulement foliarie commune dans le vignobles de l'Est e du Centre-Est de la France. Agronomie 8. 277-288. 130. Walter B. Potere. 1990. Zimmermann D. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Van Regenmortel. Lee. Locorotondo 2003. K. D. 1427-1434. Boscia. Phytopathology 77. D. 313-316. 62-66. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG..P. Comptes Rendues de l'Academie d'Agriculture de France 44. Cytopathology of leafroll diseased grapevines and the purification and serology of associated closteroviruslike particles. Pool and R. Turturo. P. K. Gonsalves. and G. C. The use of a greengrafting technique for the detection of virus-like diseases of the grapevine.Vuittenez A.. J. Zee F. Jiang and D.
RUGOSE WOOD COMPLEX .
RUGOSE WOOD COMPLEX
The rugose wood complex consists of several diseases (Grapevine rupestris stem pitting, Grapevine kober stem grooving, Grapevine corky bark, Grapevine LN33 stem grooving) that are usually latent in ungrafted Vitis vinifera and American Vitis species and rootstock hybrids, but develop in grafted vines. Woody cylinder alterations resembling rugose wood symptoms are reported in the French literature of the early 1900s as possible physiological disorders. Rugose wood was first identified and described from southern Italy in the early 1960s as a graft-transmissible disease, and was considered to be a local problem until its discovery in Hungary in 1967. Now it is known to occur worldwide. 1. Description Main synonyms: Stem pitting, stem grooving (Eng.); legno riccio (Ital.); bois strié, cannelures du tronc (Fr.); madera rizada (Sp.); lenho rugoso (Port.); corky bark: rough bark (Eng.); suberosi corticale (Ital.); écorce liégeuse (Fr.); Korkrindenkrankheit (Germ.). Symptoms: Affected vines appear less vigorous than normal and may show delayed bud opening in spring. Some decline and die within a few years from planting. Grafted vines often show a swelling above the bud union and a marked difference between the relative diameter of scion and rootstock. With certain cultivars, the bark above the graft union is exceedingly thick and corky, has a spongy texture and a rough appearance, a condition known as "corky rugose wood". The woody cylinder is typically marked by pits and/or grooves which correspond to peg-and ridge-like protrusions on the cambial face of the bark. These alterations may occur on scion, rootstock or both. The severity of wood symptoms vary according to scion/stock combinations. Climatic conditions may have a bearing on symptom expression for under cool and wet climates symptoms are milder or absent. Cases of latent infection in grafted vines are not rare. By contrast, self-rooted European grapes and, sometimes, American roostocks, can show wood alterations. No specific symptoms are seen on the foliage, although certain cultivars show rolling, yellowing or reddening of the leaves similar to those induced by leafroll. Bunches may be fewer and smaller than normal and the crop reduced by 20-30%. The four diseases of the rugose wood complex can be recognized and sorted out by graft transmission to the indicators Vitis rupestris, LN 33 and Kober 5BB: a. Rupestris stem pitting. Distinct basipetal pitting limited to a band extending downwards from the point of inoculation in V. rupestris. LN 33 and Kober 5BB remain symptomless. b. Corky bark. Grooving and pitting of the entire surface of the stem of V. rupestris and LN 33, but no symptoms in Kober 5BB. Severe stunting of LN 33 is accompanied by rolling and reddening of the leaves and by most typical internodal swelling of the canes. c. Kober stem grooving. Marked grooving appear on the stem of Kober 5BB; no symptoms in V. rupestris and LN 33. d. LN 33 stem grooving. Grooves occur on the stem of LN 33, much the same as with corky bark, but no internodal swelling of the shoots nor foliar discolorations are present. V. rupestris and Kober 5BB show no symptoms. Agents: Putative agents of individual diseases of the rugose wood complex are members of the genera Vitivirus or Foveavirus, family Flexiviridae, i.e. viruses with flexuous filamentous particles from about 730 to 800 x 12 nm, with distinct transverse cross banding. Vitiviruses and foveaviruses are phloem-restricted in grapevines, but whereas vitiviruses are mechanically transmissibile to herbaceous hosts, though with difficulty, foveaviruses are not. The genome of all viruses consists of a single species of single-stranded positive sense RNA with Mol. wt 2.6-3.05 x 106 that accounts for c. 5% of the particle weight. Coat protein subunits have a single size and Mr of 22-28 kDa. Rugose wood-associated viruses have a worldwide distribution. Records exist from Europe, the Mediterranean basin, Near and Far East, Australasia, South Africa, and North and South Americas. Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV), a definitive member of the genus Foveavirus, is the associated agent of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting disease. Virus particles are about 730 nm in length and are not readily observed with the electron microscope. GRSPaV occurs in nature as
a family of molecular variants. Viral RNA, which has been totally sequenced, has a Mol. wt of about 3.05 x 106 Da and a size of 8726 nt. The viral genome comprises 5 or 6 ORFs encoding, in the order, the replication-associated proteins (244 kDa), movement proteins (triple gene block, 25, 13 and 8 kDa) and the coat protein (28 kDa). The 6th ORF, when present, encodes a 14 kDa proteins with unknown function. GRSPaV seems to be more closely related to potexviruses than carlaviruses both of which have a similar genomic organization. These relationships have evolutionary implications and suggest that GRSPaV may have evolved from an ancient recombiantion event between a carlavirus and a potexvirus, in which ORF 4 and 5 but not the 3' non coding region of the carlavirus were replaced by those of the potexvirus. Grapevine virus A (GVA), the type species of the genus Vitivirus, is the putative agent of Grapevine kober stem grooving. Virus particles are flexuous filaments about 800 nm long. Viral RNA has a Mol. wt of about 2.6 x 106 Da and a size of 7349 nt. The viral genome consists of 5 ORFs encoding, in the order, the replication-associated proteins (195 kDa), a 20 kDa protein with unknown function, the movement protein (31 kDa), the coat protein (22 kDa) and a 10 kDa product which has nucleotide binding properties, is a pathogenicity factor and a gene silencing suppressor. Minor biological and serological variants of the virus are known. Grapevine virus B (GVB) is a vitivirus distantly related serologically to GVA and one of the etiological agents associated with Grapevine corky bark. GVB is also involved in young grapevine decline, a graft incompatibility condition recorded from California. Its totally sequenced RNA has a Mol. wt of about 2.7 x 106 Da, a size of 7599 nt and the same gene sequence and structural organization as GVA. This virus occurs in nature as a family of molecular variants, but biological variants are also known, two groups of which can be differentiated by the reaction of herbaceous hosts. Virus particles coated by both GVA and GVB coat protein occur in cells infected contemporarily by both viruses (phenotypic mixing). Grapevine virus C (GVC) is a little known and poorly characterized virus reported from Canada. Virus particles have a vitivirus morphology and an estimated length of about 725 nm. GVC is serologically distinct from GVA and GVB. Grapevine virus D (GVD), a vitivirus distantly related serologically to GVA and GVB is associated with with corky rugose wood, a field syndrome characterized by the presence of a striking corky condition of affected vines, just above the graft union. Virus particles are flexuous filaments about 825 nm long. The viral genome, which was sequenced only in part, has an estimated size of c. 7600 nt and a 3' terminus structurally comparable to that of GVA and GBV. Cytopathology: Whereas no information is available on the cytopathology of GRSPaV infections, vitivirus-induced cellular modifications have been extensively studied, primarily in herbaceous hosts. Cytopathological features common to all four vitiviruses (GVA, GVB, GVC, and GVD) consist of: (i) virus particle aggregates of various size, forming bundles, whorls, banded bodies, stacked layers that sometimes fill the entire cell lumen; (ii) variously extended wall thickenings originating from deposits of callose-like substances; (iii) proliferation and accumulation of cytoplasmic membranes; (iv) vesiscular evaginations of the tonoplast protruding into the vacuole and containing finely fibrillar material resembling dsRNA. GVA and GVB movement proteins were found to associate with cell walls and plasmodesmata, as detected by gold immunolabelling. Transmission: For many years after its discovery there were no records of natural spread of rugose wood in the field. GVA and GVB are now known to be transmitted from grapevine to grapevine by pseudococcid mealybugs and/or scale insects in a semipersistent manner. GVA vectors are the mealybugs Planococcus citri, Pl. ficus, Pseudococcus longispinus, Ps. affinis, Heliococcus bohemicus, and the scale insect Neopulvinaria innumerabilis, whereas GVB is transmitted by Ps. longispinus, Ps. affinis, and Pl. ficus. GRSPaV has no known vectors, but is suspected to be pollen-borne. There are, however, conflicting reports on its presence within seed and no evidence that it occurs in seedlings from infected vines. None of the putative agents of rugose wood has alternative hosts in nature and, because of the relatively limited range of vector movement, is not disseminated over long distances by natural means. Transport of infected propagative material represents the major means of dispersal. The presence of rugose wood and its causal agents in phylloxera-free countries with a millenial history of ownrooted grapevine cultivation, suggests that the disease originated in the Old World and was distributed worldwide by commercial trading and planting of infected grafted plants. Varietal susceptibility: Most if not all V.vinifera varieties and American rootstocks are susceptible. Although customarily grapevines are infected symptomlessly when ungrafted, rugose wood symptoms
are synonymized with "rugose wood". Transgene expression was detected in these plants and in transformed grapevine explants. or a combination of the two. Name of the disease changed into corky bark. Control: Use for propagation of virus-free scionwood and rootstocks obtained by sanitary selection combined with sanitation is of paramount importance to avoid introduction of infected vines in the vineyards.: Corky bark is remarkably heat stable and difficult to eliminate by heat therapy. are mechanically transmissible. Histological study of diseased vines. The intensity of wood abnormalities (pitting and grooving) vary. rupestris and Kober 5BB).: Graft transmission of rough bark to LN 33. no strategy has yet been developed for the chemical control of vectors. Graniti and Ciccarone: First record of rugose wood from southern Italy. Graniti and Martelli: Demonstration of the infectious nature of rugose wood. experimental evidence has been obtained of the very close association of GRSPaV. several resistant plant lines were obtained by transformation with the coat protein and the movement protein genes of GVA and GVB. meristem tip culture. with vein necrosis. Hewitt et al. 1954 1961 1962 1963 1963 1964 1965 Hewitt: Rough bark. Latent infection can occur also in grafted vines. as shown by 110R. since symptomless infections make sanitary selection not totally reliable. Vitiviruses. rupestris. Thus. immunocapture RT-PCR. Goheen et al. to a restricted range of herbaceous hosts (mostly Nicotiana species). or spot-RT-PCR using degenerate or virus-specific primers. all sources must be indexed and/or laboratory tested. described from California. 1965 1965 1967 81 . Immuno-capture RT-PCR is 1000-fold more sensitive than ELISA for virus detection in grapevines. Using a Nicotiana benthamiana model system. Thus. Recently. Detection: Indexing on indicators (V. The best antigen sources for serological diagnosis are cortical shavings from mature dormant canes. the putative agent of rupestris stem pitting. Martelli et al. Suggestion that rugose wood may be a disease of combination requiring the contact of scion and rootstock for the development of symptoms. other assays include: single step or nested reverse trascription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). and that it may be a composite disease resulting from the interaction of different viruses among which GFLV. Suggestion that it may be caused by a virus.: First record of rugose wood outside of Italy. it is plausible to regard 110R as a specific indicator of rupestris stem pitting in addition to V. No natural sources of resistance to any of the rugose wood agents are known but the possibility of using pathogen-derived resistance in Vitis is being explored. GVA can be eliminated to a very hight rate (up to 97%) by the procedure used for cryopreservation of grapevine shoot tips. if not otherwise associated with a specific syndrome. However. Faccioli: First histological study of corky bark-affected grapevines. Control of mealybugs is difficult for they overwinter under the bark of grapevines and possess an unwettable waxy covering. In general. possibly in relation with the scion/stock combination and climatic conditions.were observed in self-rooted cultivars and ungrafted roostock stocks (V. rupestris. "stem pitting" and "stem grooving". Kober 5BB and LN 33) is the only reliable method for detecting and sorting out the diseases of the complex. Beukman and Goheen: Brief account of the histological modifications of corky bark-affected LN 33. Individual viruses can be identified by ELISA or dot immunobinding on nylon membranes using polyclonal antisera and/or monoclonal antibodies when available. 2. rugose wood agents can be eliminated with reasonable efficiency by heat therapy. a virus-like disease. Graniti: Detailed description of rugose wood symptoms. though with difficulty. Historical review Names like "legno riccio". but not foveaviruses. Goidanich and Canova: First record of corky bark in Europe. In addition.
: Rugose wood recorded from Australia. based on graft transmission tests.: Green grafting useful for corky bark indexing. First record of rugose wood symptoms outside of Europe (Israel).: Recovery by mechanical inoculation of a closterovirus with particles 800 nm long. Goheen and Luhn: Suggestion that corky bark and rugose wood are the same disease.: Heat therapy effective against rugose wood. Conti et al. Anonymous: A review of rugose wood in Italy. Castillo et al. Hewitt: Up-to-date review on grapevine virus and virus-like disease worldwide. Mink and Parsons: Use of growth chambers for rapid symptom expression of corky bark in Vitis indicators. Beukman and Gifford: Detailed account of adverse effects of corky bark on the anatomy of Vitis.1968 1968 Lehoczky et al. Lehoczky: Destructive effects of rugose wood registered in Hungary in both self-rooted and grafted European grape varieties. despite similarities in the s y m p t o m s o n t h e foliage are different diseases. from a rugose wood-infected vine. Hewitt: Successful graft transmission of Californian rugose wood. Legin et al. Teliz et al. Goheen and Luhn: Heat treatment of dormant buds grafted onto LN 33 is effective against corky bark. Rugose wood may not require a grafted plant for full symptom expression. Boccardo and D'Aquilio: Physicochemical characterization of GSP-AV Abracheva: Survey of over 650 grapevine cultivars and hybrids for rugose wood reaction in Bulgaria. Sarooshi et al. Beukman and Goheen: Up-to-date review of corky bark.: First experimental evidence that a filamentous virus (GVA). is transmitted by the pseudoccid mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus.: Observation of rugose wood symptoms in self-rooted vines. Rosciglione et al. 1968 1969 1970 1970 1971 1971 1972 1973 1973 1975 1975 1977 1978 1979 1979 1980 1980 1981 1981 1982 1983 82 .b. a. No nepoviruses implicated in their etiology. Goheen: Evidence that corky bark and leafroll.c: A series of three papers reporting the occurrence and field spread of corky bark in Mexico and evaluating symptoms induced by natural infections of corky bark in formerly virusfree self-rooted or grafted European grape varieties and rootstocks. Graniti and Martelli: Up-to-date review of rugose wood. At 38 °C the minimum inactivation period for leafroll is 56 days and for corky bark 98 days.Virus provisionally called grapevine stem pitting-associated virus (GSP-AV). Bovey and Brugger: Further evidence that GFLV may not be implicated in the etiology of rugose wood in Switzerland. Engelbrecht and Nel: Rugose wood and fanleaf are not related. Hewitt and Neja: First record of rugose wood in USA (California).
Savino et al. but not consistently in grapevines from New York.: First record of rugose wood from China. 1985 1985 1985 1985 1985a 1985b 1985 1985 1985 1987 1988 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1990 1990 1991 1991 83 . an additional disease of the rugose wood complex. Engelbrecht and Kasdorf: Natural field spread of corky bark in South Africa associated with the presence of P. Tanne et al. GSP-AV re-named Grapevine virus A (GVA). Monette and James: Detection of two biologically distinct but serologically indistinguishable isolates of GVA. Murant et al. Engelbrecht et al. Azzam et al. ficus. Martelli: Rugose wood recorded in southern Mediterranean and Arab countries.: Two distinct dsRNAs with a mol.: Experimental confirmation of the complex nature of rugose wood based on the differential reaction of woody indicators. Kuniyuki and Costa: Rugose wood recorded from Brasil Goheen: First published description of rupestris stem pitting.: Experimental confirmation that rugose wood may not express symptoms in grafted indicators. Savino et al. No closterovirus-like particles in samples with rupestris stem pitting. The first two disorders appear to be spreading in the vineyards. Corky bark and Rupestris stem pitting.: Assessment of crop losses induced by rugose wood to two different European grape varieties. Garau et al. denoted Grapevine virus B (GVB). Li et al.: Three types of wood disorders of the stem-grooving type observed in South African grapevines. Corbett and Wiid: Closterovirus-like particles found in extracts from vines affected by corky bark and rugose wood in South Africa. Italia propagated on six different rootstocks.: A low molecular weight dsRNA associated with rupestris stem pitting.: Evidence that GSP-AV can occur in grapevines together with another similar but serologically unrelated virus with short closterovirus-like particles. similar to Kober stem grooving.4 x 106 associated with rupestris stem pitting in grapevines from California and Canada.Sc. Garau et al. Castrovilli and Gallitelli: Physicochemical comparison of two Italian isolates of GVA.1984 Milne et al. Rugose wood and corky bark are not the same disease. Suggestion that the disease is not related to closteroviruses associated with GLRaV and corky bark.: Transmission of corky bark by the mealybug P. Savino et al. Gallitelli et al. First report of Kober stem grooving. Similar dsRNA species were detected. thesis describing rupestris stem pitting disease in comparison with corky bark. wt of 5. Monette et al.: First indication of the possible existence of LN 33 stem grooving. ficus. Rosciglione and Castellano: Demonstration that GVA is transmitted also by Planococcus citri and P.: Heracleum latent virus and GVA are distantly serologically related.: Evaluation of the effect of rugose wood on cv.ficus.: Application of spot hybridization for the detection of GVA in grapevine sap.3 and 4. Prudencio: M.
Minafra et al. Minafra et al.: Synthesis of a cloned probe for GVA. both associated with a stem pitting condition of grapevines rather than with leafroll. Monette and James: A closterovirus with short particles (725 nm) isolated from a corky barkaffected vine induces necrotic local lesions and systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana.: Sequence of the 3' end of GVA and GVB genome. Merkuri et al. Suggestion that GVA may be the causal agent of the disease. Boscia et al.: Presence of two distinct serotypes of GVA.: Production of monoclonal antibodies to GVA and their use for ELISA detection of the virus in infected vines. Virus named Grapevine virus C (GVC). ficus induced corky bark symptoms in LN 33 Saldarelli et al. Martelli et al. Virus transmission by the mealybug Ps.1991 1991 Gugerli et al. Martelli et al. Namba et al. Thorough comparative study of nine GVB isolates from different countries. Torbato in Italy. Garau et al.: A closterovirus with particles 1440-2000 nm long serologically unrelated to all other known grapevine closteroviruses found in corky bark-affected vines.: Development and diagnostic use of a cloned probe to GVB. 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1995 84 .: Development of digoxigenin-labelled riboprobes for the detection of GVA and GVB in infected tissue extracts.: Purification and properties of GVB.: GVA and Kober stem grooving are closely associated. Digiaro et al. Boulila et al.: Rugose wood recorded from Ukraine Boscia et al. Saric and Korosec-Koruza: Rugose wood recorded from Croatia and Slovenia Ioannou: Rugose wood recorded from Cyprus. Padilla: Rugose wood recorded from Spain Boscia et al. Suggestion that GVA is implicated in the aetiology of the disease.: Contemporary occurrence of Rupestris stem pitting and Kober stem grooving in symptomless scions of cv. Minafra and Hadidi: Detection of GVA and GVB in viruliferous mealybugs by PCR. Saldarelli et al. Chavez and Varon de Agudelo: Rugose wood recorded from Colombia. Both viruses qualify for the inclusion in the genus Trichovirus.: Rugose wood recorded from Yemen.:Rugose wood recorded from Tunisia Milkus et al.: Rugose wood recorded from Malta Monette and Godkin: Recovery of a closterovirus-like virus by mechanical inoculation from a corky bark-affected vine.: Rugose wood recorded from Albania. Virus later identified as Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 Tanne and Meir: A dsRNA with a molecular weight higher than 14 Kd identified in extracts from corky bark-affected vines. Garau et al.: Clear-cut connection of GVA and rugose wood.
1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997a 1997b 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 85 .: Review of the properties of putative grapevine-infecting trichoviruses (GVA. Martelli et al. Haidar et al. La Notte et al. Since particle size (600-700 nm in length) is compatible with that of Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) particles identified in 2002. GVB. Meng et al. Boscia et al.: Nucleotide sequence of GVB genome. Goszczynski et al.: GVB is consistently associated with corky bark and is present. GVC.: Sequence and structrural organization of Grapevine rupestris stem pittingassociated virus genome (GRSPaV). GVA. and GVD removed from the genus Trichovirus and assigned to the new genus. GRSPaV is assigned to this genus. this may be the first visualization of GRSPaV. Zhang et al. Rubinson et al.: GVA and GVD are serologically distantly related.: Sequencing of a Californian isolate of GRSPaV. Garau et al. Saldarelli et al.: Antiserum to the movement protein of GVA is useful for virus detection in ELISA. Efficient detection method based on TAS-ELISA developed. Alkowni et al: Rugose wood in Palestine. Faoro: Review of the cytopathology of grapevine trichovirus infections. Further support of the cause-effect relationship between GVA and this disease. though not consistently in vines showing a syndrome denoted "corky rugose wood". Bonavia et al. longispinus in a semi-persistent manner. Guidoni et al.: Rugose wood recorded from Lebanon.: GVA and GVB are transmitted by Pseudococcus affinis. Martelli and Jelkmann: Establishment of the genus Foveavirus.: GVA and GVB are serologically related. La Notte et al. Suggestion that spreading is by a vector that transmits in a semipersistent manner.: Elimination of GVA from cv Nebbiolo clones by heat therapy improves agronomic performance of the vines and quality of the must.1995 Monette and Godkin: Detection of non mechanically transmissible capillovirus-like particles in a grapevine affected by rugose wood. Tanne et al. Minafra et al. and GVD) later assigned to the genus Vitivirus. GVC. Chevalier et al.: Development of a PCR technique for the detection of GVA and GVB in nylon membrane-spotted sap. GVB.: Estasblishment of the genus Vitivirus with GVA as type species.: Description of Grapevine virus D (GVD). Boscia et al.: Consistent detection of GVA in Kober stem grooving-infected grapevines by immunocapture-polymerase chain reaction.: Nucleotide sequence of GVA genome and taxonomic position of the virus. Abou Ghanem et al.: A study of the spatial distribution pattern of corky bark in aThompson seedless vineyard in Israel.: GVA is transmitted by by Ps.: Rugose wood recorded from Jordan. Choueiri et al. The virus is not seed-borne.
Minafra et al. observed for the first time. Further support to the cause-effect relationship of GRSPaV with this disease Galikparov et al.: Synthesis of full-length cDNA copies of GVA and GVB genomes. Dovas and Katis: Improved RT-PCR method for the simultanous detection in grapevine extracts of vitivirus (GVA.1999 1999 2000a Meng et al. and III) identified in South Africa based primarily on sequence homology of the 3' end of the viral genome. Wang et al. Habili et al. GVA movement protein is also present in great quantity in the cytoplasm. Stewart and Nassuth: An improved extraction method allows RT-PCR detection of GRSPaV virtually thoughout the year in all grapevine tissues. 2000b 2000 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 86 . Galiakparov et al.: Consistent association of GRSPaV with vines indexing positive for Rupestris stem pitting. Petrovic et al.: GVA transmission by Pseudococcus comstocki. II. The virus was not detected in 245 seedlings from infected cv. Saldarelli et al.: GRSPaV particles. Goszczynski and Jooste: GVA and GLRaV-3 are both consistently associated with Shiraz disease in South Africa but only GVA seems to be required for disease induction.8% and 78-89.: Rugose wood viruses in Iran.: Rugose wood viruses in Egypt. Meng et al. Nakano et al.: Production of monoclonal antibodies to GVB.: Production of a polyclonal antiserum to a recombinant coat protein of GRSPaV and its use in dot immunobinding on polyvynil difluoride membranes for virus detection in grapevine tissue extracts.: GVA particles carry a highly structured epitope centered on a common peptide region of the coat protein sequence. Goszczynski and Jooste: Use of single-strand conformation polymorphism reveals molecular heterogenity in GVA populations. Goszczynski and Jooste: Thre groups of GVA strains (I. Confirmation of the cause-effect relationship between GVA and Kober stem grooving. Nucleotide sequence identity within groups is 91-99. Seyval seedlings. Ahmed et al. Dell'Orco et al.: Production of an infectious RNA transcript from a full-length cDNA clone of GVA. Boscia et al.: Movement proteins of GVA and GVB detected by gold immunolabelling in association with cell walls and plasmodemata of infected cells. Buzkan et al. Saldarelli et al.: Rugose wood viruses in the Czeck Republic.: Western blots and ELISA using a polyclonal antiserum to recombinant coat protein of GRSPaV detect the virus in infected grapevine tissues almost with the same efficiecy of RTPCR. Kominek et al. are filamentous and measure 723 nm in length. GVB. GVB and Corky bark and GRSPaV and Rupestris stem pitting. GCD) and foveavirus (GRSPaV) sequences in two steps. GVA coat protein encapsidating GVB RNA. Virus detected in bleached seeds suggesting that it is present inside the seeds.e. intermingled with virus particle aggregates. Samples made up of three buds from dormant canes are less laboriour to prepare than cane shavings and yield comparable results.: Elimination of GVA by cryopreservation. occurs in Nicotiana plants doubly infected with GVA and GVB.: One-sided phenotyping mixing. i.: The function of GVA genes identified by mutation analysis of individual ORFs of a full-length infectious viral clone.3% among groups.
S. Univ. G. Vitis 35. Beukman E. Adams et al. Buzkan.. Minafra. Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Palestine. Trivandrum.. 1997.): Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines (A Handbook). a tumor-inducing virus of grapevines. The protein and nucleic acid of a closterovirus isolated from a grapevine with stem-pitting symptoms. V. Boccardo G. rupestris. Goheen. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale Ser. P. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 28. V. Locorotondo 2003. Castellano and G. Archives of Virology 127. Production of monolconal antibodies to grapevine virus D and contribution to the study of its aetiological role in grapevine diseases. Bouyahia et al. Suggestion than vein necrosis is a specificic reaction of 110R to GRSPaV. Hilgardia 40. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 20. Garau. M. Z. Vitis 40. 1991. P. K. Monette (Ed. Boscia.F.G. 185-194. 1997.A. G. Division of Agric. 87 . Davis. La sensibilité de certaines variétés de vigne à la maladie du bois strié (legno riccio). V. Berkeley.W. No veing necrosis observed in 110R top grafted on GRSPaV-free V.M. Savino. Boulila M. Saldarelli. 960-964. Boscia D.P.A. In: Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants. Anatomic effects of corky bark virus in Vitis. and E. 126-128. N. (Ed. T. 2001. A preliminary survey for grapevine viruses in Egypt. Journal of Plant Pathology 79. Grape corky bark. 2003. Ahmed MH.P. Brunt. Potere. 15-25. Milne and C. Archives of Virology 130. Goheen. Martelli. a novel putative trichovirus. 69-74. Abou Ghanem. Bottalico.. 178-179. M. N. Plant Disease 75. 11-24. Il legno riccio delle vite in Italia.M. Minafra. V. A.P. Martelli. 1993. characterization and use of monoclonal antibodies to grapevine virus A.C. V. M.F. Beukman E.F. Informatore Fitopatologico 29(2). N. Zorloni et al. 164-166. J. D. Boscia D. 1998. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Gonsalves and G. Savino. Aslouj. N.P. Alkowni R.). Corky bark. Safi. M. Zhou...: Establishment of the family Flexiviridae... Digiaro. 19-28. Martelli.J.A. Abou Ghanem. Meng and Gonsalves: Comprehensive review of the characteristics of GRSaV. Archives of Virology 149. Digiaro and V. G. M. of California. 73103. Bonavia M. Foster. A.A.. 1996.C. 4. Studies on "corky rugose wood" of grapevine and the diagnosis of grapevine virus B.. Azzam O. Martelli. Boscia D. D'Aquilio. Golino. Volos 1990. and A. M. M. Savino and G. and M. Rugose wood of the grapevine in Jordan. 189-195. Castellano. A comparative study of grapevine virus B isolates. Bar-Joseph.A. A. Boari. Chabbouh. Trichovirus and Foveavirus. Candresse. Elicio.. A. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Boscia D. Beukman E.A. Gifford.. Boetalico and O. 1970. Elicio. 1965. 3-18. 104-110. G. Martelli .P. Minafra. Journal of General Virology 53. V. Abracheva P. A. 2004. 1981. A.P. 1992. Martelli.. 1969. A. R. M. Research Signpost. Digiaro. Detection of dsRNA in grapevines showing symptoms of rupestris stem pitting disease and the variabilities encountered. 1994.P. 109-120 Boscia D. 1965. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts with Special Reference to Vitis. Namba. C. The new plant virus family Flexiviridae and assessment of molecular criteria for species demarcation. 1981. 1991. Minafra.. Martelli. 53-48. Boscia D. Properties of Grapevine virus D. Martelli. A.. Martelli.: Experimental transmission of GVA by the mealybug Heliococcus bohemicus. 203-205.D.: An association exceeding 95% observed between GRSPaV and 110R vines showing vein necrosis symptoms in indexing trials. Properties of a filamentous virus isolated from grapevines affected by corky bark. Production.L. California..F Antoniw. M. In Frazier N. 1995. Digiaro and G. Cherif and G. Masannat. R. 179-182. E. Current knowledge on viruses and virus diseases of grapevines in Tunisia. R. 207-209. D. References Abou Ghanem N. comprising grapevine viruses belonging in the genera Vitivirus. Castellano. D. Adams M.M. 1045-1060. Savino. Martelli. Castellano and G. Filamentous viruses of the grapevine: putative trichoviruses and capilloviruses. M. and A.V. Saldarelli.2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 Minafra and Boscia: Review of rugose wood-associated viruses.P. Sci.P. P. Minafra and G.R. Gonsalves and D.P. Fauquet. Abou-Zurayk and G.I. Savino and G. Anonymous 1979. Garau. Phytopathologia Mediterrenea 34. 3.
2003. D. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24.A. R. 510-514. Closterovirus-like particles in extracts from diseased grapevines. 347-354. Luisoni and G.J. Kiryat Anavim 1987. G. 627-634 Digiaro M. Prota. Trivandrum. and J. 1963. 1988. 491-495. Faccioli G. leafroll and Shiraz decline diseases and associated viruses in South African grapevines.. 1991.C. Journal of Phytopathology 143. Gölles. M. M. Maré. Martelli.L. Fiori and U.F. 17. E. and G. 235-242. Ser. 1994. Volos 1990. U.. 1985. 1989. Virustest auf corky bark in den USA. 1991. R.). 1990. Dore and U. Journal of Virological Methods 170. 1985. Infectious RNA transcripts from gapevine virus A cDNA clone. 37-43. Cugusi. Chavez L. 37-42. G. 88 . fleck.Bouyahia H. Cytopathology of closteroviruses and trichoviruses infecting grapevines. Pseudococcus affinis new vector of grapevine trichoviruses A and B. Sela and R. 1968. D'Onghia. Fitopatologia Colombiana 19 (2).. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG.A. I. and N. and A.I. 67-68. 2004. B.I. On the possible relationship between Kober stem grooving and grapevine virus A. 394-399. On the correlation between grapevine virus A and rugose wood. Minnesota. Savino. Phytophylactica 3. N. Martelli. Gallitelli D..P. Kasdorf and F. 1995. Castillo J. Heterologous encapsidation in non transgenic and transgenic Nicotiana plants infected by grapevine virus A and B. 19-26. V. Archives of Virology 147. C. A comparison of two isolates of Grapevine virus A. Phytophylactica 22.. 2002 . E. 1995.B. Garau R.. Clauzel. 1985. Dovas C. Galiakparov N. Nel. Engelbrecht D. D.. 1995.G. M. Engelbrecht D.C. Série D. Indagine istologica su tralci di vite affetti da "suberosi corticale". Bovey R. Grapevine virus A and grapevine virus D are serologically related.M. V. M. and F. 1971..A. 53.S. C. P. In: Filamentous Viruses of Woody Plants.A... M. A closterovirus from a stem pitting-diseased grapevine. Prota and U. Prota. Goheen (Eds. J. Dell'Orco M. IV. Fritsch.. Savino and G. Paul. Functional analysis of the grapevine virus A genome. A graft-transmissible stem-grooving of grapevines in the Western Cape Province (South Africa) resembling legno riccio (rugose wood). Paris. nad M. Boscia. Katis. Field spread of stem-grooving diseases in South African grapevines. Varon de Agudelo. Chevalier S. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 33. Sela and R.G. Gallitelli. 301. Boscia and V. Transmission d'une virose de la vigne (maladie de l'écorce liégeuse ou Corky Bark) par la méthode de la greffe en vert.): Compendium of Grape Diseases. 1997. In Pearson R. Investigations on wood disorders (stem pitting and/or stem grooving) of grapevine in Sardinia. 1973. 1975. Boscia. Popovic Bedzrob.A. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Buzkan N. 135141. Vitis 36. La Notte. V. Goheen A. 281. Garau R. Monette (ed. A. Saldarelli. American Phytopathological Society Press.F. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24.. Walter and C. USA. Garau R. Boccardo. Journal of Plant Pathology 83.). Abou Ghanem and D.J.J. Dell'Orco. A spot nested RT-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of members of the Vitivirus and Foveavirus genera in grapevine. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. R. Boscia. Garau R.. 1994. 1999.Epitope mapping of Grapevine virus A capsid protein.. Martelli. Phytopathology 70.. 29-47. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Annali della Sperimentazione Agraria (Roma) N.. 9 (suppl. 64-67. Minafra. Virology 306. M.-J. Torbato scions. Tanne. Minafra and G. Saldarelli. D. Choueiri E. M. Observaciones sobre emfermedades de posiblemente origen viral en vid (Vitis sp. 161-163. 93-96. 221-224.C. Investigations on the yields of "Monica" and "Italia" vines affected by legno riccio (stem pitting). Galiakparov N.. Savino. E.P.C. Prota. Boscia and U. P. Greif. Garau R. St. Phytophylactica 23. Kasdorf. 219-220. 91-100. Distribution of Kober stem grooving and Rupestris stem pitting of grapevine in symptomless cv. Gafny. 2001. 2003. 147-150. Laimer da Camara Machado.. Tanne. Prota. A. Cugusi. Milne. M. Use of an immunocapturepolymerase chain reaction procedure for the detection of grapevine virus A in Kober stem groovinginfected grapevines.G. 368-373. V. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences. D..P. I. 187-1293. Vitis 34. P. Virus Genes 19.K. Is Grapevine vein necrosis a reaction to Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus? Journal of Plant Pathology 86. Rives. Field spread of corky bark. Stem pitting of grapevine in Switzerland. Vitis 33. 1997. The use of a spot hybridization method for the detection of Grapevine virus A in the sap of grapevine. and A.).. Corbett M. M. Prota and M. Castellano. Minafra. 1980. 42-50. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. Wiid. 39-41 Conti M. D. Engelbrecht D.M. P. Goheen A. Prota. Gafny. A. Research Signpost. and J. and D.A. Castellano. Weinberg und Keller 15. Boscia and D. Faoro F.. V. Castrovilli S. 99-106. Pirolo. Rupestris stem pitting. 1985. Prota. 175-181. Hévin and M. Gallitelli. Piredda. Brugger. 239-240.
V. Ser. 77-82. Incidence and economic importance of virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine in Cyprus. Premiers résultats de guérison par thermothérapie et culture in vitro d'une maladie de type cannelure (legno riccio) produite par le greffage du cultivar Servant de Vitis vinifera sur le porte greffe Vitis riparia x V.E. Symons. 103-108.G. 1975..B.. 243-245. Journal of Virological Methods 66. Di Stefano. S. Davis 1965. 860-861. 1965. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 18. 162-163.B.B. Goszczynski D.. 2003. 99-102. Note sintomatologiche e istologiche sulle viti affette da "legno riccio". Ciccarone. and A. 219. Goheen. Incidencia de virus da videira em Sao Paulo. 581-583. 845-848. Legno riccio. Martelli. Graniti A. Afsharifar and R.. Hewitt W. IV.. Berkeley. Division of Agric. 1962.C. Minafra and G. Jooste.P. 182. Notiziario sulle Malattie delle Piante 55(N.. Goszczynski D. Brugger. 353-362. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts with Special Reference to Vitis. Plant Disease Reporter 59. 9. B. 1970.M. 2003. Association of stem pitting with corky bark in grapes and detection by indexing in standard indicators. Costa. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 3. berlandieri Kober 5BB..-J. 207-210. Digiaro. Khoury and V.B. Hewitt W.C.B. Koniyuki H.. Bonnard.E. Martelli. Mannini. 1978. and C. 1996. 1991. Osservazioni su alterazioni virosiche e virus-simili della vite in Puglia.E. Fitopatologia Brasileira 12. The application of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique for the analysis of molecular heterogeneity of grapevine virus A. A. Savino. Argamante and R. and A. and A. 19-25.S. Grapevine bark and wood pitting disease found in California. Hewitt. Buzkan. 1964.-E. 1965. M. Journal of Plant Pathology 79. 7985.F.. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. and A. Univ. 57-83. 168-179. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 2. 1961. Legin R. Heat inactivation of viruses in grapevines.C. Review of Applied Mycology 47. Goszczynski D. Jr.. Saldarelli. Rosciglione. Pavlousek. Further investigations on legno riccio (rugose wood). Graniti A. 1954. and G. Occurrence of grapevine viruses in the Czeck Republic. E.Goheen A.. 2002. O. Tremea.P.F. 147-143. A.. Luhn.F. Graniti A. Inactivation of grape viruses in vivo. Jooste. Raski and G. Locorotondo 2003. Further characterization of grapevine leafroll disease. Haidar M. Gugerli P. Bass and A. N. Goheen A. M. Luhn and W. Identification of divergent variants of Grapevine virus A. 47-64. 1997. P. W.E. D. La Notte F. Choueiri. 1968. Phytopathology News 12(9).B. Comparaison avec diverses viroses de la vigne. 397-403. Vitis 3. 89 . Guidoni S. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. 1991. Goidanich G. A. and G.. 1996 Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Lebanon. Ioannou N. and A. Volos 1990. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 43. Jandurova and P. 1971. Habili N.E. Vitis 41. 295-297. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 26. 1963. A. Kominek P..C. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. 172. 1973. Goszczynski D.34). Gooding. Canova. Studies on virus diseases of the grapevine in California. 5960. La Notte P. J.). Luhn. 255-265.F.C.J. Locorotondo 2003. In Frazier N. 240-245. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevine. Goheen A. La suberosi corticale della Vite. Ramel and F.P. Davis 1965. Graniti A. 1987.. 433-455.E. Western blots reveal that grapevine viruses A and B are serologically related. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. Neja. Una malattia da virus. Acquisition and transmission of Grapevine virus A by the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus. Martelli. Hewitt W. a grafttransmissible stem-pitting of grapevine.E.W (Eds. C. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Hewitt W. European Journal of Plant Pathology 109. Shiraz disease (SD) is transmitted by the mealybug Planococcus ficus and associated with Grapevine virus A. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts with Special Reference to Vitis. and C. Vuittenez. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 48. Volos 1990. 2003. 1997a. A spot-PCR technique for the detection of phloem-limited grapevine viruses. N. Jooste. of California. Locorotondo 2003. Hewitt W. Pietersen. 1979. F.H.S. Journal of Phytopathology 144. Plant Disease Reporter 55. 1997 b.): Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines (A Handbook). and A.. Ferrandino.C. Viruses and virus diseases of the grapevine. 438-442..F Kasdorf and G. and R. 2003. Graft transmission of a grapevine wood pitting and a flat trunk disease. First detection of a maculavirus and two vitiviruses in Iranian table grapes. Sci. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Minafra and P. A.C. G.. Holleinova. 287-289. The effect of grapevine leafroll and rugose wood sanitation on agronomic performance and berry and leaf phenolic content of a Nebbiolo clone (Vitis vinifera L.V.
. Vitis 39. Journal of Virological Methods 47. Elicio. Savino. P. 1993. A. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG. S. Martelli and U.. F. Gonsalves1999. Minafra A. James. Plant Disease 87. N. Digiaro. D. Forsline. 1989. Minafra A. Archives of Virology 142. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 1989. Gonsalves. and D. Martelli G. Godkin.. Meng B. Volos 1990. 390-395. N. D. 417-423. 1968. E.L. 37-43. 1990. Lehoczky. European Journal of Plant Pathology 105. a new genus of plant viruses. Detection of a closteroviruslike particle from a corky bark-affected grapevine cultivar. Minafra A. and W. Viruses of grapevine in Albania. Saldarelli. G. 31-34. Martelli G. 1994. Tomazic and D.L.P. 215-220. Arab Journal of Plant Protection 7.L. D. Hadidi. and D. 1998. and D.. B or leafroll associated III from viruliferous mealybugs and infected tissue by cDNA amplification. 1991. Procedures for rapid detection of virus and viruslike diseases of grapevine. P. Plant Pathology (Trends in Agriculttural Science) 1. detection. M. 417-424. Foveavirus.. A cloned probe for the detection of grapevine closterovirus A. Nature. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.. Vitis 30.146-151. Kartuzova. Neue Beobachtungen am "legno riccio" der Reben in Ungarn.2003. G. a new plant virus genus. 1972. 1991. Virus and virus-like diseases of the grapevine in the People's Republic of China. Minafra A. sanitation and situation in the Arab countries.G. Detection of virus diseases of grapevine in Ukraine. I. Martelli G. Boscia.P. Rupestris stem pittingassociated virus 1 is consistently detected in vines that are infected with rupestris stem pitting. G. Mink G.. Gonsalves. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 22. 1245-1249. P.. Closterovirus-like particles of two types asociated with diseased grapevines. Muljukina and B. Godkin. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 110. Mechanical transmission of closterovirus-like particles from a corky bark-affected grapevine to an herbaceous species. 137-144. Martelli G.A. 1967.E. R. 1994. Archives of Virology 137. Meng B. 1997.P.P. Lesemann. and S. Feld. Gonsalves. Vitivirus. 360-368. Double-stranded RNA from rupestris stem pittingaffected grapevines. Occurrence of filamentous viruses and rugose wood of grapevine in Yemen. Saldarelli. 1989. A.. Martelli G. 191-199. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 34. Vitis 28. Parsons. Minafra A. Milne R. Minafra and P. Savino. Rowhani. Tanne and J. Nucleotide sequence of the 3' terminal part of the RNA of two filamentous grapevine viruses. G.L. D. Galea Souchet. Weinberg und Keller 15.P. Conti. Sarospataki. McFerson and D. Martelli. Minafra A. Destructive effect of legno riccio (rugose wood) on European grapevine varieties. James and S. Sarospataki and A. 515-522. Volos. Monette P. E. Prota. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Meng B. M. P. genome organization and relationships in the Trichovirus genus. Merkuri J. Jelkmann. Meng B. Stellmach. A disorder resembling "legno riccio" (rugose wood) of grapevine in Hungary. An overwiew of rugose wood-associated viruses: 2000-2203. 2059-2069. 898-900. 249-261. 116-119.. 210-219.L. Petrovic. Saldarelli. James.. and D..I. Castellano and V. Monette P. Credi. 2000. V.P. Monette P. 506. Grapevine virus A: nucleotide sequence. Lehoczky J. R. 110-112. Martelli.P. 1990. Johnson. 1997. 2003. G. 1992.P. Boscia. Peressini P. and D. Martelli. A. P.. 115-118. Boscia and V. Current Topics in Virology 3.Lehoczky J. Viruses of grapevine in Malta. a preliminary account. Quacquarelli. H. Boscia and V. Martelli. 1998. Infectious diseases of grapevines. Archives of Virology 142. Cohen.P.L. V. 1991.Z.E. Martelli.R. 175-188. and phylogenetic relationship to other plant viruses. M. and A. Plant Disease Reporter 61. J. D.. S. 1929-1932. 125-135. Forsline. 1984. Quacquarelli and G.. Locorotondo 2003. Milkus B. Casati. 59-65. Savino anf G. and J. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 33. 607-612. Archives of Virology 142. Antiserum to recombinant virus coat protein detects Rupestris stem pitting associated virus in grapevines.P. 1994. Plant Disease 74.E. Monette P. M.L. 567-571. Greece.P.. Russo and G. Detection of two strains of grapevine virus A. J. Serological detection of grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) by a plyclonal antiserum to recombinant virus coat protein. V. Savino. Annales de Phytopathologie. Saldarelli and G. Li Z. 1994. 1977. Journal of General Virology 79.P. Choueiri. Pang. Nucleotide sequence and genome structure of grapevine rupestris stem pitting associated virus 1 reveal similarities to apple stem pitting virus. Rupestris stem pitting associated virus of grapevines: genome structure. Martelli. Numéro hors série. Martelli G. detection. Sensitive detection of grapevine virus A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 6. genetic diversity. 7-12 90 . 2003.P. Grieco and G. Kiryat Anavim 1987..
. R. Duncan and I. I. Volos. Mealybug transmission of grapevine virus A. 1990. Greece. Marcus. 1989.. 68-72. Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG.E. A. Rosciglione B. 34-38. Niagara Falls 1980 . Saldarelli P. 1991. Mavric and D. Saldarelli P. 1983. 1985b. 33-36. D. 1997. and E. Martelli. 1985. Davis. Bevington and B. I. Musci and G. D. Comparative effects of corky bark and rupestris stem pitting diseases on selected germplasm lines of grapes. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Incidence of some graft-transmissible virus-like diseases of grapevine in visually selected and heat-treated stocks from Southern Italy.B. The detection of disease specific double-stranded RNA in corky bark affected grapevine.P. A. First detection of rupestris stem pitting associated virus particles by antibody to a recombinant coat protein.. D. Maixner. Golino and D. 218. Meng. 964-970. Valle. Guglielmi Montano and G.P. 1982. Petrovic N. Gonsalves. Effect of legno riccio (stem pitting) on "Italia" vines grafted onto rootstocks of different origin. Department of Plant Pathology. Minafra. The nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of grapevine virus B. 15-22 Savino V. Tanne E. Galiakparov. 91 . Rugose wood complex of grapevine: can grafting to Vitis indicators discriminate between diseases? Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG. H. 1993. Journal of General Virology 77. Serological detection of grapevine virus A using antiserum to a non structural protein.. G..A. M. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale 3 (Ser. Archives of Virology 145. Plant Disease 80. Korosec-Koruza.. Plant Disease 87. Hu. Coote. Nakano M. Vitivinicultura 4 (7-8). Phytopathology 81. Boscia.. 2645-2652. M. Purification and properties of closteroviruslike particles associated with grapevine corky bark disease. Murant A.A. Vitis 22. P. 1989.. Raccah. R. Padilla V. 1985.. K. 1996. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Téliz D. C. 331-347. University of California. Dell'Orco and A. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 617-620 Tanne E. O. 1993. distribution. Locorotondo 2003. 2003. Further evidence that mealybugs can transmit Grapevine virus A (GVA) to herbaceous hosts. Saldarelli P. Téliz D. 91-94. Martelli. Garau and G.. 204-207. Heracleum latent virus (HLV) and heracleum virus 6 (HLV6). Cannizzaro. 2003. 1994. Archives of Virology 145. 416 Sarooshi R. 1980b. E.P. Saldarelli P. M. Savino V. P. Tanne E. Analysis of progress and spatial patterrn of corky bark in grapes. Plant Disease 85. Non-radioactive molecular probes for the detection of three filamentous viruses of the grapevine. E. C. Vitis 33. Immunodetection and subcellular localization of the proteins encoded by ORF 3 of grapevine viruses A and B. Rosciglione B. Boscia. 1966. Savino V. Roberts. Tanne and R.. 2000b. Performance and compatibility of "Muscat Gordo Blanco" grape on eight rootstocks.. Niagara Falls 1980. N. Grape corky bark and stem pitting in Mexico. Gafny. Phytopathology 87.G. 36 pp. Castellano. 241-242.. Martelli. I. Scientia Horticulturae 16. A. natural spread. the putative movement protein. Occurrence and spread of viruses associated with leafroll (GLR) and stem pitting (GSP) diseases in the north-western part of Yugoslavia. and Z.P. Rubinson E.P. Boscia and G.A. M. Martelli. Occurrence. Savino and G. S. effect on yield and evaluation of symptoms in 128 grape cultivars. Komazaki. Martelli. Report of the Scottish Crop Institute 1984. J. Godkin. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Kiryat Anavim 1987. D.F. Nassuth.P. R..A.H. Boscia and G. Nakaune and S. Stewart S. 65-70. Gonsalves. Ben Dov and B. 51-64. 1991. Martelli. Valle and A. 1985a. Minafra and G. Martelli.P. and A. V). Transmission of the corky-bark disease by the mealybug Planococcus ficus. Phytoparasitica 17. A. Meir. B. Ravnikar. 1535-1542. Detection of capillovirus-like particles in a grapevine affected with rugose wood. Radian. Sela. Castellano and G.. and S. V. Saric A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24.P. Azzam.. D. 186-188. Namba S. and M. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. II. Luévano. 1985. Dubitzky and B. 2001. 1041-1045. Castellano. 1980a. A cloned probe to grapevine virus B. Prudencio S. Raccah.S.. Mealybug transmission of grapevine viruses in Japan.Sc. D. Influencia del complejo de la madeira rizada de la vid en el cv Napoleon negra. Minafra. Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG. Goheen and S. M.. Volos 1990. 1995. 247-250. G. 157-160. 2000a. 397-405. 1991. Goheen. 182.M. M.L. Y. Evaluation of symptoms in 17 rootstocks. Saldarelli P. thesis. 510514. Infectious cDNA clones of two grapevine viruses. Minafra.Monette P. Martelli. RT-PCR detection of rupestris stem pitting associated virus within fieldgrown grapevines throughout the year. Grape corky bark and stem pitting in Mexico.. 55. 367-374. Vitis 34.
S. Locorotondo 2003. Prati. Rowhani. P. Extended Abstracts 14 Meeting of ICVG. Sela and E. 2003. J.A. 92 . Elimination of grapevine virus A by cryporeservation. 339. P. Phytopathology 88. 242 Zhang Y. Valle.. M. 1998. Golino and A. Journal of Plant Pathology 86. 71-75. Mawassi. Further data on the experimental transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 and of Grapevine virus A by mealybugs. and P. Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG. Gafny. Nucleotide sequence and RT-PCR detection of a virus associated with rupestris stem-pitting disease. D. Wang Q.. Evaluation of symptoms in 130 cultivars grafted on 17 rootstocks.Téliz D. Zorloni A.P. Uyemoto. Bianco and G.. Grape corky bark and stem pitting in Mexico. R. Li. I. Tanne. III. Belli. 1980c.K.A. 2004. 1231-1237. Niagara Falls 1980.
GRAFT INCOMPATIBILITY .
GRAFT INCOMPATIBILITY Infection by phloem-limited viruses may damage grapevines in the nursery (reduced graft take) or in the early stages of growth in the field (graft incompatibility). but the yield is reduced. 1. Transmission: GLRaV-2. up to five different grafttransmissible agents inducing incompatibility could be differentiated in California. The same virus was detected in diseased Chilean grapes. consistently. scions show a stunted and bushy vegetation due to the contemporary proliferation of apical and axillary buds. decline and may die. Redglobe in California called Grapevine rootstock stem lesion-associated virus (GRSLaV) proved to be a molecular and biological variant of GLRaV-2 (GLRaV-2 RG). a member of the genus Closterovirus. GVB is mealybug-borne and can be spread at a site by these insects. Syrah decline is a severe disease occurring in France. which are usually not accompanied by wood abnormalities (pitting or grooving). Foliar and trunk symptoms resemble very much those induced by rugose wood/graft incompatibililty and are shown by aged as well as young (4-year-old) vines. European grape varieties grafted on tolerant rootstocks (e. New Zealand. Agents: An ordinary strain of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) is consistently associated with Kober 5BB incompatibility (Europe). Other molecular variants of GLRaV-2 were reported from New Zealand (Alphie virus). 03916. The nature of this disease has not been ascertained but one or more graft-transmissibile agents may be involved in its aetiology. Argentina and probably elsewhere. 3309) develop a discolored canopy . The putative agent of bushy stunt was consistenly found in clones of the rootstock 140R in which it is latent. and together with Grapevine virus B (GVB). and again California (rootstock stem lesions). leaves are small-sized. Freedom. Cases of graft union disorders have been observed in Europe (Kober 5BB incompatibility). Harmony. though not consistently and. However. A virus originally detected in cv. incompatibilità d'innesto (Ital. only GLRaV-2 RG was identified. Australia and Chile (young vine decline).g. Kober 5BB. although none of a number of known grapevine-infecting viruses has been found in affected vines. Incompatibility may also develop in the form of a brown line of necrotic tissues at the bud union when grape cultivars hypersensitively resistant to the nepovirus ToRSV are grafted on susceptible rootstocks. appears to be involved in California's young vine decline. Description Main synonyms: Incompatibilité au greffage (Fr. 1103P. so as to represent veritable emerging diseases. except for GRSPaV. Normal growth resumes with the second or third leaf. 101-14) exhibit a green canopy and perform rather well.).) Symptoms: Newly planted vines grow weakly. Known viruses associated with this disorder (different GLRaV-2 strains and GVB) can be identified by ELISA using polyclonal antisera and/or monoclonal antibodies The best antigen sources for serological diagnosis are cortical shavings from mature dormant canes. the increased use of clonal material is disclosing unprecedented conditions of generalized decline that develop dramatically in certain scionrootstock combinations. but the colour of the canopy remains green. In this case. This latter condition has been known for a long time and occurs also in rugose wood-affected vines. Varietal susceptibility: Appearance of graft union disorders depends more on the rootstock rather than the scion. with margins more or less extensively rolled downwards. Severely affected vines decline and may die within one or two years. The heat-labile graft-transmissible agent present in the hybrid 140R. Based on the differential responses of a panel of 18 rootstocks. Chile. Infected propagative material is to be blamed for its dissemination.g. A transitory form of incompatibility was reported from Italy under the name of bushy stunt. California. A prominent swelling forms at the scion/rooststock junction and variously extended necrotic lesions may develop on the rootstock stem. Other assays include nucleic acid-based tecniques such as single step or nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 95 . and Australia in association with young vine decline conditions. Detection: Indexing on Caberent sauvignon is a reliable method for detecting incompatibility conditions. Of these. in Argentinian grapes. 5C. and the vegetation is stunted The canopy shows autumn colours off season so that leaves turn reddish in red-berried varieties or yellow in white-berried varieties much earlier than normal. Salt creek . whereas varieties grafted on susceptible roostocks (e. is not transmitted by mealybugs and does not have a known vector. shoots are short. associated with grapevine bushy stunt is still unidentified.
the use of sensitive rootstocks is to be avoided and. The problem is very complex and may involve several still unidentified factors. Boubals: Report of a national French study group investigating the aetiology of Syrah decline. using degenerate or virus-specific primers. Prodan et al. Legin and Walter: The graft-transmissibile agent that causes incompatibility of different varieties on Kober 5BB is a virus which can be eliminated by heat treatment at 37 °C for 58 days.: GLRaV-2 is the cause of a graft incompatibility revealed by Kober 5BB.: Identification of an apparently new closterovirus denoted Grapevine rootstock stem lesion virus (GRSLV) causing stem necrosis of rootstocks. Golino et al. Durquety et al. Bonfiglioli et al. GRSLV has about 75% nucleotide homology with GLRaV-2.: Two papers describing incompatibility phenomena between clonal selections of different cultivars grafted on Kober 5BB Fallot et al.: Description of bushy stunt and evidence that it is caused by a graft-transmissibile heat-sensitive agent carried by some clonal rootstocks. Boubals: Syrah decline occurs in Argentina Uyemoto et al. whenever feasible. No conclusion are drawn. and death of the vines. utilization of tolerant roostocks is advisable. Historical review 1942 1950 1973. with a decline condition of young Thomposn seedless vines in Chile.: Updated report on the state of the art of investigations carried out in France on Syrah decline. 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 96 . Bertazzon and Angelini: Comparison of several detection methods for the broad or specific identification of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 variants. Renault Spilmont et al.: GLRaV-2 and GVB are consistently associated with young vine decline in California. Control: Prevent introduction of infected vines in the vineyard by using certified grafted plants or virusfree scionwood and rootstocks. Graft-transmission of the incompatibility factor. Gomez Talquenca et al: GLRaV-2 is consistently associated with declining Cabernet sauvingon vines grafted on different roostocks in Argentina. Strategies on how to protect healthy stocks from vector-mediated GVB reinfection in the field are yet to be developed. Savino et al. Boubals and Huglin: Report on graft incompatibility of certain varieties grafted on 57R.: Report of a new molecular variant of GLRaV-2 from New Zealand. Currently known graft incompatibility agents can be eliminated with reasonable efficiency by heat therapy. Suggestion that they are molecular variants of the same virus species. or a combination of the two. Martelli: GRSLV and GLRaV-2 are serologically related and are both recognized by a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies.: Third paper of a series on incompatibility on Kober 5BB. decline. GRSLV re-named Redglobe strain of GLRaV-2.: GLRaV-2 is associated. Uyemoto and Rowhani: Indexing on 18 different grape rootstocks reveals the existence of at least five different agents causing graft incompatibility. though not consistently. 2. If scionwood is infected. Greif et al. 1977 1979 1986 1991 1995 2000 2000 2000 2001 Jacob: Description of graft incompatibility in different scion/stock combinations. meristem tip culture.immunocapture RT-PCR.
201-203.A. Di Silvio. Garau. New closterovirs in 'Redglobe' grape causes decline of grafted plants.. F. 2004. 144. Discovery of different grapevine sources with graft-transmissible agents causing union-incompatibility on sensitive rootstocks. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 96.. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 90. 142-143.. Le clone et ses reactions au greffage. Nouvelles recherches sur l'incompatibilité clonale d'Abouriou greffé sur 5BB. Martelli G. 2003. Ruchaud. Greif C. Walter and U.S. Gomez Talquenca G. Journal of Plant Pathology 86. Grenan and J.P. 202-210 Uyemoto J. P. Grau. Le clone et ses reactions au greffage. 183-189. 122-129 and 171-178.. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 117. Benassac and R. J.M. Prota. Golino D. 1977. Advances in the detection of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 variants. Bonfiglioli R. R. P. S. Bass. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 94.E. Pantaleo. California Agriculture 55 (4). Prota. Fallot. J. Di Terlizzi. 3-10. 141. Autres cas chez la vinge.A. Savino V. Syrah decline in French vineyards.. S. Legin R. D. Aetiology of decline in Thompson seedless grafted table grape plants. Huglin. M. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. 279-283. Proceeding of the American Society of Horticultural Science 41. B. Renault Spilmont A. Identification of the latent viruses associated with young vine decline in California. Prodan S..M. Le dépérissement de la Syrah existe aussi en Argentine. Fallot. References Bertazzon N. 1986. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 117. Volos 1990. 97 . Luvisi and R. Etude de phénomènes d'incompatibilité au greffage chez la vigne. Durquety and J. J. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 67. and P. Fiori. Locorotondo 2003. Ruchaud.II. Locorotondo 2003.K. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 1995. La trasmission de l'incompatibilité au greffage entre 5BB et Vitis vinifera. S. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.III. 277. 2003.M. I.. Krag. 2003. 2000. B. Montalegre and N. 1973. 2003. Locorotondo 2003.P. Locorotondo 2003. Boubals D. S. O. D. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 211-216. Boubals D. 1942. Rowhani. 167-173. Boscia. Etude de l'incompatibilité au graffege de certain cépages et du 57R.. Walter. 2000. V. Durquety P. Fiore. Angelini.. Molecular studies on a graft incompatibility syndrome in New Zealand vineyards yields another probable variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2. 283-290. Presence in clonal rootstocks of a grafttransmissible factor that induces stunting and bushy growth in European grapevines. Garcia Lampasona and O. Examples of incompatibility between grape varieties and roostocks. Existence dans un cépage population de clones présentant divers degrés de compatibilité avec certains porte-greffes. Jacob H. J. Ruchaud. Le dépérissement de la Syrah. Gazeau. 139-140. 2000.. 2003. 420-427 Fallot J. Adelaide 2000. The relationship of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 with a graft incompatibility condition of grapevines.3.. A. C. Sim and A. 1950. Grapevine virology highlights 2000-2003. 1991. Rivieccio and F. and E.M. 137-141 Boubals D. Locorotondo 2003.K... Gazeau and J. Edwards and A. Rowhani. Progrés Agricole et Viticole 103. A young grafted vine decline syndrome in Argentina vineyards. and B.. Uyemoto J.P. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 34. Compte-rendu de la réunion du Groupe de Travail National. C.P. Boursiquot. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Le clone et ses reactions au greffage. 85-86. Rowhani. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 1979.. Locorotondo 2003. 2003. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. 2001.S. 28-31. 85-86. C. Gracia. Durquety P. and A. Dauty.
FLECK COMPLEX .
screziatura (Ital. producing localized translucent spots. containing the genome. grapevine rupestris necrosis. Recorded from California and Italy . Grapevine asteroid mosaic: Mosaïque étoilée (Fr. Transient mild chlorotic discolourations of the primary and secondary leaf veins develop in V. GFkV genomic RNA constitutes about 35% of the particle weight. Severe strains induce also varying degrees of stunting. Fleck is an ubiquitous disease reported from most viticultural countries in the world. Grapevine red globe virus (GRGV) is a Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV)-like virus which apparently does not induce symptoms in European grapevine varieties (e. In V. Leaves are asymmetric. Grapevine fleck: Marbrure (Fr. d. is latent in European grapevine varieties. GFkV genomic RNA (Mol. the disease elicits creamy-yellow bands developing along the major veins of the leaves. Asteroid mosaic symptoms have been observed in several varieties of V. Rupestris necrosis. Description Main synonyms: A. whereas the CP of GAMaV and GRVFV consists of a major protein of 21 kDa and a minor prtotein of 25 kDa. 25 kDa. Leaf symptoms usually become less severe in summer. B. Although the elusive nature of the complex hinders the assessment of its economic impact. and produce little or no fruit. Leaves with intense flecking are wrinkled. c.g.g. Symptoms: a. positive sense RNA with high cytosine content (c. Records from Italy and South Africa have not been confirmed experimentally and a record from Greece was proven to refer to Grapevine rupestris vein feathering.). All have isometric particles about 30 nm in diameter with rounded contour and prominent surface structure with clusters of coat protein subunits arranged as pentamers and hexamers. This disease.). The complete sequence of GFkV and partial sequences of GRGV. leaf symptoms are characterized by star-shaped chlorotic spots. Marmorierung der Rebe (Germ. GRGV. which are twisted and asymmetric. The putative causal agent of the disease has only been found in California. Affected vines are often stunted. Mild asteroid mosaic-like symptoms are shown by some European grapevine varieties (e. GFkV particles sediment as two centrifugal components. sometimes with necrotic center. capped.). Red globe) nor in V.FLECK COMPLEX The fleck complex consists of several diseases (grapevine fleck. vinifera in California. The coat protein (CP) of GFkV and GRGV particles is made up of a single protein species with Mr of c. T made up of empty protein shells and B. twisted and puckered along the veins. rupestris reacts with localized necrosis of the shoots. which is a monopartite single-stranded. wt of 2. maculatura infettiva. 50%). V. adverse influence on vigour.). Fleck. The disease is latent in European grapevine varieties and in most American rootstocks. Sultanina). e. and Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus (GRVFV) are all phloem-limited and non mechanically transmissible. leaf petioles and veinlets. In V. and GRVFV genomes are available. vinifera. and grapevine rupestris vein feathering) and viruses (Grapevine redglobe virus) that cause latent or semi-latent infections in Vitis vinifera and most American Vitis species and rootstock hybrids. twisted and may curl upward. rupestris. rupestris. grapevine asteroid mosaic. Sternmosaik der Rebe (Germ. b. 1. but likely to occur elsewhere. rupestris following graft inoculation. irregularly distributed over the leaf blade. mosaico stellare (Ital. The putative causal agent of the disease so far has been found in Greece. GFkV. GAMaV.). Italy and California. rooting ability of rootstocks and on graft take has been reported. Grapevine asteroid mosaic-associated virus (GAMaV). Symptoms are expressed in Vitis rupestris and consist of clearing of the veins of third and fourth order. Rupestris vein feathering.6 x 106 ) is 7564 nt in size and contains four open reading frames (ORF) that 101 . reported only from Japan. which is used as indicator. Agents: All viruses of the complex.). Asteroid mosaic.
Transmission through dodder of GFkV has been reported but it is of no epidemiological importance. The current taxonomic classification of viruses of the fleck complex is therefore the following: Family Tymoviridae Genus Marafivirus Grapevine asteroid mosaic-associated virus Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus Genus Maculavirus Grapevine fleck virus Grapevine redgloble virus Cytopathology: GFkV infections are characterized by a severe modification of mitochondria into structures called "multivesiculate bodies". Attempts to transmit the disease by mechanical inoculation to herbaceous test plants or by Xiphinema index were unsuccessful. Control: Because of the latency of symptoms sanitary selection of European grapevine cultivars and most American rootstock hybrids is unrealiable. whereas GAMaV induces peripheral vesiculation of chloroplasts. GRGV. The same sanitation procedures are likely to operate successfully with the other viruses of the complex. Therefore.4 kDa (ORF 3) and 15. These deranged organelles are thought to be sites of virus replication. and two proline rich polyproteins of 31. The 3' end of GRGV genome is structurally similar to that of GFkV except for the lack of ORF 4. GFkV is not seed transmitted. Comparison of symptoms with those of other mosaic diseases of grape. 102 . GAMaV. South Africa and Japan suggest natural field spread of GFkV and a similar behaviour was reported in Greece for a disease formerly thought to be asteroid mosaic but now identified as grapevine rupestris vein feathering. Although observations from Italy. meristem tip or fragmented shoot apex culture. Virus specific and degenerate primers have been designed for single or multiplex RT-PCR detection of GFkV. Hewitt et al.encode a 215. GFkV can be eliminated by heat therapy. and GRVFV. The genomic structure of GAMaV and GRVFV differs from the above in that both these viruses have a single ORF encoding a large polypeptide which is proteolitically processed to yield individual proteins. Historical review 1954 1962 1966 1966 Hewitt: First description of asteroid mosaic in California. its economic importance is low. As the disease is rare and does not appear to be spreading. of which it represents the type species. the CP (ORF 2). ELISA is currently employed for routine detection of GFkV. primary dissemination of these and the other viruses of the complex is through infected propagative material. Vuittenez et al. GFkV was identified as the representative of a new genus denoted Maculavirus. a disease inducing symptoms similar to those of fleck in V. Detection: Indexing on V.: "Marbrure". rupestris allows with a reasonable level of confidence the discrimination of the different viruses of the complex based on the differential reaction of the indicator.9 kDa (ORF 4) with unknown function. Polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies to GFkV heve been raised. Further physico-chemical. Refatti: Review paper on asteroid mosaic. marafiviruses and members of the genus Tymovirus to warrant the establisment of the a new family denoted Tymoviridae. 2. Transmission: No vector is known for any of the viruses of the fleck complex. Because of its molecular characteristics.: First record of fleck as an unidentified symptom different from fanleaf and transmissible from symptomless varieties to V. No information is available on individual susceptibility.4 polypeptide with the conserved motif of replication associated proteins (ORF 1). whilst GAMaV and GRVFV were assigned to the genus Marafivirus.George. rupestris St. but no experimental data are available. Varietal susceptibility: GFkV and possibly all the other viruses of the complex infect naturally a large number of varieties and Vitis species. but cannot be used for any of the other members of the complex due to the unvailability of antisera. molecular and ultrastuctural studies disclosed sufficient similarities between maculaviruses.rupestris described in France.
Mink and Parsons: Use of a growth chamber with controlled temperature for a quicker and improved symptom expression of fleck and other virus or virus-like diseases (fanleaf. Bovey: Identification of fleck in Switzerland as a latent disease of Chasselas transmissible to V. Dismissal of the prokaryote etiology hypothesis. later called grapevine phloem-limited isometric virus (GPLIV). Hewitt et al.: Purification of GPLIV from naturally diseased vines and production of a specific antiserum. Triolo and Materazzi: Fleck has a detrimental effect on the quality V. Triolo and Resta: Tetracycline treatments are ineffective against fleck.: Successful elimination of fleck through fragmented shoot apex culture in vitro.: Fleck is not seed transmissible. Hévin et al. Castellano et al.: Observation of a non mechanically transmissible virus. 1982 1983 1983 1983 1984 1985 1985 1987 1989 1990 1990 1990 1991 103 . The efficiency of heat treatment for disease elimination is unsatisfactory. rupestris propagating wood. leafroll and corky bark).: Description of fleck as an independent graft-transmissible disease present in many European varieties and American rootstocks. Savino et al. Castellano et al. Verderevskaya et al. Report of multivesiculate inclusion bodies probably connected with GPLIV infection. Engelbrecht and Kasdorf: Observation of natural field spread of fleck in South Africa.: Observation of an isometric non mechanically transmissible virus in the phloem of diseased vines. Rives: Further demonstration that fleck is distinct from fanleaf based on differential responses to heat treatment.: Physicochemical characterization of GPLIV. Woodham and Krake: Dodder transmission of fleck from vine to vine.1970 1972 1972 1972 1973 1973 1973 1974 1977 Refatti: Symptoms resembling asteroid mosaic as described in California are reported from Italy and South Africa. Goheen and Luhn: A novel heat therapy system based on virus inactivation in buds grafted onto healthy LN 33 rootstocks is effective against fleck.: Successful elimination of fleck through heat therapy. Castellano and Martelli: Confirmation that GPLIV is associated with multivesiculate bodies and demonstration that these derive from deranged mitochondria. Confirmation that the virus can be eliminated by heat therapy and is not related to leafroll. Report that a virus serologically similar to GPLIV is associated with the disease. rupestris. Rooting ability and graft take are adversely affected Yamakawa: Field spread of fleck in Japan Boulila et al. Milkus: Suggestion of a prokaryotic etiology for fleck. in sieve tubes of field-grown vines with leafroll symptoms but likely to be affected by other diseases. Ottenwaelter et al. Barlass et al. Dolja et al.: Identification of a dsRNA of about 7 Kb pairs in diseased vines.: Report of widespread occurrence of fleck in visually selected grapevine clones in southern Italy.
Symptoms are severe and affected vines are almost fruitless. vein necrosis and vein mosaic has a detrimental effect on rootstock growth. GFkV-like multivesiculate bodies derived from deranged mitochondria are present in infected cells. Fortusini et al. Namba et al. June-July are the best months for ELISA detection of the virus in Alsace. Molecular properties of this virus further support the notion that it warrants classification in a genus of its own.: GPLIV shown to be the agent of fleck. 1991 1993 1994 1995 1995 1996 1996 1997 1997 1998 2000 2001 2001 104 . Boscia et al.: A non mechanically transmissible isometric virus similar but unrelated to GFkV identified in asteroid mosaic-infected grapevines.: Use of degenerate primers designed on the methyl transferase and polymerase cistrons of members of Tymovirus and Marafivirus genera and of GFkV amplified a genome fragment of GFkV. Marsumoto and Ohki: A spherical virus resembling GFkV identified in thin sectioned cells of V. Pruning wood is reduced by 51% in 420A and by 37% in Kober 5BB.: Additional monoclonal antibodies raised in France.: Natural field spread of GFkV observed in Northern Italy Schieber et al. GAMaV and of another virus with GFkV-like particles phylogenetically but not serologically related to GFkV present in a cv Red globe vine. Virus named Grapevine redglobe virus. This cytological feature recalls that later found in vines infected by Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus. based on the differential reactions of indicators Credi and Babini: Infection by fleck. Sabanadzovic et al. Boscia et al. Detection of sequences of an undentified virus from a Greek grapevine. Virus renamed Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV).: Report of the close association with fleck symptoms in V.1991 1991a 1991b 1991 Gugerli et al. Meristem tip culture effectively eliminates the virus. later named Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus (GRVFV). GRGV). One of these antibodies is more sensitive than the polyclonal antiserum for GFkV detection by ELISA Faoro and Gugerli: An unidentified phloem-limited isometric virus serologically differing from GFkV observed in vines showing double-membraned peripheral invaginations of chloroplast envelope. Sabanadzovic et al.: Two GFkV-specific monoclonal antibodies raised in Italy can successfully be used in ELISA Kuniyuki and Costa: Three strains of GFkV reported from Brazil.: A spherical virus purified from berries of Ajinashica disease-affected vines is serologically related to GPLIV (= GFkV) and has physicochemical properties comparable to those of GFkV.: Complete nucleotide sequence of GFkV genome. ELISA used successfully for virus detection in large scale survey. Virus named Grapevine asteroid mosaicassociated virus (GAMaV) Boscia et al.rupestris of an isometric virus latent in V. vinifera cv. Elbeaino et al. Kyriakopoulou: Description of a disease similar to asteroid mosaic observed in V.: Molecular reagents (degenerate primers) developed for the specific identification of viruses of the fleck complex (GFkV. Adverse effect on Teleki 5A is negligible. Walter and Cornuet: Confirmation by ELISA of the consistent association of GFkV with fleck disease. rupestris with a necrotic disease.: Report of a highly consistent association of GPLIV with fleck in naturally infected and graft-inoculated V. Boscia et al. Sultanina in Greece. vinifera. GAMaV. The disease seems to be spreading naturally. rupestris.
Vitis 22. Iran. N. Dolja V. G. 1982.. N.E. Digiaro. Atabekov.. Castellano M.P. Martelli.2002a 2002b 2003a Martelli et al. P.. 23-39. 101-102 Boscia D. Savino and D. Argentina.P. 1991a. Engelbrecht D.. Locorotondo 2003. 1984. Annales de Phytopathologie.P.. K. S.. Vitis 33. Castellano..D. U. Martelli. GAMaV and of a virus of Greek origin which induces vein feathering in V.A. Martelli et al..A. In other countries (USA. Un virus latent dans le Chasselas. Babini. 347-354. V. Double stranded RNA associated with fleck disease of grapevine. A. Sabanadzovic and G. Some properties of a phloem-limited non mechanically-transmissible grapevine virus. 1996. B.P. T. Sabanadzovic . Molecular detection of Grapevine fleck virus-like viruses. 2003b. Progress in the study of the phloem-limited isometric virus-like particles associated with leafroll-diseased grapevines.R.: Sequencing of the 3' end of the genome of GRGV. Castellano.. Bovey R. A.G. Castellano M.P. V. Rowhani and G. ElBeaino T. Savino. rupestris confirms the assignment of GRGV to the genus Maculavirus and of GAMaV and the Greek virus to the genus Marafivirus. G.V.R. References Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic. Proceedings 8th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopatological Union. S. G. Multiplex RTPCR detection of Grapervine fleck virus-like viruses in grapevine with co-amplification of control plant mRNA.. Martelli. Boscia D. M. Di Terlizzi. 195. N. 2003b 2003 3. Identification of the agent of grapevine fleck disease. 1991b.M. G. Martelli 2001. a new genus of plant viruses having GFkV as type species and GRGV as tentative species. 173-174.P. O. 1990. Skene. Kasdorf. Savino. Tomashevskaya. V. Virus-like particles and ultrastructural modifications in the phloem of leafroll-affected grapevines. Castellano. Annals of Applied Biology 101. and G. 191. Plant Pathology 44. Martelli. Sequencing of the 3' end of three grapevine fleck virus-like viruses . 3134. Sabanadzovic. Credi R. Rowhani P. Ultrastructure and nature of vesiculated bodies associated with isometric virus-like particles in diseased grapevines. Boulila M. GRVFV recorded from California and confirmation that GAMaV does not occur outside of California. Phytophylactica 22. A non mechanically transmissible virus associated with asteroid mosaic of the grapevine. 1994. and A.E. Field spread of corky bark. S. and Japan) only the variant without insertion (GFkV353) was detected. Martelli. Martelli and V. D. Greek virus recognized as a species in its own right denoted Grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus (GRVFV). Krake. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 89. Advances in Horticultural Science 10. Vitis 40: 65-68. Volos 1990. 291-295. 56-64. and G. 97-105. Savino and M.P. Elicio. Boscia.V. 11-16 Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic. Castellano M.F. respectively.: Description of Maculavirus. V.G. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic et al. Sabanadzovic. 105 .P. 1983.: A sequence variant of GFkV (GFkV416) with a 63 nucleotide insertion in the replicase gene identified in Australia and New Zealand. R..C. S. Virus Genes 27.A. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.P. 95-98.J. Association of a phloem-limited non mechanically transmissible isometric virus with grapevine fleck disease. Karsev.P. Martelli and M. Savino. 1990. A. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic. Barlass M. A. 1990. Minafra. Shi et al.: Development of a multiplex RT-PCR protocol for the simultaneous detection of GFkV-like viruses using plant mRNA as an internal control. Effect of virus and virus-like infections on the growth of grapevine rootstocks. Agadir 1990. South Africa. Kyriakopoulou and G. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic et al. V.A. V.P.. fleck. and G. Vitis 30. comprising the genera Maculavirus and Marafivirus that include GFkV/GRGV and GAMaV/GRVFV.P. Kyriakopoulou and G. Martelli. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Boscia D.A. 2003a. Verderevskaya and J. M. Regeneration of virus-free grapevines using in vitro apical culture. 1985.: Description of the family Tymoviridae.G.. 1995. Journal of Phytopathology 129. 1972. Savino and G. Savino. Boyko. Boscia D. Production of monoclonal antibodies to grapevine fleck virus. Boscia.A. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Woodham and L. V. leafroll and Shiraz decline diseases and associated viruses in South African grapevines. 151-158. 165-169. Martelli. Numéro hors série. 160-163. Martelli.
Journal of General Virology 82. M. Numéro hors série. Rives. Davis 1965. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Archives of Virology 145. 2001. 9. European Journal of Plant Pathology 103. S. rupestris "du Lot" (St. Gugerli P. N...M. Séparation de la marbrure et du court-noué (panachure) chez la vigne par thermothérapie. Annales de Phytopathologie. 157-164. George). 39-43. 75-77. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic and P. Heat therapy eliminates the ability to transmit the causal agent of "marbrure" in several V.P. Annales de Phytopathologie. D.P. 31-32. Tremea. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines. Cytological alterations associated with an unidentified isometric grapevine virus (UIGV). Resta. Tsuchizaki and D. Grapevine asteroid mosaic.. Ramel and F. Goheen.J. 1991. Martelli G. G. Abou Ghanem. S. 1998. affected by marbour. Milkus B. Hewitt W. The responses of the Grapevine fleck agent to tetracycline-HCl antibiotic and Dienes' stain. N. Doazan and M. Lisbon 1997.V. Diffusione naturale del virus 1 (GLRaV-1) e del virus 3 (GLRaV-3) dell'accartocciamento fogliare e del virus della maculatura infettiva o "fleck" (GFkV) della vite. Grapevine fleck virus-like viruses in Vitis.C. Kyriakopoulou P. M. Rives. Schieber O. with Special Reference to Vitis. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic. Martelli..P. 1954. Maculavirus.P. 1970. L. M...P. Sabanadzovic S. 1985. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 9. Symptoms of grapevine asteroid mosaic in Greece. N.A. 1985. C. 1974. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. S. Walter. A. Brugger. Saldarelli. A.): Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines (A Handbook). A possible new necrotic diseases of grapevine associated with small isometric particles and novel membrane-bound large particles. Saldarelli and G. Belin and B. M.. 204-207. A. Archives of Virology 147. Bonnard.B. N. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG. Cinquanta and S.C Edwards and T. Procedures for rapid detection of virus and viruslike diseases of grapevine. P. Ser. J. Volos 1990. Monoclonal antibodies for detection. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. Archives of Virology 147. Luhn. 1973. Sabanadzovic. Ser.. Ottenwaelter M. 767-774.. Studies on virus diseases of the grapevine in California. T. (Ed. 9. Numéro hors série. Asteroid mosaic of grapevine. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. is transmitted by graft inoculation.C. Fortusini A. Volos 1990.B. 197-203. Symons.B. Castellano. 618-622. S. Ottenwaelter. Heat inactivation of viruses in grapevines. 2000. Boscia. Boscia and G.I. D. N. Namba S. Grapevine fleck disease. D.. Purification and properties of spherical virus particles associated with grapevine Ajinashica disease. J. M. Goheen A.J. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. 1973. Raski and G. 2002b. and S. 47-64. Goheen. a new genus of plant viruses.IV. 253-258. Shi B. 1972. 553-565.P. vinifera clones and in V. Parsons. Habili and R. 57-83.Faoro F and P.. IV. Scattini. and A. 2009-2015 Savino V. and J. Annals of the Phytopathologial Society of Japan 64. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of grapevine fleck virus. Nucleotide sequence variation in a small region of Grapevine fleck virus replicase provide evidence for two sequence variants of the virus. 1837-1846. Yamashita.IV. 106 .P. Hewitt W. J.-J. Mycoplasma. Further characterization of grapevine leafroll disease. Kuniyuki H. Ser. Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic. 1972.. 9.. 1991.. and E. Martelli G.. In Frazier N. 1997. Triolo E. Gonsalves. Mink G. 1966. 281-285. 2003. Occorrencia de mais um isolado do virus do mosaico da nervuras da videira que no causa sintomas no porta-enxerto Kober 5BB. Fitopatologia Brasileira 20. Prati. 1977. Sabanadzovic S.M.T. 1995. 1991. The family Tymoviridae. 385-388. Investigating the transmission of marbrure and fan-leaf through the seed in the grapevine. 1973. Hévin M. Luhn. P. latent in many varieties. 2002a.H. Refatti E. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 43. Gugerli. 5960. Costa. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts.. Martelli.. Matsumoto T.-E. Ohki. Gooding.. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24.or chlamidia-like bodies in grape. Digiaro and G. Incidence of some graft-transmissible virus-like diseases of grapevine in visually selected and heat-treated stocks from Southern Italy. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. Division of Agricultural Sciences. and C. 1997. Hewitt W.. Plant Disease 75. M. Informatore Fitopatologico 46 (12). Leclair. University of California. Hévin. Doazan and M. Plant Disease Reporter 61. serological characterization and immunopurification of grapevine fleck virus. Berkeley. 560-564. 43-47. 212-214.L. 12491253. Martelli.C. Sabanadzovic. Rives M. Cory and C. Dreher. Seddas. Annals of Applied Biology 142. Refatti E.W.E. B. 567-571. 349-355. Vitis 3. Rosciglione. Jr. 143-146.S. 1962. 1996. 287-289. S. 1847-1853..
651-657. La maculatura infettiva della vite: influenza di isolati diversi sull'attitudine alla propagazione vegetativa di Vitis rupestris St. Woodham R. Walter B. Virus reinfection of virus-free Cabernet sauvingon and Cabernet franc vines. Vuittenez A. probablement indépendante du virus du Court-noué.. 67-73. 1966.. Semtschik. Kuszala. Ätiologie und Diagnose der Marmorierung der Weinrebe. 3209-324. Agronomie 13.D. 193-198. and A. 1989. Verderevskaja T. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 106. V. Legin and J. 1983. 1987. Annales des Epiphyties 17. and L. and P. Materazzi. 1983. Numéro hors série. 1993. ELISA detection of grapevine fleck virus (GFkV). R. Observations sur une mosaïque de la Vigne.R. yellow speckle and fleck diseases by dodder. Krake. La Recherche Agtonomique en Suisse 26. 221-226.. Journal of the Japanese Society of Horticultural Science 58. Marinesku and E..Triolo E. Archiv für Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz 19. Cornuet. 297-302.C. George.G.S. 107 . Yamakawa Y. Investigations on transmission of grapevine leafroll.
Faint yellow speckling. Capsid proteins subunits are of one type. Novak and Lanzova: AMV infections recorded from hop and grapevine in Czechoslovakia. European diseases GRAPEVINE YELLOW MOTTLE 1. infections are scattered and occasional. however. Some of these diseases have been recorded only from Europe.MINOR VIRUS DISEASES Several graft-transmissible diseases are known. and a tripartite RNA genome accounting for c. Grapevine berry inner necrosis). 18% of the particle weight. Description Main synonyms: None. Bovey and Cazelles: AMV particles visualized in thin sectioned grapevine leaves. has differently shaped particles. from quasi isometric to bacilliform. The spring growth shows more or less extensive yellowing of the leaf blades that does not extend to the veins. rings and lines are typical summer responses of infected vines. 2. with which specific viruses are associated and thought to be their possible causal agents. Historical review 1973 1975 1976 1979 1978 1981 Bercks et al. Chardonnay and Veltliner rouge précoce identified as reliable indicators.73 x 106 (2593 nt). Varietal susceptibility: Little information available. 30 to 57 nm in size. Transmission: AMV is efficiently transmitted by aphids in a non persistent manner and can cause epidemic outbreaks in many of its natural hosts. Plant vigour and yield do not seem appreciably affected. others occur in Japan. Main symptoms: Various patterns of yellow discolouration characterize the disease.04 x 106 Da (3644 nt). Bovey and Brugger: AMV recorded from Switzerland in grapevine and transmitted by grafting to V. In grapevines. 1. Switzerland.62 x 106 (2037 nt). is the putative causal agent.: First record of AMV infections and description of symptoms in German grapevines. 0. former Czechoslovakia. the type species of the genus Alfamovirus. with Mr 24x 103 Da. Control: Use of healthy material obtained by heat treatment.g. Jankulova: AMV infections recorded from Bulgaria. RNA-3. Agent: Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV). but some are of economic relevance locally (e. and Turkey. Their overall importance is minor if compared with that of the major diseases dealt with in previous chapters. Detection: AMV is mechanically transmissible to herbaceous hosts and can also be identified by ELISA and moleculat techniques in infected vines. Yellow mottle has been reported from Germany. Virus elimination by treating 37 days at 37-38°C. 109 . with the following mol. suggesting that the virus spreads primarily through infected planting material. Beczner and Lehoczky: AMV infections recorded from Hungary. AMV. a mechanically transmissible virus. A. 0. Hungary. wts: RNA-1. RNA-2. rupestris and the hybrid Grézot 1 x 5C. There may be differential susceptibility among cultivars. Bulgaria.
Bovey R. .B. Erdiller. Monografias INIA No. New York .B. Researches on grapevine virus diseases and determination of their incidence in Ankara Turkiye. and J. Martelli G. The viruses and their taxonomy. Vigour and yield are reduced. or maple leaf-like line patterns typically confined to the petiolar area.18 . 63-65. or the upper part of the blade. Graft transmission to cv. Über den Nachweis des Alfalfa mosaic virus in einer Weinrebe.. 1976. and J. and G. Akbas and Erdiller: AMV infections recorded from Turkey. Martelli: Yellow mottle suggested as the name for the disease caused by AMV in grapevines. Historical rewiev 1985 Francki: Comprehensive review of the properties of AMV an other viruses with tripartite genome. sativa DC. (ed. 1975. Rome.P. Grapevine disease in Hungary caused by alfalfa mosaic virus infection.B. and J..). 3. Polyhedral Virions with Tripartite Genomes (R.).) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera subsp. Horticulture 7. Main symptoms: Leaves show bright yellow discolourations that form marginal rings. 119-128. 1978. Brugger. Revue Suisse de Viticulture. Jankulova M. vinifera cultivars are susceptible. References Akbas B. Detection and Diagnosis of Graft Transmissible Diseases of Grapevines. Proceedings 6th Meeting of ICVG. Beczner L. has differently shaped particles. Cazelles. quasi spherical 25-30 nm in diameter to bacilliform 40 to 75 nm in length. 3rd International Congress of Plant Pathology. Francki R.Hegi) plants in Czechoslovakia. Le virus de la mosaïque de la luzerne sur la vigne. 1973. 110 . Arboriculture. Varietal susceptibility: No information. Several V. Identification of alfalfa mosaic virus and tomato bushy stunt virus in hop (Humulus lupulus L. Jubileum 75. and O. 152-154.I. Querfurth. In: The Plant Viruses. 1979. roughly following its contour. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 16. Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV) a possible member of the genus Ilarvirus. Alfalfa mosaic virus on grapevine. 1981. Novak J. scattered spots or blotches. Control: No information. Francki. Transmission: GLPV has no known vector. Plenum Press. Bovey R. Agent: The putative agent. Lanzova. Lesemann and G. 1993. Bercks R. 166-171. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology 22. Detection: GLPV is mechanically transmissible to herbaceous hosts. 39. 131-134. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 76. Munich 1978. 2. FAO Publication Division. is seed-transmitted and spreads with diseased propagative materials. Investigation on certain viruses spread on grapevines in Bulgaria. D. This disease is known to occur only in Hungary. ed. Description Main synonyms: None. Lehoczky.-J.I. GRAPEVINE LINE PATTERN 1. Cordoba 1976.1985 1993 1993 Francki: Comprehensive review of the properties of AMV and other viruses with tripartite genome. and a multipartite genome. 1985. 1-18. 1993. 263 pp. 55-63. Biologia Plantarum 18.
Varietal susceptibility: No information. Lehoczky J.: Description of line pattern disease in Hungary. a novel virus disease of grapevine in Hungary. Detection: Graft-transmission to V. J. Avgelis and Rumbos: Double infection of diseased vines by GFLV and CarMV reported. Martelli. with Mol. L.I. especially near the petiole Leaves are deformed in correspondence of discoloured sectors. 1-18. Control: No information. 61-79 Lehoczky J. RODITIS LEAF DISCOLORATION 1..4 x 106 (4003 nt in size) and coat protein subunits of Mr 38 x 103 Da. Main symptoms: Symptoms are prominent in late summer and consist of yellow and/or reddish discolourations of the tissues along the veins. References Francki R. L. Agent: Symptomatic grapevines were reported to be doubly infected by GFLV and Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) the type species of the genus Carmovirus. 111 . Polyhedral Virions with Tripartite Genomes (R. G. Boscia. Farkas. D. G. New York . 2. 1992. Burgyan.I. Historical review 1989 1991 Rumbos and Avgelis: Roditis leaf discoloration described in Greece. 1985. M..). wt 1.: Evidence that GLPV is transmitted through grapevine seeds.B. 1989. 1987. Farkas.P.B. However.P. Beczner and G. Evidence that a graft-and mechanically transmissible virus is associated with it. family Tombusviridae. has a monopartite RNA genome accounting for c. The viruses and their taxonomy. Evidence of its grafttransmissibility. or variously extended sectors of the leaf blade. 1987. Description Main synonyms: None. size and have low sugar content. Seed transmission of grapevine line pattern virus. the interveinal areas. 115-116.1987 1989 1992 Lehoczky et al. Castellano. Beczner and G. one of the putative agents of corky bark (rugose wood complex) has a very high association with diseased grapevines. Lehoczky et al.A. The disease has been recorded only from Greece. Bunches are reduced in numbers. Burgyan. CarMV is an isometric virus 30 nm in diameter. Francki. Lazar.. Plenum Press. D. J. M. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 31. Kiryat Anavim. 18% of the particle weight. Grapevine virus B (GVB). Viruses associated with the disease are readily transmitted by sap inoculation and can be detected by ELISA and molecular techniques. In: The Plant Viruses. The disease is graft-transmissible and spreads through infected propagating material. Lehoczky et al. according to more recent findings. Castellano. 3. Occurrence of the line pattern hitherto unknown virus disease of grapevine in Hungary. 23-30. Transmission: No vector is known. Kertgazdasag 19.. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG.: Purification and characterization of GLPV and suggestion that it is the causal agent of the disease. vinifera cv. ed. Mission. Israel. Lehozcky J. GFLV may not be involved in the aetiology of the disease.A. Boscia. Line pattern. By converse. Martelli and J.
: First record of GAMV. GAMV is molecularly related to a number of ilarviruses. A. Infected grapevines are stunted.3. Rumbos. and A. Girgis S. and ELISA.I. mechanical transmision to herbaceous hosts. 274-278. P. Tzortzakakis and M.. Baresana x Baresana. C. 112 . discoloration of tissues bordering the veins. Infected grafting material is likely to be responsible for virus dissemination. Sklavounos. Roditis leaf discoloration -. References Girgis S. Whether this mechanism operates with grapevines has not been ascertained. 2000. Description Main synonyms: None Main symptoms: Grapevines of cv. A. Rumbos I. thus is regarded as the agent of the disease. Varietal susceptibility: No information Detection: Indexing on cv.M. A new ilarvirus isolated from grapevine in Greece. the only other ilarvirus reported from grapevine. 3.I. N. Avgelis.C. Agent: Grapevine angular mosaic virus (GAMV). a virus with a tripartite RNA genome and a 30 kDa coat protein. but differs from GLPV. 2003. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. the closest being Tobacco streak virus (TSV). 19. Description Main synonyms: None Main symptoms: Symptoms are chlorotic angular spots on the leaf blades. Girgis et al.M. Avgelis and N. 1991. Katis. Bem.a new virus disease of grapevine: symptomatology and transmission to indicator plants. Historical review 2000 2003 Girgis et al.E. 1345. 437-443. P. A. F.C. Tsagris. Bem. GRAPEVINE ANGULAR MOSAIC 1. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG Locorotondo 2003.P. Carnation mottle virus isolated from vines affected with "Roditis leaf discoloration". Control: No information 2. Kyriakopoulou. P. Katis. Laski Rizling from Slovenia exhibit a yellow line pattern syndrome resembling the grapevine line pattern disease described from Hungary. Volos 1990. Plant Disease 84. F. Kyriakopoulou. The disease has been recorded only from Greece. and I.. Dovas. reproduced the field syndrome in mechanically inoculated grapevine seedlings.D. 1989. Transmission: GAMV is pollen-borne in herbaceous hosts and was able to infect pollinated plants. P.: Evidence that GAMV is the agent of grapevine angular mosaic disease. YELLOW LINE PATTERN (Rasperry bushy dwarf virus) 1. S. crinkling and deformation of the leaves. decline gradually and some die. Flowers abortion results in straggly bunches with small wrinkled berries bearing non viable seeds. Avgelis.E. C. Dovas.D. The etiology of a new virus disease: grapevine angular mosaic. Journal of Phytopathology 125. References Avgelis A.
and Kaiji are infected latently. The vay of natural spreading in grapevine. Vitis riparia Gloire) are also susceptible. 24% of the particle weight and consisting of two functional species RNA-1 with Mol. ELISA . is unknow. The virus spreads naturally in the vineyards. wt of 2 x 106 Da (5. 2003. representing the most important virus disease in Yamanashi Prefecture.: First record of RBDV in grapevine. F.Agent: Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) was isolated from symptomatic vines.g. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus infection of grapevine in Slovenia. Virscek Marn and I. RBDV. being transmitted by the eryophid mite Colomerus vitis. a mechanically transmissible definitive member of the genus Trichovirus. Some rootstocks (e. and a bipartite singlestranded RNA genome accounting for c. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus. Ripening of bunches is delayed. Grapevine berry inner necrosis has been reported only from Japan. if any. 3.8 x 106 Da (2. Historical review 1976 2003 Murant: Description of RBDV. delayed bud break and young shoots with short internodes and internal browning. Campbell Early are suscetible as well as cvs Takao. wt 0.. Healthy vines of cvs Kyoho and Pione became naturally infected in the field within one year from planting. 30 x 103). Locorotondo 2003. and RT-PCR. Varietal susceptibility: Symptom severity varies with the cultivar.5 x 106 Da. Zezlina. Almost all Japanese table grape cultivars derived from crosses with cv. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of IGVG. infected propagative material can disseminate the RBDV. Chlorotic mottling. Delaware.5 Kb in size) and RNA-2 with Mol. Agent: The disease agent is Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV).2 kb in size). Control : No information 2. Description Main synonyms: None Main symptoms: Infected grapevines have low vigor. Mavric et al. wt of 7. CMI/AAB Description of Plant Viruses. No. berries are small and show external discolorations and internal necrosis. the 3' terminal region of which (2469 nts) has been sequenced. and Pione whereas cvs. Transmission: GINV is transmitted by grafting to grapevines and by mechanical inoculation to herbaceous hosts. Varietal susceptibility: No information Detection: Mechanical transmission to herbaceous hosts.. 1976. a dimeter of about 33 nm. the type species of the genus Idaeovirus is a pollen and seed-borne virus with quasi spherical particles made up of a sigle type of coat protein subunits (Mr c. Koshu. M. Transmission: In raspberry the virus infects progeny seedlings and pollinated plants through pollen. Kyoho. However. References Mavric I. 113 . 165 B. 20 Murant A. Japanese diseases GRAPEVINE BERRY INNER NECROSIS 1. rings and line patterns are shown by leaf blades. GINV has filamentous particles about 750 nm in length and a single-stranded RNA genome with Mol.
Shinkai 2000. 2000. Kunugi. Transmission of grapevine berry inner necrosis virus by the grape erineum mite Colomerus vitis in Yamanashi. 1987. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 55. Archives of Virology 142. S.. 1. T..: Experimental evidence that GINV is transmitted by the the grape erineum mite Colomerus vitis 1993 1997 2000 2000 3. A new virus disease. Bulletin of Yamanashi Fruit Tree Experimental Station 10. Terai. 1997. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Historical review 1984 1985 1987 1992 Tanaka: Description of a mosaic disease in cv. a new trichovirus: comparative studies with several known trichoviruses. Kyoho in Japan Yanase: Purification of a filamentous virus isolated from mosaic-diseased grapevines Yanase and Terai: Induction of mosaic symptoms in grapevines inoculated with the filamentous virus Terai and Yanase: Induction of berry internal necrosis in cv. Symptoms on vines. Terai and A. 1984. Yanase. Terai. Yoshikawa N. Montreux 1993. Studies on the grapevine berry innner necrosis virus disease. and Yanase H. Goto. and H. 536 Terai Y.. Kunigi Y. Disease re-named Grapevine berry inner necrosis Terai et al. GINV is mechanically transmissible to herbaceous hosts and can be identified by ELISA and moleculat techniques in infected vines. Asari. Y. Control: Use of tolerant cultivars in areas where the disease spreads epidemically. Yanase H.. Purification of a filamentous virus isolated from grapevine berry inner necrosis and foliar mosaic. 1985. 77-78 Yanase H. Y.. Kyoho back inoculated with the filamentous virus isolated from mosaic-diseased grapevines. 2. Mosaic symptoms on cv Kyoho. Studies on the grapevine berry innner necrosis virus disease. Back-transmission of a grapevine filamentous virus to grapevine seedlings and induction of foliar and berry symptoms in grapevine. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 51. 1351-1363 GRAPEVINE STUNT 1.Detection: Indexing on cvs Kyoho or Pione. 57-63.. 1993. H. Takahashi and Y. Bulletin of Yamanashi Fruit Tree Experimental Station 10. 423. Description Main synonyms: None. Iida. grapevine berry inner necrosis with natural spread in Japan. H. References Kunugi Y. Magome. and Terai Y. S. Induction of berry necrosis in Kyoho back-inoculated with the virus isolate from grapevine mosaic diseased clones and renaming to grapevine berry inner necrosis. Yoshikawa et al. 47-56.Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 53. Nishijima T. Y. Terai and Y. varietal susceptibility and natural spread. 114 .: First account of grapevine berry inner necrosis disease in a non Japanese publication.: Partial sequencing of GINV genome and assignement of the virus in the genus Trichovirus Nishijima et al.Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 58... Tanaka H. Grapevine berry inner necrosis.: An account of the varietal susceptibility to the disease and natural field spread Kunigi et al. 617. 362. 2. 1992.
S. S. summer vegetation is apparently normal. with scorched margins.: Successful graft-transmission of stunt disease. sometimes. 1981 1982 1984 Namba et al.Main symptoms: Spring vegetation is delayed. 137 Namba S. Graft transmissibility of grapevine stunt disease. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region. Yamashita. fruit setting is impaired and bunches are few and shelled.: Evidence that the disease is transmitted by the leafhopper Arboridia apicalis. vinifera cv.109-126. Three phloem-limited viruses of grapevine: direct fluorescence detection. GRAPEVINE AJINASHIKA DISEASE 1. 85 Namba S. 1986. Spread occurs also through infected propagative material. leaves are small. S. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 48. phloem-limited. Y. The same paper appears in Taiwan Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Technical Bulletin 92. No. T. Campbell Early. 1982. Hatamoto et al. M. Y. 1-17. 3. The disease has only been reported from Japan. The berries. which makes the crop unmarketable. Agent: An isometric. Namba. Historical review. Koshu nor any apparent reduction of vigour and yield. 1984. Iwanami. M. The disease has only been reported from Japan. References Hatamoto M. Taipei. curled and. Yamashita and Y. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 47.. Yamashita and Y. Hatamoto et al. Detection: Grafting to Campbell Early and ELISA using extracts from infected vine tissues. internodes are short. Inflorescences are undersized.. Namba. 2. Fujii. Doi. Control: Use of disease-free material obtained through heat therapy.: A small isometric virus associated with stunt disease in Japan. Transmission of grapevine stunt disease by the grapevine leafhopper Arboridia apicalis Nawa. Yamashita. Varietal susceptibility: No information. non mechanically transmissible virus about 25 nm in diameter is consistently associated with diseased vines and regarded as the possible causal agent. S. 33. A small spherical virus associated with grapevine stunt disease. Because of heat recovery. Hatamoto. however. Doi and K. 396 Hatamoto M. 115 . American rootstocks are infected without showing symptoms.. The disease is apparently restricted to the V. are pale-coloured and have a low sugar content. Fujii. S. p. Main symptoms: No appreciable symptoms are visible on the foliage of cv. 1981. S. 316.: Purification and characterization of the virus associated with stunt disease.. Description Main synonyms: none. 1987). Doi and M. Yora. Transmission: The disease is transmitted by the leafhopper Arboridia apicalis. This condition gives the name to the disease which in Japanese means "unpalatable fruits with low sugar content". 1986 Namba et al. This virus is serologically distinct from the putative agent of ajinashika disease. Evidence that it is not related to the presumed agent of ajinashika disease. Taiwan (Reference 2951 in the Review of Plant Pathology 66. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 50. In Plant Virus Diseases of Horticultural Crops in the Tropics and Subtropics. Doi. FFTC Book series.
Terai and Yano: Description of ajinashika disease and suggestion that it is caused by the concomitant infection of leafroll and fleck. Yamashita. Detection: Graft transmission to cv. Historical review. an isometric. Koshu and ELISA using extracts from infected vine tissues. 2. Y. S. Control: Use of disease-free material obtained through heat therapy. Yamashita. T. 67-70. Namba S. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Transmission: No vector is known. Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG. D. Yano. 1991.. 1980. 3. However. Terai Y. Terai: Additional report on ajinashika disease as derived from the combined effect of leafroll and fleck. 1-17. 1979.Agent: The disease was reported to be caused by the concurrent infection of leafroll and fleck. Yamashita.. and R. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 45. References Namba S. was suggested as the possible causal agent. Doi and K. Purification and properties of spherical virus particles associated with grapevine ajinashika disease. non mechanically transmissible virus about 25 nm in diameter. Volos 1990. Ajinashika disease of the grapevine cultivar Koshu in Japan. 12491253. phloem-limited. Varietal susceptibility: No information. and D. Three phloem-limited viruses of grapevine: direct fluorescence detection. T. Terai Y. No relationship found with fleck. Tsuchizaki. vinifera cv. consistently found in infected vines. Taiwan Food and Fertilizer Technology Center Technical Bulletin 92. Niagara Falls 1980. Dissemination is through infected propagative material.. Yora. Ajinashika disease: a combined effect of grapevine leafroll and grapevine fleck viruses on sugar content in the Japanese grape cultivar Koshu. Namba S. S. A small spherical virus associated with the ajinashika disease of Koshu grapevine. 1991. Hatamoto. Namba et al. The disease seems to be restricted to V. 70-73. S. Namba et al.: Further characterization of the isometric virus and claim that it is the putative agent of the disease. Iwanami. Boscia. Y. 1979 1980 1986 1991 1991 Namba et al. 1986. Doi and M. Koshu.: Partial characterization of the isometric virus associated with the disease and its detection by ELISA in infected vines.: First mention of ajinashika disease and report of the association with it of a non mechanically transmissible virus with isometric particles. Plant Disease 75. 15-19. 116 . Gonsalves.
VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES .
apparently in relation with climatic conditions. Riesling. which run more or less parallel to the main veins. The crop can be drastically reduced (up to about 50%.VIRUS-LIKE DISEASES Several latent or semi-latent grapevine diseases are known. Control: Use of healthy material. some of which have a clear-cut detrimental effect on the crop. They are outgrowths 2-3 mm high and 3-5 mm long or more. vinifera varieties in Europe. North (Tunisia) and South Africa. ENATION DISEASE 1. Basal leaves. according to the cultivar) and is of poor quality. Primus. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: There is little information available. with a fanlike aspect and abnormal indentation. Grenache and Tokay appear to be quite susceptible and develop severe symptoms when infected. its description dating back to the late 1800s Main synonyms: Enationenkrankheit der Rebe (Germ. The transmission by graft is rather erratic. but attempts to transmit it by graft or mechanical inoculation gave no results. Symptoms have been observed on many V. are often mis-shapen. However. whether they bear enations or not. Leaves developed later in the season are usually normal. as symptom expression is variable in successive years and graft transmission not 100 % successful. The basal internodes are short. the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that the plant is healthy. Detection: By observing the symptoms on the leaves and by indexing on LN 33 hybrid. There is no information on the possibility of curing this disease by heat treatment or meristem culture. which gives a bushy aspect to the plant. Australia and New Zealand. North America (California). growth tends to become normal again. 2. Later in the year. The disease is perpetuated by vegetative propagation. Hewitt: Description of symptoms in California. and the frequent occurrence of fanleaf virus in enation bearing vines supported the hypothesis that enation disease could be due to a severe strain of fanleaf virus. The disease has been reported from many European and extra-European countries Agent: The etiology of enation disease is not yet clear. malattia delle enazioni. Graft transmission suggests that it is a virus disease. The infectious agent of the disease perennates in propagating material. Italia. All persist in propagative material and are transmitted by grafting. Description Enation disease of grapevine is one of the oldest known disorders of European grapes. maladie des énations (Fr. omeoplasie crestiformi (Ital. irregular and mis-shapen.). however. Enations develop mostly on the underside of the leaves at the base of the shoots. but some are heat-labile and can be eliminated by heat therapy. They are often thicker than normal. Severely affected leaves drop prematurely. Historical review 1891 1937 1954 Buchenau: First description of enation disease of grapevine occurring in Germany. and often show longitudinal cracks between the nodes. has now been dismissed Transmission: By vegetative propagation. 119 .). Gigante : Research on histological and cytological aspects of enations. Latin America (Venezuela). Main symptoms: Affected vines show a delayed opening of the buds and a slow growth of the shoots in the spring. with drawings of symptoms.). The varieties Panse Precoce. Symptom expression varies year by year. Their agents are still unknown. and is probably due to a virus-like agent. with prominent veins. This hypothesis.
Malvasia (10. The authors discuss the hypothesis that enation is caused by a strain of fanleaf virus. and C. but diseased vines which had not shown enation symptoms for several years had almost normal yields. Martelli et al. McGechan: Enation disease in Australia Tekinel et al. Nieder: Enation disease in Austria Garau et al. 195 Brückbauer H. Graniti and Martelli: Review paper on enation. The mean yield loss of diseased vines ranged from 17. Vernaccina (1. with negative results. although the rate of symptom expression does not exceed 30% Credi: Enation diseasae affects the vegetative vigour of cv. Italia in Sardinia. References Avgelis A.: Enation disease in Czechoslovakia Avgelis and Xafis: Enation disease in Greece Prota and Garau: Enation disease found in Sardinia. attempts to transmit the disease by graft. Padilla et al.5%). the proportion of diseased vines was highest in cv.: In experiments on graft transmission of enation disease aimed at determining the best indicator. Trebbiano romagnolo and reduces the yield from 13% to 23% according to the severità of symptom expression. the hybrid LN 33 was found to be the most sensitive and reliable indicator variety. Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen über die Enationenkrankheit der Rebe. Prota et al.1966 Graniti et al.: More data on the effects of enation on the yield of cv. but report on observations made in Australia where no fanleaf virus could be recovered from enation-affected vines. The possible role of fanleaf virus in the etiology of enation requires further investigation.3% . Refatti: Hypothesis of a correlation between fanleaf and enation disease. Mechanical transmission tests were also negative. lowest in cv.: Enation disease in France Pozdena et al. Enationaffected vines produced less than 50 % of the yield of healthy plants. 1968. Marinesku and Bondarchuk: Enation disease in Moldova Brückbauer: Influence of enation disease on growth and yield of grapevine in West Germany. 79-112.5%). Enation disease in Spain Chabbouh and Savino: Enation disease in Tunisia 1966 1966 1968 1970 1970 1971 1973 1975 1978 1979 1980 1980 1981 1983 1989 1996 1997 1997 3.: Enation disease in Turkey Hevin et al. Xafis. Weinberg und Keller 15.4 to 48. Confirmation of graft transmissibility of the disease. Presence of enations in Razaki grapevine in Crete (Greece). and possibly caused by a virus. 120 . In the vineyards under observation. historical account. There is some evidence that enation can be carried in the rootstocks..: Detailed description of macroscopic and microscopic symptoms of enation disease. . 1978. The authors conclude that the disease is probably of European origin. only fanleaf virus was recovered. Brückbauer: Description of symptoms of enation in Germany and confirmation of graft transmission of its agent. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 17.: Successful transmission of enation disease from diseased to healthy grapevine by graft strongly supports the hypothesis of a viral origin.
Phytopathologia Mediterranea 20. Mededel. Martelli and F. Enation symptoms found in France. 823-827. and R.) Virus and mycoplasma-like diseases of fruit trees.S. Pflanzenharzt 36. Ser. Roma. Martelli.. Ita and F. 225-246. VEIN MOSAIC 1. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. 97-98. 1980. it was clear that vein mosaic was not caused by fanleaf virus. Lamberti.W. Division of Agricultural Sciences.W. 1973. G. 1966. Effetto della malattia delle enazioni della vite sulla produzione e sullo sviluppo vegetativo della cv Trebbiano romagnolo. 349-352. F. Vanek. Davis.P. Einfluss von Virusinfektionen auf Wachstum und Ertrag der Rebe. Gazeau. In: Verderevskaya T. 1983. Lisbon 1997. 1987. Garcia. Padilla V. A study of infectious degeneration (fanleaf) in vineyards of the Mediterranean region.. Berkeley. Garau. 1937. 207-217.s. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale S. 122-124. Bolletino della Regia Stazione di Patologia Vegetale.). Occurence of grapevine enations in the Moldavian SSR.P. Rives. Cugusi. 1966. Bericht der deutschen botanischen Gesellschaft 9. B.. n. producing often a vein banding effect. Su una possibile correlazione fra il virus del complesso dell'arricciamento e la malattia delle enazioni della vite. 1983. U. 293-306. 1975. Pozdena J. Cugusi. Petria 6. Quacquarelli. Some virus and virus-like diseases of grapevines. 145-152. Hevin M. 1997. Chabbouh N and V. 1997. 47. Graniti. A similar disease has been reported in Australia under the name of summer mottle. Proceedings International Conference on Virus and Vector on Perennial Hosts. Nieder G. and M. A. 48. 1891. Enations. Adernmosaik (Germ. Facultet Landbouwwetenschap (Gent) 40. Abnorme Blattbildungen. 179-189. 326332. Frazier N. Trasmissione per innesto della "malattia delle enazioni" della vite. Gigante R. And G. Moldavian Research Institute of Horticulture Kishinev. 7-12. Monografias INIA 18. small fruit and grapevine in Moldavia. Credi R. McGechan J. Ricerche istologiche sulle omeoplasie crestiformi (Enations) delle foglie di vite affette da rachitismo...K. areas of the leaf blade may become necrotic. Graniti A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 5. but when fanleaf virus transmission to herbaceous hosts became possible. O. Garau R. 1996. Refatti E. In the most sensitive varieties. Enation disease of grapevine in Italy.IV. 203-206.. 46-51. 241-243. Vein mosaic appears to be of low economic importance. 169-192. 1971. Occurrence of enation disease in Tunisia.. In: Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines (A Handbook).. Savino. Z. 59-64. Prota U.D. (ed. H. Deutsches Weinbau-Jahrbuch 31. 251-252 Hewitt W. Studies on some variable characters of grapevines affected by enation disease in Sardinia. (N. Die Eantionenkrankheit der rebe erstmal auch in Osterreich nachgewiesen. 1965. Marinesku V. Salcan. Nas. and G. Lisbon 1997. Dolar. Bitki Koruma Buletin 11. Cordoba. 2. 1970.. Leclair and M.P.1989. Bondarchuk. Bulletin of the California Department of Agriculture 43. Kiryat Anavim. M. Mosaico delle nervature (Ital. California. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG.). Description The symptoms of vein mosaic have been confused for some time with those of fanleaf/yellow mosaic. and V. Buchenau F.). 17.. This disease is widespread and probably worldwide. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales 81. Israel. I. with Special Reference to Vitis. Tekinel N. 1966.V. Prota and M. Extended Abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG. University of California.. Enations of grapevine in Sardinia. Spain. Main synonyms: Mosaïque des nervures (Fr. Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG. Lamberti and A. IV. 1954. 1979. Garau R.B.. 1976. 9.). Important virus diseases of grapevine in New South Wales.. Proceedings 6th Meeting of ICVG. Symptom expression seems to depend on climatic conditions. Main symptoms: Pale green mosaic affecting mostly the tissues adjacent to the main veins or the smaller ones. Benayas..G.P. but these necroses do not affect the veins as it is the case with vein necrosis. 1970. 121 . Prota U. Studies on reproduction of enation symptoms by grafting in Sardinia. G. Martelli G. 1981. The research of the virus diseases of grapevine in CSSR. Graniti A. 47-64.Brückbauer H. Grapevine enation disease in Murcia (Spain). Salih and Y.
148-152. No claim is made that these putative viruses are connected with the disease.: Vein mosaic in Ukraine. Control: Use of indexed material. Symptoms are very similar to those of vein mosaic in Europe. and Gamay apparently show little or no symptoms. Vuittenez and Stocky: Electron microscope study of thin-sectioned tissues of leaves from Vitis riparia and Vitis vinifera cv. A number of cytological modifications primarily involving chloroplasts were observed along with the presence of bundles of filamentous structures resembling closterovirus particles.. Legin and Vuittenez: Description of vein mosaic. Krake and Woodham: Description in Australia of a systemic mottling syndrome which is expressed during summer on the leaves of some varieties. Golino D. Krake L. 266-270. Comparison of symptoms of fleck. The disease can be eliminated by heat therapy.R. Servant. Several V. 1979 1980 1982 1983 1985 1993 2004 3. in the absence of any detectable virus. Muscat de Hambourg. Abracheva: Vein mosaic in Bulgaria. Grapevine summer mottle: a new graft-transmissible disease. Ehrenfelser showing symptoms of vein mosaic. No vector known. Pearl of Csaba). 1985. A.A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Woodham and Krake: Comparison of summer mottle and vein mosaic. riparia Gloire de Montpellier. show symptoms (Syrah.R. 17-23. 1993. Milkus et al. Kuniyuki: Vein mosaic in Brazil.: Observation of a type of mosaic of grapevines which appears to be independent of fanleaf virus. Marinesku and Bondarchuk: Vein mosaic in Moldova. Canova. vinifera cvs. Bonfiglioli: Vein mosaic in New Zealand (unpublished). Viognier. Chasselas. References Credi R. Historical review 1966 1973 1973 1976 1973 1973 1978 Vuittenez et al. and R.C. Babini and A. Saric and Hranuelli: Vein mosaic in Croatia. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 44. Mycoplasma-like organisms were supposed to be the cause of vein mosaic. Occurrence of grapevine vein necrosis and grapevine vein mosaic in the Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy). 1978. 122 . Pop: Vein mosaic in Romania. Samonina et al. Transmission: By graft and vegetative propagation. 2. LN 33 is also sensitive. Pinot. vein mosaic and vein necrosis. Alphonse Lavallée.: Vein mosaic in URSS. but this hypothesis has not been confirmed. Detection: Indexing with V. Vitis 17. Golino: Vein mosaic in California.. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: Vitis riparia Gloire de Montpellier is especially sensitive and is used as indicator. Potential interaction between rootstocks and grapevine latent viruses. Chardonnay.Agent: Unknown. Woodham.
Investiation on grapevine viruses in the SR Croatia. Niagara Falls 1980. several European grape cultivars show symptoms. Saric A. Agent: Unknown. poorly developed and with small berries.C.g. Woodham R. URSS. Main symptoms: Pale green to yellowish dicolourations of the tissues adjacent to the main or secondary veins.: Elimination of the disease agent by culturing fragmented shoot apices. 1966.G. producing a feathering or banding effect. 9 . 1973. V. Ser. rupestris et d'une affection nécrotique des nervures de l'hybride Rup.V. La mosaique des nervures. Mostar 1977. IV. Comparaison des symptômes et transmission par greffage d'une mosaïque nervaire de Vitis vinifera . 67-73. and V.. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale S IV 9. and L. Milkus.. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. Grapevine vein mosaic. resembles in some respects the European vein mosaic and the Greek Roditis leaf discolouration (see under Minor virus diseases). Numéro hors série. Barlass et al. Summa Phytopathologica 11.. 1973. 41-42. Bunches of infected cvs Sideritis and Cabernet sauvignon are fewer. Spread is through infected propagative material but is has also been observed between adjacent vines Varietal susceptibility: No grapevine tested was immune to infection.N. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale . Moldavii 31. Bondarchuk. Pop I. B. 191-204.V. A grapevine virus disease in the Primorye territory. rupestris and LN33 are infected symptomlessly. Adverse effect of light and of high temperature on symptom expression of grapevine vein mosaic in Sao Paulo. and G. Vitis 22.. These symptoms appear in summer and persist through the autumn. Symptoms show on vegetative growth that develops at temperatures in excess of 30 °C. Kuszala. Evidence that the disease is graft-transmissible. whereas the opposite occurs with summer mottle. Description Main synonyms: None. probablement indépendante du virus du Court-noué. 1. an Australian disease. and Hranuelli T. Observations sur une Mosaïque de la Vigne. Cabernet franc. IV . 1983. Ultrstructure de vignes infecteés par deux maladies de type viral: la mosaique des nervures. 1976. 1982.R.V. Krylov and V.Legin R. 2. 1977. Woodham and Krake: Comparative graft transmission trials demonstrate that summer mottle 123 . Detection: Graft transmission to a number of cvs. 57-63. Vinogradr. Stocky. S. 243-250 Samonina I. Proceedings of the Conference on Excoriosis and Virus Diseases of Grapevine. However. Symptoms of vein mosaic develop under mild weather conditions and fade during hot weather. SUMMER MOTTLE Summer mottle. 68-72. Proceedings 7th Meeting of IGCV. Vinodel. and A. Krake. Cabernet sauvignon. 1985. ou la “feuille rouge”. Historical review 1978 1982 1983 Krake and Woodham: Description of summer mottle in Australia. Mission. Vuittenez A. Legin and J. maladie à virus de la vigne.N.-Berl. Krylova. Vuittenez. de la marbrure de V. 1973. 149-141.V. suspected to be a virus or a viroid. Mataro. Kuniyuki H. Roditis leaf discolouration and summer mottle have similarities suggesting that they may be the same disease. 9. A.. R. 48-49 Marinesku V. 247-252. A comparison of grapevine summer mottle and vein mosaic diseases. e. Control: Use of disease-free propagating material obtained by culture of fragmented shoot apices. Transmission: No vector is known. Annales des Epiphyties 17. 110 R.. Vuittenez A.
Grapevine summer mottle: a new graft-transmissible disease. Transmission: By grafting and vegetative propagation. Krake L. Main symptoms: On the rootstock 110 R. 70-74. varieties or hybrids. Many grapevine varieties and rootstocks are infected symptomlessly. 266-270.A. Description Vein necrosis has probably a worldwide distribution.S. 2. Detection: By grafting on 110 R. growth is much reduced and necrosis of the leaf veins appears.C.: Vein necrosis in Italy and Bulgaria 124 .C. Necrotic reactions are best seen on the lower face of the leaf blade. 1983. A comparison of grapevine summer mottle and vein mosaic diseases. Collingwood. 1999.. and L. Graft-transmissible Diseases of Grapevines. The agent of vein necrosis can be eliminated by heat therapy. 1. its economic importance has not been assessed. No vector known. Little is known about sensitivity of other Vitis species.: Suggestion that summer mottle and Roditis leaf discolouration are the same disease 3. VEIN NECROSIS Although vein necrosis is currently regarded as a disease in its own right. 247-252.M. Cause-effect relationships between MLOs and the disease has never been ascertained. RT-PCR with virus specific primers and Western blot with an antiserum to recombinant coat protein of GRSPaV allow sensitive and reliable detection of this virus in symptomatic 110 R plants. Historical review 1973 1978 1978 Legin and Vuittenez: Discovery and description of this virus-like disease while searching for indicators for fleck. Australia. Control: Use of indexed planting material. R.). Krake L. rupestris x V. Krake. Woodham and L. 291-295. Adernnekrose (Germ.R.). Woodham R.C. Woodham. especially under greenhouse conditions. later on younger leaves as they develop. 1999 Krake et al. Mycoplasma-like organisms have been observed in the phloem of symptomatic vines. Skene. berlandieri 110 Richter (110R) with vein necrosis symptoms. N. CSIRO Publishing. References Barlass M. at first on the leaves at the base of the shoots. Main synonyms: Nécrose des nervures (Fr. Annals of Applied Biology 101. and R. Milkus and Kalashyan: Mycoplasma-like organisms found in phloem tissues of vines with vein necrosis.differs from vein mosaic. Regeneration of virus-free grapevines using in vitro apical culture. most likely GRSPaV. Scott. 1982. and some infected plants may die.G.R. Rezaian and R. M. Possible viroidal etiology put forward. necrosi delle nervature (Ital. Krake. K.H. Martelli et al. Also the tendrils and many shoots can necrotize. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: The rootstock 110 R is most sensitive. and the only Vitis species that is clearly affected is the rootstock 110 R. Taylor. Vitis 22. Agent: Suspected to be a virus.. So far. Vitis 17.. This strongly supports the hypothesis that vein necrosis is a specificic reaction of the rootstock 110 R to GRSPaV infection. but their etiological relationship with the disease has not been proven. recently an association exceeding 95% has been experimentally observed between Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV) and vines of V.).R.R. 1978.
1978. Izvestiya Akademii nauk Moldav. Lazar. 1985. Fitopatologia Brasileira 19. Galea Souchet. Minafra and G. Krake: Vein necrosis in Australia Savino et al.: An association exceeding 95% observed between GRSPaV and 110R vines showing vein necrosis symptoms in indexing trials. 301. Heat therapy reduced this proportion to 35. Boscia and G.N. 606-612. Ser. 79-83 Legin R.: Vein necrosis in Malta Golino: Vein necrosis in California Khun: Vein necrosis in Brazil Bouyahia et al. Informatore Fitopatologico 28 (10). and L. Vein necrosis a disease that is latent in most grapevine cultivars of the State of Rio grande do Sul. 1994. 57-63.. M. Savino. Martelli.. La Notte. SSR.: In southern Italy. A.P. V. 1992.P.. D. 125 .-Berl. Kalashyan. Woodham R. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale.. Biol. 1984.. 29-30.A. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology 17. Mycoplasma-like bodies in phloem tissue of grapevine affected by vein necrosis. 148-152. 110 R. Rumbos I C. Phytoparasitica 17. Vuittenez. 204-207. Martelli.B. fleck and leafroll in Vitis vinifera and grapevine rootstocks in central Greece. Savino. IV. 1986.5 %. Castellano. Suggestion than vein necrosis is a specificic reaction of 110R to GRAPaV. and A. P. H.P. 1993. Grapevine vein necrosis disease detected in rooststocks in Australia. V. Krake.: Vein necrosis in Hungary Gursoy: Vein necrosis in Turkey Rumbos: Vein necrosis in Greese Martelli et al.. 1973. Boscia and V. Golino D. References Bouyahia H. Is Grapevine vein necrosis a reaction to Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus? Journal of Plant Pathology 86.Z. Martelli G. and J. 59-65. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24.C. Pirolo. ser. D. Lehozcky J. the incidence of vein necrosis in visually selected stocks of table and wine grape varieties is on the average 71 %.A. Abracheva and B. P. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 44. and L R.A. de la marbrure de V. 1988.R. rupestris.P. Incidence of some graft-transmissible virus-like diseases of Grapevine in visually selected and heat-treated stocks from Southern Italy. Savino. 3-5 Martelli G. Farkas.. Comparaison des symptômes et transmission par greffage d'une mosaïque nervaire de Vitis vinifera. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 22. Lehoczky et al. Gursoy Y.C. 58-60. i Chim Nauka 1. J. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Sciences 50. 61 Savino V. Viruses of grapevine in Malta. Vein necrosis: new virus-like disease in Turkish vineyards.1984 1985 Woodham R. 9. Vein necrosis. but did not eliminate the disease entirely. 1989. D. No veing necrosis observed in 110R top grafted on GRSPaV-free V. Boscia. 43-45 Kuhn G. rupestris et d'une affection nécrotique des nervures de l'hybride Rup. C.. 1978. Rosciglione. Kergazdasag 18 (4). Milkus B. Detection of vein necrosis virus (GVNV) in the vines of cultivated grape varieties. 1986 1988 1989 1992 1993 1994 2004 3. 2004. Necrosi delle nervature della vite in Italia e Bulgaria.. Potential interaction between rootstocks and grapevine latent viruses. G.
VIROID (Yellow speckle) .
inducing a disease called yellow speckle. was demonstrated to be caused by a co-infection by yellow speckle viroids and GFLV. respectively from a cv. Only GYSVd-1 and GYSVd-2 are pathogenic. Agents: Two distinct viroids. Main symptoms: Few to many minute chrome yellow spots or flecks scattered over the leaf surface. GYSVd 1 and GYSVd 2 are made up of 366 and 363 nucleotides (nt). HSVd-g has been recorded from Australia. a size much smaller than that the smallest viral genome. however. plant age. and AGVd. Gelbsprenkelung der Rebe (Germ. Viroids. It was isolated in Australia from a grapevine that contained also other viroids and was distinguished from these because it replicated in cucumber and tomato. The suggestion is that HSVd moved from grapevine to hop probably 50-60 ago in the Nagano and/or Fukushima prefectures in which it is not uncommon to find hop gardens next to vineyards. Flores.W. Collingwood. has a genome 369 nt in size.). GYSVd-1 and GYSV-2 have a worldwide distribution The three additional viroids that have been detected in grapevines. Kyoto vine with yellow speckle symptoms. 129 . Semancik (eds. picchiettatura gialla (Ital. Five grapevine-infecting viroids are known. Description Main synonyms: Moucheture jaune (Fr. are not associated to any specific symptomatology. AGVd. Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd-2). CSIRO Publishing. Two families are known. R. Europe. Very often. These symptoms appear in the height of summer on a limited number of mature leaves and persist for the rest of the vegetative season. it did not induce symptoms. and Tunisia. viroids are classified in families. Randles and J.). are subviral pathogerns endowed with autonomous replication in their hosts. or gathering along the main veins to give a vein banding pattern. climatic conditions. north and south America. They are made up of a non encapsidated circular RNA of 246-375 nucleotides. Citrus exocortis viroid grapevine strain (CEVd-g). It was first detected in Japan and transmitted to cucumber and grapevine seedlings in which. HSVd-g. Both these viroids wer first isolated in Australia. however. Cabernet franc and a cv. YELLOW SPECKLE 1. presence of ribozymes. a disease characterized by chrome yellow flecks localized along the main veins of mature leaves and progressing into the interveinal areas.). and may have a worldwide distribution. J. References Hadidi A. 370 pp. the type species of the genus Hostuviroid.VIROIDS Viroids. Like viruses. the USA. CEVd-g. Sometimes. Pospiviroideae and Avsunviroideae whose significant discriminating traits are the presence of a central conserved region in the secondary structure and nuclear replication (Pospiviroideae) or a branched secondary structure lacking the central conserved region. 2003. GYSVd-1 and GYSVd -2 cause the disease individually or in combination. respectively and both belong in the genus Apscaviroid. infected vines are symptomless or show symptoms erratically. Neither of them is able to replicate in herbaceous hosts but both were succesfully inoculated to grapevine seedlings reproducing the yellow speckle syndrome.. genera and species. HSVd-g. and perhaps the type of infecting viroidal sequence variant. has a genome 297 nt in size.S.). all of which belong in the family Pospiviroideae: Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). thought to be elicited by a specific strain of GFLV. AGVd has been reported from Australia. vein banding-like symptoms can be observed in vines infected only by yellow speckle viroids. Australian grapevine viroid (AGVd). Vein banding. Interestingly. phylogenetic analysis of hop and grapevine isolates of HSVd has provided evidence that the viroid that causes hop stunt disease in Japan is a variant of HSVd-g. a member of the genus Apscaviroid. Hop stunt viroid grapevine strain (HSVd-g). The symptomatology varies depending on the cultivar. and plastidial replication (Avsunviroideae ). the non coding genomes.
yellow speckle and fleck through dodder. the authors consider the results as inconclusive. Woodham and Krake: Artificial transmission of grapevine leafroll.: A vein banding condition of cv. Abracheva et al. 2. hybrids and cultivars appear to be susceptible. a disease formerly thought to be caused by a chromogenic strain of GFLV.: Four viroids found in Australian grapevines. Detection: Some viroids can be transmitted mechanically to herbaceous hosts but this is not an efficient detection method. a member of the genus Pospiviroid. Rezaian et al. has a genome 369 nt in size. Woodham and Krake: Evidence of field spread of yellow speckle. Semancik et al. Seed transmission has been demostrated for GYSVd-1. Flores et al. as the disease may have spread naturally.: Successful mechanical transmission of viroids to grapevines. Garcia Arenal et al. Shikata et al. For yellow speckle. In the great majority of grapevine germplasm infection is latent. 1984 1985 1985 1985 1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 130 . Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been used extensively before the advent of nucleic acid-based assays (hybridization and RT-PCR) which constitute far better detection and identification tools. Mink and Parsons: Yellow speckle can be detected by growing vines for 2-3 weeks at 32 °C under continuous illumination. Barlass et al. Three different viroids found in a number of accessions in a Californian varietal collection.CEVd-g.: Yellow speckle eliminated by in vitro apical culture. found in grapevine accessions from Europe and California. if not all citrus-growing countries. This latter way of dissemination has been considered as more efficient and frequent than mechanical transmission. GYSVd-2. Sano et al.: First recovery of a viroid from grapevines in Japan. Cannonau not associated with the presence of GFLV reported from Italy. Experimental transmission through dodder is possible. Although CEVd is present in most. Varietal susceptibility: All Vitis species.: Evidence that viroids are widespread in grapevines. CEVd-g and AGVd.: A disease of cv. one of which identified as the agent of citrus exocortis. Natural dissemination takes place by mechanical inoculation through surface-contaminated cutting tools during management operations. It was first recoverd in Spain from symptomless grapevines. First identification of AGVd Koltunow and Rezaian: Identification and sequencing of grapevine yellow speckle viroid. grafting. Rcatzitelli resembling yellow speckle reported from Bulgaria. Control: Use of viroid-free propagative material obtained by meristem tip culture.: Reconstruction of the secondary structure of CEVd-g Szychowski et al. Historical review 1972 1975 1978 1982 1982 1983 1983 Taylor and Woodham: First description of yellow speckle as a graft transmissible disease separate from chromogenic disorders induced by grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV).: Two new viroids. and distribution of infected propagating material.: The Japanese grapevine viroid identified as a strain of hop stunt viroid. Prota et al. Transmission: No vector is known. its grapevine strain so far has only been recorded from Australia and the USA. Krake and Woodham: Evidence that the agent of yellow speckle is implicated in the etiology of vein banding. besides Spain.
G. Rezaian et al. GYSVd-1 and GYSVd-2 Rezaian: Complete nucleotide sequencing of AGVd. 1978. Little and Rezaian: Updated review of grapevine viroids. Detection of viroid and viroid-like RNAs from grapevine. 131 . Woodham and L. A. Duran-Vila N. Journal of General Virology 66. Semancik. R. Greece. which require amplification in an alternate host. Wang et al. Pallas and J. Spain.: First record of grapevine viroids in China. 1988. M. Martelli. References Abracheva P. Krake.: Structural analysis reveals that five distinct viroids infect commercial grapevine varieties. 1991 Semancik and Szychowski: There are two classes of grapevine viroids: (i) apparent viroids. Elleuch et al.. Marrakchi. N. Arregui.R. Skene. 217-220. Duran-Vila. Production of viroid-free grapevines by shoot tip culture.: A survey of viroids of grapevine in Italy. Quacquarelli and V. The occurence is reported of HSVd. First report of Australian grapevine viroid from the Mediterranean region.b Szychowski et al. Fakhfakh. Koltunow and Rezaian: Description and sequencing of grapevine viroid 1B (later renamed Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2).: Improvement of meristem tip culture technique for the production of viroid-free grapevines. Molecular evidence that this viroid originated from recombination between five different viroids among which GYSVd-1 and GYSVd-2 1991a. Juarez and J. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 39. 2003. Journal of Plant Pathology 85.1988 1989 1989 1989 1990 1990 Duran-Vila et al. CEVd-g and AGVd via grape seeds. J. according to an international agreement reached during the 10th Meeting of ICVG held in 1990 at Volos.. 1991 1996 1997 1999 2001 2003 2003 3. Savino.P.. Perreault and H.M. which can readily be isolated directly from grapevines. (ii) enhanced viroids. Proceedings of the 6th Meeting of ICVG. Flores et al.. Cordoba. Barlass M. Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 2 (GYSVd 2) Australian grapevine viroid (AGVd). These viroids.: Evidence that two related viroids (GYSVd 1 and GYSVd 2) can cause yellow speckle disease independently.. Martelli: Brief review of grapevine viroid situation supporting the idea that vein banding is primarily induced by viroidal rather than GFLV infection. 2095-2102.S.: Suggestion that the viroid causing stunting in hop (HSVd) originated from grapevines. A possible virus disease of Rcatzitelli vines in Bulgaria. G. Regeneration of virus-free grapevines using in vitro apical culture. Citrus exocortis viroid grapevine strain (CEVd-g). GYSVd-2. Minafra et al. 1985. Wan and Symons: Transmission of GYSVd-1.C. Monografias INIA 18.: First report of AGVd in the Mediterranean. Flores R.: Extensive comparative analysis of grapevine accessions from California and Europe reveal a similar pattern of viroid distribution. are to be named as follows: Hop stunt viroid grapevine strain (HSVd-g).P. 1982. Annals of Applied Biology 101. Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd 1). based on phylogenetical analysis of hop and grapevine isolates of this viroid. 127-130. Koltunow et al.M. V. K. 291-295. Sano et al. J.: Review of viroids. 45-57. 1976. Elleuch A.
53-59. Semancik J.C. Martelli G..A.A.a newly recognized grafttransmissible disease of Vitis. 1990. J. J. a new member of the apple scar skin viroid group contains the left terminal region of tomato planta macho viroid.R. Skene. Relationship and patterns of distribution among grapevine viroids from California and Europe. Semancik J.R. Okado. Credi. 210-219. Mechanical transmission and rootstock reservoirs as factors in the widespread distribution of viroids in grapevines.. Z. A. Rezaian M.).S. and J. Journal of Phytopathology 147. A viroid-like RNA isolated from grapevine has high sequence homology with hop stunt viroid. 1988.C. Krake L. Dore. The field investigation of virus and viroid diseases of grapevine and stone fruit trees in Shandong and Liaoning province.L.R. Journal of General Virology 66.A. J. P. Johnson and M. Szychowski J. Infectious diseases of grapevines. 297. Virology 170. and R. Semancik. Koltunow A. Seminars in Virology 8.Jiang. and R. Randles and J.A. J. S. Grapevine yellow speckle viroid: structural features of a new viroid group. Doazan. Martelli and V. Investigations on a vein banding disease of Grapevine in Sardinia. Nucleic Acids Research 10.S. A. E. 575-578. A. Woodham R.M. Credi..C. Szychowski J. yellow speckle and fleck diseases by dodder. Journal of General Virology 69. J. G. Semancik. and L.. 849-864.W. Pallas and R. Rezaian. Greece. Doazan. and M. detection. 1991a. Koltunow A. Prota U. N. 1972.P.A. Transmission of viroids via grape seeds.. Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of ICVG. Krake. Duran-Vila. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.R. Szychowski. Relationships among grapevine viroids from sources maintained in California and Europe. V. Minafra A. Ohno and Y. Volos.Woodham. Savino. Woodham R.. N. 869-872. CSIRO Publishing. Uyeda. S. Widespread occurrence of viroid-like RNAs in grapevines. and R. Plant Disease Reporter 59.S. and J. 39-41. 5587-5598.A. 132 . Grapevine yellow speckle -. Nucleic Acids Research 16. L. Koltunow and L.R. 65-73. Two related viroids cause grapevine yellow speckle disease independently.. Flores. Volos. Woodham. 270-278. 1988. Journal of General Virology 70. China Fruits 4. 1987.M.A. Proceedings of the 10th Meeting of ICVG. In: Viroids (A. Garau. Vitis 22. 25-36.... 2003. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 39. Wolpert and J. 3411-3419. A. Goheen and J. 1984. M. 213-216. R. 1999. F.. 1997. Proceedings of the Japanese Academy of Science 60(B). 1990.. Viroids: the non coding genomes.H. Garnier. 1989. 1990. 337-345.A. 1991.W. Symons.G. Hong. Virus Genes 22. Semancik. Koltunow A. 195-206. Rezaian M. T. Phylogenetic analysis of hop and grapevine isolates of hop stunt viroid supports a grapevine origin for hop stunt disease. M. L. The sequence of a viroid from grapevine closely related to to severe isolates of citrus exocortis viroid.C. 370 pp. Ohshima.. 1985. P. 4203-4210. N. 202-205.M.P. Koltunow. 1983.A. 1991b. 1987.. Krake. Shikata E. Grapevine yellow speckle agent implicated in the aetiology of vein banding disease.S.D. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 23. 2001.A. 1975. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 38. R. Rivera-Bustamante and A. Vitis 30. Duran-Vila. Hernadez. 24-28. 173-182.Flores R. Goheen. Zhang and X. Grapevine viroids. sanitation and situation in the Arab countries.. Uyeda. Grapevine viroid 1B.R.. China. Minafra. R.P. 1989.C. Meshi. Garcia Arenal F. Krake. Collingwood. R. Isolation of three viroids and a circular RNA from grapevines. 1989. Grapevine yellow speckle disease: studies on natural spread observed in the field. Sano T.P. Rezaian M.C. Rezaian. Investigations on transmission of grapevine leafroll. Mink G. and L. 35-40. Rezaian. Greece. Australian grapevine viroid . Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. 1985. Szychowski J. Rapid indexing procedures for detecting yellow speckle disease in grapevines. 447-452. Comparative properties of viroids of grapevine origin isolated from grapevines and alternate hosts. Di Serio and C. Leclair.Leclair. 1991. Greece. 285-291 Wang G. Flores. and M. Krake and K. Wolpert and J. 1990. 333338. Little A.M. Viroids of grapevines in Italy. Zhang.M. I.. Shikata.P. 1990. Nature. Mimura and K. Garnier. M.I. A. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift 106. 1996. Wan C. Volos. Minafra. R. 1982. Cugusi and M. Sano T. 1988. Vitis 29. Sano and I.evidence for extensive recombination between viroids. 287-288. Rezaian.A. and M. Grapevine viroids. 1983. Krake. Arab Journal of Plant Protection 7.A.S. T. 413-422. T. Hadidi. Vitis 21. Semancik (eds. 193-198. Taylor R.A. 40-50. Parsons. An infectious low molecular weight RNA was detected in grapevines by molecular hybridization with hop stunt viroid cDNA. R.H. Nucleic Acids Research 15.S.
Main diseases: Flavescence dorée. buds. Rubbery canes fall downwards with a typical "weeping" aspect. Main synonyms: Flavescence dorée-like disease. Phytoplasmas in the 16SrIII group (or X-disease group) are associated with grapevine yellows in North America and Israel. Downwards rolling of the leaves and sectorial discolorations of the blades. climate and infection pressure. their genome is poorly known because they cannot be cultivated. shoots. The occurrence and spread of a particular GY mainly depend on the presence of efficient vectors in the vineyards or their close vicinity. vector species have not been identified for all GY diseases. Flavescenza dorata. Severely infected stocks decline rapidly. However. associated to Bois noir (BN). The main characteristics of GY diseases are important losses or damage to the yield. a phytoplasma belonging to group 16SrII (or peanut witches' 135 . Palatinate grapevine yellows. Bois noir. Quite often. Flavescenza dorata. In 1997. GY agents have been identified in no less than 5 groups of phytoplasma clade.GRAPEVINE YELLOWS: GENERAL PROPERTIES 1. it was mainly in the 1990's that GYs could be differentiated. phloem-restricted bacteria that belong to the class Mollicutes. Leaf blades are crispy and brittle. and transmission by specific leafhopper or planthopper vectors. and serology. Amarilliamento. Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia. Vergilbungskrankheit (=Schwarzholzkrankheit) or Legno nero and also one of the agents of Australian grapevine yellows (Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense) belong to group 16SrXII (or stolbur group). Nevertheless. all organs of the plant may be infected. Nonetheless. resulting in reduction of quantity and quality of the crop. persistence of infection in dormant plant material. Phytoplasma cells are vesicular rounded bodies. including roots. based mainly on sequence similarity of their rRNA genes and of a few other genes. their movement is slow and their distribution in the plant is erratic. develop on leaves. Flavescence dorée (FD) and Palatinate Grapevine Yellows (PGY) phytoplasmas belong to group 16SrV (or Elm yellows group). inflorescence and berries. after their aetiology had been understood and molecular methods for the characterization of associated phytoplasmas had been developed. The first GY to be recorded was Flavescence dorée in France in the 1950's. North American grapevine yellows. such as the ribosomal protein genes or the elongation factor Tu. in addition to other criteria such as symptomatology. involving also the main veins. Characteristic symptoms in the end of summer are a partial or total lack of lignification which may affect individual canes and shoots or the whole plant. though some sieve tubes may appear crowded with phytoplasma cells in the electron microscope. Schwarzholzkrankheit. Vergilbungskrankheit. The different GYs cannot be differentiated on the basis of symptoms. Australian grapevine yellows. Their titre is usually very low in grapevine. However. Red-berried varieties show reddish to purple discolorations while white-berried varieties show golden to chlorotic discolorations.200 kbp). Main symptoms: Young shoots of affected Vitis vinifera are weak with short internodes and frequent necrosis of terminal buds. canes. Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome reported for procaryotic organisms (560 2. Phytoplasmas form a homogeneous phylogenetic clade subdivided into about 20 groups and subgroups. the term phytoplasma has become the genus name of these plant pathogenic agents under the provisional taxonomic status Candidatus. Vergilbungskrankheit. Description Grapevine yellows (GYs) are a group of severe phytoplasma-induced diseases occurring worldwide on a number of Vitis vinifera cultivars. depending on the particular disease and other conditions such as variety. but not seeds. Stolbur phytoplasmas. Bunches wither in early summer or berries shrivel later in season. host range. However. They are wall-less. autumn fall of leaves occurs later on diseased than on healthy vines. Golden flavescence. a severe decline of the vine. Legno nero. variable in shape and size (50-1000 nm in diameter) that circulate in phloem sieve tubes and can be seen in the electron microscope passing through pores of sieve plates. Several Candidatus phytoplasma species have been recently described. Agents: Phytoplasmas were called Mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) from their discovery in 1967 until the International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB) replaced this name with the term phytoplasma in 1993.
Vitis riparia and American rootstock varieties and hybrids do not show typical symptoms of GY. The situation of cv Syrah is controversial. Individual symptoms can be confused with other diseases or disorders. However. including the agents of FD and BN. Detection can also be made by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections or by scanning electron microscopy. Other host plants: Most phytoplasmas are ubiquitous plant parasites that can be hosted by several sometimes tolerant plant species. The best antigen source are leaf veins and petioles. Pinot noir. shoots. but the latter technique has never been successfull on field-grown grapevines. When no information on the particular phytoplasma type is available. Polyclonal and monoclonal antisera have been raised to a few phytoplasmas. as well as their feeding activity. Though the rate of transmission to plant material can be very low. Cabernet Sauvignon. PCR amplification with universal primers is preferred. Then. ELISA detection is possible from vascular tissue of symptomatic grapevines. are very sensitive to all GY diseases. These phenomena also depend on the disease complex (phytoplasma. When the presence of a particular disease is suspected. Propagation material may be the infection source for long distance dissemination of GY diseases. Transmission: Phytoplasmas are vectored by hemipters. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: Numerous V. Phytoplasmas persist in their vectors but vertical transmission to the progeny of infected gravid females is not possible or scarce. Others. Phytoplasmas can be detected by graft transmission to sensitive vines. Phytoplasmas in the 16SrI group (or aster yellows group) are associated with endemic GY diseases in several countries of Europe and in the USA. Random Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the amplicon can provide further characterization of the infecting phytoplasma. are group specific. The three ascertained vectors of GY diseases are univoltine leafhopper or planthopper species. such type of transport is risky when potential insect vector species occur on the site of planting. more specific primers can be used. which allows restoring the sanitary status of affected vineyards when the vector activity is controlled. and bunches is strong evidence for phytoplasma infection. canes.broom group) is a second agent of Australian grapevine yellows. on less conserved genes. are critical. erratic transmission to grapevine may nevertheless take place. designed on variable regions of the rDNA. using DAPI staining. vector and abundance of reservoirs). Simultaneous presence of symptoms on leaves. These methods are not specific for any phytoplasma and are too laborious for disease monitoring. Detection: GY syndrome is characteristic. The extraction from infected tissues of total DNA containing enough phytoplasma DNA of good quality and the elimination of inhibitors of the PCR reaction. Full recovery and transient remission of symptoms have been observed in low and medium sensitive cultivars. A range of primers that can be used for amplification with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of characteristic DNA fragments of phytoplasmas. It is probable that the feeding preference of insect vectors. Riesling and also numerous local varieties. Some cultivars such as Chardonnay. Double infections have been reported. mainly hoppers (cicadellids or cixiids) or psyllids. are available in the literature. Infection of rootstocks has been detected only in the case of Flavescence dorée but it cannot be excluded for other GY agents. influence symptom expression and differential sensitivity of cultivars. numerous plants or weeds may be overt or discrete reservoirs from which acquisition of phytoplasma by vectors is possible according to the feeding preference of each species. when grapevine is not a preferred host for the vector. They can also be observed in sieve tubes by light microscopy. or on random selected non-ribosomal DNA fragments. 136 . Particular procedures for extraction of phytoplasma antigens from infected vines must be used to enhance the sensitivity of detection. vinifera cultivars have been reported to be sensitive or very sensitive to GYs in all countries where infection occurs. Most of these PCR primers have been designed on conserved regions of the rRNA gene and are "universal" for all known phytoplasmas. Hence. Phytoplasmas also persist in vine stocks during winter. Outstanding progress in detection was achieved with DNA-based techniques.
but does not rule out the possible involvement of a pathogen. phytoplasmas are unevenly distributed in GY-affected vines. Detection of phytoplasma DNA can be achieved from all plant organs or insect vectors. FD can be detected from leaves of non-symptomatic American roostocks. littoralis Ball. Control of GY diseases depends on the knowledge of vector insect species. The author suggests this disease to be due to adverse climatic and soil conditions. Schvester et al. Control methods of vector populations are being experimented with natural insecticides. into hot water (50 °C) for a sufficient length of time (minimum 30 mn). 2. Production of sanitized propagation material is possible with hot water treatment (HWT). However. denoted Flavescence dorée (FD) in agreement with the name proposed by Levadoux (1955) because of the golden yellow metallic aspect of leaves. The disease is thought to be caused by root damage. Detection in the upper parts of the vines is usually done from veins and petioles of the leaves of symptomatic shoots. hypotheses on its nature. 1956 1957 1961 1961 1961 1964 1965 137 . under the name Flavescence dorée. even sensitive detection methods may not be fit for use in sanitary selection because of the uneven distribution of phytoplasmas in mother plants and their vegetative progeny.. efforts should address prevention by planting healthy propagation material and limitation of vector populations and their inoculative activity. and on the identification of reservoirs of inoculum such as infected grapevines. Gärtel: Description.Other molecular methods are being developed. Nonsymptomatic grapevines that show irregular symptoms from one year to the next may also test positive. Pruning or top-grafting are useless because roots and trunks are infected. FD is transmitted by the leafhopper S. Caudwell (a): Studies on Bois noir (BN) and on its relationships with FD. but is also possible using young leaves shortly before symptom expression or phloem scrapings from lignified canes. Control: There are no direct curing methods of infected plants. The biology of the insect is described. using detection of PCR amplification products with DNA-DNA hybridization with a specific probe. an insect that has been introduced recently from America. littoralis Ball found in Italy in 1963. on the possibility to limit or eradicate their population and prevent their migration or movement in vineyards. Real-time PCR has also been successfully used. of a disease occurring in the vineyards of the Mosel Valley and of the Rhine Valley. Historical review 1955 Levadoux: Description of a severe outbreak of "Flavescence dorée" on Baco 22A in southwestern France.e. Investigations are being conducted on sensitivity. and on elicitors of defence reactions to these phloem-restricted bacterial agents. i. and natural enemies. cultural practices. Caudwell: Characterization of a new type of flavescence. weeds or other crops. The disease can be transmitted by grafting and is probably a virus disease. BN is considered as a non epidemic form of FD. Generally. Caudwell (b): Description of recovery in grapevines affected with FD. tolerance and potential for recovery of varieties. Vidano: S. evolution of the disease in space and time. Branas (a and b): Description of flavescence epidemics on Baco 22A and Chardonnay in France. soaking of dormant material before or after grafting. Symptoms (macroscopic and microscopic). on physiological changes and defence mechanisms induced by infection. In any case.
littoralis Ball is present in Ticino (southern Switzerland). littoralis is present in the same region of Oltrepò Pavese. Belli et al.: Presence of a disease similar to FD in the Oltrepò Pavese (northern Italy). (a): Mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) are observed in diseased grapevines and infective leafhoppers and in Vicia faba submitted to feeding inoculation with infective S. Magarey and Wachtel: Description of a new disease of grapevine of the yellows type on the cv Rhine Riesling in South Australia. faba are different from those obtained with feeding inoculation with infective S. Immersing cuttings taken on FD-affected grapevines in water at 30°C prior to planting reduced the proportion of infected plants by about 83%. Caudwell et al. First record in 197576. with special reference to grapevine. titanus fed on the latter V.1966 Caudwell: Attempts to inhibit the agent of FD in vivo by heat treatment. Mosel and Rhine regions are considered as the causal pathogens of this disease. littoralis.: S. Caudwell: Symptoms of grapevine yellows (Amarilliamento) reported in Chile on cv Elqui. titanus (= littoralis) is not a vector.: Rickettsia-like organisms observed in roots of grapevines with "Vergilbungskrankheit" in the Saar. mainly on cv. littoralis. The author assumes that both FD and its vector were introduced from North America with varieties of Vitis labrusca between 1927 and 1950. Caudwell and Larrue: Spread of FD in France is related to sanitary status of planting material. Granata: Description of an epidemic yellows disease on cv Inzolia in Sicily. 1967 1968 1970 1971 1971 1973 1973 1975 1977 1979 1980 1982 1982 1983 1984 1985 1985 138 . Belli et al. Symptoms on V. (b): Evidence that FD and BN are two different diseases with similar symptoms. Doi et al. Caudwell et al. Credi and Babini: Grapevine yellows are reported in Emilia Romagna (Italy).) caught in the vicinity of vineyards could transmit a yellows disease to Vicia faba plants. Inoculation of grapevine seedlings with S.: Production of antisera to FD-MLO raised to extracts of experimentally FDinfected plants (Vicia faba) and leafhoppers (Euscelidius variegatus) and first microscope observation of MLOs trapped with ISEM. is probably of European origin. Potential existence of several different diseases: leafhoppers (Euscelidius sp. Recommendation that mother plants should be grown in areas far away from FD-infected regions. The disease has been observed for the first time in 1968. the hypothesis is put forward that this nematode is the vector of the disease. Baggiolini: S. This phytoplasma was later on identified as a Clover phyllody phytoplasma. Osler et al. Bois noir. of which S. these findings have not been confirmed. Rafaila and Costache: Yellows of grapevine with symptoms similar to those of FD found in 1967 for the first time in Romania. faba plants produced typical GY symptoms. Caudwell: Discussion on the origins of yellows diseases of plants. An important FD-like disease is reported. Caudwell et al. Tanne and Nitzany: Occurrence of a yellows disease resembling FD in Israel. Rumbos et al.: S. witches' broom and yellowing. Regina.: Discovery of Mycoplasma or PLT group-like microorganisms in the phloem elements of plants showing dwarfing. Conversely. As similar organisms have been found in nematodes of the species Xiphinema index. titanus found in 1984 in vineyards of northern Italy. Provisory name "Rhine riesling problem". and Euscelis sp. So far.
northern Italy. Borgo et al. Euscelidius variegatus and Euscelis incisus are taken into consideration. variegatus and S. Egger and Grasselli: Presence in Toscana.: Observations. vector of FD. Mescalchin et al. of a FD-like disease on Chardonnay. of MLOs in phloem tissues of grapevines affected by "FD" in northern Italy. Pinot bianco.1985 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1987 1987 1987 Rumbos and Avgelis: Observations of a FD-like disease in Greece with severe symptoms on cvs Razaki and Roditis. Credi and Callegari: Survey of vineyards in Emilia-Romagna. Rui et al. Seljak: Presence of Scaphoideus titanus in western Slovenia (Yugoslavia). respectively). titanus. However. titanus. Martelli: A review on the knowledge on grapevine diseases induced by phloem. 1987 1987 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1988 1989 1989 139 . Conti: A review of intracellular procaryotic phytopathogenic agents. control measures. Fortusini et al. Hyalesthes obsoletus.: Study on the distribution of S. Pinot nero) and comparison with other similar diseases. Chardonnay is the more affected variety. Two of these vineyards were sprayed with insecticides in 1986 and 1987. using the scanning electron microscope. Italy.or xylem-limited prokaryotes in Europe. Recovery and crop loss are variable. S. for the presence of a FD-like disease. titanus is not always associated to the disease. Italy.: New data on the spread of FD in three vineyards of Oltrepò pavese (northern Italy) from 1985 to 1987. Quaroni et al. Survey for the presence of S. Fortusini and Belli: Description of the development of epidemics of FD-like diseases in northern Itay.: Observation of MLOs in phloem tissue of yellows-affected grapevines in Australia. in viticultural areas of northern Italy and of other Auchenorrhynchas susceptible to play a role in the transmission of yellows diseases in this region. that are responsible for severe decline of vines. resulting in a reduced diffusion of the disease. titanus.: Contribution to the knowledge of FD (or similar diseases) in the Veneto region.: Occurrence of FD-like symptoms in the valley of Sarca in Trentino. disease distribution.: Presence of a FD-like disease in Emilia-Romagna. Borgo: General information on the presence of FD-type diseases in northern Italy. Vidano et al. Carraro et al. Susceptibility and sensitivity of affected varieties (Chardonnay. Italy.: Survey of potential Auchenorryncha vectors of the pathogen agent of FD in Piemonte (Italy). whereas an unsprayed vineyard was more affected. Credi: Description of a FD-like disease in Emilia Romagna and the reaction of 3 different cultivars. Italy. their etiology is unclear. vector of FD. Credi et al.: Presence and distribution of a FD-like disease in the region Friuli-Venezia Giulia in Italy. titanus. Vidano et al. Boudon-Padieu and Larrue: ELISA detection of FD pathogen on infected reared experimental and wild natural leafhopper vectors (E. Magarey et al. In addition to S.: Description in Italy of the presence of FD or FD-like diseases. The results suggest that the disease is brought into the vineyards from outside local sources.
Vidano et al. Similar symptoms on Chardonnay could be obtained by insect inoculation (Euscelis incisus) and by cleft-grafting of tissues taken from yellows-infected elm. The annual rate of symptomatic plants was never greater than 20 % over a 6-year period. Boidron and Grenan: Construction and testing in ENTAV. Treatment prior to storage is more efficient. The recommended temperature / time combination is 50°C / 3560 min. Caudwell: Review on the epidemiology and characterization of FD and other GY diseases. Specific primers can be used for MLOs. Chardonnay and Baco 22A grafted on donor yellows-diseased plants of cvs Pinot blanc and Sangiovese. This is a prospect for investigation on MLOs associated to plant yellows. S. The aetiology is not fully ascertained though the presence of MLO is probable.1989 Rumbos: Review of the knowledge on the etiology of grapevine yellows and observations with the scanning electron microscope of root and petiole tissues from diseased and unaffected plants of cv Riesling. Le Grau du Roi (France) of a device for secure soaking of dormant buds and canes into hot water (50°C. Granata and Grimaldi: MLOs are observed with the electron microscope on affected grapevines of cv. (a and b): Identification of numerous species of Auchenorrhynchas in the vineyard ecosystem in Piemonte (northen Italy) and of ampelophilous species. Credi et al. suggesting an unrelated agent. Symptoms also developed on plants obtained from buds taken on diseased Chardonnay and Sangiovese grafted on healthy Kober 5BB. Caudwell et al. Inzolia. Only part of the plants were infected. Refatti et al. Restriction profiles after digestion with endonucleases permit the differenciation of MLOs associated to different plant diseases. Di Terlizzi et al. The authors recommend that research continues on techniques for the ecological control of weeds and of leafhoppers linked to them and on the aetiology of the different forms of "golden flavescence". Conti: A yellows-type disease of cv. Deng and Hiruki: A method to amplify 16S rRNA gene from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes. Natural infection with MLOs of bait plants (Catharanthus roseus and Vicia faba) placed in vineyards in spring and summer.: Occurrence of grapevine yellows in Moldavian SSR. Chardonnay develops in Tuscany. Granata and Russo: An epidemic disease with FD-type symptoms develops in Sicily on cv. Affected grapevines in the Rhône valley tested negative. Marinesku et al. 1989 1990 1990 1990 1990 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1992 1992 140 .: Presence of yellows-like symptoms in Apulian grapevines (central Italy). 45mn).: Grapevine graftwood shoots infected with FD can be disinfected by hot water treatment in the dormant stage.: The FD-like disease developing in Friuli-Venezia Giulia since the early 1980's was not decreased significantly in vineyards sprayed with insecticides though S. titanus was not found in the area. Inzolia in Sicily. Several weeds with symptoms of phyllody were found to contain MLO in electron microscope studies. Ahrens and Seemüller: Oligonucleotides selected in the conserved parts of the 16S rRNA gene of MLOs can be used with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a sequence of the gene in several plant pathogenic MLOs maintained on periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). titanus was present in all vineyards checked. Caudwell and Kuszala: Detection with ELISA of FD-MLO in naturally FD-affected grapevines.: Bench grafting experiments of buds of indicator cvs. Credi and Santucci: Development of "Flavescenza dorata" in grapevine in Emilia-Romagna and rate of infestation in different systems of cultivation.
The titre of MLO appears very low in grapevine. Arnò et al. Alma et al.: ELISA with FD-antibodies permit to detect related antigens in S. Evolution of the disease and of its vector in the various viticultural regions of France. No spontaneous recovery. The MLO strains found in grapevine are related with aster yellows MLOs.: FD can be transmitted by symptomless rootstocks. titanus and other leafhopper species show that yellows disease present in northeastern Italy differs from flavescence dorée as it occurs in France. but are different from known aster yellows cluster MLO strains. Bertaccini et al. Chen et al.: Transmission experiments from grapevine to grapevine and to herbaceous hosts with S. MLOs were visible in sections of petioles of periwinkle showing symptoms and subsequent graft transmission from periwinkle to periwinkle was successful. titanus leafhoppers. titanus. 4 positive results (0.6%) were obtained. Davis et al. Osler et al. titanus population in vineyards and the rate of spread of the disease. (a): Differentiation with PCR-RFLP analysis between a MLO related to aster yellows in GY-diseased plants from Lombardia and a MLO related to elm yellows in an affected grapevine in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. detection (ELISA. Meignoz et al. (b): Evidence of an association of MLOs with grapevine yellows in Emilia Romagna. Senescent or degraded forms of MLOs identified inside degenerate sieve elements. FD-MLO DNA can be distinguished from other MLO DNA with Dot-blot hybridization and Southern-blotting. results of research.: The survey in Piemonte of Chardonnay vineyards affected with a FD-like disease shows that no correlation can be made between the importance of the S. Arzone et al. transmission by feeding to healthy grapevines succeeded only in 1 attempt out of 100. Hot water treatments suppress the transmission to Chardonnay indicators. (a and b): Characterization of Italian periwinkle virescence (IPVR) MLO (obtained on bait periwinkle plants exposed in yellows-affected vineyards in Italy) is possible with DNA-DNA hybridization and PCR. Daire et al. It is more related to the agent of Elm yellows than to other yellows agents. Quacquarelli and Barba: Review of the distribution of flavescence dorée and other grapevine yellows in EEC viticultural countries. Boubals (a): Report on a meeting of the French working group on FD.: Description of MLOs and associated disorders in the phloem of FD-affected LN33 experimentally inoculated with S. Attempts to characterize MLO DNA extracted from insects with molecular methods. suggesting the presence of two different diseases at least in Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. titanus is not present. IPVR is related to aster yellows MLO. (a and b): Observations supporting the existence of different types of grapevine yellows in northern Italy.1992 Credi and Santucci: Of 628 attempts to transmit the agent of a yellows disease of grapevine from Sangiovese.: Construction of serological and molecular detection tools to MLO transmitted to periwinkle with dodder from a yellows-diseased grapevine in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (later 1992 1992 1992 1992 1992 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 141 . Caveccia and Chardonnay vines to periwinkle by the dodder species Cuscuta campestris.: First detection of FD-MLO DNA in grapevine extracts by DNA-DNA hybridization with DNA probes cloned from FD-MLO partially purified from experimentally infected plants (Vicia faba). S. Caudwell et al. However. One MLO strain transmitted with Macrosteles quadripunctulatus appears similar or close to aster yellows MLO. Typical symptoms on several cvs. Bianco et al. Boubals (b): A severe epidemic of grapevine yellows occurs in Golan (Israel). FD can be readily distinguished from Bois noir. genomic tests).
Classification of grapevine MLOs into three RFLP groups: elm yellows (FD from France). titanus is present in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region but no transmission assay has been successful. Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes: The trivial name MLO is replaced by the term phytoplasma as a consequence of the demonstration by diverse studies that the phytoplasmas represent a monophyletic clade of organisms more closely related to mollicutes than to walled bacteria. Di Terlizzi et al. (a and b): Various attempts to transmit FD-like disease in different regions of northern Italy. Detection in grapevines from Virginia (USA) of MLO related to X-disease. probably transmitted by another insect.: FD-ELISA method was used on tissues of yellows-affected grapevines from diverse countries. aster yellows and Xdisease. c and d): Grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit) are common in the Moselle and Rhine valley. titanus to test plants of cvs Perera and Chardonnay in Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB). FD detected in leaves of rootstock 3309C and is also present in samples from Veneto (Italy).: Six-year transmission trials of different types of yellows with S. FD belongs to the elm yellows group but is different from elm phytoplasmas. Positive assays obtained only on samples from France and Veneto. So.: Important outbreak of a yellows disease on local varieties in Apulia (southeastern Italy) and infection of periwinkle as bait plants and with dodder transmission. 1993 Daire et al. then GYU phytoplasma) and comparison of specificity and sensitivity of the latter tools to detect phytoplasmas in grapevines in New York and Italy. In northeastern Italy. Detection in non symptomatic V. titanus is not present. Maixner: Demonstration that Hyalesthes obsoletus (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae) is a vector of German grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit). 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 142 .called FDU. A third MLO related to X-disease of Prunus detected in a grapevine from New York (USA) and in a periwinkle carrying a grapevine MLO (FDI = FDU) transmitted through dodder in Udine (Italy). Only FD and BN have been identified in naturally affected grapevines. healthy plants protected with plastic screens did not develop symptoms and diseased plants protected with screens showed transient recovery. at least two different phytoplasmas are infecting grapevines in Veneto: FD sensu stricto (transmitted by S. graft and dodder. Computer analysis for spatial patterns of diffusion show a non-random distribution and suggest transmission from other vines or from weeds. Carraro et al. (a and b): PCR-RFLP analysis of 16S rDNA from MLOs show that 2 different MLOs at least occur in yellows-affected grapevines in France. on the effects of pollarding affected vines and of chemical sprays against vectors. Description of pathological changes in phloem of leaves and identification of senescent forms of MLO inside degenerate sieve elements. Daire: PhD thesis on detection and differentiation with DNA-based methods of the MLO agents of GY diseases in France. S. Osler et al. FD is related to elm yellows and BN is related to stolbur. using insects. Credi (a and b): Observation of MLO in yellows-affected grapevines in northern Italy. Prince et al. riparia in New York and failure of detection in some symptomatic grapevines in New-York and Italy. MLO appear to be in very low titre.: Diversity of MLOs associated with grapevine yellows and transmitted to periwinkle. Maixner (a. Girolami and Egger: Importance of contamination of vineyards and diffusion of Grapevine yellows in northern Italy. Electron microscopic observation of MLO in periwinkle and grapevine. Kuszala et al. GYU was later on characterized by other authors as a phytoplasma belonging to the Xdisease (16SrIII) group. S. A MLO has been transmitted to periwinkle with dodder. BN belongs to the stolbur group. Transmission has been obtained only from vines of Veneto. Specific probes cloned and specific primers designed for PCR amplification of phytoplasma DNA. b. titanus) and a second one. Experiments on the use of hot water treatment on planting material. BN (stolbur MLO) detected in several regions of Italy and in Israel.
The most frequent belonged to group 16SrI-G (later designated as 16SrXII or stolbur group). sometimes in mixed infection.: Survey of yellows symptoms in an ampelographic collection of 1281 cultivars in Conegliano (Veneto. Molecular detection of aster yellowsrelated phytoplasma. (a and b): Detection of a phytoplasma closer to aster yellows phytoplasma than to elm yellows phytoplasmas in GY-affected vines in Australia Sancassani and Posenato: Simultaneous presence of FD and of other yellows type in vineyards of Veneto.: Emphasis on the possible role of weeds as reservoir for MLO in vineyards. Boudon-Padieu (a and b): Reviews on knowledge and research on grapevine yellows. Haidar: First report of symptoms of yellows on grapevines in Lebanon. Laviña et al.: Presence of grapevine yellows in northern Portugal and electron microscopic visualization of MLOs in the phloem tissue of petioles of affected plants.: The phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows is close to but different from stolbur phytoplasma causing BN.: Presence and distribution of GY in Sicily.: MLOs associated to grapevine yellows in Virginia belong to 2 different groups : X-disease group (16SrIII) and aster yellows group (16SrI). Italy). 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 143 . Del Serrone et al. Prince et al. Padovan et al. Fortusini et al.: Four different phytoplasmas (FD. Maixner et al (b): Detection of a new phytoplasma type related to FD in cv Scheurebe showing symptoms of yellows in Palatinate (Germany). aster yellows. One grapevine out of 16 contained a 16SrV (= elm yellows) phytoplasma together with a 16SrI-G phytoplasma. The importance of proper identification of disease type for control measures is emphasized.: Six-year survey of evolution of yellows symptoms in a 6-12 year-old vineyard of cv Chardonnay that was never sprayed with insecticides. Double infection is reported.: Grapevines from Piemonte (northern Italy) contained several different phytoplasmas. Arzone et al. Alma et al. (a and b): Grapevine yellows in Latium (southwestern Italy) are not associated with S. Del Serrone and Barba (a and b): Monitoring of detection of phytoplasma in the organs of grapevine according to the vegetative state. obsoletus and in weeds growing in the vineyard in Germany. Consideration on possible resistance and research on interaction of phytoplasma with nepovirus infection. with the aim of identifying sources of tolerance or resistance to yellows diseases. (a): Specific detection with PCR of stolbur phytoplasma in grapevines affected with Vergilbungskrankheit. stolbur and apple proliferation) can be detected. Ten weeds were found harboring MLOs with transmission electron microscopy. Padovan et al. Related MLOs were also detected in wild grapevines.1994 1994 Parente et al. Maixner et al. Albanese et al. PCR detection of phytoplasma with universal primers. Murari et al. in grapevines with yellows symptoms in Soave (Veneto. Detection is also possible during winter on wood scrapings. in the vector H. titanus which has not been found.: Identification of BN (stolbur phytoplasma) in Spain. Italy). probably of Bois noir type. Egger et al. Koruza: Dispersal of grapevine yellows in Slovenia.
northern Italy. Aldini et al. Davis et al. Kölber et al. vectors and detection of the agents of Grapevine yellows. Tanne and Orenstein (a and b): Successful heterografting transmission of phytoplasma from symptomatic grapevine to periwinkle and easy subsequent identification of phytoplasma type. S. Murari et al. AY and X-disease related phytoplasmas have been transmitted and detected. Maixner et al.: Identification of Flavescence dorée in Spain. Del Serrone : A review in Italian on the knowledge on etiology. (b): Prospects on detection and identification of grapevine phytoplasmas with new molecular tools and consequence on future epidemiology studies. Borgo: Description and colour photographs of symptoms of grapevine yellows and knowledge on their aetiology and vectors.1996 1997 1997 1997 Rüdel: Review on the history and diversity of Vergilbungskrankheit of grapevine in Germany. S. No positive detection with PCR on the HW-treated vegetative progeny of mature canes of symptomatic plants. spread. Phytoplasma belonging to the stolbur subgroup have been identified. titanus is not present. titanus reported for the first time in this region. Among 32 species identified. Daire et al. Garau et al.: Survey of hoppers in vineyards of the province of Piacenza (Emilia Romagna. 10 species were known vectors of phytoplasmas. (b): Survey of possible auxiliaries for the biological control of leafhoppers and planthoppers in vineyards. titanus is not reported. Italy). Batlle et al. Boudon-Padieu and Maixner: Updating in French and English of present knowledge on grapevine yellows: etiology. The term phytoplasma will become the genus name of plant pathogenic mycoplasmas under the provisional taxonomic status Candidatus.: History and control of GY diseases in Italy. Presence of S. 10 are confirmed phytoplasma vectors. International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB). Maixner et al. No double infection has been found to occur. Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes: The taxonomy of phytoplasmas will refer to their molecular phylogeny. The possibilities of control 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 144 . Severe symptoms with high incidence on seven cultivars are reported from four grapevine-growing regions surveyed for 5 years (1993-1996).: Use of Hot water treatment (HWT) to eliminate phytoplasmas (FD and AY) from 3 cultivars of grapevine. (a): Description of available methods and strategies for detection of phytoplasmas in grapevine. (a): Only stolbur and FD phytoplasmas were detected in samples of yellows-affected grapevines from numerous regions of France and from Italy. Positive reaction with a DNA probe specific to aster yellows phytoplasmas.: Symptoms of grapevine yellows observed in Hungary in the early 1970's. transmission. Maixner and Reinert (a): Hot water treatment (HWT) of 50°C for 60 min applied to dormant mature canes eliminated Vergilbungskrankheit phytoplasma with a small loss in survival of the cuttings. Aster yellows and X-disease types were never detected. Among 29 species of Auchenorrhynchas from the vine canopy and weeds of the border.: Survey of leahoppers in vineyards of Piemonte. No epidemic outbreak has been observed. biology and control. Subclades are considered to represent the equivalent of distinct species.: Recurrent and severe yellows symptoms observed since the 1980's in Sardinia (Itlay) on several cultivars. Spain and Israel. Bosco et al. Belli et al.
Boudon-Padieu (b): Chapter in a Handbook on viral and bacterial diseases of the grapevine. Refatti et al. Sensitivity of assays must be good because of the low titre of phytoplasmas in affected plants. Reinert W.depend on the knowledge of the biology of phytopathogenic agents and of their vectors. FD-related phytoplasmas (elm yellows group) have been detected in grapevines from Treviso and Verona and transmitted from vine to vine using S. though S.: First report of the use of oligonucleotides for in situ hybridization with transmission electron microscopy to localize phytoplasma in plant cells. phytoplasmas can be classified into 14 groups and 38 subgroups. Grapevine phytoplasmas classify into different groups. FD is restricted to the north of Cataloña. obsoletus is rarely found in vineyards. titanus. Guadagnini et al. have shown that only stolbur group phytoplasma was consistently found. epidemiology of these diseases. Seemüller et al. 1998 Lee et al. Probes were antisense to stolbur specific sequences in the 16S rDNA and used on stolbur-infected periwinkle. Maixner: A review of thermotherapy to cure phytoplasma infected material. symptoms. are compulsory in France. Similar attemp with FD phytoplasma were not successful. Carraro et al. Batlle et al.: Monitoring grapevine yellows in North-eastern Italy and attempts to rationalize routine laboratory testing for the differentiation between FD and stolbur phytoplasmas. has been identified as a member of the X-disease group. Borgo et al. Maixner and Reinert: Updating in German of the research made in different countries on grapevine yellows diseases. Search for alternative vectors.: Report of positive detection of aster-yellows phytoplasma in grapevine fed with Metcalfa pruinosa and in the body of the insects used for transmission. with a particular reference to the work done in Germany. Lherminier et al. vector of FD.: Summary of the complex situation of GY in northeastern Italy. epidemiology and etiology of GYs in the world. In addition a phytoplasma (FDU=GYU) transmitted from GYaffected vines to Catharanthus roseus by means of dodder in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. No negative effect was observed on scion buds but rootstock cuttings were more sensitive to negative effects of the treatment. In the Veneto region only stolbur-group phytoplasma was recorded in some areas and both stolbur and elm yellows group phytoplasmas in other areas.: Phylogenetic studies of phytoplasmas associated to numerous plant diseases. Phytoplasmas for which 16S rDNA sequence is available have been classified into 20 major groups and subgroups. Survey with PCR of phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trento province (Italy) and in Slovenia. Boudon-Padieu: Review on recent progress in the knowledge on grapevine yellows. titanus is more widely distributed.: Unsatisfactory results on the use of hot water treatments to eliminate phytoplasmas from grapevine wood. Frausin et al.: A comprehensive review of the classification of phytoplasmas in the world. Firrao et al. according to the most recent studies on molecular structure of rDNA. History. 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 145 . Only FD and BN have been identified. nucleic acid hybridization and serological comparisons.: A review of the situation of GY in Spain. GY affect mainly the northern provinces. titanus. On the basis of RFLP of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Insecticide sprays against S. distribution in the world.: Evaluation on the efficiency and security of hot water treatment used to eradicate phytoplasmas from propagation material. and M. BN is very frequent but H. methods of detection of phytoplasmas in grapevine tissues and in insect vectors.: A history of GYs in north-eastern Italy.
A high rate of recovery is observed from one year to the next. 2000 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2003 146 . Seljak: A review of non-European hoppers introduced in Slovenia. Primers fitted for specific detection of these 3 phytoplasmas permit cheaper and quicker diagnosis. nitrate and nitrite reductase. Seljak and Petrovic: Overview on phytoplasma diseases of grapevine and fruit trees in Slovenia. Neoaliturus sp. Waite et al. Phytoplasmas were detected in all five species. Tanne et al. FD has not been identified. Circulifer sp. Dual infection may occur (13 %).2000 Moretti and Anaclerio: Evaluation of the effects of hot water treatment on the viability of grapevine cuttings of different varieties with different temperature / time combinations. Orenstein et al. Phytoplasmas seemed to disappear from the insect body after the transfer of insects to healthy plants. Crocker et al. Experimental evaluation of the method and application to field-trapped individuals of suspected vector species. Moretti et al. HWT (50°C/40 mn) gave acceptable survival but none of the conditions experimented provided a total elimination of phytoplasmas. Frosini et al. sugar metabolism. Boudon-Padieu: Updating of knowledge and research on grapevine yellows worldwide. Hyalesthes obsoletus has been found but not in vineyards. Plant variety and cutting diameter influence the rate of surviving cuttings. which are all known as vector of phytoplasmas.: A 2-year survey in Golan Heights. Quartau et al. Influence of rootstock on the rate of GY symptoms in the same vineyard and same grapevine variety. Bertamini and Nedunchezhian: Study of the effect of phytoplasma infection of field-grown plants of cv Chardonnay affected with Bois noir (stolbur phytoplasma) on the physiological response of plants: photosynthesis. titanus is widespread in western vineyards. Klein et al. Israel. Clair et al.: The presence of phytoplasmas in liquid medium on which insect vectors have been fed can account for potential vectorship of the species.: In Golan Heights (Israel) Hyalesthes obsoletus. suggesting that they did not multiply in the body of the insects. Osler and Refatti: The situation of GYs in northern Italy.: Development of a new technique with DNA chips to detect phytoplasmas in grapevine. although its vector S. (a): Presence of FD. Marzachi et al. The phytoplasma agents are not specified. The latter was difficult to evaluate because of the non homogenous distribution of phytoplasmas in canes.: Survey of GY in Israel.: Use of hot water treatment in commercial nurseries in Australia to eradicate diverse pests and pathogen agents from propagation material. Zahavi et al.: Recommandations for the organisation of nursery in Australia and handling of hot water treatment to avoid dehydration of cuttings during treatment.: Report of experiments combining temperature and time of treatment with hot water on 5 grapevine cultivars to cure planting material from phytoplasmas. confirmed the presence of three phytoplasmas associated to GY: stolbur (70%).: Scaphoideus titanus is present in Portugal.. Macrosteles quadripunctulatus and Orosius orientalis were found on weeds in vineyards or trapped on sticky traps. Bertaccini et al. aster yellows (11 %) and X-disease groups phytoplasmas.: Metcalfa pruinosa specimen reared in the laboratory may acquire FD and clover phyllody (aster yellows group) phytoplasmas by feeding on infected Vicia faba but feeding transmission to several plant species has not been obtained. BN and aster yelllows in vineyards of southeastern Piemonte (Italy).: Use of immersion in hot water (HWT) or in chemicals to suppress phytoplasmas from grapevine propagation material in Italy.
Discussion on benefits and limits of artificial feeding medium to assess the transmission capability of phytoplasma by insects. 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 147 . Recovery is a progressive phenonenon developing over 3 years in the case of BN. M'hirsi et al. Marzachi et al.: Identification of aster yellows (16SrI-B and C) and of ash yellows (16Sr-VII) related phytoplasmas associated to yellows of grapevine in Chile.: Grapevines affected with yellows are found free of phytoplasmas after recovery.: Important outbreak of grapevine yellows on cv Chardonnay and identification of a stolbur phytoplasma in diseased plants. in particular a clover phyllody type (16SrI-C) which is quite frequent. Milkus et al.: Measurements of basal respiration rate of grapevine dormant wood as an indicator of the best period for application of hot water treatment.: Report of severe symptoms of yellows on numerous grapevine varieties in Serbia and observation of organisms resembling phytoplasmas in sieve tubes of affected shoots collected in the Zupa area.: Survey of potential vectors of phytoplasmas in vineyards of the Golan Heights.: Important presence of GY in Abruzzo (central Italy).: Report of stolbur phytoplasmas in grapevine affected with yellows in Albania.: Improvement of detection of FD and BN in field-grown grapevines with real-time PCR. D'Ascenzo et al. Orenstein et al. Hyalesthes obsoletus and Circulifer haematoceps abundant and positive for stolbur and aster yellows phytoplasmas. Megophthalmus scabripennis positive for aster yellows phytoplasma. Gajardo et al. stolbur phytoplasmas are suspected to occur because of long-lasting record of stolbur disease on many host plants in Serbia. Consequently roguing of affected vines should be avoided when possible and especially if vectors are controlled.2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 Boudon-Padieu et al. fitted to routine detection. Osler et al. rapidity and sensitivity of methods for use in routine diagnosis of grapevine phytoplasmas. Crocker et al. Leitner: The situation of Grapevine yellows in Austria is now surveyed by means of molecular detection assays. No important damage has been reported. Other phytoplasmas are reported. Neoaliturus fenestratus.. Clair et al.: Report of aster yellows phytoplasmas in grapevine affected with yellows in Tunisia. Apart from FD phytoplasma reported by Duduk et al.: Development of a sensitive PCR procedure for dual identification of FD and BN phytoplasmas. Lessio et al. titanus found associated to grapevine yellows with a high incidence in vineyards of Rastina (South Serbia). Duduk et al. respectively. two nonpreferentially ampelophagous vectors of grapevine phytoplasmas.: Flight activity of Scaphoideus titanus and Hyalesthes obsoletus and their infection status towards FD and BN (stolbur) phytoplasma. Kuzmanovic et al. Ge and Maixner (a): Transmission to feeding medium is more efficient than transmission to natural host plants and to grapevine for Hyalesthes obsoletus and Oncopsis alni. BN (stolbur phytoplasma) has an incidence of about 30 %. Study of the spatial and temporal dispersion of the four species. (a and b): FD phytoplasma (16S rV-C) and S. An aster yellows phytoplasma is suspected. Tassart-Subirats et al. Chabbouh et al. Myrta et al.: Data on 15-year studies on efficiency and effect on propagation material of hot water treatment.: Identification of grapevine yellows symptoms in Tunisia and attempts to identify pathogen agent and vector.: Compared efficiency.
isolated infected vines have been identified in northern vineyards of Burgundy and Alsace. extremely sensitive varieties do not recover. Feeding transmission starts after a 4-week latency in the body of the vector.) using S. Infected rootstocks are important means of dissemination because they are symptomless. Several isolates have been characterized with molecular criteria. Cicadellidae). It is widespread in all northern provinces of Italy and an outbreak was recently reported from southern Serbia. Infected buds or graftwood may be collected from symptomless parts of infected mother vines or from recently infected vines that have not yet developed symptoms. littoralis Ball) (Homoptera. titanus individuals collected in infected vineyards of south-western France. Eggs are laid in summer on two-year old wood and trunk. Lignification of the canes is usually incomplete. this way of spreading is significant when infected grafted plants are planted in vineyards hosting the vector. In addition. that has colonized a wide climatic area. symptoms may be limited to a few shoots. titanus. then as a virus disease. Infected rootstocks show little or no symptoms. It is also present in regions from which FD has not been reported in France. littoralis Ball). decline progressively and die. Vineyards in these areas are under the threat of an FD outbreak that could occur if FDinfected planting material is introduced.GRAPEVINE YELLOWS: INDIVIDUAL DISEASES A. Transmission: The FD agent is transmitted in the persistent mode by the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball (= S. In France. If the plants are inoculated after recovery. and western Slovenia. FD88. FD is endemic only in regions where S. introduced into Europe at the beginning of the 20th century. FLAVESCENCE DORÉE 1. However. symptoms affect the whole plant. rooted cuttings from infected canes of a few rootstock varieties can develop "vinifera-like" symptoms on the wood and leaves. Diseased vines have a patchy distribution in the plot. the term "FD sensu stricto" was applied to diseases and phytoplasmas that are transmitted by S. Description Flavescence dorée (FD) was the first Grapevine yellows (GY) disease to be reported. It was described in a limited area in north-eastern Cataluña (Spain). titanus is well established. with an incidence that increases rapidly from one year to the next. S. Most of the time. and Savoie. Agents: FD was first regarded as a physiological disorder. Moreover. Though the rate of transmission by bench grafting can be very low. Affected vines of most varieties may recover in the second year when they are protected against reinoculation with insecticide treatments. Isolates F70. it occurs in all southern vine-growing regions. titanus. Leaves persist longer on affected plants. After the discovery of other GY diseases. Two isolates denoted FD-D and FD-C. Molecular comparisons have shown that all these isolates are more closely related among them than with other phytoplasma strains in the same group. Phytoplasma acquisition by all insect instars (larvae and nymphs) may occur from infected vines at any time from the beginning of hatching (usually in the beginning of May) throughout the growing season. However. were characterized in Italy and shown to be transmitted also by S. Crop losses may be very high. Hence. Transmission occurs also by vegetative propagation and grafting. First symptoms may 149 . transmission is possible from early June (about one month after the beginning of hatching) until the death of adults. This leafhopper is a neartic species specialized on Vitis sp. titanus is a univoltine species that overwinters at the egg stage and develops from May to September on grapevine leaves with 5 aerial apterous larval instars followed by alate nymphs that feed on the leaf veins and petioles and on green shoots. Symptoms develop on leaves and shoots in June and July to become oustanding in August and autumn. Main symptoms: It is believed that vines that show symptoms for the first time in a vegetative season had been infected in the previous summer. FD88. The associated phytoplasma (= MLO) was observed in phloem tissue of affected plants and in insect vectors in 1971 and later classified in the Elm yellows group (16SrV). These isolates could be distinguished by Western-blot analysis using FD antisera and monoclonal antibodies (Mabs). indicating a vine-to-vine transmission. Scaphoideus titanus Ball (= S. Switzerland. Corsica. southern Italy. FD92 and FD-D could not be distinguished from one another. north of Spain and Portugal. FD92 and FD2000 were experimentally transmitted to broadbean (Vicia faba L. It is highly epidemic and extremely dangerous because of the biology and ethology of its leafhopper vector. show a general asymmetric bent posture and necrosis of terminal bud.
Detection: FD symptoms can be confused with those of other GYs and also with other diseases or disorders. Polyclonal antisera and Mabs have been raised to FD phytoplasma. although heavily infected vines can be observed. at the beginning of July. Italy and Spain are susceptible with various degrees of sensitivity. Standard conditions (50°C for 45 min) proved highly efficient for sanitizing infected rootstocks and grapevine cultivars. its area of origin. Antigen extraction from vascular tissue of symptomatic grapevines requires the use of high Tris molarity and strong detergents in the extraction buffer. Chardonnay. a DNA fragment specific to BN (stolbur) phytoplasma can be used for the survey and monitoring of these two GY diseases. Sauvignon blanc. Monitoring natural enemies of S. has become the preferred detection method because it is easy to perform and was improved in reliability and sensitivity. sensitive amplification with nested PCR of the DNA fragment FD9. Material from mother plants that have developed symptoms in the following growing season. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: All varieties grown in the various FD-affected regions in France. Detection with laboratory methods is possible on insect vectors and infected vines. In France and Italy. In France and Italy budwood can be taken only from mother plants growing in plots that have shown no GY symptoms for the last two growing seasons. roguing of diseased vines is advisable when the epidemic pressure is high. Cabernet Sauvignon. Bois noir (BN) is also frequent in regions inhabited by this leafhopper. Nevertheless. Ugni blanc (Trebbiano) and Prosecco are sensitive varieties that may recover when they are protected from new inoculations. which is specific for 16SrV-group phytoplasmas allowed the reliable detection of FD phytoplasma in grapevine. Simultaneous amplification in a multiplex procedure of both FD9 and Stol11. Roguing is compulsory in France. Other varieties. The first treatment is applied 30 days after first instar emergence at the beginning of the period of potential transmission. control measures are compulsory according to legal regulations. are currently under development. Soaking of dormant material in hot water (HW) is recommended. Nested PCR and RFLP analysis of selected fragments of the 16S rDNA permit the characterization of any phytoplasma and especially to differentiate FD from BN. such as Merlot. have been found carrying FD phytoplasma until recently. titanus. Planting material must not be collected from mother vines in areas or vineyards affected by the disease. An indirect DAS-ELISA using coating of wells with rabbit polyclonal antisera and detection with a cocktail of several Mabs. appear more tolerant. The low rate of transmission by grafting and the long delay in symptom expression make the detection of infected vines in planting material difficult. whereas the third treatment. Recently. Indirect control is obtained by insecticide treatments against S. Nielluccio and Garganega are very sensitive varieties that usually do not recover after infection. The same is true for American rootstocks which can therefore be dangerous sources of infection and dissemination of the disease. In 2003 a phytoplasma resembling the FD-C isolate was found in wild Clematis in Veneto (Italy). Symptoms are rare in Syrah. has been used as the official method for large scale survey of FD in France from 1993 to 2003. Grenache. such as real-time PCR or identification of PCR-amplified product with DNA-DNA hybridization using specific probes. 150 . at the beginning of August. The presence of S. Control: FD is a quarantine organism in the EC. Other DNA-based methods. Under these circumstances only chemical insecticides are efficient for eradication of the disease. Other host plants: No host plants other than Vitis sp. is directed against winged adults migrating from nearby vineyards or wild vines. Sequence or RFLP analysis of the FD9 DNA fragment permit to readily differentiate all the known FD isolates. Molecular detection by PCR of selected phytoplasma DNA fragments. Their rearing is still under development. Planting of HW treated material is especially important in areas where the vector is present. and the risk of disease spreading important. titanus in an affected vineyard is an important indication that may lead to suspect a FD infection. has allowed the identification of potential auxiliaries for biological control. must be destroyed. Vitis riparia can be infected but shows little symptoms. In spite of the possibility of recovery. The second treatment. aims at killing newly hatched insects. Alicante Bouschet. Natural insecticides can be used to preventively limit vector populations but their efficiency is limited in epidemic outbreaks. Two additional treatments are applied during summer. titanus in New York State (USA).appear on young vines as late as four years after grafting.
littoralis. considered as a virus disease. The disease can be transmitted by grafting and has probably a viral aetiology. Caudwell: The disease is denoted Flavescence dorée (FD) in agreement with the name proposed by Levadoux (1955) because of the golden yellow metallic aspect of the leaves. S. Vidano: S. Caudwell et al.: Field tests for insecticide control of S. evolution of the disease in space and time. Use of 4-5 treatments with DDT or parathion and removal or destruction of pruning wood older that two years. Description of macroscopic and microscopic symptoms. Caudwell: Study of the phenomenon of recovery of FD-affected vines. littoralis in Corsican vineyards with winter treatment of dormant eggs with oleoparathion. Study of the role in the aetiology of FD of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLO) observed in insect vectors and in inoculated grapevine and V. Caudwell et al. Baggiolini et al. littoralis recorded from in Italy in 1963. Bonfils and Schvester: Relationships of leafhoppers with FD of grapevine in western France. Caudwell: PhD thesis on FD. Caudwell and Poitou: Study of the interaction between fanleaf and FD. littoralis is present. Immersion in lukewarm water (30°C) for 72 h of cuttings from FD-affected grapevines reduced the proportion of infected plants by about 83 % as compared with untreated control. littoralis. Caudwell et al.: Studies on the survival of S.: First report of S. (a): Control of FD by insecticide treatments against the vector. faba plants. Recovered vines may be infected again but the symptoms are lighter. Boubals and Caudwell: FD epidemics observed in Corsica. an insect recently introduced from North America. The aetiology is unknown.: Successful transmission of FD to herbaceous hosts by increasing the feeding access period of the vector S. Schvester et al. littoralis. (b): Biology of S. Description of the insect. Branas (a and b): The new disease is thought to be caused by root damage. littoralis in its area of origin in North America. Schvester et al. (a). Historical review 1955 1956 1957 Levadoux: Description of an outbreak of "Flavescence dorée" on Baco 22A in southwestern France. biology and feeding damage and of the symptoms of FD in France on Baco 22A. Spontaneous recovery occurs after a 1-2 year crisis period. 1960 1960 1961 1961 1962 1962 1963 1964 1964 1966 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1971 1972 151 . littoralis. Description and study of recovery phenomenon and of localised symptoms.: Demonstration that FD is transmitted by the leafhopper S. S. littoralis on plants other than the grapevine and transmission trials of FD to other host plants. littoralis. Vidano: Study of the ecology and biology of S. No positive results of transmission trials with 15 species of Hemiptera (mainly Cicadellidae) other than S. Caudwell: Attempts to inhibit the agent of FD in vivo by heat treatment. littoralis from Ticino (southern Switzerland). Schvester et al. Caudwell et al. First report that abandoned or wild vines may be a source of infection. Schvester et al. Carle and Moutous: Study on possible secondary or alternative vectors of FD or Bois noir (BN). (a): Possibility to limit the populations of S. littoralis Ball.2.
1972 1972 1973 1974 1975 1977 1977 1978 1979 1982
Caudwell et al. (c): Transmission of FD from Vicia faba to V. faba by leafhoppers of the genera Euscelis and Euscelidius and from V. faba to grapevine by S. littoralis. Caudwell et al. (d): Different damage caused by leafhoppers in vineyards and specific control of S. littoralis. Belli et al.: A disease similar to FD observed in vineyards of Oltrepò Pavese since 1968. Caudwell et al.: Research on liquid media to preserve and cultivate MLO agents of FD. Use of the infectivity test to evaluate MLO survival or multiplication. Osler et al.: S. littoralis found in vineyards of Oltrepò pavese affected with a FD-type disease. Caudwell and Larrue: Rearing of colonies of healthy and MLO-infected leafhoppers. Moutous et al.: Results of ovicide treatments against S. littoralis. Caudwell et al.: Successful transmission with S. littoralis of the Corsican GY, thus identified as the same disease as FD. Caudwell and Larrue: The problem of FD in France in relation with sanitary selection of grapevine planting material. Caudwell et al.: Use of serology for detecting FD MLOs by immunosorbent electron microscopy. Antisera raised to MLOs extracted from E. variegatus are used to trap MLOs in extracts from V. faba. Belli et al.: Presence of S. titanus (= S. littoralis) in vineyards of the Veneto (northern Italy) and spread of FD in this region. Anonymous: An important outbreak of FD observed in South France since the beginning of the 1980's. The situation is critical. Belli et al. (a): FD, which was reported in Italy for the first time in 1973, is now spreading northeast in the Veneto region. The vector S. titanus is abundantly present. Belli et al. (b): Problems of identification of FD in Veneto (Italy) and correlation with the presence of the vector. Bagard and Felici: The situation of FD in Corsica is very serious. Boudon-Padieu and Larrue: ELISA detection of FD MLO is possible in leafhopper vectors reared in the laboratory and in S. littoralis individuals trapped in FD-affected vineyards. Positive insects were found in South-eastern France. Kuszala: Injection of MLO-enriched extracts into the body of Euscelidius variegatus is used for evaluating the infectivity of the extracts. Males are better vectors than females. Agulhon and Laurent: Biology and spread of Scaphoideus titanus (= S. littoralis) in vineyards of the south of France. Borgo (a and b): Study on the susceptibility and tolerance of grapevine cultivars in Veneto. Boudon-Padieu et al. (a and b): Development of serological assays (ELISA, Immunofluorescence and Western-blotting) for the detection and characterization of FDantigens in infected leahopper vectors. Caudwell et al.: Present knowledge on the biology, aetiology and diagnosis of FD MLO. Pavan et al.: Dynamics of the populations of S. titanus in Veneto. Planas: Report on field trials to control FD and its vector in South France.
1984 1985 1985 1985 1986 1986
1986 1987 1987 1987
1987 1987 1987
1987 1989 1989
Seljak: Presence of S. titanus in Slovenia (western Yugoslavia). Anonymous: Compared efficiency of various insecticides in the control of S. titanus. Boudon-Padieu et al. (a and b): Polyclonal antisera raised to FD MLO maintained in the laboratory permit detection in infective S. titanus individuals from affected vineyards. Description of the infection cycle of the MLO in the body of the experimental vector E. variegatus. Du Fretay et al.: Satisfactory control of the vector of FD in 1988 in South France. Fortusini et al.: Successful transmission of FD to grapevine cuttings using S. titanus in Italy. Laurent and Agulhon: 1989. Comprehensive review of the situation and evolution of FD and the vector leafhopper in French wine-growing regions. Lherminier et al.: In situ detection of FD MLO in salivary glands of infective Euscelidius variegatus leafhoppers with immunofluorescence. Schwartz: PhD thesis on the production, screening and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the FD-MLO. Boudon-Padieu et al.: Serological differentiation between FD-MLO and Phy-MLO, an agent causing phyllody in V. faba plants, transmitted in the laboratory by Euscelidius variegatus leafhoppers. Caudwell et al.: Hot water treatment to disinfect grapevine wood from FD-MLO. Lherminier et al. (a and b): The use of immunolabeling in the electron microscope to detect and localize MLO in plants and insects with specific polyclonal antibodies. Arzone et al.: Electron microscopic observation of MLO in sieve elements of Chardonnay and Perera grapevines showing FD symptoms, in clover (T. repens) inoculated with S. titanus fed on infected grapevines and in salivary glands of the leafhopper. Cazenove and Planas: Attempts to obtain a satisfactory control of S. titanus with natural insecticides used in biological agriculture. Anonymous: Recommendations for control of FD in biological wine-growing. Combination of winter treatments with white oil and removing of pruning wood to suppress eggs. Caudwell and Kuszala: ELISA detection of FD MLO in affected grapevines. The method requires extraction of proteins with a strong detergent. DAS ELISA is developed with polyclonal rabbit antiserum as coating antibodies and a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies as detecting antibodies. Daire et al.: Random cloning of FD-MLO DNA and selection of specific probes for detection of FD MLO with DNA-DNA hybridization. Detection in field-infected grapevines is possible only on DNA extracted from a MLO-enriched fraction. Jermini et al.: In spite of the presence in Ticino (Switzerland) of S. titanus in vineyards and nurseries, FD does not seem to occur. Lozzia: A review of the presence, biology and control of S. titanus in Italy. Meignoz et al.: Electron microscopic study of the cytopathogenic effects of FD-MLO in experimentally infected cuttings of LN33. Osler et al.: S. titanus fed on yellows-diseased grapevines in northern Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia), test positive to FD-antibodies raised in France. Caudwell et al.: Positive indexing of rootstocks showing latent FD infection and erratic distribution of the pathogen in the material. Sanitation of rootstocks with hot water treatment (50°C for 45 mn).
1989 1989 1989 1989 1989 1990
1990 1990 1991
1991 1992 1992
1992 1992 1992 1992 1993
Daire et al. (a and b): Diversity among MLOs inducing GY diseases in France and other countries, shown with PCR-RFLP analysis of rDNA. FD shows the same pattern as elm yellows MLO. BN is related to stolbur MLO. FD MLO was detected in samples from France and Veneto (Italy). Jermini et al.: Assessment of the optimal number and disposition of sticky traps to evaluate the importance of S. titanus populations in the vineyard. Lefol: PhD thesis on recognition between the FD-MLO and the organs of the experimental leafhopper vector Euscelidius variegatus. Lefol et al.: Development of the "double-dot" method and a derived procedure in the transmission electron microscope to identify the sites of attachment of the FD-MLO on insect organs in vector and non-vector insect species. Maixner et al.: Study of S. titanus in New York and its possible relationship to an American GY. S. titanus transmitted a yellows disease to 29% of Vicia faba plants. FD antibodies raised in France tested positive on 13% of American S. titanus individuals. Seddas et al. (a and b): Immunoaffinity purification of FD-MLO from infected experimental vectors. Carraro et al.: Demonstration with transmission trials using S. titanus, ELISA and PCR analyses, that FD sensu stricto is present in Veneto and not in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, though S. titanus is also present in the vineyards of the latter region. Caudwell et al.: Identification of latent FD infection in several rootstock varieties, including 3309 Couderc and Fercal. The rate of graft transmission to scion depends on the infection status of mother vines and could reach 80 %. Farmer and Boudon-Padieu: Cloning of FD-MLO DNA, construction of an expression library and screening with FD antibodies allowed the selection of three inserts carrying information for FD membrane proteins. Lefol et al.: Route and multiplication of the FD-MLO in the body of experimentally infected Euscelidius variegatus. All main organs were infected, except for germinal cells. Lherminier et al.: Use of ELISA and immunolabeling by transmission electron microscopy for studying the distribution and movement of FD-MLO in the experimental host plant Vicia faba. Seddas: PhD thesis on the production and use of monoclonal antibodies to identify the main antigens of FD-MLO and obtain highly purified fractions of the infectious agent from vector insects and herbaceous host plants. Bertaccini et al.: Presence of phytoplasmas of two types, sometimes in double infections, in severely GY-affected grapevines in Liguria (North-western Italy). One type is related to elm yellows phytoplasma and the other to IPVR phytoplasma, shown later on to belong to the stolbur group. Seddas et al.: Immunoaffinity purified FD phytoplasmas appear as whole cells in ISEM. Experimental vectors (E. variegatus) injected with purified fractions of FD phytoplasma supported its multiplication and were able to feed-inoculate V. faba seedlings. Alma et al.: In Piemonte, several phytoplasmas were identified in yellows-affected grapevines. A 16SrV (= elm yellows) phytoplasma was detected in a double infection with a 16SrI-G phytoplasma. Phytoplasmas of the latter group (later renamed 16SrXII = stolbur) were the more numerous. Bianco et al. (a and b): Elm yellows-related (16SrV) phytoplasmas are present only in the Vicenza and Arezzo provinces of northern Italy. Two different RFLP patterns can be distinguished, suggesting the existence of two strains of FD phytoplasma, one of which is similar to the French strain.
1993 1993 1993
1994 1994 1994
: First report of FD outbreak in northern Cataluña (Spain). FD is not present in southern Italy. Caudwell et al. (a and b): Demonstration of curing effect of hot water treatment on FD-affected plant material. according to the severity of the FD epidemics. Marcone et al.: Monoclonal antibodies raised to immunoaffinity purified FD phytoplasmas.: A phytoplasma of the 16SrI (aster yellows) group is detected in eggs. Infection is rapidly spreading to the east. The possible role of six species in the transmission of GY is discussed. Kuszala: Specific ELISA procedures to detect FD or BN phytoplasmas in extracts from diseased grapevines from the field. Jermini and Baillod: Combination of visual observation of instar larvae and trapping of adults on sticky traps to monitor the populations of S. Increase and spread to other cultivars. Several different peptides from membrane proteins are identified by Western-blot. Pavan et al. Bianco et al. Bosco et al. FD has not been identified. titanus in Italy. (a and b): Evolution of FD in the Treviso province (Veneto. Martini et al.: Verification of hot water treatment conditions to suppress FD phytoplasma infection in dormant wood of grapevine. The biological significance of this finding is unknown. Transmission by grafting is studied. Three different RFLP patterns at least are shown in FD isolates from France. Control recommendations. Daire et al. Lherminier and Boudon-Padieu: Use of transmission electron microscopy with in situ immunolabeling to detect FD phytoplasma in grapevine and herbaceous host plants. Posenato et al.: In spite of the presence and rapid spread of S. the eggs of S.: Monitoring of leafhoppers in vineyards in Italy. nymphs and adults of S. Serological relationships with elm yellows phytoplasma is confirmed Alma et al. titanus reared on healthy plants. Numerous species identified. Clerc et al. Survey of hemipters in the vineyard and presence of other known phytoplasma vector species. Rousseau: A review of different ways to reduce the populations of S. Mori et al. 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1999 1999 2000 2000 155 . especially Prosecco in the period 1993-1996. The possibility that direct inoculations have occurred in nursery is discussed.1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 Borgo: The first occurrence of FD sensu stricto in the province of Treviso (northern Italy) was reported in the 1980's. titanus in the canton of Geneva (Switzerland). Seddas et al.: First report of S.: Development of specific PCR primers for the detection of FD or BN phytoplasmas. Batlle et al. Belli et al. The amplified FD9 fragment is specific and variable among 16SrV (elm yellows) group phytoplasmas. First outbreak in the 1980's on cv Perera.: Important outbreak of FD in Lombardia (northern Italy). titanus in north-eastern Italy where vines are trained in the pergola system. In the same conditions.: RFLP studies of 16SrV phytoplasmas. titanus in biological viticulture. Italy).: Insecticide control of S. titanus in Switzerland. Spain and Italy. titanus laid in the bark were killed. (a and b): Situation of FD and S. Vindimian et al.: Demonstration that two isolates of FD sensu stricto (FD-D and FD-C) are spreading in Veneto (Italy). titanus in Trentino (Italy).
Boudon-Padieu (a): Description, biology, spread, FD-transmission and control of S. titanus. Clair et al.: Design of internal nucleotides on the specific DNA fragment FD9 to be used as primers in nested-PCR for improving sensitivity of detection of elm yellows (16SrV) phytoplasmas in FD-affected grapevine or in elms affected with yellows in France. Cravedi and Aldini: Biology of S. titanus in Oltrepò pavese (Italy), a region affected by a severe outbreak of FD since 1999. Morone et al.: Occurrence of FD in Piemonte (northern Italy) since 1998. Roure: The situation of FD in France. Compulsory control (insecticide sprays and roguing of affected vines) on 300 000 ha. Scattini et al.: Important spread of FD in Lombardia (Italy) in cv Sangiovese. Angelini et al.: Phylogenetic comparison of FD isolates from France and Italy among them and other 16SrV (elm yellows) strains. One isolate from France (FD92 = FD88) and one from Italy (FD-D) are widespread and identical. Bianco et al.: S. titanus in northern Italy can transmit different grapevine isolates of 16SrV (elm yellows) phytoplasmas. Credi et al.: Detection of FD in grapevine samples from the provinces of Piacenza, Parma, Reggio Emilia and Modena in Emilia Romagna (Italy). Davis and Dally: A new 16S rDNA sequence of FD is produced and it is proposed that FD phytoplasmas are placed in two distinct subgroups. However, further work has shown that the 1994 original sequence was erroneous (see Angelini et al., 2003a). Harrison et al.: An elm yellows (16SrV) group phytoplasma close to the Italian isolate FD-C is detected in Virginia creeper plants (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) in southern Florida (USA). It is the first time that a phytoplasma resembling a FD phytoplasma is found in a plant species other than Vitis sp. Marzachi et al. (b): Development of a PCR strategy for large scale detection of FD phytoplasma in plants and insects. Pasquini et al.: Harmonization of procedures for diagnosis of FD in Italy. Quartau et al.: Presence of S. titanus in Portugal. Alma: A review of the distribution and biology of S. titanus in Italy. Bianco et al.: Development of a specific TaqMan® assay for detection of FD phytoplasmas. Borgo and Angelini: Spread of FD in Italy and the situation of mother vines and cultural practice. Boudon-Padieu: Present knowledge on the epidemiology, aetiology and diagnosis of FD. Credi et al. (b): Presence of FD in the Marche region (central Italy). Martini et al.: Further comparisons between FD phytoplasma isolates from France and Italy. Mori et al.: Positive transmission of the two Italian FD isolates (FD-D and FD-C) by S. titanus. Posenato et al.: Efficiency of various insecticides to destroy nymphs of S. titanus and Metcalfa pruinosa. Viggiani: Presence of S. titanus in the Basilicata region (southern Italy).
2000 2000 2000 2000 2001
2001 2001 2001
2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002 2002
Angelini et al.: Use of Heteroduplex Mobility Assay and full sequencing on two genomic DNA fragments (ribosomal and non ribosomal) to further study the relationships between FD isolates and related 16SrV (elm yellows) group phytoplasmas. Bianco et al. (b): Presence of FD-D and FD-C isolates of FD phytoplasma in Lombardia (northern Italy). Botti and Bertaccini: Molecular variability between FD phytoplasma isolates using the 16S rRNA gene, the ribosomal protein operon and the FD9 DNA fragment. Distinction between epidemic and non epidemic isolates. Bressan et al.: An attempt to identify a pattern of seasonal transmission of FD, taking into account the transmission efficiency of S. titanus, the pattern of symptom expression by infected grapevines, the emergence of nymphs of S. titanus and the importance of vector population and diseased grapevines. Cavallini et al.: Presence of FD together with BN in the area of Modena (north central Italy). Clair et al.: A multiplex nested-PCR procedure for easy simultaneous diagnosis of FD and BN. The method is now the official method registered in the Official Journal of the French Republic to be used by laboratories in the frame of compulsory control of FD in vineyards. Constable and Boudon-Padieu: Isolation of FD phytoplasma chromosome in Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis and first physical map for two FD isolates. De Sousa et al.: Identification of FD-D phytoplasma in S. titanus specimen trapped in Portugal. No description of FD-affected grapevines. Duduk et al. (a and b). Identification of FD in southern Serbia and presence of S. titanus. The phytoplasma isolate is similar to FD-C. Malausa et al.: Search for natural enemies of S. titanus in New York with the scope of their introduction in France as biological control auxiliaries. Nusillard et al. Results of a 2-year study in North America of the natural enemies of S. titanus. Santinelli et al.: Presence of S. titanus in Umbria (central Italy). Torres et al. The situation of FD in Spain. Confirmation that only FD-D is present. Angelini et al.: A phytoplasma identical to FD-C isolate is found in wild Clematis in the vicinity of a FD-C affected vineyard in Veneto (Italy). Lessio and Alma: Study of the distribution of S. titanus within a vineyard and use of chromatic sticky traps. Abundance is greater in normal- than in low-density planted vineyards. S. titanus is monophagous. Leafhoppers are not able to spread significantly outside a vineyard. Females are less likely to fly far away than males.
2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004
B. BOIS NOIR (VERGILBUNGSKRANKHEIT, LEGNO NERO) 1. Description Bois noir (BN) and related diseases are Grapevine yellows (GY) known in Europe and Asia Minor. The first observations in Eastern France date back to the early 1940's. BN was formally described in 1961 in comparison with Flavescence dorée (FD), because symptoms were similar. It was assumed that the two diseases were different because BN occurred in regions where the vector of FD was not present and experimental transmission with S. titanus was not successful. Because the vector insect, Hyalesthes obsoletus, does not live on vines, affected plants are usually not grouped into patches as with FD, except for situations where a high percentage of affected plants is observed. Nevertheless, distribution is non-random and spread follows a main direction or is preferentially along the border of the plot. BN has been identified in all wine-growing regions of western and eastern Europe, in Israel, Lebanon and recently in the Ukraine.
Main synonyms: The syndrome named Vergilbungskrankheit (VK) (1971) or Schwarzholzkrankheit (SHK) (2003) in Germany, Legno nero (LN) in Italy, Bois noir in Spain, has been occasionally described under the name of Flavescence dorée-like disease. Moreover, it has been sometimes confused with FD in the 1970's and 1980's. It is only since the 1990's that the aetiology was established and that it was shown that the agents of these diseases in the different countries were similar or closely related. Furthermore, the same vector insect species, H. obsoletus, has been identified in all countries, except for Spain where it appears to be very rare. Main symptoms: All the main symptoms typical of GY can be found in BN / VK / LN - infected grapevines. In addition to leaf discoloration, growth abnormalities can be observed on canes and roots. Usually, only a few canes per plant show typical symptoms with either an uneven or a total lack of lignification. On whiteberried varieties, yellow banding develops along the veins which may undergo necrosis. On red-berried varieties, sectorial reddening of blades develops in summer and progressively invades the whole leaf. When berries develop they remain immature, greenish and eventually fall down. Remaining berries are tasteless and sour. Internodes often show longitudinal rows of brown pustules along the green bark of unripe wood. Severely affected vines decline and may die after a few years. Some vines may recover or express irregular symptoms in successive years. Agents: The phytoplasmas associated to these diseases belong to the stolbur group (16SrXII), a group that was for some time considered by some to be the I-G subgroup of the larger Aster yellows group (16SrI). Although stolbur phytoplasmas are ubiquitous pathogens, known to infect solanaceous crops as well as many weeds and bushes, only a limited number of strains have been identified. Hence the different names of BN disease appear to be more geographically than genetically significant. Transmission: Vergilbungskrankheit (= Schwarzholzkrankheit) was the first disease for which the vector was identified. The known vector insect of stolbur of tomato, H. obsoletus (Homoptera, Cixiidae) can transmit stolbur phytoplasma to grapevine, but this occurs during feed probing as the insect does not keep feeding on grapevine. Hence, vine-to-vine transmission does not occur. The role of H. obsoletus has been confirmed in France, in Italy and Israel. In Spain, where the species is rare, its role in BN epidemiology must be verified. Alternative vectors have been suspected but not demonstrated. H. obsoletus is a univoltine polyphagous species that overwinters as larval instars that live on the roots of host plants. Nymph emerge in spring and transmission occurs during adult mating flights. Overall, the presence of insects on vines may last a couple of months. Eggs are laid during summer on the ground at the base of the stem of host plants. Main host plants of the insect vector are common weeds such as Convolvulus arvensis, Ranunculus sp., Urtica dioica, Cardaria draba and Calystegia sepium. However, only C. arvensis and U. dioica were found consistently infected with stolbur phytoplasma, distinct isolates of which were identified in these hosts. From 10 to 80% of trapped populations of the vector may test positive for the presence of stolbur phytoplasma. Transmission by grafting is possible but only at a low rate. Since acquisition by the vector from infected vines does not seem possible, the significance of graft transmission on the spread of the disease is probably very low. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: In the different affected regions and countries, numerous cultivars of V. vinifera were found susceptible to the stolbur phytoplasma, cv Chardonnay being the most sensitive. The increasing incidence of BN has been related to the increase of surfaces planted with Chardonnay in the last decade in all countries. Infection of rootstock varieties has not been reported. In all varieties there is a proportion of affected grapevines that undergo transitory recovery or remission, while other plants in the same plot are tolerant or immune to infection. Other host plants: Stolbur phytoplasma is widespread, and has a wide host range. In addition to C. arvensis, U. dioica, Ranunculus sp., C. draba and C. sepium, shrubs and trees of Prunus spp., solanaceaous crops (tomato, tobacco, pepper, egg plant) and lavender (Lavandula spp.) may be significant reservoirs. Detection: The use of monoclonal antibodies raised to stolbur phytoplasma did not show enough sensitivity for routine ELISA detection in field-grown infected grapevines. Detection is achieved mainly with PCR assays or PCR-RFLP analyses of DNA from infected host plants and insect vectors. Most often, nested PCR is necessary for sensitive detection from infected grapevines. Universal primers were first used to detect both BN and FD in areas where the two diseases may coexist. Subsequent RFLP analyses of amplified phytoplasma rDNA permit the characterization of pathogens. Stolbur specific primers have also been designed, either on variable regions of the rRNA gene or on selected specific non-ribosomal
Nienhaus et al. Though pruning does not cure infected vines. Rumbos et al. S. except for declining vines. Control: As with other GY diseases. Description of structures that were probably closteroviruses. Rumbos et al. Some grapevines show symptoms repeatedly in successive years. because of the complex biological cycle and multiple host plants of the insect species. Recovery and remission of symptoms for several consecutive years are frequent in vines affected by BN. Caudwell et al. The species has been described as the vector of stolbur "virus" by Suchov in USSR in 1948. These findings have never been confirmed. (b): BN is distinct from FD based on non transmissibility by S. For direct differentiation between FD and BN/VK phytoplasmas. Hence. titanus. (b): Epidemiological observations of BN lead to the assumption that an aerial vector is involved. while others seem more tolerant and do not show symptoms. Gärtel: Description of VK under the name of Flavescence dorée. the multiplex nested-PCR assay cited in the FD chapter can be used. 2. Natural enemies are being investigated. Superficial soil cultivation in summer or winter ploughing are methods intended to damage the larval instars and reduce vector populations. The results suggest that the disease is brought into the vineyards from outside local sources. littoralis. Borgo: General information on the presence of FD-type diseases in northern Italy. Credi and Callegari: Survey of vineyards in Emilia-Romagna. history. Findings never confirmed.DNA fragments. Chemical sprays against H. obsoletus in the south of France. Cazelles et al. Mosel and Rhine valleys are considered as the causal agents of the disease and it is hypothesized that the nematode Xiphinema index is the vector of the disease. Caudwell et al.: Rickettsia-like organisms detected in phloem and xylem of roots of grapevines affected with VK in West Germany and in nematodes of the species Xiphinema index feeding on roots of these grapevines. roguing should be avoided. absence of recovery. cytological and electron microscope study of tissues of affected grapevine.: GY symptoms are present in Switzerland (Suisse romande and Ticino) but they are not associated with S. Historical review 1961 1965 1968 1969 1971 1971 Caudwell: Study on BN and its relationships to FD. suppression of affected branches may improve harvest quality and help in progressive recovery. titanus is not always associated with the disease. Italy. Leclant: Presence of Hyalesthes obsoletus a cixiid planthopper in the south of France. Leclant and Lacote: Study of the ability to transmit stolbur to herbaceous plants by H. BN is considered as a non epidemic form of FD.: Rickettsia-like organisms found in roots of VK-affected grapevines in the Saar. Combination of RFLP profiles of two DNA fragments allow the identification of three types of stolbur phytoplasmas associated to VK in Germany and hosted by different weeds. unknown at that time. for the presence of a FD-like disease. Mendgen: 1971. no direct control is possible. obsoletus are not efficient. Description of symptoms of VK. and different susceptibility and sensitivity of grapevine cultivars. The disease occurs in the Moselle valley and the Rhine valley. 1972 1977 1978 1978 1988 1989 1992 159 .: Rickettsia-like organisms from VK-affected grapevines are cultured in chick embryos.
obsoletus is a vector of VK in Germany. Maixner et al. and from Israel. Several weeds are host plants of the stolbur phytoplasma. Bertaccini et al. subgroup I-G (later named group 16SrXII (stolbur) in the provinces of Vicenza. Minucci et al. Davis and Prince: According to a different terminology.: First detection of BN (stolbur phytoplasma) in Spain. Italy. Bianco et al. Maixner et al. obsoletus is confirmed as a vector of stolbur disease plants in France.: Grapevines from Piemonte (northern Italy) contain several different phytoplasmas.1992 Fos et al. MLO associated to GY in Italy are related to aster yellows MLO. Biology of the insect. The MLO strains found in grapevine are related with aster yellows MLOs. subgroup I-G (later renamed as 16SrXII or stolbur group). The latter MLO was shown later to belong to the stolbur group. aetiology and transmission of BN in France. Laviña et al. obsoletus identified as the vector. c and d) Transmission of a yellows to periwinkle with dodder in Germany. (b): Evidence of an association of MLOs with grapevine yellows in EmiliaRomagna.: The agent of a GY disease in the Italian Riviera is detected with a probe specific for Eastern aster yellows.: A monoclonal antibody raised to stolbur mycoplasma-like organism is used for ELISA detection of the agent in herbaceous host plants and insects. (a): Differentiation by PCR-RFLP of a MLO related to aster yellows in GY-diseased plants from Lombardia and a MLO related to elm yellows in an affected grapevine in FriuliVenezia Giulia (Italy). PCR-RFLP analysis confirms relationship to aster yellows phytoplasmas. Maixner : Demonstration that H. It is suggested that vectors with preference for other host plants act as vectors for VK. Maixner (b. (a and b): PCR-RFLP analysis of 16Sr DNA of MLOs show that the MLO associated with BN is different from the FD MLO and similar to the MLO associated with stolbur disease. Alma et al. Computer analysis for spatial patterns of spread shows a non-random distribution and suggests preferential transmission from other vines or from weeds. Italy) where FD is prevalent. from several regions of Italy. clustered by the authors into aster yellows group but shown later to belong to the stolbur group. (a and b): PCR amplification of MLO DNA shows that MLOs associated with GY in several regions of northern Italy are related to the Italian periwinkle virescence (IPVR) MLO. Reservoirs and possible role of other vectors remain to be elucidated. 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1993 1994 1994 1994 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 160 . Bertaccini et al. Boudon-Padieu (b): History. H. Brescia and Pavia (northern Italy). Borgo: Presence of BN in mixed infections with FD in the province of Treviso (Veneto. but are different from known strains of MLOs of the aster yellows cluster. (b): Presence of phytoplasmas in the group 16SrI. (a): Development of stolbur-specific primers on phytoplasma rDNA and use for detection of stolbur phytoplasma in grapevines affected with VK and in the vector H. Davis et al. H.: One of the two phytoplasmas detected in yellows-diseased grapevines in Liguria is related to IPVR phytoplasma. obsoletus. the most frequent belonging to group 16SrI. Bianco et al. Cazelles and Kuszala: Negative results with FD-ELISA on all tested GY-affected plants from Switzerland suggest that the GY present is BN rather than FD.: PCR-RFLP analysis of MLO-DNA detected in VK-affected grapevines in Germany show that this MLO is related to stolbur. Daire et al. BN MLO is detected in grapevines from France.
Kuszala: Detection in ELISA using a monoclonal antibody to stolbur phytoplasma of BNassociated antigens in diseased grapevines in France.: Prevalence of BN (stolbur phytoplasma) in Navarra and Cataluña (north eastern Spain). Weber: PhD thesis on the biology of the cixiid H. Sforza and Boudon-Padieu: Description of H. Ploughing in winter of soils infested by C. Davis et al. First detection of BN agent in diseased grapevines in Switzerland with the same procedure. vector transmission and possible control measures. Albanese et al. a high proportion of previously infected vines that did not show symptoms for 2 years at least and. The maximum delay of symptom expression in young plants is 2 years. Laviña et al. Osler et al. obsoletus in Germany. Results were satisfactory. Marcone et al. Maixner: The situation of VK in Germany: symptoms. a strong annual increase.: Phytoplasmas associated to GY in Campania (southern Italy) are genetically uniform and belong to the stolbur group. biology of H.: Monitoring of field populations of H.: Important spread of GY symptoms on several grapevine varieties in Umbria (central Italy). obsoletus as a vector of BN. titanus. search for vectors.: Occurrence of GY diseases in Hungary and identification of stolbur phytoplasma in affected grapevines. Estimated crop damage ranges from 20 to 40 %. using hot water treatment with conditions recommended in France. as well as phytoplasmas transmitted by Credi to periwinkle in Emila Romagna and previously classified in the aster yellows group. Maixner and Reinert: A review of the research and present knowledge on VK and other GY diseases. obsoletus and its role as the vector of VK. 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1998 161 . (a and b): BN is poorly transmitted by bench-grafting. Sforza: PhD thesis on the epidemiology of BN in France. a high proportion of vines in which symptoms re-occurred after one season or more. subgroup I-G (identified later as belonging to the stolbur group or 16SrXII). Preferential spread along the rows. Maixner and Reinert (a): Trials on elimination of VK infection from vine wood in Germany. Refatti et al. Kölber et al. obsoletus and possible control measures.: Consistent association of stolbur phytoplasma with GY diseases in the Italian provinces of Fiuli-Venezia Giulia and Trento and in Slovenia. arvensis is recommended to expose instar larvae and kill them with frost. (c): Identification of stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII) as agents of GYs in Greece and Israel. Maixner and Reinert (b): Spatio-temporal analysis of the distribution of VK in 4 vineyards in the Moselle an Rhine valleys over a 2-3 year period showed a high incidence. Daire et al. Search for variability among BN phytoplasmas with RFLP analysis of the specific non ribosomal DNA was unsuccessful. conversely.1996 1996 Koruza: Survey of GY in three regions of Slovenia shows that the disease is of BN type. (a and b): The identification with PCR-RFLP of rDNA of phytoplasma detected in European and Israeli grapevines affected by GY has shown that BN occurs in all regions. Vindimian: LN but not FD is present in Trentino (northern Italy) in spite of the presence and active spread of S. Characterization of a phytoplasma belonging to group 16SrI. Weber et al.
Sforza et al.1998 1998 Sforza and Bourgoin: Anatomy of reproductory organs and mating of H. obsoletus and Oncopsis alni. Weber and Maixner (a): Procedures for the survey of infection status of populations of H.: Epidemiology of BN in France. Maixner et al. PCR detection is reliable when testing together 25 insects among which only one is infected. among which hoary cress. Confirmation of the role of H. First launching of colonies of the insect under controlled conditions. the vector of Palatinate grapevine yellows (PGY). Larrue et al. Up to 30 % of the insects were infected and the highest rate was in vineyards with high populations of Convolvulus arvensis. obsoletus related to VK infection. obsoletus and possibility to control the insect in vineyards. Identification of main reservoir weeds. Seljak and Petrovic: A review of the Slovenian situation of GY diseases. the second GY disease in Germany. obsoletus and Metcalfa pruinosa were found positive for BN phytoplasma (16SrXII-A). Identification of two infected symptomless weeds in the vineyard. The rate of infected H. No other phytoplasma found in the South of the country. Sforza et al. No other grapevine phytoplasma was detected. 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 162 . the ability to recover of cvs Riesling and Pinot in spite of systemic symptoms.: Use of PCR to confirm the presence of stolbur phytoplasma in GY-affected grapevines in Switzerland. and a high proportion of vines that escaped infection during the 3-5 year period of monitoring. Bourquin et al. Škoric et al. Varga et al. The study confirms a high rate of infected H.: In a large survey of vineyards in 8 Hungarian counties conducted in 1998. H.: Several vineyards affected by BN in Burgundy (France) monitored for over 15 years and assessed for symptom severity. Females are more often infected than males. regardless of the cultivar in Campania (southern Italy). Darimont and Maixner: Comparison of the transmission efficiency of phytoplasma to their host plants and to grapevine by H. High rate of BN / LN infection in the different vine-growing regions. Marcone et al.: BN reported only in north-western and eastern vineyards of Croatia. Šeruga et al. obsoletus.: Ethological onservations and morphological descriptions of adults and larvae of H.: Widespread presence of LN in Toscana (central Italy). obsoletus. obsoletus in vineyards is efficient with sticky traps placed at the soil level. obsoletus. The same pathogen detected in weeds and other crops. Up to 34% of insects were infected with stolbur phytoplasma. obsoletus as a vector to grapevine. Braccini and Pavan: Report of survey of Auchenorrynchas in vineyards of Toscana (central Italy). Weber and Maixner (b): Etholology of H.: First detection of stolbur phytoplasma in grapevines in Croatia. different phytoplasmas were identified in a number of cultivars. Braccini et al. formerly reported in western Europe. obsoletus can be high because of the presence of reservoir weeds in the vineyard. Acquisition may occur at larval stages since emerging 5th instars were infective. Phytoplasmas in the 16SrXII group (stolbur) were the most frequent.: Only stolbur phytoplasma detected in grapevines showing GY symptoms.: VK disease dramatically increased in incidence in the Moselle and Rhine valleys during the 1990's. Maixner and Reinert: Collection of H. Transmission to natural host plants is higher than for grapevine with both insects. Evidence secured for the occurrence of tolerance (no symptom at all for 15 years) and temporary remission (no symptoms for a few years) .
the incidence of VK was significantly higher in conventional vineyards.: Survey of GY from 1997 to 2002 on 21 cultivars in 12 Hungarian counties. Pentastiridius sp. obsoletus is the vector of LN in Italy. general stress responses and rapid senescence. Gatineau et al.2001 Bertamini and Nedunchezhian: Evaluation of effects of BN disease (stolbur phytoplasma) in field-grown grapevines. H. Mescalchin and Mattedi: A description of the development of VK in Trentino (northern Italy).: Only BN identified in Switzerland on cvs Chardonnay. Curkovic Perica et al. on pigments.: Comparison of infection risk by VK in organic and conventional vineyards in Germany. Langer et al. Merlot and Pinot noir. Bertaccini et al. Neoaliturus fenestratus. Samples were taken on all organs of 10 affected grapevines.: Demonstration that H. reached by other authors.: The highest risk of phytoplasma contamination for grapevines coincides with the flight activity of adults of H. Severity of symptoms vary from one year to the other. respectively. obsoletus. BN is the main disease and cvs Chardonnay and Zweigelt appear to be the more sensitive among whiteand red-berried varieties. Alma et al. is a natural vector of stolbur phytoplasma to sugarbeet in Bourgogne (France). Indicators based on climatic parameters permit to predict the flight period. Maixner et al. Darimont and Maixner: Importance of the presence and infectivity of H. every month for one year except in winter. Cicotti et al. obsoletus and Circulifer haematoceps were widespread and positive for stolbur or aster yellows phytoplasmas.: First detection in Albania of BN phytoplasma in grapevines of different age and varieties. chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic activities suggest that Photo System II is affected. The authors conclude that phytoplasma infection induces non specific. very similar to European isolates.: Observation of the occurrence of BN in Trentino in eight Chardonnay vineyards on more than 11. which is widespread in the province. obsoletus to the German viticulture.: Importance of outbreaks of BN in the province of Modena (Italy) and monitoring of potential insect vectors in addition to H.: Incidence of BN in a small area of the Bekaa valley (Lebanon) on cvs Chardonnay and Alicante Bouschet. Detection in December was the more constant.: Survey of potential vectors of phytoplasmas in vineyards of the Golan Heights. Same conclusions about tolerance and transient recovery of grapevines. dioica) as a reservoir of stolbur phytoplasma and as a host for the insect. All affected grapevines and two naturally infected periwinkles contained the same stolbur isolate. Orenstein et al. Kölber et al. 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 163 . Gugerli et al.: Anoder cixiid planthopper.000 plants over 12 years. Attempt to bring up the larvae to the surface of the soil by ploughing so that they are killed by frost in winter is under evaluation. obsoletus and the presence in organic vineyards of several weeds known as host plants carrying larvae on the roots.: Assessment of the best period for detection of BN in affected grapevines. obsoletus. In spite of a similar abundance of H. while Megophthalmus scabripennis was positive for aster yellows phytoplasma. Role of stinging nettle (U. Study of the spatial and temporal dispersion of the four species. Laviña et al. Choueiri et al. The presence of H. Morandell: Detection of VK in south Austria. obsoletus in Lebanon is recorded. Myrta et al.: The situation of GY diseases in Croatia shows that only BN is present in the northern and eastern vineyards.
mainly on cv Scheurebe. -B and C) have been identified. H. Control: No possibility of control because of erratic transmission by the vector.) Detection: Universal primers and RFLP analysis of amplicons can be used to identify a 16SrV phytoplasma. Germany). obsoletus and frequence of C. was found carrying the alder phytoplasma at a higher rate than O. affected plants are not numerous. Symptoms were recorded on 26% of 30-year old Scheurebe grapevines and 96% of tested individuals of H.: Importance of a GY epidemics in the Drava region (Slovenia) in 2001 and 2002. However. Description Palatinate grapevine yellows (PGY) is a disease occurring in Germany in Pfalz and Moselle regions (west of Germany) mainly on cv Scheurebe.: Important epidemics of "Schwarzholzkrankheit" (SHK = VK) in Franken (Bayern. Main synonyms: FD-Pfalz was a first name because the agent was shown to be related to the FD phytoplasma. Living insects checked for transmissibility of phytoplasma by feeding on artificial medium. together with high populations of H. obsoletus is rare. titanus leafhoppers have failed. Transmission: Transmission was obtained with the leafhopper Oncopsis alni Schrank (Hemiptera. O. According to the data of field survey. It is associated to phytoplasmas in the Elm yellows (16SrV) group. Agents: The agent is an EY (16SrV) group phytoplasma. Cicadellidae) trapped on alders and caged on V.: Search for vectors of stolbur phytoplasma in Cataluña (Spain) where H.: Important expression of BN in cv Chardonnay in the Ukraine. the psyllid Psylla alni. Šeruga et al. obsoletus and weeds in different areas in Germany. Transmission to plants is not reported. obsoletus were positive for stolbur phytoplasma. Sabaté et al. It is different from FD phytoplasma. (a): Investigation on the variability of stolbur (16SrXII) phytoplasmas from extracts of different grapevines in Croatia. 164 . vinifera seedlings that later developed GY symptoms. Another alder insect. Langer and Maixner: Three different types of stolbur phytoplasma isolates found in grapevines. Trapping of insects on sticky traps or with D-Vac suction. Attempts to transmit PGY phytoplasma from grapevine to grapevine using reared S. Several hemipters have been found to deliver stolbur phytoplasma to the medium. (b): First identification of BN infection in the Macedonian republic. PALATINATE GRAPEVINE YELLOWS 1.2003 2003 Petrovic et al. The disease was identified in 1995. More specific characterization can be obtained with EY-group specific primers fAY/rEY that amplify a 16S rDNA fragment or with FD9 primers that amplifiy the non ribosomal FD9 DNA fragment. Milkus et al. The latter results have not been published. Other host plants: Alder trees (Alnus glutinosa L. specific association of each isolate with a different weed is discussed. 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 C. It is not epidemic and occurs most often in old vines in vineyards along creeks or rivers where alders (Alnus glutinosa L) are present. PGY phytoplasma is similar to the Alder yellows phytoplasma that is widespread in black alder in Germany. alni but failed to transmit both to alder and grapevine. Alder is considered as the source of PGY infection. RFLP of FD9 fragment permit to distinguish PGY phytoplasmas from FD phytoplasmas and from other phytoplasmas in the same group (see the Flavescence dorée chapter). alni is highly monophagous and specimen do not survive long on grapevine. and rarely in groups. Šeruga et al. Three isolates (PGY-A. using 4 fragments of phytoplasma DNA showed that all isolates are similar. occur most often at the border of plots. arvensis and U. Gilge et al. Main symptoms: Symptoms are similar to those of other GY diseases and may affect the whole plant. dioica. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: PGY occurs in limited areas.
Reinert: PhD thesis on detection. Extensive survey of yellows-affected grapevines in several areas of Germany did not show the presence of other EY group phytoplasmas. In New York. alni) is able to transmit the alder yellows phytoplasma to healthy seedlings of alder. molecular characterisation and epidemiology of PGY. a serious outbreak of GY occurred in Virginia. alni and H. (b): Transmission to V. 4 Italian and French strains of FD and elm and alder phytoplasmas. 165 . In 1991. alni (Auchenorrhyncha. alni. a phytoplasma isolate transmitted from alder to periwinkle in Italy. alni trapped on alders. The strong adaptation of O. Maixner and Reinert: Demonstration that O. Main synonyms: Leaf curl and berry shrivel (LCBS). Reinert and Maixner: All the 3 strains of PGY were detected both in alder trees and in specimen of O. The differences in vector specificity between PGY and FD phytoplasmas are not supported by molecular data.2. alder. using Heteroduplex mobility assay and sequencing of rDNA and FD9 fragment. Variability analysis and sequencing of the FD9 DNA fragment and homology of the sequence to a part of the SecY gene. NORTH AMERICAN GRAPEVINE YELLOWS 1. populations of S. alni. In the same period. Darimont and Maixner: Comparison of the transmission efficiency of phytoplasma to their host plants and to grapevine by O. Oncopsis alni and Psylla alni specimen. Virginia grapevine yellows III (VGYIII) Main symptoms: North American Grapevine Yellows (NAGY) is a lethal disease causing yellowing of the leaves. The proportion of infective leafhoppers is lower with O. As much as 5 % of leafhoppers from Palatinate and 15 % from Moselle tested positive. The risk of infection by PGY is lower than for VK because reservoir plants are fewer and outside vineyards. Infected grapevines often die within months from the onset of symptoms and significant losses of vines have been observed. titanus living mostly on wild Vitis riparia around affected vineyards were found to carry an agent that was serologically related to that of FD. Identification of the PGY-associated phytoplasma with phytoplasmas infecting alder in the vicinity of affected vineyards. Characterization of the three PGY strains showed that they were closer to FD than to strain EY1 from American elm. affected vines often do not survive winter frost because they lack reserves. both insect species trapped on alder. Main diseases: Virginia grapevine yellows I (VGYI).: Comparison between Elm yellows group (16SrV) phytoplasmas including PGY strains.: Further comparison between elm yellows group (16SrV) phytoplasmas. the vector of BN / VK. Description Grapevine yellows (GY) were first reported in New York State (USA) in 1977. 1997 1999 1999 2000 2000 2000 2001 2003 D. The PGY strains are closest to the ALY phytoplasma from alder in Italy and to one strain of FD. Angelini et al. Maixner et al. However. respectively. In 1993. Historical review 1995 Maixner et al. obsoletus. American grapevine yellows. The alder phytoplasma resembles ALY. Cicadellidae) (but not P. the latter findings were not confirmed. Same RFLP profiles of P1-P7 rDNA amplicons obtained from yellows affected grapevines. vinifera seedlings of the PGY phytoplasma using specimen of O. (b): Detection of a new EY-related phytoplasma in GY-affected cv Scheurebe in Germany. It is different from FD phytoplasma but molecular and serological data show a close relationship. a phytoplasma belonging to the X-disease group (16SrIII) was detected in affected grapevines in New York. Angelini et al. which was associated with two different phytoplasmas in group 16SrIII and 16SrI (aster yellows). alni to alder prevents a frequent inoculation to grapevine even if the infestation of the leafhopper population is high. Reinert and Maixner: 1997. die back of shoot tips and abortion of developing fruit.
Maixner and Pearson: First data on the study on S. Probes and primers yielded positive reactions using DNA extracted from grapevine. Detection: With molecular assays using universal or group-specific PCR primers. vinifera cuttings. Chen et al. Historical review 1977 Uyemoto et al.Agents: The 16SrIII phytoplasma detected in NY has not been further characterized. and aster yellows was detected from numerous weeds and shrubs within and around the vineyard. Adults migrate from V. as well as direct PCR assays from insects. ELISA and immunfluorescence were positive from periwinkle. Larvae are more frequent on wild Vitis riparia at the border of the vineyards. X-disease phytoplasma was detected in native Vitis sp. among which Agallia constricta. Extracts of periwinkles were used to raise two monoclonal antibodies and to design oligonucletides that were used as probes in DNA-DNA hybridisation or as PCR primers. observed in 1983. Other host plants: Both phytoplasmas are widespread in the USA in weeds and cultivated species. Maixner et al. However. it is very severe on Chardonnay vines but was observed on other varieties including Riesling. It appeared to be spreading and was perhaps insect borne. and an aster yellows phytoplasma was detected in numerous weeds and shrubs within and around the vineyards. In Virginia.: Molecular comparisons between MLOs transmitted to periwinkle from grapevine or detected in a few naturally affected grapevines. tested positive for a MLO in the X-disease group with PCR-RFLP of 16S rDNA. allowed the identification of a few candidate vectors of the aster yellows phytoplasma. titanus. (a): A Riesling plant from New York and a periwinkle carrying the FDI MLO described above. Daire et al. The Virginia Grapevine Yellows (VGY) has been associated with the VGYIII phytoplasma (a strain of X-disease or 16SrIII.: Monitoring of S. The X-disease phytoplasma occurring in New York was also detected with monoclonal antibodies and with probes for dot-blot hybridization. X-disease phytoplasma was detected in native Vitis sp.: Occurrence of FD-like symptoms on White Riesling grapevines in New York. riparia to V.: Two MLOs were transmitted from affected grapevines to periwinkles in Udine (Italy) (= FDI or FDU or GYU) and New York. other grapevines with strong symptoms tested negative. The FDI MLO was identified in a parallel work as a member of the X-disease group. subgroup III-B) and with the VGYI phytoplasma (a strain of aster yellows or 16SrI. 2. Transmission: No vector insects have been identified for VGY phytoplasmas. titanus in New York and transmission assays of a possible infectious agent. subgroup I-A). the disease was first observed on cv De Chaunac. present in New York and its possible relationship with a GY disease. the survey of vineyards and transmission assays to V. Control: There are no control methods since vectors and reservoirs of the associated phytoplasmas are still undetermined. However.: Description of a disease of the yellows type affecting the variety De Chaunac in vineyards of New York State denoted Leaf curl and berry shrivel (LCBS). vinifera. The latter observation suggests that another non-related MLO might have been present. Data showed that the Italian and American MLO were related. Detection was positive in symptomless wild Vitis riparia growing near vineyards in New York and in some symptomatic grapevines. very similar to those of LCBS. Prince et al. then on White Riesling. Pearson et al. No transmission by vine planting material reported. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: In New York. show that the FDU (= FDI) strain from Italy and a MLO detected in a grapevine in Virginia (USA) are both related to X-disease. 1985 1991 1993 1993 1993 1993 166 . Symptoms may occur for several years in succession in the same vines. faba bean plants and feeding solutions. Symptoms. Sauvignon blanc and Cabernet franc.
: Two phytoplasmas are detected in yellows diseased grapevines in Virginia. Late Season Leaf Curl (LSLC)-affected grapevines show symptoms in late summer with tightly downward rolled leaves that often remain green. III-I. The relatedness of the associated MLO to X-disease MLO is confirmed. suggesting that the source is from an alternative host. It has been suggested that all three phytoplasmas are strains of the same phytoplasma species. 1998 2003 E. Affected vines carry one or more shoots with irregular veinal of interveinal yellowing and downward rolling of the leaves that overlay one another in a shingled fashion. Description Grapevine yellows were first reported from Australia in 1976 and called Australian grapevine yellows (AGY) in 1983. one node after the other. The sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene shows that it is close to members of the aster yellows group (16SrI). BVGY phytoplasma has not been clustered in an established phytoplasma group. which is the more frequent and the Tomato big bud (TBB) phytoplasma. The second phytoplasma. AUSTRALIAN GRAPEVINE YELLOWS 1. The yellow leaf tissue can become necrotic. also detected in wild V. The 16S rRNA gene has a high sequence similarity (more than 99. Confirmation that a X-disease (16SrIII) group phytoplasma is involved and classification of the latter phytoplasma into a new subgroup. Early and recent surveys have shown that AGY are found in most viticultural regions of Australia. Agallia constricta is a suspected vector of VGYI (aster yellows phytoplasma). In addition. Agents : AGY disease (sensu stricto) is associated with two phytoplasmas: the AGY phytoplasma. Main symptoms: All symptoms typical for GY can be found on AGY-diseased plants.1993 Wolf et al. Both VGYI and VGYIII were found in several weeds and shrubs around and inside the vineyards. Main diseases: AGY (sensu stricto). Shoots may display abortion of bunches or berry shrivel later in the season and death of terminal buds. with a higher incidence in warmer inland districts of New South Wales and South Australia. The association of AGY with phytoplasmas was confirmed as early as 1988. Restricted Growth (RG). Buckland Valley Grapevine Yellows (BVGY). leaves tend to fall early. riparia vines. Other species tested positive and transmitted to feeding solutions. Late Season Leaf Curl (LSLC). Mapping of diseased plants show that grapevines appear to be a terminal host of AGY. Davis et al. followed by the progressive death of the shoots. The TBB phytoplasma has been designated as Candidatus species "Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia". The AGY phytoplasma has been designated as Candidatus species "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense". It belongs to the stolbur group (16SrXII) but is distinct from the BN and VK phytoplasmas.5%) with the phytoplasmas associated to Papaya die back (PDB) in Australia and to Phormium yellow leaf (PYL) in New Zealand. consistently associated with AGY symptoms and AGY phytoplasmas but their aetiology is not clear. is a member of the aster yellows (16SrI) group. Stems of affected shoots develop a blue. waxy appearance and remain rubbery. The use of PCR has shown the association with AGY of three different phytoplasmas. two syndromes with particular symptoms (Restricted Growth and Late Season Leaf Curl) have been found in some cases.: A GY disease observed in Virginia since 1983 affects large areas with a low incidence and a low spread rate. Conversely. subgroup I-A. clover phyllody phytoplasma (16SrI-C) being the closest . there are reported cases where they were not associated with AGY disease or phytoplasmas. respectively. 167 . In this particular disease. Beanland and Wolf: Search for possible insect vectors and reservoirs of NAGY phytoplasmas in Virginia. Some plants also display uneven bud development resulting in canes and cordons that are bare in places with little or no bunch development. overlay one another like shingles and become leathery and brittle. Restricted Growth (RG)-affected grapevines show retarded growth resulting in shortened shoots and smaller leaves. a GY disease found in Victoria (Australia). It belongs to the peanut witches' broom group (16SrII) and has a broad plant host range in Australia.
AGY phytoplasmas are common in several crops in Australia. Magarey: Comprehensive review of GY diseases in the world. they are at greater risk of displaying symptoms again in the following years. Magarey: The situation of GY in Australia. Historical review 1982 1983 1985 1986 1986 1988 1988 1989 Magarey and Wachtel: Description of a new disease of the yellows type in cv Rhine Riesling in South Australia. Several observations suggest that aerial transmission prevails.: MLOs. The BVGY phytoplasma has no suspected insect vector. The incidence of disease may be temporarily high in some vineyards of Chardonnay. Specific primers have been designed on the 16S rRNA gene for detection of AGY phytoplasma (Ca. argentatus and subsequently transmitted to faba bean but the ability to transmit to grapevine was not confirmed. suggesting that this contributes to the decline in phytoplasma numbers and to the remission of symptoms. is found in high numbers together with two other potential MLO vectors in vineyards of Victoria (Australia). Detection: Detection is obtained with PCR. The TBB phytoplasma is transmitted to other crops by O. a specific primer in the intergenic 16S-23S spacer region has been designed for detection of TBB phytoplasma (Ca. this phytoplasma is associated with GY disease in vineyards in the same restricted grape-growing areas that were established with planting material from different sources. suggesting that the disease is the result of an aerial transmission and that the phytoplasma was not present in the original planting material. Detection can be from shoots. RG and LSLC diseases has been observed. vector of TBB in tomato crops. Osmelak et al.Transmission: No vectors have been identified for any AGY disease. once vines are infected by AGY. Magarey et al. Sanitation with hot water treatment is being developed in Australia. However.: Orosius argentatus. 168 . Reduction of symptom expression in vines injected with tetracycline. branches. Magarey and Wachtel: GY symptoms are found in most viticultural areas of Australia. but phytoplasmas were also detected in other red. Magarey et al. Cixiidae) is known as the vector of PYL disease in New Zealand but the species has not been reported from Australia.and white-berried varieties. Remission of AGY. Similarly. A "heat curing" effect of AGY disease by hot weather has been observed. trunks and roots throughout the year and infection is persistent from year to year. The planthopper Oliarus atkinsoni Myers (Hemiptera. argentatus. Recent studies have shown that the latter phytoplasma can be acquired from infected grapevine by O. indicating persistence of the disease. 2.: The "Rhine Riesling problem" denoted "Australian Grapevine Yellows". However. RG or LSLC. It is possible that AGY diseases have become prevalent in Australia in the last years with the increasing planting of Chardonnay. reservoirs must be important but the epidemiology is not fully understood. Magarey and Wachtel: Review of the AGY problem. All generic "universal" primers may be used. 140-510 nm in diameter. branches. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: Chardonnay and Riesling appear to be most often affected. found in sieve tubes of diseased vines are associated with AGY symptoms. Phytoplasma australasia). The AGY phytoplasma was detected in the common leafhopper Orosius argentatus (Evans) but transmission to grapevine has not been reported. such as Shiraz or Semillon. Hence. and trunks in October is more reliable. Sampling simultaneously from shoots. Phytoplasma australiense) either in single-step or nested PCR following a first amplification with universal primers. Other host plants: As mentioned above. Control: There are no methods to control AGY diseases in the vineyard. followed by RFLP analysis or sequencing. Phloem fluorescence of diseased vines in the UV microscope.
insecticide sprays are useless for controlling the disease. Liefting et al. Padovan et al.: AGY phytoplasma detected in the body of Orosius argentatus leafhoppers. but different from the stolbur phytoplasma associated with BN in France. Constable et al.: Identification of a new phytoplasma in Chardonnay grapevines in Victoria (Australia). Bonfiglioli et al. Uneven distribution of phytoplasmas in infected plants.: Study of the phylogenetic relationships of the BVGY phytoplasma with aster yellows and stolbur phytoplasmas. Gibb et al. Detection of BVGY in another plot in the same area. established from a different source of plant material indicate that BVGY disease occurs as a result of aerial transmission. (a and b): The phytoplasma associated with AGY is related to an aster yellows type phytoplasma associated with GY in Italy (later on identified as the stolbur phytoplasma).: Use of hot water treatment in commercial nurseries of Australia. Beanland et al. Constable and Symons: AGY phytoplasma is detected in most symptomatic grapevines but also TBB phytoplasma and a third uncharacterised phytoplasma. Constable et al. Constable: PhD thesis on the biology and epidemiology of AGY phytoplasmas. Spring and summer are optimal for detection.: BVGY phytoplasma is associated to GY symptoms that may show remission then reoccurrence but also appear on vines that were not affected previously. Constable et al. It is occasionnally detected in symptomless vines and in vines with LSLC or RG symptoms. Spain and Israel. The problem of symptomlessly infected vines. Kelly et al. Beanland et al. later called BVGY phytoplasma.: Close relationships between phytoplasmas associated with AGY. 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2001 2001 2002 2002 2002 169 .: Detection of phytoplasmas associated with AGY. Padovan et al. Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense. BVGY might form a new AY subgroup of AY (16Sr) group or even a new phytoplasma group.: Description of AGY symptoms.: TBB phytoplasmas can be acquired from diseased grapevine by Orosius argentatus and subsequently transmitted to faba bean.: Assumption from field observations and monitoring that AGY.: Description of the AGY phytoplasma and designation of a new taxon. Hence. RG and LSLC are associated.: The AGY phytoplasma is consistently present in the majority of symptomatic grapevines.: Further comparison of AGY phytoplasma with overseas GY phytoplasmas show that it is closely related to. Wilson et al. (a and b): Positive detection of phytoplasma with PCR in AGY-affected grapevines and tentative survey of phytoplasmas in Australia. Constable et al.: No vector for AGY found.: Comparison of visual assessment and diagnostic assays. The TBB phytoplasma is detected occasionnally in vines with AGY symptoms and also in LSLC-affected vines. Davis et al. LSLC would be followed by AGY on the following year and AGY would be followed by RG in subsequent years. RG. Habili et al. Papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases. resulting in increasing cumulative incidence.1995 1995 1996 Bonfiglioli et al. and LSLC. Waite et al.
The AGY and the TBB phytoplasmas may persistently affect grapevines throughout the year and between years. recurrence in other vines and new occurrence in previously unaffected vines. (a and b): Biology and epidemiology of AGYs. The third situation is represented by poorly characterized GYs recorded from new countries. Transmission: Aster yellows and. Historical review Europe 1996 Alma et al. is often reported in connection with these cases. a variety widely grown in all countries and very sensitive to all GY agents. sometimes as a second phytoplasma in co-infection with FD or BN phytoplasmas and sometimes also in symptomless grapevines.: The management of the area for plant material in the nursery with the scope of hot water treatment. Constable et al. are very frequent in many host plant species and several insect species are known as vectors or potential vectors in different countries. At other times of the year. OTHER GRAPEVINE YELLOWS 1. RG and LSLC symptoms for 3 to 6 years in Chardonnay and Shiraz vineyards. It seems that aster yellows phytoplasmas have no important significance in European grapevine yellows. 1997 170 . The incidence of AGY in a plot of cv Shiraz that had been treated with hot water suggests that AGY phytoplasmas are introduced to vineyards by aerial transmission. Description Besides the cases reported above. Other varieties are cited in the different situations. Symptomatic shoots from AGY affected vines are reliable for detection in summer (January). However.: Survey of AGY. Statistical analysis showed that RG and LSLC diseases were not always associated with AGY. a 16SrI-B phytoplasma was found in mixed infection with a stolbur phytoplasma (at that time designated 16SrI-G). namely Israel. detection is more reliable from samples taken from branches and trunks. to a lesser extent.: Survey of phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in northern Italy. they seem to have some relevance in Israel and were recently reported from Tunisia. of phytoplasmas belonging to the aster yellows group (16SrI) in yellows-affected grapevines.: Detection of phytoplasma in the aster yellows group in GY affected plants in Slovenia and Croatia. 2.2002 2003 Crocker et al. The subgroup of aster yellows was not determined but primers specific for stolbur tested negative. They must not be confused with the 16SrI-G phytoplasma of earlier reports. TBB phytoplasma may have a role in the aetiology of LSLC. Constable and Symons: Study with Heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA) of the elongation factor Tu (Tuf) gene of the AGY and the BVGY phytoplasmas. X-disease group phytoplasmas. three different situations must be described. Saric et al. The first is the detection in countries other than the USA. These aster yellows phytoplasmas belong to subgroups I-B or I-C (clover phyllody) which are ubiquitous in Europe. The second situation is the significant occurrence of X-disease group (16SrIII) phytoplasmas in countries other than the USA. later designated 16SrXII. No variability was observed amongst BVGY phytoplasma isolates. which was the first designation for stolbur phytoplasma in some laboratories. Varietal susceptibility and sensitivity: Chardonnay. In three instances. However. Constable et al. 2004 2004 F. The total cumulative incidence for AGY could be as high as 90%. In Chardonnay. the diseases are characterized by remission in some plants. There is no information of transmission of AGY by planting material. Two isolates of AGY and Papaya dieback (PDB) phytoplasma did not show variability between them but showed some variability when compared to a reference AGY phytoplasma.
: A 16SrI-C phytoplasma was found associated with GY in relevant percentages in the same vineyards as stolbur (BN) phytoplasma in Abruzzo region (eastern central Italy). Klein et al. Megophthalmus scabripennis was positive for aster yellows phytoplasma.: Monitoring of potential phytoplasma vectors in vineyards in Israel and molecular detection of phytoplasmas in their body. D'Ascenzo et al. a X-disease phytoplasma was detected in some Neoaliturus specimen.: Survey over several years of potential vectors of phytoplasmas in vineyards of the Golan Heights showed that Neoaliturus fenestratus. titanus. Trapping of hemipters and identification of numerous potential phytoplasma vectors. titanus had been obtained in 1971 in France (cf.: Formal identification of a 16SrI-B phytoplasma in GY-affected grapevines in Tunisia. Caudwell et al. Neoaliturus sp. and Anaceratagalia laevis were all found carrying an aster yellows phytoplasma. Orosius orientalis. Tanne et al. 2003 Israel 1997 2000 Tanne and Orenstein: Grapevine phytoplasmas in Israel were transmitted to periwinkle with heterografting and identified in the periwinkle as 16SrIII and 16SrI phytoplasmas.: Identification in yellows-affected vines of varieties Petit Syrah.: Experimental transmission of the Chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (16SrI-B) to grapevine by four leafhopper species. Detection with PCR show erratic identification of a 16SrI-B phytoplasma. Orenstein et al. Circulifer spp. obsoletus was found in addition to the preceding 5 species. Similar transmission of clover phyllody (16SrI-C) MLO by S. Macrosteles sexnotatus. In addition. The spatial and temporal dispersion of the four species was analysed.. subgroups I-B and I-C and also to group 16SrVIII (Ash yellows) in mixed infection with I-B. Transmission to periwinkle of yellows diseases using collected insects. obsoletus and Circulifer haematoceps were all three abundant and positive for stolbur and aster yellows phytoplasmas. including S. Gajardo et al. Merlot and Carmenere.: First results on the monitoring of GY diseases in Tunisia in imported table grape varieties. of phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrI. some affected vines showed a sudden fall of leaves in summer. 1971b). called "Amarilliamento de Elqui".2001 Alma et al. 2001 2003 Tunisia 2003 Chabbouh et al. M'hirsi et al. Stolbur phytoplasma (16SrXII) was also detected. 2003 171 . In addition to similarities of symptoms with FD. 2003 South America 1980 Caudwell: Description of a disease of the yellows type in Chile. H. H.: Further survey of GY vectors in the Golan Heights.
. Ricerca su flavescence dorée e auchenorrinchi probabili vettori del suo agente patogeno. Detection of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms by a polymerase chain reaction that amplifies a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. 2001. Bosco. Angelini E. European Journal of Plant Pathology 110. nymphs and adults of Scaphoideus titanus Ball reared on healthy plants. M. Bosco. Guardiani and P. A. Negrisolo. F. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Bosco. Progrès agricole et viticole 104. Davis. Boudon-Padieu.. D'Arcangelo. Bertaccini. 1996. G. L. Angelini E. Tedeschi and C. Vitis 40.Occurrence of closely related phytoplasma isolates and their near relationships to Palatinate grapevine yellows and an alder yellows phytoplasma. 1996. Squizzato. G.. S. 193201. Borgo. Alma A. Marzachi. A.. Palermo. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. A. Bosco and A. 2002. Italy. E. Alma. Phylogenetic relationships among Flavescence dorée isolates and related phytoplasmas determined by Heteroduplex Mobility Assay and sequences of ribosomal and non-ribosomal DNA. Boccardo and M. Danielli. Volos 1990. Danielli. Insect Molecular Biology 6. D. Vibio and J. http://www. 418-421. Baioletti and M. A. Plant Pathology 52. D. 86-87. Grapevine MLO transmission by insects. Laviña and A. 340-341.E. Arnò C. 184-192. 1998. A. D.. A.C. A. Quaderni Piemonte Agricoltura 16 (3 suppl. Petria 6. R.N. Alma. L. Tessitori. Santuccio. Montreux 1993. Borgo and E. M. 115-121. 1992. 65-75. Locorotondo 2003.. F. Ahrens U. Roma 2002. Anonymous. 1997. Bosco. Patetta and D. Alma.. Bosco. Arzone and A. D. Potsdam 2002. Bosco. Identification of phytoplasmas in eggs. Diffusione di Scaphoideus titanus Ball in Italia. Identification of a grapevine FD-C phytoplasma and two deletion mutants in Clematis.GRAPEVINE YELLOWS: REFERENCES Agulhon R. 1992. Davis. Alma A. 51-53. a subgroup 16SrI-B phytoplasma. E. Battle. Investigations on spatial distribution and symptom fluctuation of Flavescence dorée in 'Chardonnay' vineyards. Informations sur l'évolution de la cicadelle Scaphoideus titanus.. and E. 1989. Rivista di Viticoltura e di Enologia 50 (4). 84-85. 70. Collodoro. M. S. 1993a. 2004. 173 . 90-93. G. Progrès agricole et viticole 102. Granata. 1987. Squizzato. C. 79-86. 663-672. Alma A. La lutte contre la flavescence dorée de la vigne dans le cadre de l'agriculture biologique. A. Anonymous. Petria 3. Progrès agricole et viticole 106. Clair. Montreux 1993. 1993. M. T. Dally. Grapevine golden flavescence MLOs in plant and vector. Clair. Egger. 2003a. P. La flavescence dorée dans l'Aude en 1985. Bertaccini and E. 61-68. E. Davis. 81-91.. to grapevine by four leafhopper species. 60-61. Arzone A. M. 1992. Arzone. Abstracts 11th International Auchenorrhyncha Congress. Borgo. Seemüller. Progrès agricole et viticole 109.it/ICVG2003/ Angelini E. M. R. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche 2002. Soldi.. Albanese G. C. Rilievi faunistici sugli Omotteri Auchenorrinchi in vigneti della provincia di Piacenza. Bertaccini. G.E. 3-9. A. Mixed infection of grapevines in northern Italy by phytoplasmas including 16S rRNA RFLP subgroup 16SrI-B strains previously unreported in this host.agr. 2001. Study of the transmission of Stolbur phytoplasma by Macrosteles quadripunctulatus to different plant species. Gianluca and M. Gianluca and M. Transmission of Chrysanthemum yellows. 2003b. Detection of a phytoplasma associated with grapevine Flavescence dorée in Clematis vitalba. Arzone A. Arzone A. Vibio. Laurent. 1985. A. Alma A. Albanese G. Molecular detection of MLOs associated with grapevine yellows disease in Piemonte. Conti. Prince. Arzone.. 1997. 828-832. D. Etude de l'efficacité de divers insecticides sur la cicadelle Scaphoideus titanus vectrice de la Flavescence dorée.. Flavescence dorée in France and Italy . Alma A. R. Alma A. DNA-based analyses to detect and identify phytoplasmas in yellows-diseased grapevines in Sicily. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Bertaccini.L. P.. Ruolo di Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Homoptera: Cixiidae) nella trasmissione del Legno nero della vite in Italia. A. Atti II Incontro Nazionale sulle Malattie da Fitoplasmi. D. 2002. Altabella N.. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Cravedi. Arnò and D. A. Boudon-Padieu. 2002. Arzone and D. 57-58. R. Borgo. Individuazione e caratterizzazione molecolare di fitoplasmi in piante di vite con sintomi di giallume in Umbria. and J.. 1991. 1993... Phytopathology 82.uniba. 163-169. Aldini R. Bolletino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura 30 (1). A. Plant Disease 80. Alma. E. 523-526. Anonymous. Journal of Plant Pathology 83. 569-573. Angelini E. M. Granata. 181-187. Vibio and A.).
Pavan. Lisboa 1997. Arzone A. Beanland L. Credi and E. R. 1973. 174 . Davis. European Journal of Plant Pathology 106. distribution and epidemiology of Grapevine Yellows in Spain. Bianco. Glenn. Sobrio. Bonetti. 69-73.. D. 2000. Bosco and M.it/ICVG2003 Belli G. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 430. 270-275. 1993a.. Occurrence. Rui. Jassidae). Kelly. Carraro.. 1985b.V) 9 (suppl. M. G. 1995. Vibio and E.. E.Arzone A. Epidemiologia della malattia. 41-46. MacFarlane and D. Geographical distribution of elm yellows-related phytoplasmas in grapevine flavescence dorée outbreaks in Veneto (Italy). 20-24. M. 1968. Locorotondo 2003. A.. Adelaide 2000. 2001. 23-27. Gorizia 1993. Murari. Alma. 2003. Murari. D. P. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 34. 57-58. A. A. D. 13-25. R. M. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Scattini. Torresin. 1994. 1993. 2000. Bertaccini A. P. Laviña. une menace permanente pour le vignoble corse.La Défense des Végétaux 379. P.. A. and T. 1995. Convegno "La flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite. 2. Osler and A. S. 1997. 55-57. Bianco and S. Felici. D. M.. Rui. Possible insect vectors of North American grapevine yellows phytoplasma in Virginia. Boudon-Padieu. La flavescenza dorata della vite e le sue manifestazioni nel Veneto.uniba. 1997.. Studies of Australian grapevine yellows. Canevascini. Italy : Polymerase Chain Reaction and restriction analyses. 189-191. Belli G. A. 1987. Laviña. Extended Abstracts. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche 1994.A. Rui. In search of an insect vector of Australian grapevine yellows. Belli G.. A. 69-90. 811-816. Belli G. A. Detection and characterization of mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) DNA in naturally infected grapevine cultivars in EmiliaRomagna.. A. Detection and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in Liguria (Italy). Bosco and A. J. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. La flavescence dorée. Pizzoli and G. L'Informatore agrario 53 (19). La flavescence dorée dans le vignoble corse. 1993b. Y. Wolf.. Vicenza-Verona. Torresin. 1993b. Identification of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in the northern Spain. Larrue and E. Rankin. 88-89. Bianco. L. L. P. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Vignevini 11. Carraro and L. Caccia. Refatti. 114-118. D... Danielli. Fortusini. P. stato attuale delle conoscenze e problemi di lotta". Belli G. Cravedi and F. A. C. Flavescenza dorata e altri giallumi della vite. Vibio. Phytoma . Phytopathologia Mediterranea 32. 64-65.E. Bertaccini. Pollock and M. L.. Bianco and A. Presence of a “Flavescence dorée” type disease in vineyards of Oltrepò Pavese. M. Fortusini. A. Journal of Phytopathology 143. Detection of flavescence dorée phytoplasma in grapevine in northern Spain. Beanland L. A. 116-117.A. Amici. Bagard A. G. 56-59. Belli G. Présence dans le vignoble du tessin d'une cicadelle néarctique nouvelle pour la Suisse. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S.. Prince and R. Martini and A.. Faggian. Sartori and A. Tencalla and G. 1987.. R. Gorizia 1993. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. Batlle A. Belli. P. Batlle A. Casati and G. J. Italy. G. V.. S. Kuszala. J. Species composition and abundance of potential vectors. Montreux 1993. Stato attuale delle conoscenze e problemi di lotta". Gravi e diffuse manifestazioni di flavescenza dorata della vite in Lombardia. 39-47. Vicenza 1985. Detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in Scaphoideus titanus Ball reared on flavescence dorée infected grapevine by dot hybridizations using DNA probes. Lisbon 1997. M. Torresin. and G. 295-306. (Homoptera. Schaff. 1986. 1997. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Vibio. 50-56. Presenza dell'insetto vettore (Scaphoideus titanus) e ulteriore diffusione della Flavescenza dorata nei vigneti del Veneto. Laviña. M. 137-141. Pondrelli. 25-27. Batlle A. Vibio. http://www. 257-260. Pizzoli. Borgo. Osservazioni e richerche sulla flavescenza dorata della vite in Lombardia e zone limitrofe.agr. A. Fortusini and D. Patetta. Beanland L. 69-70. Arzone. Efficiency of molecular tests to control phytoplasma elimination.A.A. Pizzoli. Martinez and A. L'Informatore agrario 56 (30). Credi. Fortusini. Belli G. M. Mitteilungen Schweizerische Entomologische Gesellschaft 60.P. Bagard M. R. R. vecteur possible de la Flavescence dorée. and A. A. Recenti sviluppi nelle conoscenze sulla flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite. Clair. Fortusini. Recent spread of Flavescence dorée and its vector in vineyards of Northern Italy. Baggiolini M. Alma. D.. 1999. Bertaccini A. Vitis 36. 2000. E. 1984. Fortusini.. MLO-infected weeds in the vineyards of north-western Italy. 1985a. Bertaccini A. Extended Abstracts Convegno "La flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite. Bertaccini. Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della vite. Stefani. 211-212. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 449a. 1997. Atti del Convegno "Problemi Attuali di Patologia Viticola".).
G.J.H. A. Bianco P. Thermotherapy of grapevine cuttings for flavescence dorée eradication. Auchenorrhyncha) dans leurs rapports avec la vigne dans le Sud-Ouest de la France. 1997. E. P.. Prince.A. cv. Elm yellows and aster yellows MLOs associated with a grapevine disease very similar to Flavescence dorée in northern Italy. 137-144.5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Fortusini. D.A.it/ICVG2003/ Boidron. Progrès agricole et viticole 109.F. Wachtel. and S. A. 1987a. 1995a. 1993b. B. R. 2000a. R. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite. Schliefert. Borgo M.it/ICVG2003/ Bertamini M. Bonfils J. 192-193. Nedunchezhian. P. 69-82. Italy. Symons. Davis and G. Appareil à eau chaude pour le traitement des bois contre la flavescence dorée. Gibson. Lee. Casati. A. IOM Letters 4. Vicenza-Verona 1987. 2003.. Vitis 35. 1996b. A.F.A. G. Kinnear and R. 103-119.J. Bonetti. 2002. P. E. J. Evoluzione della malattia "flavescenza dorata" rilevata su alcuni vitigni sensibili nel Veneto. 2001. M. K. Double and single infections by aster yellows and elm yellows MLOs in grapevines with symptoms characteristic of Flavescence dorée. 59-60. G. Bianco. Survey on Bois noir phytoplasmas spreading in vineyards of Modena province (Italy). G. 43-49. I. 162-163. N. Bonfiglioli R. Bonfiglioli R.. 1995b. Bianco P. http://www. Termoterapia e chemioterapia per eliminare i fitoplasmi da materiali di moltiplicazione della vite. Arzone and G. 325-336. and D. 55. 271-273. 1997.A.A.Bertaccini A. Bianco. Lee. Prove di risanamento di materiale viticolo affetto da Flavescenza dorata mediante termoterapia. R. Davis. G. 90-91. ribulose 1. Scattini. PCR detection of a mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) in Flavescence dorée diseased grapevines from Lombardia. S. Casati and M. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 1. Schliefert..A. Fortusini. 2001. Preliminary survey of the distribution of phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Symons.agr. PCR analysis confirms an expanded symptomatology for Australian grapevine yellows.. P. Fortusini. Belli. 1960. 11-15. 251-252. A. P. P. Annales des Epiphyties 11. J. P. M. R. Symons. Magarey and R.. Plant Protection Science. Casati and A.A. Informatore Fitopatologico 50 (4). 2003b. IOM Letters 7. J. Scattini. Casati.agr. Chardonnay) leaves.E. M. P. Malossi. Genetic variability and distribution of grapevine phytoplasmas of group 16Sr-V in Lombardia (northern Italy).uniba. Adelaide 2000. Identification of phytoplasmas infecting grapevine by ligase reaction and universal array. P. M. Carraro and G... Magarey. Photosynthetica 39 (1). Borgo M. Alma. A. Castiglioni.T. D.uniba. L. Casati and A. Calvi. Locorotondo 2003. 71-75. http://www. Locorotondo 2003. P..A. Arzone. 1987b. Prince.G. http://www. saccharides.it/ICVG2003/ Bianco P..A. A. Casati and G. Mogen and G. 121-139. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Bianco P. Prince. Frosini. Detection of phytoplasmas associated to grapevine Flavescence dorée disease by a specific 5' nuclease assay (TaqMan®).A. A. Fortusini and G. Locorotondo 2003. Pondrelli and E. Belli. P. R. E. Schvester. Belli. Grenan.F. Alma. Bianco P.... Bianco P. S. 195-199.H. Experimental transmission of 16SrV phytoplasmas by Scaphoideus titanus Ball. 2003a. Torresin. Les Cicadelles (Homoptera. L'Informatore agrario 57 (42). Bianco P.. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Quaglino. Belli. P. Gibb and R. Marziliano and G. Belli. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. Transmission of 16SrV phytoplasmas by Scaphoideus titanus Ball in northern Italy. Carey. Murari. N. L. E. E. 119-122. Scattini. 175 . R.A. Bianco P. 37 (2) 49-56. Sartori. Mori. Gundersen.G. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. P. 209. Casati. G.. Lisbon 1997. Description and progression of symptoms associated with grapevine yellows disease in young Chardonnay vines in the Sunraysia district. Bertaccini A. 98. Botti. Montreux 1993. and photosynthetic activities in field-grown grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. 2001.. Cavallini and A. 1992..A. Primi risultati di saggi biologici e di ricerca di varietà tolleranti alla malattia "flavescenza dorata" della vite mediante prove di sovrinnesto. Effects of phytoplasma (stolbur-subgroup (Bois noir-BN)) on photosynthetic pigments. Davis.agr. Davis. S. Vicenza-Verona 1987.H. M. 1993a. Casati and G. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite. Bertotto. P. Casati. R. Prevalence of aster yellows (AY) and elm yellows (EY) group phytoplasmas in symptomatic grapevines in three areas of northern Italy. Bianco P. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 32 (378a).S. Bonfiglioli R. S. Two different phytoplasmas belonging to group 16SrV may occur in grapevines affected by Flavescence dorée disease. Fortusini. P. Davis. C. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. De Bellis. 1994. 1996a. IOM Letters 3. Bianco P.V) 3. C.uniba. P. 84. A. 104-105. nitrate and nitrite reductases. and N. A. Botti. Casati. L. P. F. I..A. 2000b.. Scattini and A. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 400. Borgo. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Scattini. A.
In: Ravageurs de la vigne. 2003. Situation actuelle des maladies à mycoplasmes (Flavescence dorée et autres jaunisses de la vigne) dans le vignoble français. spreading and control. Diseases and Weeds. Sancassani and A. Studies on population dynamics and spatial distribution of leafhoppers in vineyards (Homoptera. L'Informatore agrario 24. Boudon-Padieu E.. et développement des recherches.. Boselli M.it/ICVG2003/ Boudon-Padieu E.. Bordeaux.uniba.) cultivars in eastern Liguria (northern Italy). Maixner.. Boudon-Padieu E. and E. 1997. E. épidémiologie.uniba. Zanzotto. Editions Féret.. vectors. Boudon-Padieu E. Borgo M. Progrès agricole et viticole 110. In: R. 5-20. 2000c.. Cavalloro (Editor). Borgo M. 1999. Riconoscimento di viti affette da malattie da fitoplasmi. 1993b. 1987b.. 1999. Boubals D. Comptes rendus des Séances de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France 82.. 121-167. Bertaccini. T. Diagnostic rapide de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne par le test ELISA sur la cicadelle vectrice. Schwartz. Boudon-Padieu E. and M. http://www. Caudwell.. pratiche agronomiche e materiali di propagazione. Boudon-Padieu E. A. L'Informatore agrario 52 (20). Locorotondo 2003. Borgo M. First Internet conference on phytopathogenic mollicutes. 2002. In: Les Maladies à virus. Progrès agricole et viticole 88. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 17. 1989. current knowledge and control methods / Jaunisses de la vigne. 110-120. http://www. malattia responsabile di gravi deperimenti su vitigni europei. 15-34. Israel Journal of Medical Science 23. E. 285-294. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche 2002. Annals of Applied Biology 130. 305. Proceedings of the Meeting of EC Experts' Group. France. Corino. Cicadellidae).Uniud. epidemiology and control strategies. 51-63. S. 572-606. Presenza e diffusione in Italia della "flavescenza dorata". Fitoplasmosi della vite in provincia di Treviso. 72-75. Diffusione di legno nero e flavescenza dorata. Vicenza-Verona 1987. 2000a. Une épidémie de jaunisse dans le vignoble corse : probablement la Flavescence dorée. 87-88. and J. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Control of Grape Pests.. La cicadelle vectrice de la Flavescence dorée. 62-63. 1998. Boudon-Padieu E. Phytoma La Défense des Végétaux 488 (Nov 1996). Les jaunisses à phytoplasmes de la vigne. Molecular variability in flavescence dorée phytoplasmas as marker for the disease outbreaks in vineyards.A. 2003. 1998. 41-45. 1996... Caudwell. 2002a. Des inconnues sont levées. 35-50. 47-51. Boubals D. Application à des populations naturelles de Scaphoideus littoralis. Balkema. 47-53. J. 506. A. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite.Html Boudon-Padieu E. Sartori. http://www. P. OIV Bulletin / Bulletin de l'OIV 71. Flavescence dorée of the grapevine. Boudon-Padieu.. Diagnostic. 1996b. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Recent advances on grapevine yellows. Thessaloniki. Alma and A. Arzone. etiology and diagnosis. Une grave épidémie de jaunisse de la vigne sur le Golan (Israël). 176 . état des connaissances et des méthodes de lutte.it/ICVG2003/ Boubals D.Borgo. Borgo M. 1986. 524-526. and A. Adelaide 2000. ELISA and immunofluorescence (IF) detection of the MLO agent of grapevine flavescence dorée on individual leafhopper vectors. Y. Boudon-Padieu E. Présence de dépérissements du type "flavescence dorée" sur la vigne en Italie. 1987. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.. Caudwell. October 1987. The situation of grapevine yellows and current research directions. 1971. detection. Lherminier and A. Confirmation de la présence de la Flavescence dorée dans les Bouches du Rhône. M.it/phytoplasma/pap/boud8290. 361-364. Terwisscha Van Scheltinga. Botti S. bactériennes et à phytoplasmes de la Vigne. etiology. and A. 10-13. 355-364. Murari. Netherlands. Bertaccini. 1993a. Boudon-Padieu E. Scaphoideus titanus Ball. diversity.. Termoterapia per eliminare i fitoplasmi da vite. Spatial distribution and severity of grapevine yellows on Albarola and Vermentino grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. knowledge and new developments in epidemiology. E. A. Bordeaux. 2000b. Boudon-Padieu E. Bosco D. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche 2002. Larrue and A. L'Informatore agrario 54 (24).agr. Diffusione della Flavescenza dorata della vite in Italia e relazioni con vitigni. J. Locorotondo 2003. Grapevine phytoplasmas. France. 1-11. 1999. Advances in Horticultural Science 13. Borgo M. Egger and L. Le Bois noir. ELISA and immunoblotting detection of grapevine Flavescence dorée-MLO induced antigens in individual vector leafhoppers. 1987a. Rotterdam. Angelini. 1996a. mais d'autres demeurent. 209-236. Extended abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Progrès agricole et viticole 103. Editions Féret.agr. Jaunisses à mycoplasmes de la vigne. 540-543... distribution. Grapevine Yellows. Progrès agricole et viticole 110. 1932. Larrue.
Proceedings 9th Meeting of ICVG. W. Boudon-Padieu E. Reinert and M. A. 1961a. X. Correlation with its visualization. 23-27. O. nouvelle jaunisse de la vigne au Chili. 141-150. D. Bovey R. Pavan. Larrue. and F. D. Lherminier. 1957.. la Flavescence dorée. Refatti. IOM Letters 1.. Caudwell. E. C. Agronomie 3. Etude des phénomènes de localisation des symptômes et de rétablissement. Martini and A. Boudon-Padieu E. Lisbon 1997. D. Clair. and G. Etude sur la maladie du Bois noir de la Vigne.. 107-108. Atti del Convegno "Flavescenza dorata e legno nero della vite in Friuli-Venezia Giulia".. Locorotondo 2003. Daire. C. Gugerli. 1989b. 177-178. Caudwell A. 111-112. M. Annales d'Amélioration des Plantes 4.it/ICVG2003/ Carraro L. On the ability-inability of Scaphoideus titanus Ball to transmit different grapevine yellows agents. 6-10. Goheen (Editors): Compendium of Grape Diseases. Bertaccini. ses rapports avec la Flavescence dorée. American Phytopathological Society Press. Cazelles. Un vigneto chiamato Friuli 6 (4). Loi. J. S. R. Caudwell A. La "Maladie" du 22A. Bourquin L. C. 2000. Osler and E. Petria 10. 4-9.. Refatti and V. C. Revue suisse de viticulture. Borgo. and F.. J. Differentiation of grapevine phytoplasmas in the elm yellows and the stolbur group with the use of RFLP of nonribosomal DNA. 289-297. L. Branas J. Clair. 9-13. La "Maladie" du Chardonnay et les épidémies de flavescence. 177 . and A. 181-182. Osler. Le rôle des porte-greffe dans la dissémination des maladies à virus et affections similaires de la vigne. Ramel and P. Batlle. Grapevine yellows diseases. Moutous.. 1988. 1989a. Refatti. Schwartz. Annales des Epiphyties 12. 1966. Progrès agricole et viticole 77. L'origine des jaunisses à mycoplasmes (MLO) des plantes et l'exemple des jaunisses de la vigne. J. 2000. 1994. Schmid. Pavan. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. 357-364. 2000.uniba.. R. 45-47. 1990. 55-56. Boudon-Padieu E. A. Vitis 33. A. Annales des Epiphyties 17 (Numéro hors série "Etudes de virologie"). 151-156. Gorizia 1999. M. M.. Carraro L. 1956a. A. Carraro L. N. 141-149. E. Larrue. Caudwell A. USA. 1988. 2003. 217-218. Diffusione nella regione Friuli-Venezia Giulia di una grave malattia della vite assimilabile alla Flavescenza dorata. 359-393. Annales des Epiphyties 15 (Numéro hors série I). 347-354. Grapevine yellows: comparison of different procedures for DNA extraction and amplification for routine diagnosis of phytoplasmas in grapevine. L'Amarilliamento de Elqui. Carraro L.. Bertotto and E. 2000. 241-262. Recherches sur d'éventuels vecteurs de la Flavescence dorée. 103-111. Caudwell A. Angelini. Meignoz.. I primi risultati delle ricerche nel 1987.. 1986. Larrue and A. Boudon-Padieu E. Les phénomènes de rétablissement chez la Flavescence dorée de la vigne.185-195.. ELISA and Dot-Blot detection of Flavescence dorée MLO in individual leafhopper vectors during latency and inoculative state.Paul. Minnesota. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Larrue and A. De Meyer. Caudwell A. Diffusione di fitoplasmi in vigneti della Toscana centrale. 319-325. Immunoenzymatic detection of the MLO pathogen agent of grapevine flavescence dorée. St. Confirmation of the presence of stolbur-type yellows in Swiss vineyards by molecular diagnosis of grapevine.. Boudon-Padieu and E. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG.. Caudwell. Caudwell A. J. Y. 61-66. E. Caudwell. Spiazzi. E.. http://www. Braccini P.. Un vigneto chiamato Friuli 4 (5). Proceedings 7th Meeting of ICVG.. N. A. 1961b. 1967. Deux années d'études sur la Flavescence dorée. Current Microbiology 19. Pondrelli. nouvelle maladie grave de la Vigne. Annales des Epiphyties 18 (Numéro hors série "Etudes de virologie"). Serological detection and characterization of grapevine flavescence dorée MLO and of other plant MLOs. Girolami. A. Capuzzo. Loi.. Carle P.. Caudwell A. 249-251. R. Bressan A. Branas J. 1968. 1983.agr. Niagara Falls 1980. Progrès agricole et viticole 77. Clair. Annales des Epiphyties 12. J. 1992. 321-324. 2003. 1997.. 1964. Storia dei giallumi della vite nei Friuli-Venezia Giulia. J. L'inhibition in vivo du virus de la Flavescence dorée par la chaleur. Braccini P. Petria 10. Sfalanga. V. Kuszala. Seasonal probability of Flavescence dorée phytoplasma transmission in relation to abundances of leafhopper vectors and source for acquisition. Laviña. Boudon-Padieu.. Identification d'une nouvelle maladie de la vigne. Caudwell A. Adelaide 2000. In: Pearson R.Boudon-Padieu E. Vitis 7. Der heutige Stand der Flavescence dorée Forschung. Béjat. M. 1956b. Kiryat Anavim 1987. 231-234. Indagine sulla presenza di auchenorrinchi in vigneti della Toscana centrale. 1980. Vitis 42. La flavescenza dorata della vite in Friuli. Maixner. Caudwell A. arboriculture et horticulture 24. Girolami.
Caudwell A. Caudwell A. 1970.C. 170-176. Série D. J. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France 49. Progrès agricole et viticole 96 (6). Vignes et Vins 214. Transmission de la Flavescence dorée de la Vigne aux plantes herbacées par l'allongement du temps d'utilisation de la Cicadelle Scaphoideus littoralis Ball et l'étude de sa survie sur un grand nombre d'espèces végétales. C. 79-83.C. 1970. Kuszala and J. 5-10. Annales de Phytopathologie N° hors série. and J. La transmission par des cicadelles de la jaunisse du vignoble Corse. P. Larrue. Fleury and E. R. Lisboa-Vila Real 1988.. Berkeley.C. Epidemiology and vectors of grapevine viruses and yellows diseases. 1979. 791-806. C. Caudwell A. Caudwell A. Progrès agricole et viticole 103. Meignoz. Caudwell A. In: Frazier (Ed. J. Caudwell A. Caudwell A. par des épreuves d'infectivité.) : Virus Diseases of Small Fruits and Grapevines (A Handbook). 1972b. J. C. and C. Moutous. Responsabilité d'un vecteur aérien dans l'épidémiologie du Bois noir de la vigne. Plant-Protection Problems and Prospects of Integrated Control in Viticulture. and D. Caudwell A. Montreux 1993. Pluralité des Jaunisses de la vigne. Kuszala and J. Série D 279. Annales de Zoologie et d'Ecologie animale 10 (4). J. 1986. Larrue and J. 1971b. 1982. and J. A. Larrue. Etude du rôle de particules de type "Mycoplasme" dans l'étiologie de la Flavescence dorée de la Vigne. Larrue. La flavescence dorée et les jaunisses de la vigne en Europe. Kuszala. Paris. Flavescence dorée. 1971a. leur intérêt dans la lutte contre la Flavescence dorée en Corse et dans les autres régions. 201-207. Kuszala. Fleury and J. Caudwell A. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Sciences. Bachelier. 1993. A. 583-590. J... Paris. Boudon-Padieu. Purification immunologique et observation ultramicroscopique en milieu liquide de l'agent pathogène d'une jaunisse végétale. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France 68. Kuszala and J. 128-134. Advances in grapevine yellows research since 1990. 1990. Mise au point d'un test ELISA sur les tissus de vignes atteintes de flavescence dorée. Larrue. 95-105.. A. 517-523. 1974.C. Approches de la survie et de la culture de l'agent (MLO) d'une jaunisse végétale. Annales de Zoologie et d'Ecologie animale 9. Annales de Phytopathologie N° Hors série. Examen cytologique des plantes malades et des cicadelles infectieuses. Annales de Phytopathologie 3 (1). la Flavescence dorée de la vigne. Examen des problèmes de la flavescence dorée dans le cadre de la sélection sanitaire des bois et plants de vigne. Caudwell A. 1972d. Etude de la survie de la cicadelle Scaphoideus littoralis Ball sur les plantes herbacées et utilisation de ces données pour transmettre la Flavescence dorée de la vigne à d'autres espèces végétales. 1977. 443-456. Larrue. Brun. 407-415. Identification de cette maladie à la Flavescence dorée. Caudwell A. 1960. Bachelier. In: R. Division of Agricultural Sciences. Caudwell A. 107-123. Larrue. Variétés des dégats des Cicadelles nuisibles à la Vigne. Caudwell A. and A. Les traitements ovicides contre la cicadelle vectrice.. 1989. Schvester. C. 1985. La flavescence dorée dans le midi de la France et dans le Bas. Larrue. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France 46. Schneider. 171-180. 958-963. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium. Kuszala. Interaction entre "Court-noué" et "Flavescence dorée". 178 . J. and N. Caudwell A. Etude de l'existence de ceps sensibles et de ceps tolérants expliquant la permanence de la maladie sur les mêmes ceps. Progrès agricole et viticole 89. and J. Caudwell A. Bachelier. D. Larrue. C.. 451-457. Larrue. 268. Fos and P. Larrue. University of California. 101-103. Transmission de la Flavescence dorée de la fève à la fève par des cicadelles des genres Euscelis et Euscelidius. Cavalloro (Editor). and J. Gianotti. 1992. 1978.Caudwell A. Intervention possible de ces insectes dans l'épidémiologie du Bois noir en Bourgogne. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. C. Brun. Les maladies bactériennes et à mycoplasmes de la vigne. Annales de Phytopathologie 2 (2). J. Kuszala and J. Caudwell A. C. Caudwell A. Bachelier.C. 523-525.. 181-189. 415-428. 655-663. Kuszala. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Sciences. Research in Microbiology 143. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Larrue. 613-625.C. La production de cicadelles saines et infectieuses pour les épreuves d'infectivé chez les jaunisses à Mollicutes des végétaux. Larrue and J. J.Rhône. Schvester and G. Epidemiology and characterization of Flavescence dorée (FD) and other grapevine yellows. C. 144-148. Caudwell A. Dalmasso. G.. Caudwell A. Les méthodes de lutte contre Scaphoideus littoralis. 1969. Caudwell A. 1972c. Moutous. Premiers résultats de transmission de la Flavescence dorée à des plantes herbacées. Bachelier and J. 1972a. Kuszala.. C. 1963. Caudwell A. Agronomie 10. Poitou. Bachelier. la Flavescence dorée de la vigne. Annales de Phytopathologie 3 (1).
N. 21-25. 44-46. 2003. 2003. McLean. Malossi and A. Prospection des jaunisses de la vigne en Suisse romande et au Tessin et comparaison avec la flavescence dorée par le test ELISA. R. Phytopathology 83. Caractère "porteur de la flavescence dorée" chez les vignes porte-greffes. 106. South Australia. 1997.L. M.it/ICVG2003/ Chen. Günthart. Extended Abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. Guo. Larrue and E. Kuszala. Nicoli Aldini. Y. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Chen.H. Danet. Revue suisse de viticulture. Collin E. (Ed.it/ICVG2003/ Clair D.. 101-102. Frelet. Valat and S. G. Chen. and R. A. and E. 2004. Lutte contre la Flavescence dorée de la vigne dans le cadre de l'agriculture biologique. C. O. 2003. Schmid. Bouhachem. 101-102. 1993. Clair D. Première observation en Suisse romande de la cicadelle Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera. Cavallini G. G. Vindimian.. Agronomie 14. 2003. Grapevine "Bois noir" disease in Lebanon. M. Vitis 42 (3). C. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. J. Gillet. 915-922. Mh'irsi. Constable F. Boudon-Padieu and G. P. S. Larrue. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 429. 83-94. Montreux 1993. S. Larrue. indexing results and hot water treatments.uniba. Tassart. Seasonal detection of phytoplasmas in Australian grapevines. S. Revue suisse de viticulture. Bernard. El Zammar. In: Lozzia C. Botti. Larrue. Caudwell A. and T. Linder and H. Loi. L.E. Bové and M. A. P. http://www. Larrue. J. Pearson. Planas. Caudwell A. Cloquemin and E. Progrès agricole et viticole 107.. V. Verdin. 1997. Grenan and R. vecteur de la flavescence dorée de la vigne. Symons. Boudon-Padieu. Locorotondo 2003. Leguay and P. Salar. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60. C. G. 1994. 2000. J. Flavescence dorée elimination from dormant wood of grapevines by hot-water treatment. Recherches sur son diagnostic et sur les méthodes de lutte. S.agr. Carraro. J.E. N. Flavescenza dorata e legno nero in vigneti del Modenese. R. K. Larrue. 81. 2003. Clair D. Adelaide 2000. F.uniba. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies.agr. Grenan. 103. Improved detection of flavescence dorée and related phytoplasma in the elm yellows group in difficult material.Caudwell A. Aubert. Clerc. C.. Jreijiri. 115-119. Boudon-Padieu. A multiplex nestedPCR assay for sensitive and simultaneous detection and direct identification of phytoplasma in the Elm yellows group and Stolbur group and its use in survey of grapevine yellows in France. 2001. Occurrence of Grapevine Yellows and potential vectors in Tunisia. 2002. 1999. Constable F. Cazenove. Chabbouh N. Australia. http://www. J. 1905-1913... R. Bertaccini. Flavescence dorée on rootstock varieties. 175-208. and E. Marzouki and M. 1994. Guriolo and M. arboriculture et horticulture 25. Boidron. Biologie et étiologie de la Flavescence dorée. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. E. E. Castiglioni. The University of Adelaide. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 281-286.it/ ICVG2003/ Constable F. OILB/IOBC Bulletin 24 (7). with specific PCR primers that amplify a variable non ribosomal DNA fragment. A. Desbaillet and A. Wu. 1992. Osler. Department of plant Science.. R. Evaluation of vectoring ability of phytoplasmas by Metcalfa pruinosa SAY (Homoptera. Jaunisses de la vigne en Suisse romande et au Tessin. 1991. J. 49-53.H.agr. A. Choueiri E. O. L. 2003. D. R. Caudwell. Grenan.. and PCR for detection of the grapevine yellows disease agent.. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 3.agr. http://www.it/ICVG2003/ Cicotti A. and T.. J. Jassidae). DNA probes. R. Chen. http://www. arboriculture et horticulture 24. Bortolotti. Boudon-Padieu. E. L. Boudon-Padieu. and R. N. Mori. Identification and grouping of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with grapevine yellows and clover phyllody diseases based on immunological and molecular analyses. L'Informatore agrario 21. Loi. J. Locorotondo 2003.. Les traitements à l'eau chaude des bois de vigne atteints de la Flavescence dorée.H. Larrue. 1990.uniba. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite. A. A. De Sutter. Credi. S. Kuszala and J. Cazelles. N. 69-71. Marrakchi. A. PhD thesis. Maixner.E. The biology and epidemiology of Australian grapevine phytoplasmas. J. 1993.. 179 . Guo. and R. 133-134. 1993.H. Symons. Garnier. D. D. Chen. Bois noir (BN) in Trentino vineyards : twelve years visual observations and research about root analysis. Boidron. V. K. Cazelles. 151-157. Constable F. Australasian Plant Pathology 33. H... Mahfoudhi. Caudwell. 257-259.. 98. Tassart. S. N. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.) : Proceedings of the Working Group "Integrated control in Viticulture". J. Flatidae) recently introduced in Europe. and C. 1987. Revue suisse de viticulture. Locorotondo 2003. 245-247. E..uniba. Progrès agricole et viticole 108. Genomic diversity of the Flavescence dorée phytoplasma. Y. arboriculture et horticulture 29. X. R. Genetic variability amongst isolates of Australian grapevine phytoplasmas. Boudon-Padieu.E. Locorotondo 2003. 195-198. Vicenza-Verona 1987. Y. en particulier le 3309 Couderc et le Fercal..E. Aubert.
Jones. A. Poggi Pollini. 2004. Mazzoni and A. 1988. 79.H. 267-276. Babini. Symons. 154-162. Terlizzi. Babini and C. Dodder transmission of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) from grapevines affected by a flavescence dorée-type disease to periwinkle. evoluzione della malattia nelle piante e suoi effetti sulla produzione e sullo sviluppo vegetativo.. Vignevini 11 (3).R. and R. Cicadellidae) in vigneti della provincia di Piacenza. K. vettore della flavescenza dorata della vite in Oltrepò pavese...uniba.. K. Locorotondo 2003. Terlizzi. 25-41. 56-60. Proceedings 10th Meeting of the ICVG... Lo Scaphoideus titanus. Cravedi P. Gibb and R. Territo and G. and A. R. Y. Vicenza-Verona. Profilo epidemiologico della flavescenza dorata della Vite in EmiliaRomagna. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 27. Constable F. Credi R. 1987..R. Micoplasmi ed altri procarioti intracellulari.R. Studi epidemiologici sul legno nero della vite in EmiliaRomagna. Whiting. Bissani and C.M. A new grapevine yellows phytoplasma from the Buckland Valley of Victoria. Vignevini 18(6). V. Osservazioni sulla biologia di Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera. Seasonal distribution of phytoplasmas in Australian grapevines. Vitis 41. A new grapevine phytoplasma from the Ovens Valley of Victoria. Credi R. K. Credi R. Moran and Y. and A. Callegari. diffusione temporale. 2002a. 2001. 19-20. L'Informatore agrario 22. The distribution of grapevine yellows disease associated with the Buckland valley grapevine yellows phytoplasma. 90-98. Constable F. J. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 28. Stimilli.. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. 57-70. Presenza e diffusione dei fitoplasmi del legno nero e della flavescenza dorata della vite in Emilia-Romagna. G. 1997. Chalmers and R. Cravedi P. R. Jones. Proceedings 7th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union. 1987. Santucci. K. 2000. R. Petrini. 1994b. 131-149. 113-120. Whiting and R. Conti M. Terlizzi. 1993b. distribuzione spaziale delle piante ammalate e gradienti d'incidenza.E. Vignevini 28 (12).. Flavescenza dorata della vite nelle Marche. Credi. Journal of Phytopathology 142. http://www. 1991. J. 2002b. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 29. Constable F. 310-316. Aldini. Roma 2002. J. Conti M. Babini.E. Cicadellidae). Symons. Australia.E. Credi R.S. and A. 1993a. restricted growth and late season leaf curl diseases in selected Australian vineyards. 1991. Volos 1990. Redia 76(1). Ulteriori osservazioni su una malattia della vite simile alla flavescenza dorata in Emilia-Romagna. Biology and epidemiology of Australian grapevine yellows. Dradi. The incidence. Plant Pathology 52. 65-73. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 409. Vignevini 27(9). Gibb and R. Gibb. Flavescenza dorata della Vite in Emilia Romagna.E. 107-110.E. 1984. agenti fitopatogeni di crescente interesse. 2000. F. Lisbon 1997. Australia. Granada 1987. 1994a. Annals of Applied Biology 144.it/ICVG2003/ Constable F. Italy. A. Boccardo. Cricca and D.H.R.H. 7-13. Santucci. Annali della Academia di Agricoltura di Torino 129. Journal of Phytopathology 151. restricted spring growth and late season leaf curl symptoms in grapevines.S. N. Annali della Facultà di Agricoltura. Atti II Incontro Nazionale sulle Malattie da Fitoplasmi.S. C.R. Gibb and R. Lagnese.W. Incidence of phytoplasma associated with yellows. Cravedi P. J. Studies on a yellows-type disease of "Chardonnay" grapevine in Tuscany. 2002a. Cervato. Randles and R. 92-93. F. 141-148. Trials on graft transmission of a Grapevine flavescence doréelike disease.. Symons. Symons.H. and A. 35-39. Symons. 177-178 Credi R. Credi R. Credi R. S Nardi and R. F. 1987. Mazzoni and P.. northern Italy. 61-63. Ricerche sulla diffusione di Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera. E. Gibb. 5859.. Epidemiology of grapevine die-back disease in Liguria. 1986. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with a grapevine yellows disease occurring in Italy. Martini. E. Santucci and L. Credi.R. Wilson. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della vite.E.H. Libè. 147-153. 33-36. Sviluppo epidemico della flavescenza dorata in relazione ad alcune forme di allevamento della vite.M. 1989. 2003a.. Attempted transmission of the pathogem causing a grapevine yellows disease in Italy. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 1998. 2003b.S. L. J.agr.155-163. Whiting. Cervato. Adelaide 2000. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting ICVG. J. Journal of Phytopathology 141. Credi R. 180 . Symons.R. K. 1992.S. Credi R. distribution and expression of Australian grapevine yellows.H. Constable F. Casi epidemici di Giallume della vite in Emilia Romagna. 2002b. Gibb. J. Credi R. 61-62.S.. Conti M. 1990. Constable F. and D.E. K. Credi R.Constable F.. Occurrence of anomalous mycoplasma-like organisms in grapevine yellows-diseased phloem. 113121. Università di Milano 33. P. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 31. Minucci. 205-218.
Wright and G.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem 376. Curkovic Perica M. Dally. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 32. 33-37. Osler. Prince.. 1993b. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Škoric. Maixner. 95. France. and M. Clair. 2001. 1996. Locorotondo 2003.P. Caudwell. Dally. 2002. S.L. Übertragungseffizienz der Vektoren von Rebphytoplasmosen. 53-54. H. 5-12. P. E. N. Seemüller.it/ICVG2003/ Curkovic Perica M..E. E. diverse etiologies indicated by new DNAbased methods for pathogen detection and identification -. J. J. Reinert and E. Plant Disease 85. Diversity among mycoplasmalike organisms inducing grapevine yellows in France. 2003.P. Boudon-Padieu. Montreux 1993. Larrue and E. 790-797.Implications for epidemiology. A. Crocker J. R. J. Martin and A. Hammond. Daire X. Santoni. Posenato and V. V.. Carraro. 199-202. 149-152. and J. Vitis 32.uniba. Cixiidae) in German viticulture and its significance as a vector of Bois noir. Tanne. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 31. Revised subgroup classification of group 16SrV phytoplasmas and placement of flavescence dorée-associated phytoplasmas in two distinct subgroups. 1993a. and E. http://www. E. D. M. Botti.E. 93-94. I-M. Larrue. Prince. E. DNA cloning and detection of flavescence dorée mycoplasma-like organism (MLO). 1992b. B. G. Vitis 36. Thèse de Doctorat. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and dot hybridizations distinguish mycoplasmalike organisms associated with flavescence dorée and southern European grapevine yellows disease in Italy.uniba. Bervillé. E. Daire X.uniba. Maixner. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Boudon-Padieu. European Journal of Plant Pathology 103. I-M..agr. M. Schneider and A. J. Caudwell. Survey for grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in diverse European countries and Israel. E. Locorotondo 2003. Schneider. 484-487 Daire X. A. Actual distribution of Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Auchenorrhyncha. 2003. 159-163. Lee. Davis R. Boudon-Padieu and A. Dijon. B.. Annals of Applied Biology 121. Dally. 183-192.E. 2000. Carraro. 1994. Waite. Wright. J. Lee.. Volos 1990. R. Krajacic M. A. Davis R. Credi. Flatidae).agr. 772-776.L. 2001. L. D. Davis R. Recent progress in phytoplasma research in Croatian vineyards.Crocker J. B. Di Terlizzi and M. Avoiding cutting dehydration and good nursery management may be the keys to successful hot water treatment. Girolami. Barba. P. A. Bertaccini. Vibio. Source area management. P. Caudwell. Savino. Krajacic. 1997a. 1993. M. D Clair. Daire X. Šeruga. Darimont H.P. D. R. L. 95-103.it/ICVG2003/ Davis R. R... Infection of grapevines in Emilia-Romagna by mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) related to Italian periwinkle virescence MLO. Prince and M. and D.. Barba. G. Detection and differentiation of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas belonging to the elm yellows group and to the stolbur subgroup by PCR amplification of non-ribosomal DNA. Vibio. Bervillé. Détection et différenciation de mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) associés aux maladies de la vigne de type jaunisse. Université de Bourgogne. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 24 (7).E. Škoric. 1991. Davis R. Alma. D. D. Granata.E. Mittleilungen der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land. D'Ascenzo D. Dally. M. Clair.E.. Identification of phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Abruzzo region (Italy). Davis R. Gundersen. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Italian periwinkle virescence mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) and evidence for relatedness with aster yellows MLOs. Refatti. Locorotondo 2003.. E. Larrue. 1993a. I-M. R. 2001. Carraro and M. 507-514. Lee and N. A.L. R.. E. E. Davis R. Bertaccini. Šeruga. Daire X. Habili. Credi. ''Candidatus Phytoplasma 181 . R. 65-69. A. Bertaccini. Murari.. Waite. Deverell and H. 71-72. B. Caudwell. Bertaccini. A. Cloned DNA probes for detection of grapevine Flavescence dorée mycoplasma-like organism (MLO). Vitis 32. E. Fletcher. W. http://www. Petria 2.agr. 1993b. Dally and I-M. J. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.. Boudon-Padieu. Boudon-Padieu. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Australian advances in hot water treatment research. Lee.W. Pearson and A.L. V. L. 62-65. Danielli A. and M. Osler. evidence from enzymatic amplification of MLO DNA. Boudon-Padieu and A. Detection and molecular characterization of phytoplasmas in the planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Homoptera. Bertaccini. Kozina. P. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. 1992a. Mori. 2003. Blanco..E..E.L. Grapevine yellows spread of the disease in Croatia. 1997b. Rahola. Darimont H. Credi. E. The Australian and New Zealand Grapegrower and Winemaker 461a. Arzone. Phytopathology 83. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 66. Clair. Occurrence of diverse MLOs in tissues of grapevine affected by grapevine yellows in different countries. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 35. http://www. Kozina and M. B. 371-372. 247-248. 89-90. R. Daire X.it/ICVG2003/ Daire X. 1997a. E. Cloned DNA probes for specific detection of Italian periwinkle virescence mycoplasmalike organism (MLO) and investigation of genetic relatedness with other MLOs. Grapevine yellows diseases. Osler. S. A. 1992.
and M. Boccardo. R. Giallume fitoplasmale della vite. and C. Firrao G. affinità e differenze con altre ampelopatie. Conti and G. F. Guimarães and V.. M.it/ ICVG2003/ Di Terlizzi B. and G. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable mollicutes..uniba. E. Barba. A. Saracchi and S. G. Progrès agricole et viticole 106. I. http://www. Detection and identification of phytoplasmas belonging to 16SrV-D in Scaphoideus titanus adults in Portugal. G. Del Serrone P. 1967. Tanne and I. Pontiroli and G. M.agr.A. http://www. Cinquanta. Molecular characterization of a Flavescence dorée phytoplasma infecting grapevine in Serbia. S.. Du Fretay G. esistono vitigni resistenti? Vignevini 22 (1/2). M. Di Terlizzi B. Fortusini A. 237. S. R. Mycoplasma or PLT group-like microorganisms found in the phloem elements of plants infected with mulberry dwarf. N. Cardoso..L.australiense. Bouet. M. 1995. Del Serrone P. Journal of Microbiological Methods 14. and A.it/ICVG2003/ Duduk B. Asuyama. Ottimizzazione della diagnosi molecolare di fitoplasmi in vite. Davis R.. 1987. Egger E. Bianco. 101-105. I "Giallumi della vite". Volos 1990.Html Fortusini A.J. Teranaka. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 47. M. A. 1994. 1997b. Wolf. Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Virginia belong to group 16SrI. Flavescenza. http://www. 1989. Monitoring grapevine yellows in North-eastern Italy. P. 170-174..L. E. Minucci and M. 51-62. 1995a. Lutte contre la cicadelle de la flavescence dorée. Botti and A. Egger E. Rumbos. inizi e sviluppi della malattia. Davis. Barba. Barba.E. R.uniud. Ivanovic. Dally. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 33. S. Diffusione in Toscana di una malattia della vite assimilabile alla flavescenza dorata sulla cultivar "Chardonnay". 91-92. V) 5. 1988. Carpanelli. Lisbon 1997. Vignevini 16 (9). Casati. 16SrXII-A. Plant Disease 87. Farmer M. Fortusini A. 559. Trasmissione sperimentale della flavescenza dorata della vite mediante Scaphoideus titanus Ball in Italia. Doi Y. C. new subgroup I. Botti.'' a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. new perspectives on detection and identification of associated phytoplasmas. M. Cloning and expression of Flavescence dorée mycoplasmalike organism membrane protein in Lambda Zap expression vector.. Frausin.. Indagini sull'epidemiologia della Flavescenza dorata della vite e su possibili interazioni tra infezioni virali e malattia. 1998. Ivanovic. Rivieccio. Vitis 37. A. 1996b. 2003b. and E. 2003. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 33. M. Savino. Malossini. A. 78. 1988. Udine 1996.agr. Bertaccini. 91-98. Del Serrone P.. Importance of the vegetative stage for phytoplasma detection in yellows-diseased grapevines. Del Serrone P. 75-84. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite. 95-96. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG.. Grasselli and P. Boudon-Padieu. Montreux 1993. Di Terlizzi B. Belli.E. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Des résultats intéressants obtenus lors des expérimentations de 1988. Davis. First Internet conference on Phytopathogenic mollicutes 1999. Tomada. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Vignevini 15 (3). Vitis 35. L'Informatore agrario 44 (11).. 43-46. Petria 7. Belli. M. N. 1993.A. 1991. La flavescenza dorata della vite in Italia.L. Rivista di Viticoltura e di Enologia 48 (4). Fortusini A. Jomantiene. Castellano and V. un caso fitopatologico ancora aperto. 11-16. Jomantienne. Grapevine yellows diseases. 2003a. P. S. 1995. Belli. Petria 5. subgroup A (tomato big bud phytoplasma subgroup). 1995b. Savino. Duduk B. Journal of Plant Pathology 79. E. 53-61. Barba. Bertaccini. Diffusione del Giallume Fitoplasmale della vite in impianti laziali. 53-54. Vial.C. Dally and T. 30-31. Alma. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. 259-266. Deng. Bernard and A. First report of an Elm yellows subgroup 16SrV-C phytoplasma infecting grapevine in Serbia.E. Locorotondo 2003. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S. K. 1994. potato witches' broom. Pereira. 67-69. 425-431. A. Dukic. M. Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Israel and Greece belong to the stolbur phytoplasma subgroup. or paulownia witches' broom. Dukic and A.it/phytoplasma/pap/firr4200. Savino. 181-187. Further studies on yellows-like disorders in Apulia. 182 . Atti Convegno Annuale SIPaV. M.. 125-131. C. 101-102. 1996a. C. Nuovi dati e osservazioni sulla Flavescenza dorata della vite nell'Oltrepò pavese. Palmano. Present status of grapevine yellows in Apulia.uniba. Locorotondo 2003. Del Serrone P. and group 16SrIII. Castellano and V.. Hiruki. Dazzan and C. 1999. Yora and H.A. Dally and R. and M. IOM Letters 3.. Saracchi and G. Vicenza-Verona 1987.. 1997.. 54-56. Alma and V. E. 262-269. S. Castellano. M. 1997c. P. Scattini. 1991. 161-170. Grasselli.K. Storchi. 1989... R. quattro anni di esperienze in vigneti laziali. De Sousa E. M. Occasional occurrence of yellows-like symptoms in Apulian grapevines. 131-137. Minucci. aster yellows.
R. and M. Bové.. H. Epidemic yellows in vineyards of cv. Casati.. I-M. Frosini A. O. 2001. S. Prevenzione e cura. Gajardo A. Sintomatologia ed evoluzione della malattia nelle piante infette. Molecular evidence of phytoplasma transmission to grapevine by Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) in Italy. Consolandi. European Journal of Plant Pathology 107. Bianco. Gorizia 1993. Carraro. J. B.. Gilge U. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. An internal positive control in PCR-tests for the detection of phytoplasma in plants and insects. Russo. 2000. 17-20.A.A. PA. Fiore and A. 85-86. Colombi. Botti. Extended Abstracts Convegno "La flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite. differentiation and associated diseases. Prota. Boudon-Padieu. Use of a monoclonal antibody to detect the stolbur mycoplasma-like organism in plants and insects and to identify a vector in France. 1991. Gugerli P. Alberghini. 1992. J. Ligase detection reaction and universal arrays as a tool to detect grapevine infecting phytoplasmas. Garnier and J.uniba. Granata G. Spring growth disorders in grapevine. C. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica 31 (3) : 276-282. 71-72. Vignevini 17 (5). Locorotondo 2003. Wen. Vitis 38. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Phytoplasma diseases of grapevines in Sardinia. P. 45-49. Locorotondo 2003. 1990. Clair. Herrmann and M..R. F. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting ICVG. G. M. 1993. Danet. 85-90. 61-65. P.Fos A. Maixner. Battaglia. 2004. Ortez. 1965. Lorton. Survey on phytoplasmas identified in Chilean grapevines. 77. N.V.uniba.. 347-376. 183 . Pavan.L. N. and V. Maladie du bois noir de la vigne en Suisse romande et au Tessin. Belli. 49-54. A new natural planthopper vector of stolbur phytoplasma in the genus Pentastiridius (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Electron microscopic detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in epidemic yellow affected grapevines. 263-271. Schwappach. 2003b. http://www. J. Gatineau F. M. Schwappach.agr. Minucci. Frausin C. Verifica di pratica utilizzazione della tecnica di termoterapia in aqua calda per il risanamento di talee di vite affette da giallume. Grimaldi. http://www. Sinclair. Petria 1. 99-100. Gärtel W. J. 19/4. 2002..Feldstudie zum Vorkommen in Franken und Methoden zu deren Bestimmung. Indagine sulla presenza di auchenorrinchi possibili vettori di fitoplasmi in vigneti del Friuli-Venezia Giulia. and R. 1993. Revue suisse de viticulture.V. Fiori. 2002. Rebe & Wein 2/2004. L.. Padovan. P. Girolami and A. Castiglioni. Minerva Biotecnologica. U. Plant Disease 76. 2000. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. J. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 426a. Phytoplasmas associated with elm yellows. 2000. Emery and L. The adaptability of an artificial medium in the screening of phytoplasma insect vectors. Gorizia 1993. Richard-Molard and E. Anaclerio.E. Inzolia in Sicily. W. 45-49. Bertaccini. E. 1999. arboriculture et horticulture 34. Rossi Bernardi and G.agr. Boudon-Padieu.detection. and A. A. 2003a. G. 69-71. Atti del Convegno "Flavescenza dorata e legno nero della vite in Friuli-Venezia Giulia".. Daire.. Granata G. Untersuchungen über das Auftreten und das Verhalten der flavescence dorée in den Weinbaugebieten an Mosel und Rhein. Cazelles. Ge Q. G. Sfalanga and A.. 171-175. 2003.. Freeman. Locorotondo 2003. C.uniba. Schwarzholzkrankheit . and E. Maixner. 1999. Bertaccini. 1092-1096. F. Update on Australian grapevine yellows in Australian vineyards. 1997. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. S. Herrmann. Griffiths H. Maixner and F. 265-267. Atti del Convegno "Flavescenza dorata e legno nero della vite in Friuli-Venezia Giulia". E. F. 2001a. X. Indagini su un giallume epidemico simile alla "Flavescenza dorata". 14 (3-4).Feldstudie zum Vorkommen in Franken und Methoden zu deren Bestimmung. Phytoplasmas in Australian grapevines . Genini. Schwarzholzkrankheit . Granata G. Granata G. A. Zreik.M. Lisbon 1997.it/ICVG2003/ Ge Q. 2000.. Gorizia 1999. Carturan. D. http://www.. B. and M. Guadagnini M. C. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. Moran and A. V. Constable. 109-110. C. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 452. S. Bertaccini. Adelaide 2000. Gorizia 1999. Stato attuale delle conoscenze e problemi di lotta". and M. 15-17. Egger. and L. A. Gilge. L.C. Mezzeloni. Weinberg und Keller 12. Boccardo and M. Rizzi. Stasi. Comparative experimental transmission of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas to plants and artificial feeding medium. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Obstund Weinbau. 79-81. Maixner. Mori. E. De Bellis. Lee. 1101-1104.it/ICVG2003/ Ge Q. Gibb KS. M. 1985. Gregoris and F.. Plant Disease 83. Coiutti and A. molecular variability and differentiation from related organisms.M. Gregoris A. Girolami V. Habili N. 2004. 19 -22. M. 2003. V.S. Symons. J. Larrue. Bordoni. Stato attuale delle conoscenze e problemi di lotta"..it/ICVG2003/ Garau R.. 107-114. Maixner. 10-13.agr. Extended Abstracts Convegno "La flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite. Montealegre.
Viruses and virus diseases of grapevine in Lebanon. O.H. Viruses and phytoplasmas in neighboring grapevines showing or not showing symptoms. Rossi and M. C.. P.. 2001. M.. A. Rezaian and R..agr. Identifying the vector of Australian grapevine yellows phytoplasma. Scott. Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes.S. 12 and 18 July 1996. Haidar M. C. Lozzia and M. USA. Tõkés. M. 73-74. W. and Richardson P. L. Proposition d'une méthode de contrôle des populations de Scaphoideus titanus Ball dans le vignoble. Locorotondo 2003. H. and M. N. II) 25 (1). Maixner. Kuszala C. 394-397. J.. 1992. Lázár. I. Mesure radiographique du volume injecté à Euscelidius variegatus (Kirschbaum). H. 19-23. E. Szendrey. 1993. 1055-1062. 91-102. Minutes of the interim meetings. Kuszala C. Kriel. Characterization of isolates of Vergilbungskrankheit phytoplasma by RFLP-analysis and their association with grapevine. Virus and phytoplasma content of major grapevine varieties in Australia. Langer M. Minutes of the interim meetings.M. Influence du milieu d'extraction sur la détection du bois noir et de la flavescence dorée de la vigne. 2004. Davis. Molecular characterisation of grapevine yellows associated phytoplasmas of the stolbur-group based on RFLP-analysis of non-ribosomal DNA. 355-365. Pearson. 2003. Ames. G. Malipatil. Bertaccini. J. Vitis 43. 403-406. Refatti. Davidovich. 43. 191200. A. 137-139. visual assessment versus diagnostic assay. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.R. Vergilbungskrankheiten an Reben . S. Lázár and A. Agronomie 13. Dally.. Contribution à l'étude des jaunisses de la vigne dans le monde. R. and M. T. Maixner. Detection and characterization of an elm yellows (16SrV) group phytoplasma infecting Virginia creeper plants in southern Florida. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology.. Phytoplasmas on grapevine in Serbia. Occurrence of grapevine yellows disease in grapevine-growing regions of Hungary. Ashanova.. B. Influence du sexe et de l'âge des insectes vecteurs injectés dans l'épreuve d'infectivité des jaunisses des plantes. Magarey. Baillod. 201-204. arboriculture et horticulture 28. Nombre des pièges englués nécessaires pour estimer la densité relative des populations de la cicadelle Scaphoideus titanus Ball en vignoble. Lisbon 1997. P. Jermini M. 1997. 1996. and R. M. Baumgärtner. Plant Disease 85. Kuznetsova. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.S.uniba. Harrison N. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICGV. Agronomie 6. 47. F. 2002. 591-598. Savino. Maixner. 929-933.. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. and N. 10-13. Klein M. Baillod. R. Iowa. J. M. 1996. K. 2001. 911-914. Monitoring phytoplasma-bearing leafhoppers / planthoppers in vineyards in the Golan Heights. Constable and M. Krake L. Tomic. 1996. Magnien. Griffiths H. G.. 1993. 1996. Mikulás. M. 2003. Israel. Digiaro. J. Managing viruses and virus-like organisms starts with the facts. 2003a. D'Adda. Scott. http://www. M. S.Habili N.uniba.. Stojanovic and T. E. and M. 18-22. J.auf dem Vormarsch? Rebe und Wein 55 (7). Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Mollicutes. Locorotondo 2003. E. Granata. Habili N. 1999. Etat actuel de la diffusion au Tessin de Scaphoideus titanus Ball.et monoclonaux dirigés contre les phytoplasmes du stolbur et de la flavescence dorée.M.A.H. G. Journal of Applied Entomology 125. 99-100. Herrmann J. Prospection par test ELISA spécifique du mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) de la flavescence dorée. Bolletino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura (Ser. Kuszala C. 1986. Orlando. Papp. herbaceous host plants 184 . http://www. Graft-transmitted diseases of grapevines. Taylor. arboriculture et horticulture 24.A.. 1999. R. vecteur de la flavescence dorée. Revue suisse de viticulture. Agronomie 16. Australia. Khoury and V. 18-20.V... 19-22.. Krake L. Krizbai and E. CSIRO Publishing. 156-158. Sodobno Kmetijstvo 29. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 412. Kölber M. G. Credi. Kuzmanovic S. Symons.. International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB). Australian Viticulture 3 (6). Ember. Starovic. Varga. Schliefert and R. Darimont and M. Cazelles. Carpio M. Symons. 93-94. 2001b. Botti. Weintraub. 1993. Langer M.it/ICVG2003/. International Committee of Systematic Bacteriology (ICSB).it/ICVG2003/ Koruza. 1997. Boulud. S. G. Tanne. 1 and 2 August 1992. A.E. Orenstein and E. Tosic. Jermini M. 1998. [Results of the study of grapevine yellows disease dispersal in Slovenia]. Revue suisse de viticulture. Caudwell. Martini.. Six-year survey of grapevine yellows distribution in Hungary. G. Kölber M. Tanne and A. par des anticorps poly. L. USA.C. 147-153. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 451.L. Jermini M. Kelly M. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 438a. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 26. Collingwood. L. Florida. 2000.agr. Baillod. Zahavi.
J. A. R. M. Alma. Boudon-Padieu and A. Immunolabeling of grapevine flavescence dorée MLO in salivary glands of Euscelidius variegatus. 197-202. Garcia and A. Situation et évolution de la maladie et de la cicadelle vectrice dans le vignoble français.. Immunological detection and localization of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) in plants and insects by light and electron microscopy. A. Thèse de doctorat. Roche and A. Meignoz. Caudwell. 1990b. Annals of Applied Biology 123.agr. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Locorotondo 2003. J. Batlle. C.. 285-293. Annales des Epiphyties 19. J. 185 . H. In: Nicole M. Caudwell and E. Louis and A. Laviña A.E. Terwisscha Van Scheltinga. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 63. Lherminier J. R. First report of grapevine bois noir phytoplasma in Spain. Electron Microscopy of Plant Pathogens. and J. 439-442. In: R. 1998. Propagation of flavescence dorée MLO (Mycoplasma-like organism) in the leafhopper vector Euscelidius variegatus Kbm. Occurrence and symptom expression of bois noir in Burgundy over a 15 years period. Doordrecht. 6667. Lherminier. Caudwell and R. In: Mendgen K. The Netherlands. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Bakterien als Ursache: Phytoplasmen im österreichischen Weinbau. Lherminier J. Montpellier 1997. 611622. Laviña A. Lisboa-Vila Real 1988. La flavescence dorée de la vigne. Lherminier and J. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Lesemann (Editors). Caudwell.http://www. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 1989. Caudwell. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 48..agr. A. 1955. 489-496. Tedeschi and A. Boudon-Padieu. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 26. France. Palermo. A. 115. Larrue J. Springer.C. Boudon-Padieu.. and V. 245255. Lherminier J. Incidence and dissemination of grapevine bois noir phytoplasma.. Université de Bourgogne. R. Presence of grapevine yellows phytoplasma vectors... E. Sabaté. G. S.it/ICVG2003/ Levadoux L. Dispersal patterns and chromatic response of Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera Cicadellidae). 1993. E. and E. A. J. E. J.it/ICVG2003/ Leclant F. Boudon-Padieu. 2004. vector of the phytoplasma agent of grapevine flavescence dorée.. D. Locorotondo 2003. a light and electron microscopy study. Lefol C. 1995. 2003. 353-360. Maixner. T.). Caudwell. Der Winzer 60 (1). 1075. Histology. Lefol C. IOM Letters 3. J. Laurent J. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting ICVG. J. Lacote. J. Batlle. X. Cavalloro (Ed. 111-113. Attachment of the Flavescence dorée pathogen (MLO) to leafhopper vectors and other insects. 75-76. 1969. Clair and E. Clair and E. Premières observations sur Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret dans le midi de la France (Homoptera: Cixiidae). Tokyo. Plant Disease 79. Locorotondo 2003. 1996. Berlin. and A. Seasonal fluctuation and detection of stolbur phytoplasma in grapevine. Lherminier.uniba. R. Larrue. Lee I-M. 1994a. 2003b. Laviña A.. In situ detection of grapevine flavescence dorée phytoplasmas and their infection cycle in experimental and natural host plants. http://www. Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 38. E.. Rapid immunofluorescent detection of the grapevine flavescence dorée mycoplasmalike organism in the salivary glands of the leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus Kbm. E. Presence of attachment sites accounting for recognition between the Flavescence dorée MLO and its leafhopper vector. Dijon..uniba. 177-184. 1968. and E. Prensier. 118. Davis and I. Lefol C. Boudon-Padieu. 237-240.G. Larrue. Gundersen-Rindal. Adelaide 2000. Journal of Phytopathology 125.P. Lefol C.agr. Alma. C. Recherches sur les vecteurs du stolbur dans le midi de la France. D. 1989. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 6 (2). Boudon-Padieu. Larrue. 79-85. Batlle. Ultrastructure and Molecular Cytology of PlantMicroorganism Interactions. 1994b.and vectors.M. Daire. Larrue. Gianinazzi-Pearson (Editors). Agulhon. 1153-1169. 1997. C. 2000. Boudon-Padieu. Meignoz. Caudwell. Bartoszyk. A. D. PlantProtection Problems and Prospects of Integrated Control in Viticulture. http://www.it/ICVG2003/ Langer M. 1990a. Louis.E. Milne.. Larrue. 11-13. 1993. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. Lessio F.. Leclant F. 2004. Lessio F. 2003. 257-259.uniba.. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium. Etude des systèmes de reconnaissance entre le MLO (Mycoplasma-like organism) de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne et une cicadelle vectrice Euscelidius variegatus Kbm. Proceedings 10th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union. 282-283. Boudon-Padieu and A. Boudon-Padieu. and R.. Leitner G. 121-127. Darimont and M.. Annales de Phytopathologie N° hors série. Control of phytoplasma vectors in organic viticulture. Agriculture 18. L'état sanitaire et la sélection du Baco 22A. Lherminier J.
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 45. Staatliches Weinbauinstitut. P. INRA. Daire. 67-105. 14-17. 75-76. Nicole and J. New Dehli. Blein. Wachtel. D. B. Gibb. 1988.Br. R. Determination of the distribution and multiplication sites of Flavescence Dorée mycoplasma-like organisms in the host plant Vicia faba by ELISA and immunocytochemistry.G. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche 1992. Vergilbungskrankheiten der Rebe. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. Abstracts of the IOBC working group "Integrated control in viticulture". Australian vine Yellows a new name. Bordeaux.W. M.C. 1308-1309. Spatio-temporal analysis of the distribution of grapevine yellows in Germany. 619-623. Wachtel. Boudon-Padieu. Magarey. 1985. 193-201. and U. Forster. Australian Grapevine Yellows . epidemiology. Magarey P. 1991. 1997b. Oligodeoxynucleotides as probes for in situ hybridization with transmission electron microscopy to specifically localize phytoplasma in plant cells.A. Maixner M. Magarey P.. and M. Germany. In: Raychaudhuri S.A. Der Deutsche Weinbau 8.P. 47-87. Bundesministerium für Ernährung. Distribuzione. biologia e controllo di Scaphoideus titanus Ball. F.. The Rhine Riesling problem recent findings. Liefting L. Caudwell.P. Maixner M.A.. Cytological characterization of elicitin-induced protection in tobacco plants infected by Phytophthora parasitica or phytoplasma.L. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases 4.Search for possible vectors of German grapevine yellows... 1996.. Maixner M. Magarey P. Wachtel and R. N. Padovan.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin und Braunschweig. Pearson. Maixner M. 1994. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 220.. Mitteilungen der Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land. Phytopathology 93.Ein Programm zur Analyse räumlicher Verteilungsmuster von Rebkrankheiten. R. India. Emmett..S. Maixner M. Maixner M. Mittleilungen der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land. Vergilbungskrankheit der Rebe. Studies on grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit) in Germany -Detection of MLOs in grapevines and search for possible vectors.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem 349. Magarey. 12-18. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 32. Maixner M. Australian grapevine yellows.A. 186 . 1993. Maixner. Lherminier J. Maixner M. Molecular and Cellular Probes 13. 1999. Malhotra Publishing House. Magarey.E. 1995. 1993a. Symons and E. Bonfiglioli. Montreux 1993. 1989. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. In: Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land. K. Volos 1990. J.. 41-47. M. 157-164. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 232.C. Grapevine yellows diseases. Rishi (Eds.A. Reinert. Magarey. 121. 2003. Newcomb. Beever. Ahrens. Wachtel. and M F.A. Larrue. and W. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes 45.-L. Vitis 33. P. 125-138. E.L. Wachtel.F. MLO associated with Australian grapevine yellows diseased phloem cells. 1993c. Studies on Scaphoideus titanus Ball. M.D. M. M. a possible vector of grapevine yellows in New York. 1998. and N. Milat. Reinert. Lozzia G. papaya dieback and Phormium yellow leaf diseases. Lherminier J. 173-182. Montreux 1993. 88. X.. and M.Lherminier J. Andersen. France. 1993b. Wachtel. Extended Abstracts 11th Meeting ICVG. South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture 7. 1982. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases 6. European Journal of Plant Pathology 104.S. Spatial pattern analysis for epidemiological studies on grapevine diseases. 1988. 304. P. A review of the present status of Australian grapevine yellows.W. Mycoplasma Diseases of Woody Plants. Jahresbericht 1996. and diagnosis. and M.F. 101-102. Boudon-Padieu.. Lisbon 1997.. and R. Monitoring of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae) in vineyards and its significance as a vector of "Vergilbungskrankheit" (German Grapevine Yellows). PATCHY . P. 1994. 1986. Untersuchungen zur Epidemiologie der Vergilbungskrankheit der Rebe. Reinert. Maixner M. A.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem 283.). R. 103-104. Beck and R. R. 1995. Abstracts of the IOBC working group "Integrated control in viticulture". Maixner M. Maixner M.F. 1997a.T. and W. 78-80. 1992. 6970. Benhamou. Transmission of German grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit) by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae).. Plavsic and M. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 26 (309). Agricultural Record (South Australia) 12 (17).F. 90-100. 1983. 1992. 1-14. Leafhoppers (Homoptera. 39. 1986.A.Aetiology. Occurrence of Grapevine yellows in Germany. and W. 175-179. 1998. Auchenorrhyncha) in German vineyards . 'Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense' is the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows. Courtois and A. 1993. C. Freiburg i. 32-33 Magarey P. Maixner M. Heisswasserbehandlung von Rebholz zur Eliminierung der Vergilbungskrankheit. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.a review.A. M. Landwirtschaft und Forsten. 1993d.H. Grapevine yellows .
35-43. 2002. Volos 1990. 1997a. 1999. Rüdel. N. Scaglione. 1997a. Marcone C. 2000. Reinert. Maixner M. Malausa J. 1995b. a possible vector of grapevine yellows in New York. Marcone C. FAO. Detection of the German grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit) MLO in grapevine. Kalashyan and T.. W. 207-213. Rome. M. Protocols for detection of viruses and viruslike diseases. P. Informatore Fitopatologico 50 (1-2). Aspetti epidemiologichi delle fitoplasmosi delle drupacee e della vite in Campania. Wells (Editors).. 235-236. 241-250. 218. Course of infestation by grapevine yellows in vineyards after replanting.. Ahrens and E. 1991. and W. Pearson. 2002. Graft-transmissible diseases of grapevines. Vitis 39. A. with special reference to Italy. Darimont and W. U. Roma 2002. and Associated Economic Problems.P. Botti. Marzachì. and J. Ragozzino and E. Detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with a yellows disease of grapevine in Germany. Boudon-Padieu. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 35. INRA Editions. 1999. 228-229. Laviña. G. and A. P. 2000b. Mori and A. H. (Editor).. R. Marinesku V. Marcone C. 1997b. Giuge. 49-52. X. 1999. Reinert. Rana. E. 408-413. Cultivation. 103-105. 1986.Maixner M. Phytoplasmas. 374. Ragozzino. U. Maixner M. USA. R. Caudwell. R. Sydney 1998. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Scaphoideus titanus. 1-10. 2003. Grapevine diseases induced by phloem. Darimont.L. G. Maixner M. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. N. Maixner M. Seemüller. Ragozzino. 1993. Camele. G. Maixner M. 1999.. M. Verderevskaya. Molecular and Cellular Probes 16. Grapevine yellows. Ahrens and E. A. Scaglione. Identification and characterization of the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows in southern Italy and its relatedness to other phytoplasmas of the elm yellows group. Detection. Plant Disease 83. Ragozzino.. Plant Disease 77. Maixner M. In: Martelli G. C. C. an aid for grapevine yellows management decisions. Prognose des Flugaktivität von Hyalesthes obsoletus und Einfluss klimatologischer Faktoren auf die Phänologie des Reben. Maixner M.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem 376. NJ. Ragozzino and G. Cicadellidae) as a vector of the alder yellows phytoplasma of Alnus glutinosa (L. Adelaide 2000. J. and H... 1996. Boudon-Padieu. Oncopsis alni (Schrank)(Auchenorrhyncha. Identification and epidemic distribution of two flavescence dorée-related phytoplasmas in Veneto (Italy). Batlle and W. Vitis 34. Proceedings 10th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference. Publication Division. Scaglione and A. De Florio and A. and W. In: Cappelini R. Prota. Credi and E. Vignevini 26 (5). 83-84. Nicotina... C. W. Caudwell. 87-94. Maixner. Maixner M. Bianco. Diversity of grapevine yellows in Germany. Informatore Fitopatologico 47 (10). Rutgers University Press. 2000a. Mitteilungen aus des Biologischen Bundesanstalt 390. Daire. Boudon-Padieu and A. Maixner M.. Marcone C. Seemüller. Weber. Darimont. S. Martini M. Handbook for detection and diagnosis. Selezione e sanità della vite. New Brunswick. Casati. Journal of Phytopathology 142. A. 2000. Lüers and H. 45-54.G. and U. Nusillard and L. Les Colloques No 86. alternative hosts and a vector by a specific PCR procedure. 197-207. Bertaccini. Daire and E. Maixner M.. 1995a. European Journal of Plant Pathology 101. Martelli G. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 23. M. Presenza di giallumi della vite in impianti di « Falanghina » nel beneventano e di altri vigniti in Basilicata. X. 197-208. 187 . Marcone.P. Atti II Incontro Nazionale sulle Malattie da Fitoplasmi. Grapevine yellows in Moldavian SSR. Reinert. Seemüller. A.. E. 2002.C. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 21.. Bilan des recherches sur l'entomofaune antagoniste de Scaphoideus titanus en Amérique du Nord en vue de l'introduction d'auxiliaires en France. Insect parasitoids and mite parasites of leafhoppers and planthoppers (Auchenorrhyncha) in vineyards. Marcone C.a European perspective. 925-930. Genetic variability among Flavescence dorée phytoplasmas from different origins in Italy and France. Transmission of grapevine yellows by Oncopsis alni (Schrank) (Auchenorrhyncha: Macropsinae). Martelli. 183-195.A.or xylem-limited prokaryotes in Europe. 123-124. 24-27. Martini M. Murari. The impact of propagation material on vine health .P. (Ed. Reinert and A. 1997b.. 2000. G.A. Darimont. Bertaccini. Fastidious Plant Prokaryotes. 1994. E. 51-58. Seemüller..) Gaertn.P. B. 1993. Paris. P. Sanitary selection of the grapevine. In: Walter B. Reinert and H. Presenza d'infezioni fitoplasmatiche della vite e relativi possibili vettori in Campania. European Journal of Forest Pathology 27. 75-76..). Martelli G. Mittleilungen der Biologischen Bundesanstalt für Land. D. A. Lutte biologique contre la cicadelle vectrice de la flavescence dorée. Detection and characterization of phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in southern Italy and their genetic relatedness to other grapevine yellows phytoplasmas. I. Y. Benedetti and A. M. Martelli G. 109-110. European Journal of Plant Pathology 105. 58-62. A. Reinert. Phytoma La Défense des Végétaux 565. Monitoring of planthopper vectors in vineyards. 83-84. Verbreitung rebpathogener Phytoplasmen und ihrer Vektoren in den deutschen Weinbaugebieten.
M. Optimisation of a one-step PCR assay for the diagnosis of Flavescence dorée-related phytoplasmas in field-grown grapevines and vector populations. 66-68. Boccardo. Osler. Palermo. Assessment of a two years study of the natural enemies fauna of Scaphoideus titanus Ball in its North American native area.. and L. 1997. Vitis 40. Nienhaus F. A. M.. 2003. 58-63. Martini. 56-57. Boudon-Padieu. Loria and G. 2002. M. New Disease Reports 10. M.bspp.C.Weinbau 40 (11). J. Mescalchin E. Ermacora.. Thermotherapy trials to eliminate phytoplasmas from Prosecco. Murari E. Loria and G. diffusione e strategie di lotta. F. Presenza di fitoplasmi in un vigneto del Soave. A. 2002. Indicazioni preliminari. Gardiman and L. Weinberg und Keller 18. 213-217. W. Boccardo and M.). Girolami and A.. legno nero e giallume dell'astro in vitigni del Piemonte sud orientale.. G. Milkus B. 99-102. Boarino. G. Fattouch.org. 2003. Vindimian. Guadagnini. Vergilbungskrankheiten im Südtiroler Weinbau. J. Anaclerio. Proceedings 9th Congress of the Mediterranean Phytopathological Union. Besson. V. First results in the cultivation of Rickettsia-like organisms of Yellows diseased grapevines in chick embryos. 37-49.. Boccardo. F. Murari E. Riscontrata in alcuni vigneti del Basso Sarca Flavescenza dorata della vite. Sartori and A. New Disease Reports 9. 1986. Fontana. F. A. Martini. 1994. M. 2001a. August 2004 . 51-60. Vignevini 27 (7/8). E. Anaclerio. Das Auftreten der Vergilbungskrankheiten der Rebe in Norditalien/Trentino. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 26 (8). Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. 2000. Informatore Fitopatologico 52. Rumbos. 320-322. Millot. 2003. Habili N. I. V. Palermo. Chardonnay and Incrocio Manzoni 6. Coassin. S. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrank-heiten und Pflanzenschutz 85. 322-325. P. 84-91. L'Informatore agrario 55 (24)..asp M'hirsi S.B. Mescalchin E. 18. Experimental transmission by Scaphoideus titanus Ball of two Flavescence dorée-type phytoplasmas. Mosel und Saar.0. Obstbau Weinbau 40. http://www.agr. Caudwell. preliminary results. Bertaccini. Rickettsialike organisms in grapevines with Yellows disease in Germany.. F. B. Présence de MLO et effets cytopathogènes associés. Marzachi C. Malausa. E. M. Moutous G. Stamo and R. Boarino. Kusadasi-Aydin. 88-94. A. Villani. 345-431. Journal of Phytopathology 134. Pavan. 2004. S.uk/ndr/jan2005/200460. Bressan. L'Informatore agrario 56 (23). H. Locorotondo 2003. cv Chardonnay) affected with grapevine yellows in the Ukraine. Idir S. L. D.). Marzachi C.asp Minucci C. Colautti. 1992.. http://www. Effetti sull'innesto e sulla ripresa delle barbatelle. Conti.13 grapevine cultivars. Flavescence dorée de la vigne. Résultats d'essais ovicides contre Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. 1-9. Turkey 1994. Boccalon. Morandell A. and F. Lisbon 1997. Real-time PCR detection of Bois noir and Flavescence dorée from field collected symptomatic grapevines. 2003. C. Stefanelli and A.. Nienhaus F. Journal of Plant Pathology 85.. Marzouki. Girolami and A. Mutton P. P. First report of phytoplasma infections in fruit trees and grapevine in Albania. M. Fos. Bertaccini. Legno nero della vite nei vigneti di Chardonnay del Friuli-Venezia Giulia.Marzachi C. 188 .uniba. 1977. Zucchiatti. Del Cont. 64. Joly and P. 237-240. and Boudon-Padieu E.. Marrakchi and N. Mendgen K. E. D. First report of phytoplasmas in the aster yellows group infecting grapevine in Tunisia. Lovat. Larrue and A.. V. A. A. A. M. C. 1996. Boccardo. M. M. L.. G. Mattedi. Feb-July 2004.. 36-38. E. Vignevini 29 (9).. 113-117 Nusillard B. Galetto and D. Greuel. Terra Trentina 32 (9). Revue de Zoologie agricole et de Pathologie végétale 76 (2).. 2000. Trattamento con acqua calde su legno di marze e su radici di barbatelle innestate di aluni vitigni (Vitis vinifera L. Rumbos and E. II. Acheche. and I. Untersuchungen über eine Vergilbungskrankheit an Rhein. Mucignat.. Moretti G. Sintomi di fitoplasmi in vitigni coltivati in Piemonte. Moretti G.B. Vitis 41. P. Giuge and P. la cicadelle vectrice de la Flavescence dorée.org. L'Informatore agrario 52 (20). Floreani.. Cordoba 1976. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.it/ICVG2003/ Meignoz R. First detection of stolbur phytoplasma in grapevines (Vitis vinifera. In : Monografias INIA No. Bosco. Myrta A.C. Mori N. 429-431. 2003. Vibio and G. 1979. 69-77. Morone. Bertaccini. 223-226. V. Flavescenza dorata. Borgo. J. Frausin. Clair D.. 85-86. S. Antoniazzi.bspp. Biland. Informatore Fitopatologico 51 (9). 1978. 2004. Bressan. D'Aquilio. Malagnini. 1999. I.. Morone C. A severe disease of grapevines in the Italian Riviera associated with mycoplasma-like organisms.C.. P.uk/ndr/july2004/2004-10. Bressan. Obstbau . Vettori dei giallumi della vite. http://www. C. Influenza del trattamento con acqua calda su talee di alcuni vitigni (Vitis vinifera L. Boccardo.. 2001b. Veratti. A. Gotta and G. Vibio. Proceedings 6th Meeting of ICVG. S. Posenato. A. A. Vischi.January 2005. Bertaccini. Michelotti and M. dans le liber de la vigne. 1971. 53-56. 2002. Mori N.
Wachtel.. Carraro.. A. Duso. Gibb. 189 .S. A. Magarey and M. Vitis 40. 53-56. T. Martini. Salema. Fornasier and V. Bonfiglioli. R. 2003. Pavanetto and C.uniba. Osler R. Girolami and R. Pavan F. 2001. V Congress of European fundation for Plant Pathology. C. Weintraub. B. E. Osler R. USA. 124-127. 219-223.G. Lisbon 1997. Extended abstracts 12th Meeting of ICVG. 1994. Vibio. Bertaccini. L.. M.. 175-181. Abreu and R. 55-61. 2003. Distribution of phytoplasma in grapevines in the Golan Heights. Credi. Locorotondo 2003. Osler R. Israel. T. Carraro. Goffinet. Zahavi. Osler R. Pavanetto. A. Orenstein S. P. D. 31-37.C. R. Fortusini.G. 8-10. N. http://www. A. P. Refatti. Bertotto.C. C. Weintraub. Barkalifa. Osler R.. Plant Disease 77. F. 68-69. Gibb. Spatial dispersion patterns of potential leafhopper and planthopper (Homoptera) vectors of phytoplasma in wine vineyards.A. risultati di una prova comparativa. 61-63. L'Informatore agrario 45 (41). 69-71. D.C... Possibilità di controllo dei potenziali vettori dell'agente della flavescenza dorata. K. 2002. http://www. 1997a. A comparison of the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows to other phytoplasmas in grapevine. 1995b. L'Informatore agrario 53 (10). Informatore Fitopatologico 47 (11). Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24.. L. 1975.it/ICVG2003/ Parente A. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 101. Frausin and E.S. Boudon-Padieu. 921-940. K. Caudwell and E. Detection of the phytoplasma associated with Australian Grapevine Yellows disease. Girolami.agr. Annals of Applied Biology 142.M. Pearson R.F. and development of a universal primer. M. Pasquini G. 2003.. Refatti. E.. 1997b. Refatti. 1995a. M. L. Magarey and B. 2000. Pavan F. Informatore Fitopatologico 25 (6). The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 32 (378a). Ermacora. Osler. Trasmissione di flavescenza dorata e legno nero e comportamento delle viti infette. Pavan F. Palermo S. and E. V. L. E.uniba. Di Terlizzi and P. Plant Protection Quarterly 4. 1992. E. M. Arzone. Extended Abstracts Convegno "La flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite.A. L. 13-15. L. Stato attuale delle conoscenze e problemi di lotta".. 91. 1993b. Refatti. F. Pavan F..B. Alma. Emmett and M. P. Carraro and E. R. R.. 341-348. 2531. Zahavi and P. W. Pool. C. Martini. Marzachì and M. 1997a.. Vicenza-Verona 1987. a controversial practice to eradicate grape yellows caused by phytoplasmas. Pavan. Situazione nell'Italia settentrionale.C. L. Flavescenza dorata nei vigneti delle colline trevigiane. P. Vitis 35. Locorotondo 2003. Armonizzazione della diagnosi della flavescenza dorata della vite (FD). 1989.A. 1996. Roguing. A. 73-78. L'Informatore agrario 53 (10). Trasmissione sperimentale dell'agente della malattia. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.A. Vindimian. Frausin.M... Daire and E. Osler R. Del Serrone. Quick and reliable methods to detect Flavescence dorée and Bois noir phytoplasmas in field collected insect vectors. Marzachi and A. Villani. Taormina 2000. A. Presenza di Scaphoideus littoralis in vigneti dell'Oltrepò pavese affetti da una malattia del tipo “flavescence dorée”. Nestel.agr. Dicembre 2001. Osler R. Molecular detection of the Australian grapevine yellows phytoplasma and comparison with grapevine yellows phytoplasmas from Italy. Carraro. Gorizia 1993. On the transmission of grapevine yellows disease by bench-grafting. Osler R. M. Possibilità di propagazione del giallume della vite (legno nero) a mezzo del materiale vivaistico. A. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Filippi. F. M.B. Refatti. 496-498. 61-65. 1987. F. Tedeschi. Refatti. Carraro. L. Padovan A. Bianco. X. Informatore Fitopatologico 10. Malattie da fitoplasmi della vite. R. P.. R. First results on the trials in progress to identify the vector of the agent of a Grapevine yellows in Italy. Angelini. Benedetti. Zucchetto.. 1989. Gonsalves and M. Refatti. Osler R. 149-155. N. Mutton and E. Boudon-Padieu. Ruolo del vivaismo nella diffusione della flavescenza dorata. G.. R. I. Loschi. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 31. P. Recovery in plants affected by phytoplasmas. Dinamica di popolazione di Scaphoideus titanus Ball nelle Venezie. Osler R. G. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite. Vettorello.Orenstein S. Belli. Monitoring for potential leafhopper vectors (Hemiptera: Cicadelloidea and Fulgoroidea) of the causal agent of Australian grapevine yellows. Loi. C. Carraro. 111-112. Carraro. 97-98. Occurrence of flavescence dorée like symptoms on "White Riesling" grapevines in New York. K.S. Ferrini. Loi and E. Gibb. 2002. 1997b. G. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 1. L. Padovan A. Girolami.. M. Padovan A. 1993a. Informatore agrario 58. Sears. E. 2001. E.. Vettorello and V. Pywell. 63-64.it/ICVG2003/ Osmelak J. Symptom expression and disease occurrence of a yellows disease of grapevine in northeastern Italy. 82-87. P. Loi. N. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with phloem cells of diseased grapevines in northern Portugal. 1985. Sharon. Faggioli. Bertaccini.C. Atti Convegno Locorotondo. C. Carraro. Ermacora and E. Barba. Vindimian. 189-194.
Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo. Posenato G. Maixner. Seljak. 1991. Fortusini and G. 237-247. A national research program. L. Lee and E. Reinert W. Volos 1990. G.P. Loi and F. Petrovic N. Beber. Pavan. Pavan. 10-15. Eubacteria) in Deutschland unter Berücksichtigung Phytopathologischer Aspekte. Bertaccini. and M. A. Carraro.D. Natural diffusion of a flavescence dorée-like disease of grapevine in northeastern Italy. Costache.L. Molecular detection of diverse mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) associated with grapevine yellows and their classification with aster yellows. A. implications for epidemiology. Quartau J. Jeraj and M. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG.. Wolf. and M. 1998. Lisbon 1997. K. Locorotondo 2003. Epidemiology of a yellows disease of grapevine in northern Italy. J.. Flavescence dorée and other yellows of grapevine in EEC countries..E. Prince. "Flavescence dorée" in Italy. 1993. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. 444-445. 459-462. 71-79. IV) 24. P (Editor). J. T.. IOM Letters 3. Diffusione ed evoluzione della flavescenza dorata della vite nell'area orientale del Soave. 1996b. Maixner. 57-60. Gorizia 1993. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG.L. J. 1996. L. I-M. 103-104. Osler. Barba.. G. 1993. 77. Grapevine Viruses and Certification in EEC countries. Phytopathology 83. The use of tissue culture for improved detection of phytoplasma in grapevine. R. N. Saracchi. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 24 (7). La flavescenza dorata nell'area del Soave. X-disease. 446-449. J. Phytoplasmen im Weinbau. Ravnikar. G. M. 1987. 1993. and elm yellows MLOs. Reinert. A. Rafaila C. Valutazione dell'attività di alcuni insetticidi nei confronti degli adulti di Scaphoideus titanus Ball e Metcalfa pruinosa (say). 119-120. On the occurrence in Portugal of the nearctic Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera. T. 151-156. 2003. Ph. Girolami. Lee. 1992. Belli.M.A. 1968 (1970). the natural vector of the grapevine "Flavescence dorée" (FD).. 288-289. Osler.E. G. 2000. Giornate fitopatologiche 2002. Thesis. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. 1988. Davis. R. Carraro and R. Gorizia 1993. 69-71. R. 41-47. 1996a.Petrovic. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. André. 190 . 65-66. Extended Abstracts Convegno "La flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite. L'Informatore agrario 52 (20). Quacquarelli A. Scaphoideus titanus (Ball) e altre cicaline nel Veneto orientale. Expérience de lutte contre la flavescence dorée dans le vignoble audois. http://www. Osservazioni mediante microscopia elettronica a scansione su viti affette da "Flavescenza dorata".K. Montreux 1993. Posenato G. Refatti E. 1991. Dally. Saracchi. Epidemiological studies on a new grapevine yellows in Germany. Consolaro and N. R. Cicadellidae). and M. 9-12. 61-65. Progetto di ricerca MAAF "La flavescenza dorata della vite". 1993. and V.it/ ICVG2003/ Planas R. Wolf. 1994. Refatti E. Presenza di differenti tipi di giallumi della vite nell'Italia nord-orientale. Stato attuale delle conoscenze e problemi di lotta". N. Reinert W.. Boben and M. Carraro and F. 273-276. Posenato G.uniba. In:. W. 1994. and M. Vicenza-Verona. Girolami. Mori and V. 2002. Ravnikar. Fortusini and G. R. Stato attuale delle conoscenze e problemi di lotta". Technische Universität Darmstadt. Posenato.. Genomic diversity and possible wild plant sources of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) infecting grapevines. Belli.und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem 321. Osler. Prince. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S.agr. Quaderno No 3. Matis. 1991. Adelaide 2000. 1130-1137. Mori. Ingalbenirea aurie (Flavescence dorée). R. R. Mori. Refatti E. Quacquarelli A. Untersuchungen zum Nachweis der Erreger der Vergilbungskrankheiten der Rebe. Petria 8. Darmstadt. Girolami. F. 1999. Barba. Proceedings 10th Meeting of ICVG. Obst-Wein-Garten 72 (11). Quacquarelli A. The presence of grapevine yellows and their potential natural vectors in wine-growing regions of Slovenia. Dally. Detektion und Differenzierung rebpathogener Phytoplasmen (Mollicutes. N.. B. Germany. Davis. A. F. 85-98.P. Quaroni S.. Investigations by scanning electron microscopy on grapevines affected by "flavescence dorée". 2003. Volos 1990. Pavan and V.K.. N. E. Quaroni S. Volos 1990. 164-172. N. Analele Institutului de Cercetari Pentru Proteccia Plantelor 6. 13-17. I-M. L. 97-98. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite. Guimarães and G. State of the Art. Regner. Credi and M. Stefanelli. Mogen. J. Miklavc. Refatti E. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.. M. Bressan. 2001. Extended Abstracts Convegno "La flavescenza dorata ed altri giallumi della vite. Mitteilungen der Biologische Bundesanstalt für Land. Bari.. Italy. 1997. Stato attuale delle conosenze sulla presenza. L'Informatore agrario 50 (22). Martelli G. L'Informatore agrario 52 (20). difffusione e gravità della flavescenza dorata e di altri giallumi della vite in Italia e in altri Paesi del Mondo. Consolaro.D.. o boala noua a Vitei de Vie in Romania..
Posenato.. Torresin. 73-78. Quaroni and A.. Avgelis. 1963b. 1978. 1989. Pizzoli and G. Fortusini. S. Bernard. Saric A.. Perspectives de lutte contre la Flavescence dorée par destruction de son vecteur.Reinert W. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et Appliquée 61.C. E. J. Casati and G. Die Thermotherapie als Mittel zur Heilung phytoplasmen-verseuchten Vermehrungsguts. Transmission de la flavescence dorée de la vigne par Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. Skoric. Montreux 1993. Das Deutsche Weinmagazin 11. Adelaide 2000. 41-44. and A. Rui D. Saracchi M. Sabaté J. Sancassini G.. 2000. Trovato in Umbria Scaphoideus titanus. 1995. Scanning electron microscopy observations on flavescence dorée transmission by dodder. Ulteriori indagini sull'eziologia della flavescenza dorata della vite mediante microscopia elettronia a scansione..A. 1999. Moutous and P. Schvester D.. Carle and G. 1997. France. Thèse de doctorat de l'Université de Bourgogne. R. Braccini. Maixner. 2002. 2003. F. Roure F. 1993. Schwartz Y. 28-30. D. La flavescence dorée de la vigne.D. che fare in bio? Agricoltura Biologica 11 (suppl. Murari. Carle. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.. 96-97. Present knowledge on the yellows diseases of grapevine. J.. 10211024. S. Ulteriore contributo conoscitivo sulla flavescenza dorata della vite nel Veneto. Schvester D. Santoni. Flavescenza dorata nel Veneto. Carle. 2000. Untersuchungen über Rickettsien-ähnliche Organismen in vergilbungs-kranken Weinreben (Vitis vinifera L.P. 35-56. Tests insecticides de plein champ contre Scaphoideus littoralis Ball (Homoptera: Jassidae) cicadelle vectrice de la Flavescence dorée. Rumbos I. 473-482. http://www. 20-23. Rouzet J. G. Carle and G. 1977. 6977. Vergilbungskrankheiten. 109-110.... La Vigne 110 (mai 2000) 38-41 & 80-82. P.. Germany. 1985. 191 . 81-82. and M. Bertaccini. 1989. 1990. Flavescenza dorata.La Défense des Végétaux 412. P.it/ICVG2003/ Sancassani P. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della Vite. 7778. 2000. Boudon-Padieu. Batlle. Annales des Epiphyties 14. Caudwell. Rumbos I. P. M. P.C.. Moutous. "Scaphoideus littoralis" Ball (Homoptera: Jassidae) cicadelle vectrice de la Flavescence dorée de la vigne. Dal Molin.. Dijon. Revue de Zoologie Agricole et Appliquée 61.D. vettore della flavescenza dorata. Lisbon 1997.. R. Flavescence dorée. A. Rickettsia-like organisms in Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen found associated with yellows disease of grapevines. Belli.C. 240-243. 311-324.. Natural spread.) Ph. Obtention d'anticorps monoclonaux spécifiques de l'agent pathogène de type mycoplasme (MLO) de la flavescence dorée de la vigne. Fortusini. IV) 26. Rumbos I.agr. S. 175-198. L'Informatore agrario 51(20).uniba. Belli. Moutous and P. Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie d'agriculture de France 47. Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. 118-131. Lisboa-Vila Real. 1989. Du Fretay and M. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting of ICVG. E. importance and distribution of yellows. 1962. 104-108. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale (S. Santinelli C. Laviña and A. Gravi manifestazioni di flavescenza dorata su Sangiovese in vigneti della Valtenesi (Lombardia). Schwartz Y. G. Vibio and E. Research in Microbiology 140. 1998. 1963a. Bianco. une maladie sous surveillance.. Saracchi M. Potential vectors of grapevine Bois noir phytoplasma in Spain and evaluation of their transmission capacity. Richter S. and M. Grange. Gefährden Phytoplasmosen unseren Weinbau? Der Winzer 58 (12). 18-24. Rumbos I. Bertaccini. Scattini G. 1962. stem pitting and enation disease of grapevine in some viticultural areas of Greece. Murari and M. Flavescence dorée.. Borgo. Sikora and F. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz 84. Sur la transmission de la flavescence dorée des vignes par une cicadelle. Reinert W. 2003. Cavalloro (Ed. 4). L'Informatore agrario 15. Thesis. Schvester D. A. Quaroni and A. Schvester D.C. L. 1997. Plant-Protection Problems and Prospects of Integrated Control in Viticulture. Wein-Wissenschaft 53 (3) 107-113. 1996. Moutous..C. Phytoma . G. Meignoz and A. 1989. 51-56. Maixner. Rousseau. 113. 1961.. obtention et caractérisation d'anticorps monoclonaux spécifiques de l'agent pathogène. 8-12. PhytiatriePhytopharmacie 12. L'Informatore agrario 24. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in Slovenia and Croatia. La lutte sur 300 000 ha. 1987. University of Bonn. Rüdel M. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 24. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. Vignevini 27 (9). P. A. Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. In: R. 105-106. Tissot. P. Interventi per contenere la flavescenza dorata nel Veneto. Bott and A. 135-144. M. Nienhaus. Schvester D. Locorotondo 2003. Fortusini. and G. Distribution and differentiation of grapevine phytoplasmas in Germany.). G.A.
Caudwell.. and research on them. Molecular identification of a phytoplasma infecting grapevine in the republic of Macedonia. Thesis.uniba. Škoric. An overview on the presence of phytoplasma diseases of grapevine and fruit trees in Slovenia. 2001. W. Petrovič. Ragozzino and M.. 1996. Bourgoin. B. Kozina. Journal of Phytopathology 148. M. Parrini and A.it/ ICVG2003/ Šeruga M. (Hemiptera. 466-471. Curkovic Perica and M. 2003b. Etude des principaux constituants. Boudon-Padieu. Boudon-Padieu. 409-418. M. 73-74. Seljak G. University of Paris VII.D. C.agr. 1998. 107.. P. Boudon-Padieu.. L'Informatore agrario 55 (11). Sodobno Kmetijstvo 34. and evidence of the pathogenicity of purified MLO. and N. Seddas A. D. Kuszala. Krajacic. Larrue and E. Seddas A. B. Škoric. E. Kozina. Martini. Scaphoideus titanus Ball (= S. Daire. 1998. Murari. Montreux 1993. M. 1998. Sforza R. Škorić.. 96.La Défense des Végétaux 510. D. Zastita Bija. Ph. A. Sforza R. Marcone. D. Zahavi 2003. 63-70. European Journal of Entomology 96. Meignoz. S.. Boudon-Padieu and A. Daire. Daire and E.. 2002. Boudon-Padieu and A. R. Phytoma . http://www. 97-101.. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG.) 34.. 1995. Presenza di legno nero in viti toscane. Caudwell. B. novi stetnik vinove loze u Jugoslaviji. 1999. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.. Plant Pathology 44.it/ICVG2003/ 192 . Curkovic Perica. Dijon. Šeruga M. Mirosevic. 181-184. 295-296. D. Le principal vecteur de la maladie du Bois noir. Study of bois noir epidemiology in France. Saric. Preparation of a MLO-enriched fraction from flavescence dorée infected plants suitable for subsequent purification of MLO by immunoaffinity. Vitis 42. Daire. Boudon-Padieu. Seljak G.. X. laboratory rearing and description of immatures of the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Extended abstracts 11th Meeting of ICVG. Thèse de doctorat de l'Université de Bourgogne. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Flavescence doree phytoplasma. Locorotondo 2003. J.. Seddas A. R. and N. Journal of Plant Pathology 80. Mitrev. Cixiidae). and T. Purification du Mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) de la flavescence dorée de la vigne par immunoaffinité. F. R. 1994. Field observations. 349-357. Geographic distribution of Bois Noir phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in Croatia. Wilson and E. Bertaccini. search and biology of a vector species. A. Bourgoin. Non-European Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera) and their geographical distribution in Slovenia. Sforza R. Paris. Intégrité physique et biologique. Fulgomorpha. 1997. Acta Entomologica Slovenica 10 (1). and E. recherche d'insectes vecteurs et biologie de Hyalesthes obsoletus Sign. Seemüller E. Sforza R. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. Meignoz and E. 239-242. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. 99-102. Clair. 38 (4). France. C. http://www. X. Seddas A. C. Curkovic Perica. Braccini. Evidence for the physical integrity of flavescence dorée phytoplasmas purified by immunoaffinity from infected plants or leafhoppers and the plant pathogenicity of phytoplasmas from leafhoppers. Locorotondo 2003. A. Petrovič. Boudon-Padieu. Larrue and E. Diffusione e stato della ricerca delle malattie da fitoplasmi in Slovenia. 1993a. M. Comparison of stolbur phytoplasma isolates from Croatian grapevine by analyses of ribosomal and non-ribosomal gene regions. Göschl. Boudon-Padieu. Kozina. Seljak G. Šeruga M. 1999. 971-978. C. R. E. Sfalanga A. Krajačić. M. U. Purification of grapevine flavescence doree MLO (Mycoplasma-like organism) by immunoaffinity. R. 33-37.. Sharon R. 757-764. Serological relationships and differences in electroblot immunoassay profiles of Flavescence doree and Elm yellows phytoplasmas. S.uniba. and T. Bertaccini and M. 229-236. 1987. Sforza R. Lauer. 107-108.. Lisbon 1997.. 1999. Epidémiologie du Bois noir de la vigne. Cixiidae). Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. European Journal of Plant Pathology 102. Two procedures for immunopurification of flavescence dorée mycoplasma-like organism (FD-MLO). IOM Letters 3. Petria 10 (2). Meignoz. 549-556. évolution de la maladie et perspectives de lutte.Seddas A. 3-26. X. 133-139. 1993b. 1998. E. N. The role of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) in the occurrence of bois noir of grapevines in France.. Kuszala and E. 2003a. Seljak G. Boudon-Padieu. D. Sforza R. S. Seddas A. 1998. T. Krajacic. J. Female genitalia and copulation of the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera. Clair. Effect of roostock on grapevine yellows facts and explanations. Meignoz. 1994. littoralis Ball). Current Microbiology 27.agr. 2000. Marty. France. Journal of Phytopathology 146. Meignoz. Weintraub P. X.
741-746. S. M. 297-302. Alma and C. 2000. Krajacic and A. E. Phytoplasma identification in Hungarian grapevines by two nested-PCR systems. M. Vidano C. 1987. A. Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 395. Tanne E. Auchenorrinchi e diffusione della flavescenza dorata della vite in Italia. In: R. Waite H. Bertaccini. Capra. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting ICVG. Plant-Protection Problems and Prospects of Integrated Control in Viticulture. and S... Melamed. E.C. Locorotondo 2003. Identification and Spread. Arnò. Arzone. Boudon-Padieu and C. M. Orenstein. Tanne E. Frausin.it/ICVG2003/ Uyemoto J. Fenologia di Scaphoideus titanus Ball in diverse aree viticole del Friuli-Venezia Giulia. and F. Il vettore della flavescenza dorata trovato in Basilicata.P.agr. 171-175. Molecular characterization and geographical distribution of FD-phytoplasmas in Spain. Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza Dorata della vite. 1966. L. Hot water treatment. V. Fletcher.. Indagini su sintomi fogliari. Potential vectors of grapevine yellows in Israel. Kölber. Vidano C. 1977.. Identification of the major membrane protein of Australian grapevine yellows and related phytoplasmas. Tanne E. 1973. Vidano C. Gregoris and C. 1989a. G. Dalri. L'Italia agricola 101.it/ICVG2003/ Torres E. The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 449a. A. Barbara.. E. Virus and virus-like diseases affecting grapevines in New-York vineyards. Weber A. M. Arzone. S. 1865 (Auchenorryncha. Schweigert and A. Papp. Flavescenza dorata della vite in Piemonte. 1996. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting ICVG. Coiutti. Adelaide 2000. Cummins. Atti del Convegno "Flavescenza dorata e legno nero della vite in Friuli-Venezia Giulia". A. 113-115. Blanco. Phytoparasitica 23 (3). E. 39-43. 1989b. American Journal for Enology and Viticulture 28. Murari. Viggiani G. Lazar... Potential insect vectors of grapevine yellows in Australian vineyards. M. Varga K. Davidovich. A. J. Virus diseases of grapevine in Israel. and M. Lisbon 1997. Arnò. Villani. Boudon-Padieu. Szendrey. Extended abstracts 12th Meeting ICVG. Mikulas. 483-488. Auchenorrinchi vettori di MLO e piante erbacee affette da micoplasmosi. Ph.. Vidano C. Streten C. Locorotondo 2003. Adelaide 2000. 1999. Mainz. Auchenorryncha and mycoplasma diseases within the vineyard agro-ecosystem in Italy.uniba. Bonfiglioli and P.Škoric D. Gibb. and Abawi G. Klein. Italy. Legno nero e presenza di Scaphoideus titanus Ball. G. A. 1997b. M. Annali della Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie della Università degli Studi di Torino 3. 1997a. Molecular identification and seasonal monitoring of phytoplasmas infecting Croatian grapevines. Smart R. Tanne. Kuszala C. Padovan and K. Clair. Thesis. J. Alma and C.. D. 20-22.. Phytopathology 91.uniba. deLaine. Scoperta della ecologia ampelofila del Cicadellide Scaphoideus littoralis Ball nella regione neartica originaria. 2001. Wright and A. L. L'Informatore agrario 53 (28).K.E. L'Informatore agrario 36. Gorizia 1999. 79-80. D. G. Vibio. Identification and typing of grapevine phytoplasma amplified by graft transmission to periwinkle. Detection of phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction of insect feeding medium and its use in determining vectoring ability. Boudon-Padieu and J. A. Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität. Botti. Alma and C. Germany. 2003. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellow disease in Israel.. Fletcher. Grenan. 1987. M. Arzone. Arnò. Smart R. Annali della Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie della Università degli Studi di Torino 16. A.agr. Clair. E. 193 . Avoiding a potential threat to Australian Chardonnay production ? The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 33 (384). R. Rahola. Stefanelli G. 31-44. Lisboa-Vila Real 1988. Annali della Facoltà di Scienze Agrarie della Università degli Studi di Torino 15. 2000. E.S. Studies of grapevine Yellows in Israel . Tanne E. 1988. Flavescenza dorata della vite e Auchenorrinchi probabili vettori del suo agente patogeno in Piemonte. A. J. Klein. Curing efficiency for phytoplasma infection and effect on plant multiplication material.. A. P. M. Larrue. 2000. Melamed and M. Vidano C. Nitzany. 1996. Bertaccini.Occurrence. Saric.. 1031-1049. Arzone. 1996. 87-88. Vicenza-Verona. 1997. C. Martini. I. 1995. Proceedings of the CEC/IOBC International Symposium. 2003. Magarey. J. A. 275-276.). S.. Grapevine yellows disease.R. 91. D. Scoperta in Italia dello Scaphoideus littoralis Ball cicalina americana collegata all "Flavescence dorée " della Vite. 2001. Vitis 37. 94-95. Adelaide 2000. Delaiti and L. 35-38. 2002. Davidovich. 29-37. 222-225. 57-68. 1998... 59. 131-136. A. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting ICVG. http://www. Ember. Vidano C. Cixiidae) als Vektor der Vergilbungskrankheit der Rebe. J. Tökés. Untersuchungen zur Biologie der Zikade Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret.. A. 1964. Pondrelli.. 65-70. Alma and C.D. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. 69-70. Bertaccini.E. Extended Abstracts 14th Meeting of ICVG. M. P. Orenstein. and S.S. 11-17. A. Crocker. Tanne E. Vitis 12. 37-43. Weintraub and M. Arnò. Tassart-Subirats V. Vindimian M. S. Koznetsova. http://www. Hot water treatment in commercial nursery practice an overview.. Martin and A. Cavalloro (Ed. Vitis 36.
1998a. Weber A. Caudwell. Proceedings 12th Meeting of ICVG. Wachtel. 194 .A.. and R. E. Habitat requirements of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae) and approaches to control this planthopper in vineyards. 139-140. Immunological study of MLO development in a vector. Constable. Monitoring of field populations of the vector Hyalesthes obsoletus for infestation with "Vergilbungskrankheit". Wilson Y.K. 1997. 7778.K. 103-104. Reinert. 1990.. 474. Belli. 1996.sorting facts from fiction. Adelaide 2000. Wolf. P. 582-583. 44.. 1997. G. 1994. 67-68. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. Wolf T. (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae) for infection with the phytoplasma causing grapevine yellows in Germany. Australian grapevine yellows. Maixner.. Zebeyou M. Survey of populations of the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Sign. Incidence of a grapevine yellows disease in Virginia vineyards. Davis. P. Factors affecting the occurrence of grapevine yellows in Israel. IOBC/wprs Bulletin 21 (2). and M. Larrue. E. a guide to symptoms. S. IOM Letters 1. 375-381. Journal of Applied Entomology 122. Occurrence of grapevine yellows in Virginia vineyards. Davis. Weber A. Prince and R.Weber A. 1993. Tanne. 2000. T. J. RSG and AGY . F. Lherminier and J. Maixner. Extended abstracts 13th Meeting ICVG. A. 277-278. Prince and R. Bianco and G. Zahavi T. E. P. P. Orenstein and E. Hayes. J. Plant Disease 78.G. 208. Boudon-Padieu. Magarey and M. The Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry Journal 12.. Lisbon 1997. 1998b. Maixner and W... The Australian Grapegrower and Winemaker 33(390a). Atti II Incontro Nazionale sulle Malattie da Fitoplasmi. and M. J. Zorloni A. 55. Verifica dell'efficacia della potatura invernale come metodo di contenimento della Flavescenza dorata. Wilson Y. Roma 2002. Scattini. 2002. M.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Lo hemos llevado donde lee en su other device.