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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG


KHOA VIN THNG I
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N
TT NGHIP I HC

ti:
QoS TRONG MNG
CHUYN MCH BURST QUANG
eddddddddddddd
Gio vin hng dn : T.S Bi Trung
Hiu
Ngi thc hin : Nguyn Kim Tuyn





H ni 11/2008
i
HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG CNG HO X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM
KHOA VIN THNG 1 c lp - T do - Hnh phc
---------o0o-------- ---------o0o------
TI N TT NGHIP I HC

H v tn : Nguyn Kim Tuyn
Lp : D04VT1
Kho : 2004 2008
Ngnh : in t - Vin thng
Tn ti : QoS trong mng chuyn mch burst quang

Ni dung n :
+ Gii thiu k thut chuyn mch burts quang
+ Gii thiu QoS v cc kin trc m bo QoS
+ Tm hiu cc vn trong vic tch hp IP qua mng
WDM
+ Tm hiu cc phng php ci thin QoS trong cc
mng OBS
+ Tm hiu tc ng ca cc FDL i vi QoS trong cc
mng OBS
Ngy giao ti : ..thng..nm 2008
Ngy np n : ..thng .nm 2008
Ngy .. thng ..nm 2008
Gio vin hng dn


T.S BI TRUNG HIU
ii

NHN XT CA GIO VIN HNG DN

.


im : ( Bng ch : ..)
Ngy thng .nm 2008



T.S BI TRUNG HIU
iii
NHN XT CA GIO VIN PHN BIN

.

im : .( Bng ch : .)

Ngy ..thng ..nm 2008
n tt nghip Mc lc

____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 I
MC LC
MC LC .......................................................................................................................... I
DANH MC HNH V ..................................................................................................... III
DANH MC BNG BIU ................................................................................................ V
THUT NG VIT TT .................................................................................................. VI
LI NI U .................................................................................................................... IX
CHNG 1 : K THUT CHUYN MCH QUANG ................................................... 1
1.1. Cc k thut chuyn mch quang : .......................................................................... 1
1.1.1 nh tuyn bc sng quang (WR) : ................................................................. 1
1.1.1.1 Mng nh tuyn bc sng quang : ........................................................... 1
1.1.1.2 Cc mng chuyn mch knh quang : ........................................................ 2
1.1.2 Chuyn mch gi quang (OPS) : ....................................................................... 3
1.1.2.1 Gii thiu OPS : .......................................................................................... 3
1.1.2.2 Nguyn l chuyn mch OPS: .................................................................... 4
1.1.3 Chuyn mch burst quang (OBS) : .................................................................... 6
1.1.3.1 Gii thiu OBS : ......................................................................................... 6
1.1.3.2 u im ca OBS so vi WR v OPS : ...................................................... 7
1.2. Kin trc v cc k thut chuyn mch burst quang (OBS): ................................... 9
1.2.1 Kin trc OBS : .................................................................................................. 9
1.2.2 Cc k thut OBS : ............................................................................................ 12
1.2.2.1 Cc s tp hp burst : ............................................................................ 12
1.2.2.2 Cc s ginh trc bc sng : ............................................................. 14
1.2.2.3 Giao thc bo hiu JET : ............................................................................ 16
1.2.2.4 Cc thut ton lp lch burst : ..................................................................... 18
1.2.2.5 Cc gii php khc phc tranh chp burst: ................................................. 20
1.3. Kt lun chng ....................................................................................................... 21
CHNG 2 : CHT LNG DCH V ( QoS ) ............................................................ 23
2.1 nh ngha QoS : ...................................................................................................... 23
2.2 IntServ ....................................................................................................................... 26
2.2.1 Kin trc IntServ ................................................................................................ 26
2.2.2 Nguyn l iu khin lung ca IntServ ............................................................ 28
2.2.3 Nhc im ca IntServ .................................................................................... 30
2.3 DiffServ .................................................................................................................... 30
2.3 1 Cc thnh phn ca kin trc DiffServ .............................................................. 31
2.3.1.1 DSCP .......................................................................................................... 31
2.3.1.2 PHB ............................................................................................................. 31
2.3.1.3 Min DiffServ ............................................................................................. 31
2.3.1.4 Nt bin DiffServ ........................................................................................ 32
2.3.1.5 Nt li DiffServ .......................................................................................... 33
2.3.2 Qu trnh thc hin DiffServ ............................................................................. 33
2.3.3 Cc vn trong vic khin khai DiffServ ........................................................ 36
2.4 Kt lun chng : ...................................................................................................... 38
CHNG 3 : TRUYN TI IP QUA MNG WDM ...................................................... 40
3.1 Tch hp IP v cc mng quang ................................................................................ 40
3.1.1 M hnh mng quang : ....................................................................................... 40
3.1.2 Cc vn truyn ti IP qua WDM .................................................................. 41
3.1.3 Mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin : .................................................... 42
3.1.4 Cc m hnh kin trc v nh tuyn ................................................................. 44
3.1.5 So snh gia hai m hnh xp chng v m hnh ngang hng ........................... 47
n tt nghip Mc lc

____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 II
3.2 Cc kin trc lp cho cc mng truyn ti IP qua WDM ......................................... 48
3.3 K thut MPLS ......................................................................................................... 51
3.3.1 Gii thiu k thut MPLS .................................................................................. 51
3.3.2 Cc k thut MPLS ............................................................................................ 53
3.3.2.1 Cc mng nh tuyn bc sng IP/MPLS ................................................. 54
3.3.2.2 Chuyn mch quang OBS v MPLS ........................................................... 55
3.3.2.2.1 OBS s dng MPLS ............................................................................ 56
3.3.2.2.2 Lp MAC ............................................................................................. 58
3.4 Kt lun chng : ...................................................................................................... 61
CHNG 4 : HIU NNG QoS TRONG MNG OBS .................................................. 62
4.1 Giao thc bo hiu h tr QoS : ............................................................................... 62
4.2 Thut ton lp lch h tr QoS trong cc mng OBS : ............................................. 64
4.3 nh hng ca cc FDL n hiu nng QoS ca cc mng OBS : .......................... 68
4.3.1 Nt chuyn mch quang v b m FDL .......................................................... 68
4.3.2 S QoS da trn thi gian cn bng vi FDL............................................... 70
4.3.2.1 Gii thiu : .................................................................................................. 70
4.3.2.3 Tnh ton thi gian cn bng cn thit : ...................................................... 73
4.3.3 Tr hng i v xc sut mt burst .................................................................... 74
4.3.3.1 Thi gian cn bng v tr u cui - u cui : .......................................... 74
4.3.3.2 Xc sut mt burst trong OBS : .................................................................. 75
4.3.4 FDL v hng i trong m hnh (M/M/k/D) ...................................................... 78
4.4 Kt lun chng : ...................................................................................................... 79
CHNG 5 : KHO ST NH HNG CA CC FDL N QoS CA CC
MNG OBS ....................................................................................................................... 80
5.1 Kho st cc bin trn v bin di ca xc sut mt burst trong mng OBS ......... 80
5.1.1 Phn tch ............................................................................................................ 80
5.1.2 Kt qu ............................................................................................................... 81
5.2 M hnh Yoo ............................................................................................................. 87
5.2.1 nh hng ca thi gian tr ln nht B ln xc sut mt burst ......................... 87
5.2.2 Hiu qu thc t ca s da trn thi gian cn bng: ................................... 89
5.3 Kt lun chng ........................................................................................................ 91
KT LUN ......................................................................................................................... 92
TI LIU THAM KHO .................................................................................................. 94





n tt nghip Danh mc hnh v
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 III

DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1.1 Thit lp lightpath ................................................................................. 1
Hnh 1.2 Hiu qu s dng ng dn ................................................................ 3
Hnh 1.4 M hnh chuyn mch burst quang ....................................................... 7
Hnh 1.5 So snh gia OPS (a) v OBS (b) ......................................................... 9
Hnh 1.6 M hnh mng OBS ............................................................................... 10
Hnh 1.7 Kin trc ca router bin ...................................................................... 11
Hnh 1.8 Kin trc ca router li ......................................................................... 12
Hnh 1.9 K thut bo hiu Just Enough Time (JET) .................................... 16
Hnh 1.10 OBS s dng giao thc JET ................................................................ 17
Hnh 1.11 Minh ho thut ton FFUC ................................................................ 19
Hnh 1.12 Minh ho thut ton LAUC ................................................................. 19
Hnh 1.13 Minh ho thut ton LAUC VF ........................................................ 20
Hnh 2.1 Kin trc ca IntServ ............................................................................ 26
Hnh 2.2 Nguyn l iu khin ca IntServ .......................................................... 29
Hnh 2.3 Min DiffServ ........................................................................................ 32
Hnh 2.4 Cu trc ca nt bin DiffServ ............................................................. 32
Hnh 2.5 Cu trc ca nt li DiffServ ................................................................ 33
Hnh 2.6 DiffServ v iu chnh u vo vi Broker dung lng ....................... 36
Hnh 3.1 M hnh mng quang ............................................................................ 41
Hnh 3.2 Mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin trong mng quang .......... 42
Hnh 3.3 Nt quang .............................................................................................. 43
Hnh 3.4 Mi quan h gia cc router IP v cc OXC trn mt phng iu khin
.............................................................................................................................. 45
Hnh 3.5 Cc m hnh dch v : (a) m hnh dch v min ................................ 46
(b) m hnh dch v hp nht ............................................................................... 46
Hnh 3.6 Ngn xp giao thc cho bn gii php IPoW ....................................... 49
Hnh 3.7 Mi quan h gia cc mng MPLS v MPS ....................................... 54
Hnh 3.8 M hnh mng nh tuyn bc sng IP/MPLS/MPS ......................... 55
Hnh 3.9 Truyn ti IP qua OBS WDM s dng MPLS ....................................... 56
Hnh 3.10 Cc chc nng ca chuyn mch quang h tr OBS v MPLS .......... 57
Hnh 3.11 Giao din MAC gia cc lp IP v OBS WDM .................................. 58
Hnh 3.12 ng b khi kt hp lung .................................................................. 59
Hnh 4.1 Thi gian cn bng cho dch v u tin ................................................ 63
Hnh 4.2 Cu trc ca nt li OBS ...................................................................... 66
Hnh 4.3 Mi quan h gia thi gian nhn ca BHP
i
v DB
i
............................. 67
Hnh 4.4 Cu trc ca nt chuyn mch quang (OSN) ....................................... 69
Hnh 4.5 Cu trc ca cc b m FDL .............................................................. 70
Hnh 4.6 S phn loi lp s dng thi gian cn bng m rng ........................ 72
Hnh 4.7 S khc bit gia FDL v hng i ...................................................... 78
n tt nghip Danh mc hnh v
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 IV
Hnh 5.1 Xc sut mt burst v thi gian tr ln nht B ..................................... 83
Hnh 5.2 Xc sut mt burst v s lng cc FDL .............................................. 84
Hnh 5.3 Xc sut mt burst v s lng k cc bc sng .................................. 85
Hnh 5.4 Xc sut mt burst v mt lu lng tng ....................................... 87
Hnh 5.5 Xc sut mt burst v thi gian tr ln nht ........................................ 88
Hnh 5.6 Tr hng i trung bnh v thi gian tr ln nht B ............................ 89
Hnh 5.7 Xc sut mt burst v s cc mng FDL .............................................. 90
Hnh 5.8 Xc sut mt burst v s lng bc sng k ........................................ 91















n tt nghip Danh mc bng biu
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 V

DANH MC BNG BIU
Bng 1.2 So snh ba k thut chuyn mch quang ................................................. 22
Bng 3.1 Tm tt mt s so snh gia hai m hnh ................................................ 48
Bng 4.1 phn bit v chnh lch thi gian cn bng ...................................... 74
Bng 5.1 Xc sut mt burst v tr thi gian ln nht ........................................... 82
Bng 5.2 Xc sut mt burst v s lng cc FDL ............................................... 84
Bng 5.3 Xc sut mt burst v s lng bc sng .............................................. 85
Bng 5.4 Xc sut mt burst v mt lu lng tng ......................................... 86
















n tt nghip Thut ng vit tt
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 VI
THUT NG VIT TT
TN VIT TT TING ANH NGHA TING
VIT
AF Assured Forwarding Chuyn m bo
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode Ch truyn dn bt
ng b
BB Bandwidth Broker Broker dung lng
BE Best Effort N lc ti a
BHP Burst Header Packet Gi mo u burst
CB Control Burst Burst iu khin
CC Control Channel Knh iu khin
CCG Control Channel Group Nhm knh iu khin
CR-LDP Constraint Routing Label
Distribution Protocol
Giao thc phn b nhn
nh tuyn rng buc
DB Data Burst Burst d liu
DC Data Channel Knh d liu
DWDM Dense Waveleng Division
Multiplexing
Ghp knh phn chia
theo bc sng mt
cao
EF Expedited Forwarding Chuyn nhanh
FDL Fiber Delay Line ng tr quang
FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing Ghp knh phn chia
theo tn s
FEC Forwarding Equivalence Class Lp chuyn tip tng
n tt nghip Thut ng vit tt
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 VII
ng
GMPLS Generalized Multi Protocol Label
Switching
Chuyn mch nhn a
giao thc tng qut
IETF Internet Engineering Task Force Nhm chuyn trch v
k thut Internet
IP Internet Protocol Giao thc Internet
IPoW IP over WDM IP qua WDM
ISP Internet Service Provider Nh cung cp dch v
Internet
ITU-T International Telecommunications
Union - Telecommunication
Standardization Sector
Tiu chun ho vin
thng quc t
JET Just Enough Time Thi gian va
LDP Label Distributing Protocol Giao thc phn b nhn
LIB Label Information Base C s d liu nhn
LSP Label Switching Path ng chuyn mch
nhn
LSR Label Switching Router B nh tuyn chuyn
mch nhn
MPLS Multi Protocol Label Switching Chuyn mch nhn a
giao thc
NNI Network-Network Interface Giao din mng-mng
OBS Optical Burst Switching Chuyn mch burst
quang
OCH Optical Channel Knh quang
n tt nghip Thut ng vit tt
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 VIII
OMS Optical Multiplex Section on ghp knh quang
OPS Optical Packet Switching Chuyn mch gi quang
OSN Optical Switching Node Nt chuyn mch quang
OTN Optical Transport Network Mng truyn ti quang
OTS Optical Transmission Section on truyn dn quang
OXC Optical Cross-connecting Kt ni cho quang
PJET Prioritized JET JET u tin
POH Path Over Head Mo u tuyn
QoS Quality of Service Cht lng dch v
RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol Giao thc ginh trc
ti nguyn
SCU Switch Control Unit Khi iu khin chuyn
mch
SOH Section Over Head Mo u on
SONET/SDH Synchronous Optical
Network/Synchronous Digital
Hierarchy
Mng quang ng b
TCP Transport Control Protocol Giao thc iu khin
truyn dn
TDM Time Division Multiplexing Ghp knh phn chia
theo thi gian
UNI User Network Interface Giao din ngi s
dng - mng
WR Wavelength Routing nh tuyn bc sng
quang
n tt nghip Li ni u
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 IX
LI NI U
+ Gii thiu:
Trong vi nm gn y c s pht trin bng n v lu lng IP. Phm
vi v vng ph ca mng Internet ang m rng mt cch nhanh chng v do
yu cu cho bng thng cng cn phi tng theo tng ng. Lu lng tng t
bin ca nhng ngi s dng World Wide Web do nhu cu s dng cc thng tin
v dch v gii tr trc tuyn ngy cng tng ln mnh m. Ngoi ra, cc loi dch
v mng cng ngy cng a dng v phong ph, cc cng ngh a phng tin nh
truyn hnh di ng (Mobile TV), thoi Internet, nhc scng ngy cng tr nn
ph bin hn. Tt c nhng l do lm cho lu lng Internet tng nhanh mt
cch chng mt v yu cu cho bng thng mng tr nn khn cp hn bao gi.
Vi s pht trin bng n ca Internet v s trin khai nhanh chng ca
cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng mt cao (DWDM) th si quang
c xem nh l gii php truyn ti l tng cho cc mng tc cao trong
tung lai. Trong h thng DWDM, mi si quang s mang nhiu knh thng tin,
trong mi knh hot ng trn mt bc sng khc nhau. H thng truyn dn
quang c u im vt tri so vi cc h thng truyn dn khc l n c dung
lng rt ln, c th cung cp bng thng ln n trn 50Tbps trn mt si quang
n. Cho n nay, chng ta vn cha th khai thc ht bng thng tim n ca n.
Ngoi ra, si quang c chi ph rt thp v chnh xc li rt cao.
Cc mng in hnh hin nay bao gm 4 lp : lp IP cho truyn ti cc ng
dng v dch v, lp ATM cho k thut lu lng, lp SONET/SDH cho truyn ti
v lp DWDM cho tc . Khi lung d liu n mt im chuyn mch, th tn
hiu quang ca d liu c chuyn sang dng tn hiu in, sau vic x l v
chuyn tip c thc hin trong min in. Vic chuyn i ny c gi l
chuyn i quang/in (O/E). Khi tn hiu in ca d liu i n cng ra, n li
c chuyn thnh tn hiu quang v c iu ch ln si quang, gi l chuyn
i in/quang (E/O). Nh vy, mt im chuyn mch c gi l thc hin
chuyn i O/E/O.
Trong mt mng, tc trao i thng tin thng b hn ch bi kh nng
x l in ca h thng. Mc d phn cng hin nay c s dng da trn cc
router IP in tc cao vi tc ln n vi trm Gbps nhng vn khng thch
ng c gia tc truyn dn ca cc si quang WDM v tc chuyn mch
ca cc router IP. Do vy cn phi c nhng phng n mi ti thiu ho hoc
n tt nghip Li ni u
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 X
loi b hon ton vic x l in nhm khai thc trit tim nng ca rng
bng tn m cng ngh WDM cung cp.
Lu lng IP ang tr thnh lu lng ch yu trong cc mng, do kin
trc mng phn lp truyn thng ngy cng khng thch hp cho s pht trin ca
Internet. Trong kin trc a lp, mi lp c th lm hn ch hiu sut ca ton
mng v lm tng chi ph ca ton b mng. Ngy nay cng vi dung lng v tc
ca cc router v cc OXC (cc kt ni cho quang) ngy cng tng nhanh v
tc d liu cao ca truyn ti quang gip chng ta c th b qua cc lp
SONET/SDH v ATM v loi b cc chc nng ca chng. iu ny lm cho h
thng mng n gin hn, chi ph t hn m vn truyn ti lu lng vi tc rt
ln. IP qua WDM c xem l gii php y ha hn cho mng th h sau v n
khng c lp trung gian, do n trnh c cc chc nng d tha ca cc lp
ATM v SONET/SDH.
Tuy nhin, c nhiu kh khn v th thch trong vic hin thc ha cc
mng ton quang. Chng hn, RAM quang by gi vn ang tip tc nghin cu,
vic x l cc gi iu khin trong min quang vn cha thc hin c v h
thng iu khin router quang vn c thc hin trong min in. Ngy nay, hu
ht chng ta ch nghin cu cc mng truyn ti bn quang. Trong cc mng truyn
ti quang, cc bn tin iu khin c x l hon ton trong min in. thc
hin kin trc IP qua DWDM, mt vi hng c xut nh : nh tuyn bc
sng (WR), chuyn mch gi quang (OPS) v chuyn mch burst quang (OBS).
Trong tt c cc hng , chuyn mch burst quang c xem l gii php c
trin vng nht v n l s kt hp gia WR v OPS. Do , n kt hp cc u
im ca hai phng php v ng thi hn ch cc nhc im ca chng.
Trong s nhng vn cn phi gii quyt khi thc hin vic tch hp IP
qua cc mng WDM th vn lm th no c th h tr QoS (cht lng dch v)
trong cc mng IP/WDM c xem l mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht
trong xu hng hin nay. Bi v mng IP hin nay ch cung cp dch v n lc ti
a (best effort), l dch v phi kt ni, khng tin cyDch v ny khng th p
ng cc yu cu QoS cao khi s dng cc dch v thi gian thc nh truyn hnh di
ng, thoi Internet, hi ngh truyn hnh Do , em chn ni dung
QoS trong chuyn mch burst lm ti Tt nghip i hc ca mnh. Sau mt
thi gian thc hin v c s gip nhit tnh ca cc thy c gio b mn
Thng tin quang, c bit l thy gio hng dn T.S Bi Trung Hiu gip
em hon thnh n tt nghip ca mnh.
n tt nghip Li ni u
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 XI
+ T chc ca n :
Ni dung ca n cp n vn ci thin QoS trong mng chuyn
mch burst quang. n gm c 5 chng :
Chng 1 trnh by cc k thut chuyn mch quang, trong trng tm l
k thut chuyn mch burst quang v sau so snh u nhc im ca k thut
ny vi cc k thut nh tuyn bc sng quang v chuyn mch gi quang.
Trong chng ny gii thiu kin trc ca cc mng OBS cng vi cc k thut
lin quan n chuyn mch OBS nh : s tp hp burst, s ginh trc bc
sng, giao thc bo hiu JET, cc thut ton lp lch
Chng 2 trnh by vn Cht lng dch v (QoS). Trong chng ny
gii thiu mt cch khi qut nh ngha QoS v sau a ra hai m hnh kin
trc m bo QoS trong cc mng IP (IntServ v DiffServ).
Chng 3 gii thiu vn tch hp IP qua mng WDM. Chng ny gii
thiu cc m hnh tch hp IP/WDM v so snh cc m hnh ny vi nhau. Ngoi
ra trong chng ny cn trnh by k thut MPLS c s dng trong mng
IP/WDM v mng OBS.
Chng 4 v Chng 5 l ni dung chnh ca n ny. Trong , chng
4 cp n vn m bo QoS trong mng OBS. Trong chng ny, chng ta
gii thiu giao thc bo hiu v thut ton lp lch c h tr QoS trong cc mng
OBS. Ngoi ra cn phn tch nh hng ca cc ng tr quang (FDL) n QoS
ca cc mng OBS. Chng 5 a ra cc cng thc tnh cc bin ca xc sut
mt burst v qua bng cng c MATLAB phn tch v kho xc cc tham s
nh hng n xc sut mt burst.Chng ny cn a ra m hnh Yoo trong
phn tch v nh gi cc yu t nh hng n xc sut mt burst v tr hng i.
T , a ra cc nhn xt nhm mc ch ci thin hiu sut QoS ca cc mng
OBS.
Trong sut thi gian lm n, em c s hng dn tn tnh ca cc
thy c trong khoa Vin thng 1 v c bit l Thy gio hng dn Bi Trung
Hiu.
Do kin thc v kh nng bn thn cn nhiu hn ch nn n khng
trnh khi nhng thiu st. Em rt mong nhn c s ng gp kin v gip
ca cc Thy c gio v cc bn.
Em xin chn thnh cm n !
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 1
CHNG 1 : K THUT CHUYN MCH QUANG
1.1 Cc k thut chuyn mch quang :
C 3 k thut chuyn mch quang ch yu c xut cho truyn ti lu
lng IP qua cc mng WDM:
- nh tuyn bc sng quang (WR)
- Chuyn mch gi quang (OPS)
- Chyn mch burst quang (OBS)
Do , da trn cc k thut chuyn mch th cc mng truyn ti IP qua
WDM c phn loi nh sau:
+ Cc mng nh tuyn bc sng quang
+ Cc mng chuyn mch gi quang
+ Cc mng chuyn mch burst quang
1.1.1 nh tuyn bc sng quang (WR) :
1.1.1.1 Mng nh tuyn bc sng quang :
Trong cc mng nh tuyn bc sng quang, mt ng bc sng ton
quang c thit lp gia cc bin ca mng. ng quang ny c gi l
lightpath. Khi s dng lightpath ny th n c th ginh trc 1 knh bc sng
trn mi ng dn dc theo tuyn ng nh minh ho trong hnh 1.1.

Hnh 1.1 Thit lp lightpath
Sau khi d liu c truyn th lightpath s c gii phng. Trong cc
mng WR c cc thit b kt ni cho quang (OXC) c lin kt bi cc ng
dn quang im n im trong cu hnh tu . Cc thit b OXC c th nhn ra
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 2
cc gi d liu khc nhau da trn gi d liu cng u vo v bc sng ca
n. Do , chng ta c th thy rng vi vic s dng mng ny, d liu c pht
gia cc im u cui th khng cn x l, khng cn chuyn i E/O (tt c
trong min quang) v khng cn m cc nt trong gian. Tuy nhin, ging nh
mng chuyn mch knh quang, cc mng WR khng chia s ti nguyn v do
hiu qu s dng bng thng s thp hn.
1.1.1.2 Cc mng chuyn mch knh quang :
u tin, chng ta s gii thiu nh ngha phin.Nh chng ta bit, cc
bn tin gia 2 ngi s dng lun l 1 chui lin tip trong mt s cuc i thoi
ln, 1 chui bn tin lin tip c gi l 1 phin. Trong k thut chuyn mch
knh, khi 1 phin s l ban u, n c cp 1 tc truyn dn r
s
bps. Sau , mt
ng dn s c thit lp t pha pht n pha thu v trn ng dn ny, mi
ng thng tin s c cp mt phn r
s
trong tng dung lng truyn dn cho
phin . S cp tc truyn dn ny l khc nhau trong cc phin khc nhau
trn mt ng thng tin v thng c thc hin bi phng php ghp knh
phn chia theo thi gian (TDM) hoc ghp knh phn chia theo tn s (FDM). Ch
rng tng tc ca tt c cc phin s dng chung mt ng dn khng th
vt qu tng dung lng ca ng dn . Nu mt ng thng tin cha
cc phin th mt phin mi khng th s dng ng dn ny v nu khng c
ng dn no ri vi tc ti thiu r
s
bps th phin mi ny s b t chi. Mt
im khc cn ch l khi c mt phin c khi xng th n c mt tc
truyn dn c nh r
s
qua ton b mng.
Do s dng khng hiu qu ti nguyn nn chuyn mch knh t c s
dng cho cc mng s liu. lm r hn iu ny chng ta s nh ngha cc
tham s:
v : tc bn tin cho phin s
1/v : thi gian n gia cc bn tin ca s.
X : thi gian truyn dn ca mt bn tin qua mt ng dn trong ng
truyn.
L : chiu di ca bn tin t s.
T : tr c th cho php ca bn tin n t ngun n ch.
P : tr pht sinh qua mng.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 3

Hnh 1.2 Hiu qu s dng ng dn
T hnh trn, chng ta c X = L /r
s
v t s X vi 1/v (hoc v. X ) l phn
s thi gian cho bit phn ng dn c cp cho s l bn hay ri. Chng ta c
th thy rng nu v. X << 1 th c ngha l phn ng dn c cp mang 1
phin l ri trong phn ln thi gian ( ngha l khng s dng hiu qu). xc
nh tnh khng hiu qu ca chuyn mch knh cho cc mng d liu, chng ta s
nhn X vi T. Vi X l thi gian mong mun tnh n bt cui cng c gi
trn ng dn u tin, chng ta c th nhn c mi quan h X + P T v
v. X < v.T . Tm li, tc bt r
s
c cp cho mt phin cn phi ln cho
php bn tin truyn dn m bo yu cu tr (r
s
tng, X s gim). Hn na, nu
v.T << 1, do v. X << 1 iu ni ln rng ng dn khng c s dng
hiu qu. i vi 1 s phin cui tc ng qua li c mang bi cc mng d
liu, v.T thng l 0,01 hoc t hn. Ngha l phn ng dn c cp cho phin
c s dng hu ht 1. Nh vy, chng ta c th kt lun rng chuyn mch
knh l khng ph hp i vi cc mng s liu.
1.1.2 Chuyn mch gi quang (OPS) :
1.1.2.1 Gii thiu OPS :
Nh ni phn trn, cc mng nh tuyn bc sng quang cho dung
lng km hiu qu vi hng x l l thit lp v duy tr ng dn trong mt
thi gian di.Bi v nh tuyn bc sng quang l 1 hnh thc ca chuyn mch
knh quang v trong mng chuyn mch knh quang t u cui n u cui th
cn phi thit lp kt ni gia pha ngun v pha ch trc khi d liu c
truyn. Trong qu trnh thit lp v duy tr cuc gi th chuyn mch cn c, lu
tr v gi mi khung ca d liu thu cho cuc gi . V vy, mo u cn phi
E(t
i
) = 1/v
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 4
ln trong thi gian thit lp cuc gi v nh hn trong thi gian duy tr cuc gi.
Tuy nhin, cc cuc gi thng c thi gian di hn so vi thi gian thit lp v
rt cuc gi, do hiu qu s cao nu bng thng c s dng y trong sut
qu trnh thc hin cuc gi. Do nhc im ca nh tuyn bc sng quang nn
cc nh nghin cu pht trin mt phng php chuyn mch khc gi l
chuyn mch gi quang v n c th tng bng thng s dng ca mng bng cch
s dng b ghp knh thng k v bng thng chia s.
Trong cc mng chuyn mch gi quang, lu lng IP c x l v
chuyn mch mi router IP. Mi gi IP cha ti tin v mo u. Mo u gi
cha thng tin nh tuyn gi v ti tin cha thng tin d liu. Mt chuyn
mch gi quang WDM cha 4 phn:
Giao din u vo : c s dng m t v iu chnh gi,
tch v b thng tin mo u gi.
C cu chuyn mch : l b phn li ca chuyn mch, c
chc nng chuyn mch cc gi trong min quang.
Giao din u ra : c s dng ti to cc tn hiu quang
cho u ra v gn mo u gi vo gi IP.
Khi iu khin : c s dng iu khin theo nhng yu
cu c cha trong cc mo u.
1.1.2.2 Nguyn l chuyn mch OPS:
K thut chuyn mch gi quang c minh ha nh hnh 1.3. T hnh
di, chng ta c th thy c 4 chc nng ca cc chuyn mch gi quang :
ng b gi : chc nng chung ca ng b gi bao gm
nhn dng bt u gi v lm tr tc l iu chnh thi gian
n ca cc gi.
Thay mo u gi : c thc hin bng cch s dng b
khuch i quang bn dn SOA v c th c ci thin bi
k thut chuyn i bc sng.
B m gi : Do khng c RAM quang thch hp cho cc
chuyn mch gi quang nn chng ta s dng RAM in.
Thit b ny hn ch tc truy nhp v n cn cc chuyn
i O/E/O v cc b m da trn cc ng tr quang
(optical delay line).
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 5
Nhn dng, x l v to
mo u mi
Chuyn
mch



nh
tuyn,
B m
1
2
1
2 2
1
ng b Mo u
mi
A

B
Ti tin Mo u
Si quang
u vo
nh tuyn gi : Trong khi vic x l a ch c thc hin
trong min in th cc chuyn mch gi quang nh tuyn v
m cc gi c thc hin trong min quang.C nhiu kin
trc chuyn mch gi khc nhau, nh chuyn mch gi quang
nh tuyn bc sng, chuyn mch gi qung b v chn la,
chuyn mch gi quang da trn khng gian chuyn mch.










Hnh 1.3 M hnh chuyn mch gi quang
Khi mt gi n chuyn mch quang WDM, trc tin n c x l bi
giao din u vo, trong mo u gi v ti tin c tch ra v mo u c
chuyn vo min in v c x l bi khi iu khin. Trong khi ti tin vn
c gi li trong min quang v sau n s c x l bi c cu chuyn mch
n cng u ra thch hp. Mt vn chnh y l quyt nh lm cch no
mng vn hnh mt cch ng b. Mt mng ng b hon ton c th iu chnh
cc khe thi gian bng cch to cc gi c kch thc c nh. Trong mng ny, c
cu chuyn mch mt nt nhn cc gi n c iu chinh vi s tranh chp
nh nht. Tuy nhin, chuyn mch ny s phc tp hn v phi thm cc giai on
ng b v iu chnh gi. Mt cch khc l xy dng mng bt ng b trong
cc gi c th c chiu di thay i. Kin trc chuyn mch ny n gin hn, mc
d kh nng tranh chp gi cao hn. Sau khi ti tin i qua c cu chuyn mch, n
s c kt hp vi mo u m c chuyn i tr li min quang giao
din u ra.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 6
S tranh chp ca cc gi quang trong mt c cu chuyn mch l vn
ln v c nh hng n hiu sut ca mng nh tr gi, t l mt gi v khong
cch chng trung bnh. Khi c 2 gi hoc nhiu hn mun qua c cu chuyn mch
i ra cng mt cng trong cng mt thi im th lc s xy ra tranh chp gi.
gii quyt s xung t ny th mt gi c nh tuyn qua mt cng u ra
trong khi cc gi khc c nh tuyn mt ni khc da vo s gii quyt
tranh chp. Trong cc chuyn mch in, vic s dng k thut lu tr v gi i
( store and forward) c th gii quyt c tranh chp. Cc gi tranh chp c th
c lu tr trong mt b m v c gi i khi cng u ra yu cu ri. C mt
phng php lu tr gi quang l s dng cc ng tr quang FDL( fiber
delay lines). Tuy nhin, cc FDL c kh nng m rt hn ch v nu cc gi n
yu cu thi gian m ln hn kh nng m ca n th chng s b nghn.
C mt phng php khc gii quyt tranh chp gi l nh tuyn hot
potato. Trong phng php ny, nu mt gi c nh tuyn theo ng dn
mong mun n u ra th cc gi khc s c gi i trn cc ng dn khc, c
th l cc ng di hn. Do , cc gi s qua chuyn mch t cng mt u ra
nhng thi im khc nhau v s khng xy ra tranh chp. Phng php ny c
th c s dng trong cc b m quang.
Gii php gii quyt tranh chp th 3 l s dng cc b chuyn i bc
sng, l phng php ng ch ca cc mng WDM. Phng php ny c coi
l c trin vng bi v n khng lm tng tr v khong cch cc chng. C th kt
hp c 3 phng php trn hoc 2 phng php bt k c th to ra hiu qu tt
hn.
Trong 1 thi gian di, chuyn mch gi quang c xem l k thut kh thi
do n c tc cao, chuyn mch cht lng cao, linh hot v kh nng s dng
ti nguyn hiu qu.Tuy nhin, k thut ny vn c nhiu nhc im v vi vn
cn c gii quyt nh kin trc chuyn mch, s ng b,cc s gii quyt
tranh chp
1.1.3 Chuyn mch burst quang (OBS) :
1.1.3.1 Gii thiu OBS :
cc phn truc chng ta ni v nh tuyn bc sng quang v chuyn
mch gi quang. Chng ta thy rng trong k thut WR khng x l, khng bin
i O/E/O v khng cn m cc nt trung gian, tuy nhin n cho bng thng
kh dng thp. Trong khi , k thut chuyn mch gi c th tng bng thng kh
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 7
dng ca mng bng cch s dng b ghp knh thng k cho bng thng chia s
nhng n cn b m gi. Do nu kt hp cc u im ca 2 k thut trn th s
c 1 k thut chuyn mch khc, l k thut chuyn mch Burst quang.
Chuyn mch Burst quang l chun ca ITU-T cho chuyn mch Burst
trong cc mng ATM gi l ABT ( ATM block transfer). OBS l k thut
truyn lu lng burst qua mng truyn ti quang bng cch thit lp kt ni ginh
trc ti nguyn t u cui n u cui cho 1 burst. M hnh ca chuyn mch
burst quang c minh ho nh hnh 1.4.
Thc th chuyn mch c s trong OBS l burst, c nh ngha l mt
chui cc gi lin tip nhau vi cng 1 a ch ch v cc c tnh ging nhau,
cng truyn vi nhau t 1 nt u vo n 1 nt u ra v cng chuyn mch vi
nhau cc nt trung gian. Mt burst bao gm 2 phn l mo u v d liu. Mo
u c gi l burst iu khin (CB) v d liu c gi l burst d liu (DB).
CB s c truyn u tin ginh trc bng thng cho DB. Sau , DB s theo
ng dn m CB ginh trc.

Hnh 1.4 M hnh chuyn mch burst quang
1.1.3.2 u im ca OBS so vi WR v OPS :
Trong chuyn mch burst quang, bc sng trn 1 ng dn m burst s
dng s c gii phng ngay khi burst i qua ng dn, cc burst t cc ngun
khc nhau n cc ch khc nhau c th s dng hiu qu bng thng ca cng 1
bc sng trn 1 ng dn trong 1 thi gian chia s, l hnh thc ca ghp knh
Bc sng d liu
Si quang
u ra
Si quang
u vo
Bc sng iu khin
O/E/O
X l gi iu khin
(thit lp v ginh
trc bng thng)
Chuyn mch
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 8
thng k. Nh vy s cho hiu qu s dng bng thng ln hn nhiu so vi WR,
ph hp cho cc kt ni yu cu thi gian di. N cn khc phc cc vn hn
ch kh nng kt ni trong cc mng WR m s cc ng dn quang c th thit
lp b hn ch bi s lng cc bc sng ri.
Ngoi ra, OBS c th thch nghi cao vi nhng tc nghn hoc cc li (bng
cch s dng nh tuyn lch ) v h tr nh tuyn theo ch u tin nh trong
chuyn mch t bo hoc chuyn mch gi quang. Tuy nhin, khi OBS thc hin
chuyn mch cc burst, kch thc ca chng c th ln hn nhiu so vi cc gi
IP ( hoc t bo ATM ) nn trong chuyn mch burst, mo u nh hn nhiu.
Bng cch s dng iu khin ngoi bng v c bit l thi gian cn bng nh
trong JET, nn vic kt hp gia CB v DB khng cht ch nh trong chuyn
mch gi quang. Do , yu cu ng b s linh hot hn trong chuyn mch gi
quang. Trong hnh 1.5, minh ha cc k thut OPS v OBS.
C 3 s khc nhau ln gia chuyn mch burst quang v chuyn mch knh
quang v chuyn mch gi quang :
Chuyn mch burst quang l s kt hp gia chuyn mch knh
quang v chuyn mch gi quang.
So vi chuyn mch knh quang, chuyn mch burst ginh trc
bng thng cho 1 hng, ngha l burst c th c gi m khng
cn xc nhn c ginh trc c bng thng hay khng. Tuy nhin,
trong chuyn mch knh quang, bng thng cho 1 cuc gi phi
c ginh trc cho c 2 hng.
Trong chuyn mch burst, 1 burst s i qua cc nt trung gian m
khng cn phi m, trong khi vi chuyn mch gi quang, cc gi
c lu tr v gi i mi nt trung gian.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 9

Hnh 1.5 So snh gia OPS (a) v OBS (b)

1.2 Kin trc v cc k thut chuyn mch burst quang (OBS):
1.2.1 Kin trc OBS :
Trong mng OBS ( hnh 1.6 ), cc router bin v cc router li lin kt vi
nhau bng cc ng dn WDM. Cc nt bin c chc nng tp hp cc gi thnh
cc burst v phn gii cc burst thnh cc gi. Cc nt li c chc nng nh tuyn
v lp lch cho cc burst da vo cc gi mo u burst.




Nhn dng, x l v to
mo u mi
Chuyn
mch



nh
tuyn,
B m
1
2
1
2 2
1
ng b Mo u
mi
A

B
Ti tin
Mo u
Si quang u
vo

O/E/O
Chuyn
mch

2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
Cc gi
iu khin
Thi gian
cn bng
Cc bc
sng d liu
Cc burst
d liu
Cc bc
sng iu
khin
A
B
D
C
X l gi iu khin
(thit lp/ginh trc bng thng)
(a)
(b)
D
C
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 10
Router li
Lu lng
u vo


Router bin
Lu lng
u ra














Hnh 1.6 M hnh mng OBS
Kin trc ca router bin c minh ho trong hnh 1.7. loi b cc
chuyn i O/E/O v cc ti x l in, u vo ca nt bin s tp hp nhiu gi
IP vi cng mt a ch u ra thnh 1 burst. Mt burst bao gm 1 gi mo u gi
l burst iu khin (CB) v 1 burst d liu (DB). CB c truyn trn 1 knh iu
khin; DB tng ng vi n th c truyn trn 1 knh d liu ( data channel )
m khng cn i thng tin xc nhn l ginh trc c ti nguyn. Mt knh
c th bao gm 1 bc sng hoc 1 phn ca bc sng trong trng hp ghp
knh phn chia theo thi gian hoc phn chia theo m. Trong n ny, chng ta
s coi rng thut ng knh v bc sng l nh nhau.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 11

Hnh 1.7 Kin trc ca router bin
Khi mt CB n c nt li ( Hnh 1.8 ) th nt li s chuyn n sang tn
hiu in, ri thc hin nh tuyn v cu hnh ( configurates ) c cu chuyn
mch quang theo thng tin c mang bi CB. Phn DB cn li trong min quang
m khng cn s chuyn i O/E/O khi n i qua nt li.
Router bin u ra
B phn
gii burst
Mng
OBS
B tp
hp burst
Router bin u vo
Knh d liu
Knh d liu
Knh iu khin
Thi gian
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 12

Hnh 1.8 Kin trc ca router li
1.2.2 Cc k thut OBS :
1.2.2.1 Cc s tp hp burst :
Vn tp hp burst ti router bin l 1 vn quan trng trong cc mng
OBS. V c bn c 2 s tp hp : s da trn ngng v s da trn thi
gian. Trong s da trn thi gian th thi gian s c tnh t khi bt u vic
tp hp. Tt c cc gi trong b m s c tp hp thnh 1 burst khi thi gian
vt qu 1 chu k tp hp burst T
b
. Gi tr T
b
nu ln th dn n b m ti nt
bin phi c tr ln, nu T
b
qu nh th dn n c rt nhiu burst c kch thc
nh c to ra v khi b x l phi c tc x l cao.
Trong s da trn ngng, 1 burst c to ra v c gi vo trong
mng OBS khi tng kch thc ca cc gi trong hng i t n 1 g tr ngng
L
b
. Nhc im ca s da trn ngng l n khng gii hn c lng thi
gian tr tp hp ca cc gi.
C cu chuyn mch quang
Khi iu khin
chuyn mch
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 13
S la chn thut ton tp hp burst ph thuc vo loi lu lng c
truyn ti. Cc thut ton da trn thi gian l ph hp vi lu lng nhy cm vi
thi gian nh cc ng dng thi gian thc bi v bin trn ca tr tp hp burst l
c gii hn. Cn trong cc ng dng khng nhy cm vi thi gian nh truyn
ti file th lm gim cc gi mo u iu khin v tng hiu qu truyn dn
OBS th s da trn ngng l ph hp hn.
Lm cch no chn gi tr ngng L
b
v gi tr thi gian T
b
vn cn l
vn m. Nu L
b
v T
b
nh th dn n s lng burst s nhiu hn v s lng
tranh chp s tng, nhng s lng cc gi trung bnh b mt trn 1 tranh chp s t
i, ngoi ra cn lm tng s lng cc gi iu khin. Nu chu k cu hnh ng
ca c cu chuyn mch quang l ng k th L
b
v T
b
nh s dn n hiu qu s
dng ti nguyn mng s thp hn bi v mi burst c chuyn mch cn 1 chu k
cu hnh ng. Ngc li, nu L
b
v T
b
ln th dn n tr tp hp burst s tng v
s lng cc gi trung bnh b mt trn 1 tranh chp s ln hn. l mu thun
gia s lng tranh chp v s lng cc gi trung bnh trn 1 tranh chp . S la
chn ti u cho cc gi tr L
b
v T
b
l tng ng vi loi lu lng u vo. Thut
ton tp hp Chu k tp hp thch ng (Adaptive Assembly Period ) c
xut. Thut ton ny s dng cc chu k tp hp thch ng kt hp vi cc c
cu iu khin tc nghn TCP.
Trong s tp hp lai ghp gia ngng v thi gian th 1 burst c th
c gi i khi chiu di burst vt qu ngng yu cu hoc vt qu thi gian
yu cu. Gi s mi router bin c G hng i phn bit cc gi n. Thi gian
ca hng i Q [i] c cho bi T [i] v chiu di ca Q [i] c cho bi L [i]. S
lai ghp s dng thut ton sau :
Bat dau
1. Khi 1 goi voi chieu dai b den Q [i]
If ( Q [i] trong )
Khoi dong thoi gian T [i] , L [i] = b
Else
Dat goi vao Q [i] , L [i] = L [i] + b
If ( L [i] > L
b
)
Tao 1 burst voi chieu dai L [i] va gui vao mang OBS
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 14
L [i] = 0 , dung dem thoi gian T [i]
End if
2. Khi T [i] = T
b

Tao 1 burst voi chieu dai L [i] va gui no vao mang OBS,
L [i] = 0 , dung dem thoi gian T [i]
Ket thuc
Sau khi 1 burst c to ra, n s c lu vo hng i trong khong thi
gian cn bng ( offset time ) trc khi c pht i cho CB ca n thi gian
ginh trc ti nguyn mng. Trong sut thi gian cn bng ny, cc gi thuc
hng i c th tip tc n. Bi v gi iu khin cha thng tin v chiu di
burst c gi i, nn cc gi n sau s khng c tnh trong burst c lu.
hn ch vic mt cc gi b sung ny th c 1 cch l thc hin d on chiu
di burst. Cho gi iu khin mang chiu di burst bao gm chiu di thc v
chiu di c d on v cc gi b sung n trong thi gian cn bng. Khi chiu
di burst b sung c d on l ln hn chiu di burst b sung thc t th bc
sng c ginh trc s b lng ph. Ngc li, th cc gi b sung s b mt.
C 1 cch khc l cho 2 b m lin tip thay v 1 b m trong mi hng
i Q [i]. Khi 1 burst c to ra t 1 b m, th cc gi n sau s c lu tr
b m khc cho n ln tp hp tip theo c thc hin.
1.2.2.2 Cc s ginh trc bc sng :
Trong cc mng OBS, 1 gi iu khin c gi trc ginh trc bc
sng theo ng nh tuyn ca n cho burst d liu. C 2 giao thc iu khin
c xut cho cc mng ATM. Mt giao thc gi l Tell And Wait, tc l
khi 1 ngun c burst truyn ti th u tin n c gng ginh trc bng thng
dc theo mch o bng cch gi 1 bn tin yu cu ngn. Nu bng thng yu cu
c cho php tt c cc nt trung gian dc theo ng nh tuyn ca n th 1
bn tin chp nhn (ACK) t ch s tr v ngun sau 1 thi gian tr. Ngc li th
1 bn tin t chi ( NACK ) s tr v ngun. Ngun s pht burst ca n khi nhn
c bn tin ACK.
Mt giao thc khc l Tell And Go, ngha l ngun s pht burst ngay
khi n nhn c bn tin t lp cao hn. Burst ny s c sao li v gi ti ngun
cho n khi ngun bit c burst n c ch thnh cng. Pha thu s gi
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 15
ACK tr li ngun tng ng khi n nhn c bn tin thnh cng. Ngc li, th
pha thu gi tr li ngun bn tin NACK ngun c th pht li burst sau .
Trong OBS, m hnh bo hiu c yu cu cho vic ginh trc ti
nguyn v vic cu hnh cc chuyn mch quang cho vic truyn dn burst. C vi
m hnh ginh trc bc sng cho OBS, nh Tell And Go (TAG), Just In
Time (JIT) v Just Enough Time (JET) c xut. Trong m hnh TAG, 1
nt ngun s gi vo mng 1 gi iu khin. Nt ngun sau gi ngay 1 burst d
liu. c thi gian cho vic x l bn tin iu khin v vic cu hnh chuyn
mch mi nt, burst d liu cn c m mi nt. Trong m hnh JIT, burst
d liu c m nt bin bi b nh in r v phong ph v tt hn cc nt
trung gian trong s dng cc ng tr quang t tin v him. Nt ngun s
gi bn tin SETUP ginh trc bc sng trc khi truyn d liu v 1 bn tin
RELEASE gii phng sau khi truyn xong d liu. Nt chuyn mch trung gian
s c gng ginh trc bc sng ngay lp tc khi nhn c bn tin SETUP v s
gii phng bc sng khi nhn c bn tin RELEASE. Tuy nhin, trong trng
hp ny th hiu qu s dng bc sng l rt thp do thi gian nm gi bng
thng l ln hn thi gian truyn dn.
Hnh 1.9 minh ho k thut bo hiu JET. Trong trng hp ny th nt u
vo s i 1 khong thi gian cn bng (offset time) trc khi n bt u pht
burst d liu. Thi gian cn bng ban u c t ln hn tng thi gian x l ca
CB dc theo ng i ca n,c tnh l T
0
= h . , trong h l s chng gia
ngun v ch, l thi gian x l mo u burst trn 1 chng. Nu ti bt k nt
trung gian no, vic ginh trc l khng thnh cng th burst d liu s b mt. So
vi JIT th CB trong JET cha c thng tin v thi gian cn bng v chiu di
burst. V vy, ti mi nt trung gian, bc sng s c ginh trc khi bt u
truyn burst d liu v s c gii phng khi kt thc burst d liu.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 16

Hnh 1.9 K thut bo hiu Just Enough Time (JET)
1.2.2.3 Giao thc bo hiu JET :
Thit lp kt ni c da trn s ginh trc ti nguyn cho 2 hng
c pht trin trong thoi v cc mng tc cao (khng quang). Hng tng t
cng c th s dng rt tt trong cc mng quang. Tuy nhin, tc 2,5Gbps, 1
burst 500kbytes c th c gi i trong khong 1,6ms. Tuy nhin, n s nhn
ACK 2,5ms ch truyn qua khong cch 500km. iu ny gii thch ti sao cc
giao thc ginh trc 1 hng nhn chung tt hn cc giao thc ginh trc 2
hng cho lu lng burst qua khong cch di.
Ngun Nt i ch
T
0

T
0
: Thi gian cn bng ban u
: Tr x l ca mi nt
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 17

Hnh 1.10 OBS s dng giao thc JET
Hnh 1.10 minh ho giao thc OBS c gi l Just Enough Time (JET)
l loi giao thc ginh trc 1 hng. gi i 1 burst d liu (nhiu gi IP), 1
burst iu khin ging nh gi IP thng thng (v vy c gi l gi iu khin)
c nh tuyn t ngun n ch ca n trn c s tng chng ginh trc
ng dn ton quang. Mi nt chn bc sng dnh ring trn ng ra v dnh
trc khong thi gian cho burst d liu theo sau v t ln chuyn mch quang.
n gin, chng ta gi thit rng tng thi gian x l ca gi iu khin l
mi nt. Sau khi DB i ngun trong min in trong thi gian cn bng T
0
, n
s c gi di dng cc tn hiu quang m khng cn i xc nhn t ch. Gi
h l s chng trn ng i (trong hnh h = 3), T
0
s c chn gi tr nh nht ( .
h) m bo thi gian mi nt hon thnh vic x l gi iu khn trc
khi DB bt u c pht. Kt qu l, DB c gi, n i qua cc nt trung gian
m khng i qua bt k b m no, bt k b chuyn i O/E/O no, hoc bt k
thc th IP trung gian no.
Trong giao thc ginh trc 1 hng, c 1 vn quan tm l tc mt
d liu. Nu 1 gi iu khin b li nt trung gian th DB tng ng c th b
mt v 1 phn hi c th c gi tr li ngun n pht li gi iu khin v
DB sau . Trong trng hp ny s lng ph bng thng trn 1 phn ng thit
lp. hn ch kh nng hao ph bng thng, 1 burst (hoc gi quang) s c lu
tr trong b m in ( sau khi i qua b chuyn i O/E) v sau c chuyn
n ch ca n (sau khi i qua b chuyn i E/O). Cc ng tr quang (FDLs)
to ra tr cc nt trung gian, c th c s dng gim bng thng hao ph.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 18
Ch rng, trong OBS da trn JET, 100% dung lng ca b m FDLs l sn
sng cho vn gii quyt tranh chp trong khi CM t bo/ CM gi quang th nh
hn 100%. Hn na, JET khng ch ci thin bng thng kh dng m cn d dng
qun l b m thng minh. Kt qu l lm gim ng k xc sut mt burst.
Ch rng, xc sut mt 1 vi burst c th c gim m khng s dng
bt k FDL no, bng cch ch nh 1 u tin cao hn cho burst bng cch b
sung thm thi gian cn bng v do bo m xc sut mt burst thp hn. Gi
iu khin tng ng c th ginh trc bng thng nhiu hn nhng gi khc, kt
qu l kh nng ginh trc s cao hn.
1.2.2.4 Cc thut ton lp lch burst :
Khi 1 CB n nt li, nt li s chuyn n thnh tn hiu in trong cha
thi gian n ca burst v khong thi gian ca burst d liu tng ng vi CB.
Thut ton lp lch knh d liu l gn 1 knh d liu trn ng ra cho burst d
liu. C cu chuyn mch quang c cu hnh ng da trn cc kt qu lp lch.
tm 1 bc sng ph hp trong rt nhiu bc sng cho burst n th c
vi thut ton lp lch knh d liu c xut : First Fit Unscheduled Channel
(FFUC), Latest Available Unused Channel (LAUC), Latest Available Unused
Channel with Void Filling (LAUC VF).
FFUC
Thut ton FFUC (cn gi l Horizon) theo di thi gian ri ca mi knh
d liu. Khi 1 CB n, thut ton FFUC s tm trong tt c cc knh d liu theo 1
th t nht nh v gn burst cho knh u tin m ri ti thi im n ca burst.
V d v thut ton FFUC hnh 1.11, knh d liu 2 c chn cho burst mi bi
v knh s 2 l knh u tin m c thi gian ri ti thi im t ca burst mi khi
chng ta tm theo th t tng dn cc knh. u im ca thut ton ny l tnh
ton n gin. Tuy nhin, thut ton ny cho hiu qu s dng bc sng thp v
t l tn hao cao, v n to ra cc khong trng gia cc burst trn mi knh d
liu.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 19

Hnh 1.11 Minh ho thut ton FFUC
LAUC
So vi FFUC th LAUC tng hiu qu s dng bc sng v n to ra cc
khong trng ti thiu gia cc burst bng cch la chn knh d liu ri n knh
cui cng cho mi burst d liu n. v d, trong hnh 1.12, knh d liu 2 v
knh 3 ri ti thi im n t ca burst mi. Nhng knh d liu 3 s c chn
cho burst mi bi v khong trng c to ra (t t
3
) trn knh 3 s nh hn
khong trng (t t
2
) s c to ra nu knh 2 c chn. Do , thut ton
LAUC cho hiu sut tn hao burst tt hn FFUC.


Hnh 1.12 Minh ho thut ton LAUC
LAUC VF
Trong c hai thut ton FFUC v LAUC, cc khong trng gia 2 burst d
liu nm trn 1 knh d liu, chng l dung lng knh khng c s dng, gy
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 20
lng ph. Thut ton LAUC VF th tng t nh LAUC nhng trong trng hp
ny th cc khong trng s c lp y bi cc burst mi n.
Trong LAUC VF, thi gian bt u v thi gian kt thc ca cc khong
trng trong mi knh d liu c ghi li. V d ca thut ton nh minh ho trn
hnh 1.13. Gi s 1 burst d liu mi n chuyn mch quang ti thi im t vi
khong thi gian L, b lp lch u tin s tm cc knh d liu u ra m ri trong
chu k thi gian (t, t +L). Cc knh d liu s 1,2 v 5 l ri cho burst d liu n.
Knh d liu 2 c chn mang burst d liu mi v khong trng c to ra
gia burst hin c v burst d liu n c gi tr nh nht.

Hnh 1.13 Minh ho thut ton LAUC VF
Thut ton LAUC VF cho hiu qu s dng bc sng tt hn v tc
tn tht thp hn thut ton LAUC. Tuy nhin, thut ton LAUC VF mt rt
nhiu thi gian x l hn thut ton LAUC, c bit khi s lng cc khong trng
ln ng k so vi s lng cc knh d liu ( m iu ny th thng xy ra).
1.2.2.5 Cc gii php khc phc tranh chp burst:
Khi cc burst i vo mng li OBS bi cc router bin m khng i xc
nhn l ginh trc c ti nguyn th 1 burst c th xy ra tranh chp v bc
sng vi cc burst khc t cc ngun khc nhau cc nt trung gian, khi chng
mun chim gi ng thi cng 1 bc sng cng 1 cng ra. Cc nt OBS trung
gian phi gii quyt s tranh chp c th xy ra gia cc burst. Ngoi vic cc
burst tranh chp b mt th s tranh chp c th c gii quyt bng cc cch sau:
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 21
Dng b m FDL : Burst tranh chp s b lm tr trong 1 chu k c
nh bng cch cho i qua FDL.
Dng b chuyn i bc sng : Burst tranh chp s b chuyn sang
bc sng khc qua b chuyn i bc sng.
nh tuyn lch : Burst tranh chp s c gi n 1 cng u ra
khc v sau nh tuyn k tip n ch.
Gii php tranh chp u im Nhc im
B m FDL n gin v chc chn Tng tr u cui n
u cui v tng kch
thc ca cc nt.
B chuyn i bc
sng
L gii php c hiu
qu nht.
Khng chc chn v t
tin.
nh tuyn lch Khng yu cu b sung
phn cng
Cc th t n b sai
lch.
Bng 1.1 So snh cc gii php tranh chp khc nhau
1.3 Kt lun chng
T nhng gii thiu v nh gi v nhng c tnh ca cc k thut chuyn
mch quang (nh tuyn bc sng quang, chuyn mch gi quang, chuyn mch
burst quang) trn, chng ta thy rng chuyn mch burst quang l mt gii php
chuyn mch tt y ha hn trong cc mng quang. Bi v chuyn mch burst
quang c nhiu u im vt tri so vi cc k thut chuyn mch khc nh : thi
gian thit lp thp, hiu qu s dng bng thng cao v kh nng thch ng cao i
vi lu lng v li, ngoi ra vic thc hin d dng hn nhiu so vi chuyn
mch gi quang. OBS cho php chuyn mch ton b d liu trong min quang
bi cc thnh phn iu khin c t trong min in.
Nhn chung trong tng lai gn, chuyn mch burst quang c kh nng
thung mi hn chuyn mch gi quang nu c thit k vi yu cu khng c
b m quang. Nhiu hng v trung tm nghin cu trn th gii ang gia tng
mi quan tm n thit b quang, vic trin khai trong tng lai gn cc sn phm
mng da trn chuyn mch burst quang l mt iu tt yu.
n tt nghip Chng 1: K thut chuyn mch quang
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 22
Cc k
thut
chuyn
mch
Hiu qu
s dng
bng thng
Mc tr m quang X l/ng
b ho mo
u
Kh nng
thch ng
(vi lu
lng v
li)
WR Thp Cao Khng yu
cu
Thp Thp
OPS Cao Thp Yu cu Cao Cao
OBS Cao Thp Khng yu
cu
Thp Cao

Bng 1.2 So snh ba k thut chuyn mch quang














n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 23
CHNG 2 : CHT LNG DCH V ( QoS )
2.1 nh ngha QoS :
Vic nh ngha cht lng dch v (QoS) l 1 vn phc tp, l mc cht
lng mong mun s truyn ti t ngi s dng n ngi s dng v t dch v
n dch v. Trong cc mng in thoi tng t, nhiu l vn ln nht nh
hng n cht lng dch v. Tuy nhin, vn ny c gii quyt hon ton
trong cc mng in thoi s. Thay vo , vn li bit tr thnh vn ln
trong cc mng s do cc vn khc nh mt ng b ,mt bt, dch pha v tri
phaTt c nhng vn c th dn n li bt. Trong cc mng gi, cc vn
li gi v mt gi l nhng vn quan trng bi v tt c nhng vn khc
ca li bt c th dn n kt qu gy nn li gi v mt gi. Ngoi ra, nu cc
dch v a phng tin c cung cp qua cc mng gi th tr gi v bin ng
tr l vn quan trng cn c gii quyt, nguyn nhn gy ra bi vic x l
kch thc gi ca cc tn hiu lin tc theo thi gian. Nh vy, c nhiu tham s
hiu nng khc nhau ng vi cc mng khc nhau. Cc h s chnh ca QoS bao
gm : tc li bt (BER), tc li gi, tr ca cc dch v s bin ng tr.
Sau khi chng ta nh ngha thut ng QoS, vn tip theo s c gii
quyt l lm th no thc hin QoS, l lm th no vn hnh 1 mng
t c cc yu cu QoS mong mun. y l cu hi m cha c cu tr li r
rng. Tuy nhin, vn thc hin QoS l vn cn phi thc hin cn thn v k
lng gn vi cc tham s hiu nng nh hng n QoS. C 2 s la chn gii
quyt vn QoS, hoc l d tr ti nguyn mng hoc l s dng 1 s loi c cu
c chc nng qun l lu lng thng minh trong mng. Trong trng hp th
nht, mng phi cung cp nhiu ti nguyn hn ( tn s hoc bc sng) cho mi
kt ni so vi yu cu ti thiu, nh vy dung lng ci t trong mng phi ln
hn yu cu ti thiu. Trong gii php th 2 th ngc li, cc c cu qun l thng
minh cho php b m qun l. lp lch v cc chc nng khc cho php mi
ngi s dng c c mc QoS mong mun. Nh vy, s c 2 gii php gii
quyt vn QoS, tu thuc vo cc nh qun l mng mun tng dung lng thc
ca mng hay mun xy dng cc m hnh qun l lu lng thng minh. tr
li cc cu hi ny th chng ta cn xem xt cc vn QoS trong mng IP hay tm
gii php tch hp trong cc mng IP, ATM, SDH/SONET v WDM. V d, c
nhiu hng t c yu cu QoS vi vic tng bng thng trong khi vn
gi tnh thng minh bn trong mng n gin ho mng. Ngc li, c 1 s
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 24
hng khc t c cc yu cu QoS vi 1 s m hnh thng minh qun l
mng tch hp nhiu thnh phn.
Mng Internet hin nay cung cp dch v trn c s phc v theo n lc ti
a (best effort). Tc l khng c bt c mt cam kt no c a ra t pha nh
khai thc v cht lng ca dch v. Thay vo , tu thuc vo trng thi c th
ca mng, mng ch s thc hin nhng kh nng tt nht ca mnh phc v
lu lng ca dch v. y chnh l nguyn nhn ch yu thc y s nghin cu
mnh m v QoS trn nn mng IP trong nhng nm gn y.
Kin trc mng hin nay thc hin phn phi gi theo dch v tt nht, cc
router thit k theo kiu c tc l ngoi tr lu tr bng nh tuyn, router khng
lu cc thng tin v trng thi ca lung d liu h tr QoS. Trong khi xu
hng mng Internet ngy nay dn tr thnh mng a dch v v phi m bo
dch v cho rt nhiu ng dng khc nhau nh cc ng dng thi gian thc,
Video,FTP, Web Mi ng dng ng vi nhng ngi dng khc nhau s i hi
cht lng dch v QoS khc nhau. Cht lng dch v QoS dng ch n kh
nng ca mng trong vic cung cp dch v tt nht cho mng c chn vi
nhng k thut khc nhau nh FrameRelay, ATM, MPLShoc s dng tt c cc
k thut trn. Mc ch chnh ca vic a ra QoS l cung cp u tin khc
nhau v bng thng, jitter, tr hoc t l mt gi. Cht lng dch v QoS s
c p dng cho 1 lung t ngun n ch v s t u tin khc nhau cho
cc lung . Trong trng hp mng b tc nghn hoc li th tu u tin
lung no s c x l trc. Vi vic s dng hng i, khi b tc nghn, chng
ta s hu lung c u tin thp trc khi hu lung c u tin cao. Vi vic
s dng chnh sch hay nh khun chng ta s m bo u tin bng cch
gim thng lng ca lung khc thc hin QoS, cc thnh phn c bn
m bo QoS gm : Thnh phn QoS nh dng v nh du s dng cho vic
nh du cc gi t u n cui khi i qua gia cc thnh phn mng; thnh phn
QoS gia cc thit b mng nh hng i, b lp lch, nh khun lu lng; thnh
phn qun l, chnh sch QoS dng iu khin v qun tr lu lng t u cui
n u cui xuyn sut mng.
C rt nhiu gii php c a ra p ng cho yu cu ca ngi dng
v cng t c hiu qu s dng ti nguyn ln nht vi chi ph ti thiu.Cc
gii php a ra c v phn cng (thay i kin trc ca cc router truyn thng)
ln phn mm (xy dng cc giao thc mi) u da trn thng tin v trng thi
ca mng. Thng tin v trng thi ca mng c dng ch mt tp cc thng
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 25
tin v cc lung d liu, cc dch v v vic s dng ti nguyn ca chng, v cc
c ch lu lng cung cp dch v . Thng tin trng thi ca mng c th da
trn tng lung hay da trn thng tin ca tp cc lung. Cc thng tin trng thi
ny khc nhau vi cc thnh phn khc nhau ca mng nh ti cc router bin
hoc li. Mt tc v quan trng lin quan n thng tin trng thi ca mng l
phn loi gi. S dng mt s quy lut nh ngha u tin ca gi ( mt lung
hay thng tin ca tp cc lung), vic phn loi gi bao gm vic tm ra u tin
m gi thuc v. Thnh phn ca mng thc hin vic phn loi, xc nh trng
thi mng lin quan, v sau thc hin cc giao tc khc nh a vo hng i,
iu khinVic phn loi gi c thc hin bi vic duyt mt hoc nhiu
trng tiu v kim tra da trn cc quy lut cho lung hoc tp cc lung.Vic
a ra nh ngha v thng tin trng thi ca mng trn a n s phn bit 2
khuynh hng pht trin mng hin nay cung cp dch v QoS, l mng li
c lu trng thi v mng li khng lu trng thi:
Mng li lu trng thi, tc l lu thng tin ca mi lung ti router
bin v router li. Router bin v li s dng thng tin v tng lung
thc hin cc thao tc v iu khin lu lng trn mi lung.
Tuy nhin, mt s tc v s phc tp v khng linh ng khi s
lng ca lung ln do phi s dng giao thc bo hiu thit lp
tuyn ng v cn vn phn loi cc gi tin rt phc tp. Do
gii php ny khng hiu qu vi s lng lung ca mng rt ln.
Mng li khng lu trng thi th tuy c lu trng thi ca mi lung
nhng khng lu thng tin tp trng thi ti li. Mi router bin s
phn loi mi lung thuc vo tp no v router li ch vic p dng
chnh sch khc nhau vi mi tp. Vi c ch ny, vic p ng dch
v khng tt bng vic qun l thng tin ca tng lung nhng c
ch ny n gin v linh ng, khng cn thit phi c bo hiu ti
mi lung v dng c ch phn loi n gin.
Da vo hai m hnh mng trn, chng ta s nghin cu hai gii php a
ra m bo cht lng dch v QoS cho mng li, l cc gii php IntServ v
DiffServ.



n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 26
2.2 IntServ
2.2.1 Kin trc IntServ
Tng quan ca phng php ny l cung cp m hnh dch v cho Internet,
lin quan ti m hnh truyn thng da trn dch v tt nht v lp Internet IP.
Gii php ny yu cu router QoS phi lu thng tin ca ti nguyn cn li (dung
lng ca lin kt, khng gian b m, kh nng tnh ton ca b chuyn tip)
sau cp pht cho lung. thc hin c iu ny router phi xc nh v lu tr
thng tin ca lung, v i hi c s thay i trong m hnh Internet ( trng thi
mng ch c lu tr u cui).Mc ch ca m hnh ny l p dng cho c
lung t ngun cho n ch, lung ny yu cu phi c m bo QoS. Trng
thi c cu hnh ng trong sut qu trnh thit lp tuyn ng. C ch ny i
hi phi c c ch iu khin vic chp nhn lung v giao thc bo hiu (giao
thc ginh trc ti nguyn).


Hnh 2.1 Kin trc ca IntSev
Hnh 2.1 minh ho cho kin trc ca IntServ. Kin trc ny gm c 4 thnh
phn chnh : thnh phn phn loi v nh tuyn, thnh phn lp lch gi, thnh
phn iu khin vic chp nhn lung mi ( ba thnh phn ny cung cp vic iu
khin lu lng) v giao thc dnh trc ti nguyn RSVP.
Cc giao
thc nh
tuyn
Giao thc
RSVP
Thnh
phn qun
l
iu khin
chp nhn
lung
C s d liu
nh tuyn
C s d liu
iu khin lu
lng
Phn loi v
nh tuyn
B lp lch
gi
Hng i
best effort
Hng i
QoS
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 27
+ Thnh phn phn loi v nh tuyn (Classifier and router selection) :
c chc nng phn loi cc gi ca 1 lung cho trc (hoc ca 1
tp) s dng bi thnh phn lp lch v nh tuyn cho cc gi
da vo c s d liu nh tuyn (Routing database) v cc giao thc
nh tuyn (Routing protocols).
+ Thnh phn lp lch (Packet scheduler) : qun l vic chuyn tip cc
gi khc nhau s dng hng i v b nh thi. Thnh phn iu
kin c thc hin ti bin ca mng v c xem l mt thnh
phn ca b lp lch gi.
+ Thnh phn iu khin vic chp nhn lung (Admission control)
thc thi cc thut ton ti cc router xc nh xem mt lung mi
c c chp nhn hay khng. Thnh phn iu khin chp nhn
lung thc hin chp nhn/quyt nh cc b ti thi im router yu
cu dch v dc theo tuyn ng. Thnh phn ny khng ch thc
hin vic quyt nh c hay khng m n cn thng bo cho ng
dng yu cu v QoS thp hn c th c p ng.
+ Giao thc ginh ti nguyn RSVP(Reservation protocol) : RSVP c
th mang dch v yu cu v p ng tng ng ca thnh phn chp
nhn lung t my tnh n router, t router n router v t router
n my ch. RSVP s dng 6 thng ip, thng ip Resv mang
tham s dch v, thng ip Path bt u t ngun v c gi n
ch. Mc ch chnh ca n l router bit trn kt ni no s
chuyn tip thng ip ginh ti nguyn( n cng bao gm nh
ngha v c im lu lng ca lung).Thng ip Error c s
dng khi vic ginh ti nguyn tht bi. RSVP khng phi l 1 giao
thc nh tuyn do n khng cn xc nh lin kt no s c
dng ginh trc m n da vo cc giao thc nh tuyn bn
di xc nh tuyn ng cho 1 lung. Mt khi tuyn ng
c xc nh, RSVP bt u thc hin vic ginh trc ti nguyn.
Trong sut qu trnh thit lp ginh ti nguyn, RSVP phi c
thng qua khi iu khin v chnh sch v khi qun l v vic chp
nhn tuyn ng. Khi iu khin v chnh sch xc nh xem
ngi dng c thm quyn ginh c ti nguyn hay khng.
Thnh phn chp nhn tuyn ng xc nh xem nt c ti
nguyn cung cp cho yu cu QoS hay khng. Nu c hai bc
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 28
kim tra u tt, cc tham s c thit lp trong b phn loi gi v
trong b lp lch t c QoS mong mun. Tin trnh ny c
thc hin ti mi router v my tnh dc theo tuyn ng. Nu c
xy ra li, thng ip RSVP Error c to v qung b cho mi
nt.Mt c im quan trng ca RSVP l vic ginh ti nguyn
c thc hin bi trng thi mm. C ngha l trng thi ginh ti
nguyn c lin quan n 1 b dnh thi, v khi b nh thi ht hn,
vic ginh trc ti nguyn c loi b.Nu ni nhn mun lu li
trng thi ginh ti nguyn no, n phi u n gi cc thng ip
ginh ti nguyn. Ni gi cng phi thng xuyn gi cc thng
ip ny.
M hnh dch v IntServ cung cp 2 loi dch v khc nhau ngoi dch v
n lc ti a (best effort) :
- Dch v m bo GS (Guaranteed Service) p dng cho cc
dch v vi tr ca dch v c xc nh trc.
- Dch v m bo iu khin ti CLS(Controlled-Load
Service) p dng cho cc dch v vi tr ca dch v vi
c im thng k.
2.2.2 Nguyn l iu khin lung ca IntServ
Ct li ca IntServ l s p dng cc bin php hu hiu m bo QoS cho
tng lung IP. Lung IP l mt chui gi IP c chung 5 tham s ging nhau : a
ch IP u gi, a ch IP u nhn, s th t ca cng gi, s th t ca cng
nhn, loi hnh ca giao thc c s dng trn lp truyn ti ( TCP hay UDP) cho
lung IP ang c xt.
Mt mng IntServ cha cc b nh tuyn bin v cc b nh tuyn li.
Trc khi bt u truyn d liu ca 1 lung IP, u gi thng bo mt s s liu
lin quan n lu lng s c chuyn ( nh tc gi lu lng trung bnh ca
u gi, ln cho php ca nhng cm bng pht lu lng) cho b nh tuyn
bin. Bn cnh , u gi cng chuyn n cho b nh tuyn bin yu cu QoS
ca lung IP. Nhng s liu lu lng v QoS s c b nh tuyn bin s dng
tnh ra dung lng cn thit cho lung IP ang c quan tm. C nhiu
phng php tnh dung lng, chng hn p dng m hnh iu chnh lu lng
mng mang tn thng d (leaky bucket) l mt cch ph bin. Sau , giao thc
bo hiu RSVP s lm nhim v xc nh ng truyn ( kt hp vi cc giao thc
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 29
nh tuyn ci t ti cc b nh tuyn) v chim gi dung lng dc ng
truyn cho lung IP. Xy dng ng truyn c thc hin vi bn tin PATH
ca giao thc RSVP. S chim gi dung lng c thc hin vi bn tin
RESV, bt u t b nh tuyn bin u nhn v chy ngc tr li dc theo
ng truyn cho ti b nh tuyn bin u gi.
Hnh 2.2 minh ho nguyn l ca IntServ. Giao thc bo hiu RSVP s a
ra quyt nh lung IP t nt t nt H
1
n nt H
2
c th c mng IntServ phc
v hay khng. Trc ht, RSVP xc nh v xy dng ng truyn cho lung IP
bng tin PATH. ng truyn ny i qua cc b nh tuyn R
1
, R
2
, R
3
. Tip
dung lng s c chim gi cho ng truyn theo chiu t nt nhn ngc tr
li nt gi. S chim gi c thc hin bng tin RESV ca giao thc RSVP. Nu
s chim gi thnh cng ti tt c cc b nh tuyn R
3
, R
2
, R
1
, lung IP bt u
c phc v. Nu ti bt c b nh tuyn no, s chim gi khng thc hin
c do thiu dung lng cn thit, giao thc RSVP s da vo kt qu ny
chn lung IP.

Hnh 2.2 Nguyn l iu khin ca IntServ
Nu s chim gi dung lng ti tt c cc b nh tuyn dc ng truyn
u thnh cng, cc gi ca lung IP bt u c truyn ti t u gi n u
nhn. Trong trng hp bt c mt lin kt no dc ng truyn khng c
dung lng cn thit, qu trnh chim gi s b ngng v thng tin v s chim gi
khng thnh cng s c chuyn n u gi bng bn tin ERROR ca RSVP.
Lung IP s b chn khng c phc v. Cn lu l ngay c khi ng truyn
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 30
c xy dng thnh cng, trong qu trnh truyn ti cc gi ca lung IP, cn
thit phi c s kim tra dung lng c chim gi mt cch nh k, u n
nh giao thc bo hiu RSVP m bo trng thi c dng s dung lng cn
thit dc theo ng truyn. thc hin qu trnh chim gi dung lng, cng
nh kim tra trng thi chim gi lin quan n tng lung IP, mi b nh tuyn
trong c ch IntServ cn phi lu tr tt c cc d liu v c tnh cp nht ca tt
c cc lung gi ang tn ti trong mng. ng thi tt c cc b nh tuyn phi
c chc nng hot ng c cng vi giao thc RSVP.
2.2.3 Nhc im ca IntServ
Mc d cu trc IntServ c u im l s m bo cht ch cc yu cu
QoS ca tng lung IP, nhng nhc im ln cn bn ca n l khng c tnh p
dng rng cao. iu ny xut pht t thc t l mt b nh tuyn bnh thng
trong mng IP ngy nay phi x l cng mt lc s lng rt ln cc lung IP.Con
s ny c th ln ti vi trm nghn, hoc thm ch hng triu. V th, lu
tr,truyn ti v x l thng tin cho tng lung IP to ra mt lu lng bo hiu
khng l, lm gim ng k hiu sut hot ng ca b nh tuyn. Nhc im
ny l nguyn nhn v sao cu trc IntServ ch c tnh kh thi trong cc mng c
tm bao ph nh. Vi mng IP tri rng ton cu nh mng Internet hin nay,
trng i s u t v a vo hot ng ph bin ca cu trc IntServ l khng
thc t.
2.3 DiffServ
Nhn ra s hn ch v tnh p dng rng ca InServ, t chc IETF xut
cu trc DiffServ nh mt gii php QoS c tnh kh thi cao hn. Trong cu trc
DifServ, cc b nh tuyn c chia lm 2 loi. Cc b nh tuyn bin nm
ng vnh ca t chc mng c chc nng DiffServ. Cc b nh tuyn nm bn
trong t chc mng c chc nng DiffServ c gi l cc b nh tuyn li. Nh
trnh by trn, nu l t chc mng c chc nng IntServ, d b nh tuyn l
li hay bin, chng u bt buc phi c kh nng x l tng lung IP. im khc
c bn ca cu trc DiffServ l ch c cc b nh tuyn bin cn kh nng ny.
Vi cc b nh tuyn li, thay v phi x l vi s lng rt ln cc lung gi IP
nh trong cu trc IntServ,th ch phi x l mt vi lung IP tng trong cu trc
DiffServ. Lung IP tng cha tt c cc gi ca cc lung IP thuc v cng mt
chng loi. Do ch cn nh ngha mt vi chng loi c bn nn yu cu i vi
cc b nh tuyn li tr nn n gin hn rt nhiu.
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 31
2.3 1 Cc thnh phn ca kin trc DiffServ
Kin trc DiffServ bao gm 1 s cc thnh phn nh : DSCP, PHB, min
DiffServ, nt bin DiffServ v nt li DiffServ.
2.3.1.1 DSCP
DSCP (Differentiated services code point) l c s ca kin trc DiffServ.
N c t trong mi mo u ca gi IP, ch th loi hoc mc dch v m
gi c nhn. DSCP s dng trng TOS (type of service) trong mo u IPv4
hoc trng lu lng 8 bt trong mo u IPv6. Mc d c 2 trng ny c chiu
di 8 bt nhng DSCP ch s dng 6 bt, 2 bt cn li c d tr. Vic s dng
DSCP quyt nh mc dch v l phng php c nhiu u im. u tin, n
lm cho s lng trng thi c lu tr trong cc router li c gim n nh
nht, bng vi s ca cc DSCP. C ngha l s lng trng thi phn loi c
lu tr trong cc router li l rt nh. S dng DSCP l 1 phng php ca s hp
nht lu lng v trng thi ca lung con khng cn c duy tr trong cc router
li, chng c chuyn sang cho cc router bin. ng thi, cc router bin phi
h tr 1 s lng ln cc trng thi ny. Tuy nhin, iu ny khng phi l vn
ln v cc router bin nm bin ca mng, l ni m tc lu lng l khng
cao. Do , vic s dng gi tr DSCP trong cc mo u cho php cung cp cc
loi dch v khc nhau.
2.3.1.2 PHB
Gi tr ca PHB (per hop behavior) s cho bit 1 gi s c x l nh
th no khi n n c 1 nt. PHB c chn da trn gi tr DSCP ca gi n.
Ph thuc vo loi ca dch v yu cu, PHB c 3 loi khc nhau : PHB mc nh,
PHB chuyn m bo (AF) v PHB chuyn nhanh (EF)
2.3.1.3 Min DiffServ
Min DiffDerv l mt min n trong c s dng c cu DiffServ
cung cp QoS t bin n bin, bao gm cc nt DiffServ lin tip nhau di s
iu khin ca thc th qun l. Mi min DiffServ thng thng gm c 1 s cc
nt bin DiffServ (boundary node) v cc nt li DiffServ (interior node). Hnh 2.3
minh ho cho kin trc ca 1 min DiffServ.
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 32


Hnh 2.3 Min DiffServ
2.3.1.4 Nt bin DiffServ
Nt bin DiffServ l nt nm trn bin ca min DiffServ. Ph thuc vo
hng ca lu lng i vo hay i ra min DiffServ m nt bin c th c chia
thnh nt vo DiffServ hay nt ra DiffServ. Nt bin DiffServ thc hin nhim v
mang lu lng i vo hoc i ra khi mng v l ni tp trung hu ht cc chc
nng phc tp ca kin trc DiffServ. Cc gi khi n nt bin th c phn tch
v cp cho cc gi tr DSCP. Hnh 2.4 cho thy cu trc ca 1 nt bin DiffServ,
bao gm 1 b phn loi (Classifier), b o (Meter), b nh du (Marker) v b
iu khin (Policer).

Hnh 2.4 Cu trc ca nt bin DiffServ
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 33
2.3.1.5 Nt li DiffServ
Nt li DiffServ l nt nm bn trong min DiffServ. Ph thuc vo cc
nhm PHB c h tr trong min DiffServ, n c th truyn ti cc gi da vo
DSCP. Mt nt li c th hn ch lung lu lng i qua n. Nh minh ho trong
hnh 2.5, mt nt li DiffServ thng gm mt b phn loi BA (behavior
aggregate), cc b m khc nhau cho mi lp dch v (EF, AF, BE) v mt b lp
lch (scheduler). B phn loi BA phn tch tt c cc gi n v t chng trong
hng i tng ng da trn cc gi tr DSCP. Ph thuc vo PHB no c la
chn, s khc nhau c s dng cho qun l b m hoc b lp lch. Vi lp
dch v AF, s qun l hng i c kch hot vi trn 3 u tin khc nhau,
c th l RIO, WRED, FRED. Vi lp dch v EF, l lp m cc gi phi m bo
tr nh nht. Do , mt hng i vi u tin c nh hoc b lp lch WRR vi
u tin c t cao nht.

Hnh 2.5 Cu trc ca nt li DiffServ
2.3.2 Qu trnh thc hin DiffServ
C ch DiffServ a ra s phn loi cho 3 loi hnh dch v: dch v u
tin, dch v m bo v dch v ng bin theo kh nng ti a. Dch v cui cng
chnh l dch v ang c cung cp bi mng Internet hin nay. ng vi mi loi
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 34
dch v, DiffServ nh ngha cch thc x l cc gi IP ti cc b nh tuyn li.
Ni cch khc, ti cc b nh tuyn li, cc gi IP s c x l tng ng vi
loi dch v ca chng. Gi IP ca dch v u tin nhn c cch x l chuyn
nhanh (EF PHB Expedited Forwarding Per Hop Behaviour), cn gi IP ca
dch v m bo th nhn c cch x l chuyn m bo (AF PHB Assured
Forwarding Per Hop Behaviour).
Nguyn l hot ng ca cu trc DiffServ bao gm nhng im c bn sau.
Khi bt u i vo mng DiffServ m trc tip l ti b nh tuyn bin, gi IP s
c phn loi. B nh tuyn bin thc hin vic phn loi bng cch kim tra m
DSCP (DiffServ Code Point) cha chng loi dch v nm trong phn u gi
cng vi mt s d liu khc lin quan n lung ca gi IP (nh a ch u gi,
a ch u nhn).
Sau khi chng loi ca gi IP c xc nh, b nh tuyn bin s p dng
mt s gii php iu chnh tip theo cho gi nu cn thit. L do l gi IP cn phi
tun theo nhng tnh cht c nh ngha trc cho chng loi ca n. Nhng
tnh cht ny c th l mc cc i ca lu lng, bin cho php ca s bng
pht ca lu lng v mt s i lng khc.Tu thuc vo mc tun th c th
ca gi IP v mc cht ch ca DiffServ, gii php c b nh tuyn bin s
dng c th l nh du gi, iu chnh gi ( bao gm loi b gi, hoc lm tr gi
mt thi gian nht nh trc khi chuyn tip ).Nhng tc ng lin quan ny
mang mc ch nn li tnh cht ca lung lu lng cho ph hp vi nhng tnh
cht c nh ngha trc.
Ti b nh tuyn li, gi IP s c x l trn c s duy nht l chng loi
ca n. B nh tuyn li ch c nhim v kim tra chng loi ca gi IP v n
gin chuyn tip IP theo cch chng loi c nhn, bao gm nh tuyn cho
gi, hoc xp gi vo b m thch hp nu cn thit. V d, khi ng kt ni u
ra ca b nh tuyn khng truyn ti kp lu lng u vo, cc gi IP c xc
nh thuc vo dch v u tin s c xp vo mt b m ring vi cc gi IP
ca dch v m bo. Ch khi no cc gi trong b m ca dch v u tin c
ng kt ni phc v ht th cc gi IP trong b m ca dch v m bo mi
bt u c truyn ti.
Tuy khc phc c nhc im v tnh p dng rng ca IntServ, nhng
ngc li DiffServ ch c kh nng m bo QoS cho lung IP tng. Nhiu nghin
cu, m phng v o c trn cc mng DiffServ th nghim ch ra v chng
minh rng ngay c khi cc tham s QoS ca lung IP tng c m bo th cc
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 35
tham s QoS ca cc lung IP to nn lung tng hon ton c th b thay i
ngoi mc cho php. Phng php ph bin trnh hin tng ny l s dng
thm cc thut ton iu chnh u vo (CAC Connection Admission Control )
ca cc lung IP. Nguyn tc chung ca iu khin u vo l ch phc v lung
IP mi nu thc trng tc thi ca mng m bo c cng lc hai iu kin :
lung IP mi s nhn c cc tham s QoS khch quan ng theo yu cu, v cc
tham s QoS khch quan ca cc lung IP ang tn ti sn trong mng khng b
tn ph ngoi mc cho php bi s xut hin ca lung IP mi.
C hai phng php chnh c th tun theo khi trin khai thut ton iu
chnh u vo trn nn mng DiffServ. Phng php th nht l iu chnh dng
cu trc Broker dung lng (BB Bandwidth Broker). Phng php th hai l
iu chnh da vo cc kt qu o c, gim st trng thi ca mng. phng
php th nht, mt thit b c bit c gi l Broker dung lng c lp t
(Hnh 2.6 ). V cha cc tp d liu lun c lm mi v b sung nh s bo hiu
u n, bt c thi im no Broker dung lng u c ci nhn c th v chnh
xc v thc trng dung lng mng. Khi mt lung IP mi mun i vo mng
DiffServ, b nh tuyn bin ni lung IP xut hin s bo hiu vi Broker dung
lng. Nhn c bo hiu, Broker dung lng s xc nh ng truyn cho
lung IP qua mng DiffServ, ng thi kim tra xem dung lng mng dc ng
truyn va xc nh c theo yu cu QoS ca lung IP hay khng.Trng hp
c dung lng, lung IP s c n nhn. Nu khng dung lng, Broker
dung lng s tm mt ng truyn khc v lp li qu trnh kim tra dung lng
ng truyn. Nu khng c ng truyn no tho mn c nhu cu dung
lng, lung IP mi s b t chi v khng c truyn t qua mng DiffServ.
Hnh 2.6 minh ho iu chnh u vo dng Broker dung lng. Khi lung
gi IP mun i t u H
1
n u H
2
qua mng DiffServ, b nh tuyn bin R
1
s
thng bo yu cu nhp mng ca lung IP cho Broker dung lng. Broker dung
lng xc nh ng truyn R
1
R
2
R
3
t H
1
n H
2
cho lung IP v thc hin
thut ton iu chnh u vo (CAC trn hnh v) bng cch kim tra dung lng
dc ng truyn ny. Nu dung lng cho yu cu QoS ca lung IP, lu
lng ca n s bt u c truyn ti qua mng DiffServ.
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 36

Hnh 2.6 DiffServ v iu chnh u vo vi Broker dung lng
Phng php th hai iu chnh u vo da vo nhng kt qu o c
v gim st mng. Trong phng php ny, b nh tuyn bin c kh nng t
quyt nh t chi hay chp nhn truyn ti d liu ca lung IP mi. lm c
iu ny, tt nhin cn c s phn tch hp l cc kt qu o c c thu thp.
2.3.3 Cc vn trong vic khin khai DiffServ
Hin nay, cu trc DiffServ vn ch c trin khai ch yu vi quy m
nh, c tm c th nghim trong cc phng th nghim ca cc t chc nghin
cu. Mc d c nhng u im nht nh c nhc n trn, nhng DiffServ
vn cha c cc nh cung cp dch v trin khai trong mng ca h. Ngoi
nguyn nhn ng sau s cn thit phi u t nng cp mng, thiu ng lc trin
khai do tnh tin li ca cung ng tha lu lng cng l gii cho hin tng ny.
Cho d qu trnh nghin cu v th nghim cc gii php QoS trn nn
mng IP Internet din ra vi cng cao trong nhng nm gn y, dng nh
n cha sc thuyt phc i vi cc nh cung cp dch v. Mt thc t l cha
c gii php no thc s c a vo s dng vi quy m ln. Thay vo , hu
nh tt c cc nh khai thc mng li u p dng gii php cung ng tha lu
lng gii quyt vn QoS. Cung ng tha lu lng c ngha l tt c cc
ng kt ni trong mng c trang b dung lng ln hn gp nhiu ln lu
lng thc t i qua chng. Gii php ny c tnh kh thi cao nh vo s pht trin
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 37
nhanh chng ca cng ngh truyn d liu qua cp quang, c bit l s ng dng
ca cng ngh ghp knh theo bc sng quang DWDM. u t mua dung lng
v th khng cn qu t . nht l i vi nhng cng ty tm c ln ang iu
hnh mng li.
Khi c kt hp vi phn loi gi IP theo mu ca cu trc DiffServ, cung
ng tha lu lng cng tng thm tnh thuyt phc. Th nht l vi nhu cu thc
t hin nay ca khch hng s dng, thc cht chng ta ch cn phn bit 2 loi gi
IP chnh : cc gi ca cc dch v thi gian thc (thoi qua Internet, video qua
Internet) v cc gi ca cc dch v cn li. Cc dch v thi gian thc i hi
tr, t l mt gi v bin thin tr nh. Cc dch v cn li ( nh chuyn cc tp
tin,th in t ) c yu cu QoS kht khe hn v thng chp nhn c tr gi
v mt gi mc nht nh. Rt thun li l cc b nh tuyn ang c lu
hnh c sn kh nng c bn, phn loi cc gi IP thnh 2 nhm. iu c
ngha l khng cn thit phi thc hin mt thay i v nng cp ng k no cho
cc thit b mng sn c. Th hai, kt qu o c trong cc mng ang vn hnh
u xc nhn rng lu lng ca cc dch v thi gian thc ch chim mt t l nh
trn ton b lu lng mng, khong 10 15%. Nh vy, vi nguyn l phn loi
gi v gn s u tin tuyt i cho cc gi ca dch v thi gian thc, hiu sut s
dng (t l gia lu lng c chuyn qua v dung lng ca ng kt ni) ca
bt c ng kt ni no trong mng theo phng din ca dch v thi gian thc
s ch mc 10 15%. V th, cht lng ca loi hnh dch v ny chc chn
c m bo mc cao. Nhng php o c v kim tra mng chng minh
rng khi hiu sut s dng ca cc ng kt ni trong mng c gi mc thp
(v d nh di 15%) t l mt gi hu nh bng 0, v tr gi cng nh bin
thin tr ch mc vi mili giy. Thm ch khi hiu sut ng lin kt c
gi mc di 50%, tr mi gi IP phi chu mt nt mng (b nh tuyn)
cng ch vo khong 1 2ms. So snh ga tr ny vi 150ms, gi tr cho php ln
nht dnh cho tr u cui - u cui ca dch v VoIP, ta thy rng m bo
c QoS l s hin nhin, v mt lin kt VoIP thng ch i qua khng qu 10
nt mng. Thc trng ny t ra cu hi ti sao cn phi tn nhiu cng sc v ti
tr nghin cu, khm ph v th nghim nhng gii php QoS phc tp, khi m
ch cn n gin cung ng tha dung lng cho mng l mi vn c gii
quyt n tho?
m bo cung ng tha dung lng ng lc cn thit, nh khai thc
dch v cn theo st c chiu hng thay i ca lu lng mng. iu ny c
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 38
c khi cung ng tha dung lng c kt hp cht ch vi vic thc hin o
kim, phn tch cng nh d on lu lng mng. Cn lm r rng cung ng tha
lu lng tuy c u im n gin v mc m bo QoS theo yu cu tt,
nhng gii php ny ch c tnh kh thi cao i vi nhng nh khai thc dch v
mng li tm c, chu c mc u t ln.Ngoi ra, mt s nguyn nhn khc
cng gp phn cn tr s kh thi ca phng php ny. Mt mt, lu lng qua
mng ngy cng c xu hng tng nhanh theo thi gian. Thc trng ny i hi s
nng cp ngy cng thng xuyn ca dung lng mng. Mt khc, mt tr ngi
ln ca cung ng tha lu lng l do nhiu yu t khch quan, dung lng s
khng c cung ng nhanh nh mong i mi khi c nhu cu thm. Thc t
trong hot ng ca cc nh khai thc mng quy m ln vi nhiu chi nhnh
phng ban khc nhau, thi gian t lc chi nhnh chu trch nhim quy hoch mng
quyt nh cn tng thm dung lng cho ng kt ni n thi im chi nhnh
chu trch nhim t thm cp quang trin khai nhim v c th ln n hng
thng. Ngay c trong trng hp dung lng c th ngy cng tr nn r hn, v l
do kinh t, cc nh khai thc dch v vn mun gim n mc ti thiu mc cung
ng tha v mt nng cp s cung ng. y cng l mt trong nhng nhn t
khng khuyn khch s p dng ca gii php cung ng tha dung lng. Hn
na, khi QoS u cui - u cui l tiu ch, cn ch l ng truyn lu lng
khng ch i qua mng li m cn i qua c mng truy nhp. V mng truy nhp
c khai thc bi cc nh cung cp dch v tm c nh, v ti nguyn mng ti
a trong nhiu trng hp l gii hn ( v d trn nn mng truy nhp v tuyn,
ng kt ni khng dy ch c c dung lng ti a c nh v khng th tng
thm) nn kh nng cung ng tha dung lng l khng th thc hin c. V
th, cung ng tha dung lng khng gii quyt c vn QoS v chng vn
tip tc cn c xem xt v nghin cu.
2.4 Kt lun chng :
Chng ta va tm hiu v nh gi nhng gii php m bo cht lng
dch v (QoS) trn nn mng IP. Lin quan n tnh kh thi v trin khai trn quy
m ln, mi gii php cho IP QoS c xem xt u c nhng u im v khuyt
im ring. cng l l do ti sao mc d qu trnh nghin cu v th nghim
cc gii php QoS ny c bt u v theo ui gn hai thp k qua, nhng
cha gii php no tht s c c s p dng rng ri vi quy m mang tnh ton
cu. Vn cn nm ch, s ph bin ca bt k gii php no khng ch ph
thuc vo nhng tnh cht k thut ca n, m cn chu s chi phi mang tnh
n tt nghip Chng 2: Cht lng dch v (QoS)
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 39
quyt nh ca cc yu t khng km phn quan trng khc nh nhu cu th
trng, cc b lut hnh chnh lin quan n vin thng, s hng ng ca cc nh
cung cp dch v. Pht trin, chn la, v tch hp s hot ng ca cc gii php
QoS no cho hp l vn lun l ti lm vic v tranh lun mang tnh cp thit
khng ch trn lnh vc nghin cu m ca c nhng cng ty vin thng, cng nh
ca cc nh cung cp dch v.Chng ta hy cng ch i v theo di nhng bc
tin mi trong lnh vc ny.














n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 40
CHNG 3 : TRUYN TI IP QUA MNG WDM

3.1 Tch hp IP v cc mng quang
Giao thc Internet (IP) tr thnh giao thc chun ph bin cho cc dch
v mng mi, do lu lng IP s tng nhanh v thay th cc loi giao thc
khc. Trong khi IP c xem nh cng ngh lp mng ph bin th cng ngh
quang tin tin cho php kh nng dung lng truyn dn ln. Vi dung lng
truyn dn ln nh DWDM v kh nng cu hnh mm do ca chuyn mch
quang OXC (optical crossconnect) cho php xy dng mng quang ng hn,
nh cc kt ni bng tn ln (lung quang) c th c thit lp theo nhu cu.
Mt trong nhng thch thc quan trng l vn iu khin cc lung quang
ny, tc l pht trin cc c ch v thut ton cho php thit lp cc lung quang
nhanh v cung cp kh nng khi phc khi c s c, trong khi vn m bo c
tnh tng tc gia cc nh cung cp thit b.
3.1.1 M hnh mng quang :
C nhiu cch tch hp cc mng IP vi cc mng quang. Nhng u
tin chng ta cn hiu chnh xc mng quang l g. Chng ta c th nh ngha
rng mng quang l h thng truyn ti trong s dng cc thnh phn v cc k
thut quang l cc thc th truyn ti c bn, nh cc mng SDH/SONET ang
c s dng rng ri, cc mng WDM v cc cng ngh ng dn quang khc
nh cng ngh Gigabit Ethernet v cng ngh 10Gigabit Ethernet c pht trin
gn y.
Nhn chung, m hnh mng IP c cc b nh tuyn tc cao c kt ni
bi cc mng li quang, hu ht cc b nh tuyn ny c t ti bin ca cc
mng quang. Nh chng ta thy trong hnh 3.1, mng quang c kt ni n cc
mng khch hng khc nhau qua cc giao din gia mng v ngi s dng (UNI).
Ch rng cc mng khch hng bao gm cc mng IP v cc loi mng khc.
Ngoi ra, mng quang cng gm mng quang con lin kt vi nhau bi cc giao
din nt mng (NNI). Mng quang c xem nh l mt mng truyn ti mang d
liu ca ngi s dng t cc mng khc nhau.




n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 41






Hnh 3.1 M hnh mng quang
3.1.2 Cc vn truyn ti IP qua WDM
Trong truyn ti IP qua WDM c hai vn c bn cn c gii quyt :
Vn th nht l lm th no thch ng v s dng cc giao thc
mt phng iu khin IP trong mt phng iu khin ca mng quang. gii
quyt vn ny cn thit k cc giao thc iu khin v bo hiu mi hoc hn
ch dn cc giao thc iu khin v bo hiu da trn IP hin c c s dng
trong mng li quang nhm qun l mt cch nht qun vic cung cp v khi phc
cc ng dn quang (lighpath) t u cui n u cui qua nhiu mng quang
con. Ch rng trong vn ny, chng ta khng quan tm n ci g c truyn
ti trong chnh mng quang m ch quan tm n mt phng iu khin.
Vn th hai l lm th no truyn ti lu lng IP qua mng
quang. Vn ny lin quan n nhiu vn khc nh vic thit lp cc ng
dn t mt im cui IP n im cui IP khc qua mng quang v vic xc nh
xc sut n ch ca gi IP. Khc vi vn th nht, vn ny ch ra rng lm
th no h tr vic truyn ti lu lng IP qua mt phng d liu ca mng li
quang.

NNI
NNI
UNI UNI UNI UNI
Mng quang
con
Mng quang
con

Mng quang
con

Mng quang
con

Mng
IP
Mng
IP
Mng khch
hng khc
(ATM)
Mng khch
hng khc
(ATM)

n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 42
3.1.3 Mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin :
Trong mt mng quang in hnh c hai mt phng mng, mt mt phng
d liu mang lu lng d liu v mt mt phng iu khin qun l cc kt
ni trong mt phng d liu nh minh ho trong hnh 3.2. Thng tin c trao i
gia hai mt phng l rt quan trng mng quang c th vn hnh chnh xc.
Mt nt quang gm c b kt ni cho quang (OXC) truyn d liu v mt khi
iu khin trao i cc bn tin iu khin (Hnh 3.3)

Hnh 3.2 Mt phng d liu v mt phng iu khin trong mng quang
Mt phng iu khin
Mt phng d liu
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 43

Hnh 3.3 Nt quang
Mt phng d liu truyn ti lu lng ngi s dng gia cc nt quang.
Trong thc t, mt phng iu khin l mt mng khc vi phn mm thch hp,
c s dng iu khin cc chc nng trng yu ca mt phng d liu. Hai
mt phng ny c th hot ng trn cu trc mng ging nhau hoc trn hai cu
trc mng khc nhau. Mt phng d liu s dng m hnh xp chng (overlay
model), trong mng quang s dng cc ng ng (pipes). Qua cc ng ng
ny, cc gi IP s c truyn ti qua mng. c im chnh ca m hnh ny l
cc chuyn mch quang khng quan tm n cc gi IP ring l. Nu cc chuyn
mch quang c kh nng lm vic vi cc gi IP ring l th m hnh ngang hng
(peer to peer model) c th c s dng trn mt phng d liu. Trong trng
hp ny, cc chuyn mch quang c th x l mi gi IP ring l da trn mo u
IP ca chng. Tuy nhin, gii php ny khng c ng dng trong thc t. Hin
nay, cc OXC c kh nng iu khin ng c pht trin mi y c xem l
gii php cho mt phng d liu. Cc OXC c kh nng iu khin ny s thit lp
ng dn quang trc tin qua mng quang trc khi d liu c truyn thc
s. Nh vy, lu lng IP c xem nh l a vo ng hm quang (optical
tunnel) cng u vo ca mng quang v i ra khi ng hm quang cng ra
mng quang.
Khc vi mt phng d liu, mt phng iu khin c th c cc m hnh
khc nhau. Ging nh mt phng d liu, m hnh xp chng cng c th c s
dng trong mt phng iu khin v ngoi ra cc m hnh khc cng c th c
Mt phng iu
khin


B nh tuyn
IP/MPLS hoc nt
ln cn
iu khin

iu khin
D liu
Nt mng quang
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 44
s dng trong mt phng iu khin, nh m hnh ngang hng v m hnh lai
ghp.
Trong mng quang, mt phng iu khin c cc chc nng sau:
+ Pht hin cu trc v ti nguyn ca mng : Chc nng ny l rt
quan trng cho cc quyt nh la chn bc sng v nh tuyn thit lp cc
ng dn quang. Pht hin cu trc mng l mt nhim v c thc hin theo
chu k bi mt phng iu khin cung cp mt cu trc mng hon chnh n tt
c cc nt trong mt phng d liu. Pht hin ti nguyn, tc l pht hin tt c cc
thng tin cn thit thit lp mt ng dn quang. Cc thng tin bao gm :
s lng cc si quang trn mt ng dn, dung lng mi si quang, cc cng
ri cc chuyn mch quang, s lng cc my thu cho mi nt v kh nng ri
ca cc b chuyn i bc sng. Mt phng iu khin s chuyn cc thng tin
ny n tt c cc nt d liu mt cch nhanh v tin cy, do mi nt s bit
c tnh trng hin ti ca mng. Qu trnh cp nht v phn pht thng tin cn
thit ny c gi l s qung b thng tin mng.
+ Tnh ton nh tuyn : chc nng ny bao gm vic tnh ton nh
tuyn v gn mt bc sng cho ng dn quang. Da vo nhng thng tin cn
thit cp nht chc nng th nht m mt phng iu khin s thit lp mt
ng dn quang cho d liu.
+ Chc nng th ba ca mt phng iu khin l qun l ng dn
quang. Nhim v chnh ca n l thit lp v gii phng ng dn quang, ng
thi chuyn mch bo v trong trng hp ng dn hoc nt b li.
3.1.4 Cc m hnh kin trc v nh tuyn
Trong phn trc, chng ta bit rng v mt cu trc th mc d cc m
hnh cu trc bo hiu v iu khin khc nhau nhng m hnh truyn ti d liu
th ging nhau. Mt phng d liu IP qua cc mng quang s dng m hnh xp
chng, trong khi cc router IP v cc OXC c th c mi quan h ngang hng
hoc quan h khch - ch trn mt phng iu khin, nh minh ha trn hnh 3.4.
Trong hnh 3.4 (a) ch ra rng thit b ngi s dng (hoc khch hng) truy nhp
cc dch v mng thng qua giao thc bo hiu UNI yu cu thit lp hoc gii
phng cc kt ni im - im thc hin thng qua mng quang. y c gi l
m hnh xp chng trong thit b ngi s dng khng cn bit cu trc bn
trong ca mng quang. Tuy nhin, hnh 3.4 (b) ch ra rng m hnh ngang hng
trong thit b ngi s dng l bit y v cu trc mng quang, ngha l
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 45
gia cc OXC ca mng quang v thit b khch hng c mi quan h ngang hng
vi nhau. Nh vy, cu trc mng IP qua WDM ph thuc vo cch t chc mt
phng iu khin.
T hnh 3.1 trong phn trc, chng ta thy c hai loi giao din chnh
trong m hnh mng quang : giao din UNI gia mng khch hng v mng quang
v giao din NNI gia hai mng quang con. C hai loi giao din ny th mt pha
ca giao din (pha mng quang i vi giao din UNI v mt mng quang con i
vi giao din NNI) c xem nh cung cp cc dch v cho pha kia.
Tu thuc vo cc loi dch v v cc phng php m chng ta c hai m
hnh chnh: th nht l m hnh dch v min v th hai l m hnh dch v hp
nht. Hnh 3.5 minh ha hai m hnh dch v trn. Hai m hnh ny khc nhau
ch m hnh u tin c s tch bit hon ton v a ch v cc mt phng iu
khin trong khi m hnh th hai c mt khng gian a ch chung.

Hnh 3.4 Mi quan h gia cc router IP v cc OXC trn mt phng iu khin
(a) M hnh xp chng
(b) M hnh ngang hng
+ M hnh dch v min : trong trng hp ny, giao din c phn
bit r rng. C s tch bit hon ton v c lp v mt a ch v cc mt phng
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 46
iu khin trong mng quang v mng khch hng. Ngha l, mi min s dng
m hnh bo hiu v m hnh a ch ca ring n. iu ny c minh ha trong
hnh 3.5 (a) bng cc ng chm chm bao quanh cc router v cc OXC. Nh
chng ta bit, cc router s dng giao thc iu khin lp IP truyn thng hoc
cc giao thc iu khin MPLS. Cc OXC s dng giao thc iu khin ring hoc
cc giao thc bo hiu/iu khin G_MPLS. M hnh dch v min d dng kt
hp vi mt phng iu khin s dng m hnh xp chng. Khi , cc nt mng
khch hng (nh cc router IP) s s dng mng li quang lm nn tng v giao
din s thit lp v duy tr cc ng dn quang.

Hnh 3.5 Cc m hnh dch v : (a) m hnh dch v min
(b) m hnh dch v hp nht
+ M hnh dch v hp nht : trong trng hp ny th IP v cc mng
quang khng phn bit r rng. Ngha l cc OXC v cc router IP c xem nh
ngang hng vi nhau v mt mt phng iu khin hp nht s c s dng cho
cc OXC v cc router IP. Nh chng ta thy trong hnh 3.5 (b) cc router IP v
cc OXC c th c c hai chc nng nh G_MPLS LSR v giao tip bng cch s
dng bo hiu G_MPLS. Ch rng, v mt bo hiu hoc nh tuyn th cc
router IP v cc OXC l nh nhau. Ngoi ra, vi m hnh dch v ny th khng
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 47
gian a ch chung c s dng nhn dng tt c cc router v cc OXC. Do
, khc vi hnh 3.5 (a), cc ng chm chm trong hnh 3.5 (b) bao quanh c
cc router IP v cc OXC.
3.1.5 So snh gia hai m hnh xp chng v m hnh ngang hng
Mt trong nhng thch thc ln nht ngy nay i mt vi cc nh sn xut
chuyn mch quang l pht trin cc giao thc bo hiu cho iu khin ng v
hot ng lin mng ca lp quang m c l y cng l vn cn chun ha cp
bch nht hin nay. Cc t chc v din n quc t OIF (Optical Internetworking
Forum), IETF v ITU u ang n lc gp rt thit lp nn cc phng php
xc nh vic iu khin v kt ni gia mng quang v IP. Hin nay c hai xu
hng xy dng m hnh tch hp l m hnh xp chng hay m hnh khch -
ch, tc l t ton b s iu khin cho lp quang chnh lp quang; v xu
hng th hai l m hnh ngang hng tc l dch chuyn mt phn iu khin ln
b nh tuyn l cc router IP.
Vi m hnh xp chng th cho php mi router giao tip trc tip vi mng
quang thng qua giao din mng - ngi s dng UNI. Giao din gia cc mng
con c thc hin thng qua giao din nt mng NNI. M hnh giao din UNI
tng t nh m hnh trong mng chuyn mch knh truyn thng nh mng
ISDN. Trong m hnh ny mi mng con s pht trin c lp, nh cho php
cc nh khai thc mng a cc cng ngh mi m khng b gnh nng ca cc
cng ngh c. Cc nh khai thc cn c th p ng c cc c s h tng k
tha hin c. Quan trng hn l cc nh khai thc c th tm thy c mi trng
mng quang nhiu nh cung cp, n cho php thc hin c tnh tng thch
trong tng lai gn nh cc giao din UNI v NNI.
Vi m hnh ngang hng cng h tr cho thit lp lung ng bng cch s
dng cc lung u cui bin mng quang v cho php qun l chng t xa. M
hnh ngang hng gi nh rng cc router iu khin lp mng quang. Mi quan h
gia IP v OXC l bnh ng v mt iu khin. V vy v mt bo hiu v nh
tuyn s khng c s phn bit no gia UNI, NNI v giao din gia cc router.
Trong m hnh ny cn mt khi lng ln thng tin trng thi v iu khin
chuyn qua li gia lp IP v quang. Do s kh hn cho vic kt ni trong mi
trng nhiu nh khai thc khi so vi m hnh xp chng.
Mi m hnh c u im ring, c bit m hnh xp chng c u im ni
tri l kh nng tng thch d dng. V kin trc mng th m hnh xp chng
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 48
trc tip v n gin hn, n cho php c iu khin trong bng v ngoi bng cc
lung quang. Vi kin trc ngang hng cn c thm cc thng tin gia lp IP v
quang qun l cc lung u cui chuyn trn lung quang. Khi lng ln
thng tin trng thi v iu khin ny bao gm s truyn thng trc tip gia cc
router bin ca mng quang v s truyn thng tin trong bn thn mng quang.
Ni chung nhng nh khai thc mng cng khng mun to ra c s h tng mng
IP trn nn quang m li b rng buc bi cng ngh lp IP. M hnh xp chng
cho php i mi ti lp quang c lp vi lp IP trong khi vn cung cp kh
nng kt ni tng thch cn thit cho cc dch v nhanh m vn duy tr tnh ton
vn thng tin ca nh khai thc mng quang. Tuy nhin, m hnh ngang hng cho
php tch hp hon ton IP/quang to nn mng Internet quang thng nht, do
ph hp vi cc ISP hn. Ngoi ra, m hnh ngang hng gn hn vi mng chuyn
mch gi quang trong tng lai. Bng 3.1 a ra cc tham s so snh hai m
hnh xp chng v ngang hng.
Tham s M hnh xp chng M hnh ngang hng
Thng nht v mt iu khin Khng C
Cn tm hiu bn trong mng Khng cn Cn c
Mc n gin C Khng
Hiu nng mng Km hn Tt hn
Kh nng h tr thit b i c C Khng
Kh nng khi phc, duy tr Km hn Tt hn
Kh nng tng thch Tt hn Km hn
iu khin lung mc u cui Khng C
Khi lng thng tin iu khin t hn Nhiu hn
Bng 3.1 Tm tt mt s so snh gia hai m hnh
3.2 Cc kin trc lp cho cc mng truyn ti IP qua WDM
Mng chuyn mch gi IP hin nay c xem l c s h tng ca mng th
h sau. Cng ngh quang DWDM ghp knh quang theo bc sng mt cao
c coi l cng ngh ct yu cho mng li p ng nhu cu bng n dch v IP v
cng ngh ny gip cho dung lng truyn dn ca cc si quang tng ln mt
cch ng k, ln n 160Gbps trong mt si quang DWDM. S tng dung lng
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 49
khng l ny lm thay i cc mng vin thng tng lai, khng ch trong cc h
thng truyn dn m cn trong c cc kin trc mng. Do vy, vic tch hp mng
IP v quang l xu th tt yu to nn mng li Internet quang c s mng th h
sau. Tuy nhin, hin nay vn cha c mt chun r rng no cho kin trc IP qua
WDM (IPoW) nhng vn c mt s xut m nhn chung l hp l.
Cc kin trc lp giao thc chnh cho vic truyn ti IP qua cc mng
WDM ang c p dng trong cc mng WDM hin nay vn qua cc mng ATM
v SONET lm trung gian. Tuy nhin, vic truyn ti trc tip cc gi IP qua cc
mng WDM ang c cc nh nghin cu theo ui cho cc h thng tng lai.
Hnh 3.6 minh ha bn m hnh lp khc nhau cho vic truyn ti lu lng IP qua
cc mng truyn ti quang.

Hnh 3.6 Ngn xp giao thc cho bn gii php IPoW
Nh chng ta thy trong hnh, tu thuc vo vic c cc lp ATM hoc
SDH/SONET c s dng gia lp IP v lp truyn ti quang WDM hay khng
m chng ta c bn m hnh lp c s. Trong hnh 3.6 (a c), lp thch ng quang
(optical adaptation layer) c th theo m hnh OTN trong khuyn ngh G.872 ca
ITU-T, bao gm knh quang OCH, b phn ghp knh quang OMS v cc lp
truyn ti quang OTS. Lp thch ng quang (hoc lp quang) s qun l vic thit
lp hoc gii phng knh WDM, ngoi ra cn cung cp kh nng bo v knh
WDM. Cc lp vt l thc hin cc chc nng nh : khuch i quang, chuyn
mch bc sng, chuyn i bc sng, xen/r bc sng v chuyn i O/E,
E/O.
IP/ATM/SDH/WDM : Gii php ny truyn IP trn ATM (IP over
ATM), sau trn SONET/SDH v mng quang WDM. i vi gii php ny,
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 50
WDM c s dng nh cng ngh truyn song song trn lp vt l. u im ca
gii php ny l s dng ATM c kh nng truyn nhiu loi tn hiu khc nhau
trong cng ng truyn vi yu cu cht lng dch v khc nhau. Mt u im
khc khi s dng ATM l tnh mm do khi cung cp dch v mng. Tuy nhin
gii php ny rt phc tp, qun l v iu khin IP over ATM phc tp hn so vi
qun l v iu khin IP qua mng thu ring (IP - Leased line). ATM s dng
cng ngh chuyn mch t bo. T bo ATM c di c nh 53 byte, trong
c 5 byte mo u v 48 byte s liu. S liu c gi ho thnh cc t bo
truyn v ti hp ch. Lp ph (Sublayer) ATM SAR (Phn mnh v ti hp)
thc hin chc nng ng gi ny. T OC-48 tr ln thc hin SAR rt kh khn.
Lp ATM gia lp IP v lp WDM dng nh khng cn thit.
IP/SDH/WDM : Gii php th hai l IP/MPLS over SONET/SDH v
WDM. SONET/SDH c mt s u im sau: Th nht, SONET/SDH c cu trc
tch ghp tn hiu quang tiu chun, nh tn hiu tc thp c th ghp, tch
thnh tn hiu c tc cao. Th hai, SONET/SDH cung cp khung truyn chun.
Th ba, mng SONET/SDH c kh nng bo v, khi phc, nh tn hiu c
truyn trong sut ti lp cao hn (Nh lp IP). Mng SONET/SDH thng s
dng cu hnh mng vng (Ring). Mt s cu hnh bo v c th s dng l:
- Cu hnh 1+1 c ngha l s liu c truyn trn hai ng trong hai
hng ngc nhau, tn hiu c cht lng tt hn s c chn ch.
- Cu hnh 1:1 c ngha l ng d phng tch bit i vi ng hot
ng.
- Cu hnh n:1 c ngha l n ng hot ng s dng chung mt ng d
phng.
Khai thc, qun l, bo dng OAM&P l tnh nng ni bt ca mng
SONET/SDH truyn cnh bo, iu khin, cc thng tin v cht lng c mc
h thng v mc mng. Tuy nhin SONET/SDH mang s lng thng tin mo u
ng k, thng tin mo u ny c m ho nhiu mc. Mo u on POH
c truyn t u cui ti u cui. Mo u ng LOH c s dng cho tn
hiu gia cc thit b u cui nh cc b tch ghp knh OC-n (STM-n). Mo u
phn on SOH c s dng thng tin gia cc phn t mng ln cn nh cc
b lp. i vi tn hiu OC-1 c tc truyn 51.84Mb/s, ti ca n l ng
truyn DS-3 ch c tc 44.736Mb/s.

n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 51
IP/WDM : Gii php th ba IP/WDM s dng IP/MPLS trc tip
trn WDM. y l gii php hiu qu nht trong ba gii php. Tuy nhin n yu
cu lp IP phi kim tra ng bo v v khi phc. N cng cn dng khung n
gin x l li ng truyn. C nhiu dng khung IP over WDM. Mt s cng
ty pht trin tiu chun khung mi nh Slim SONET/SDH. Dng khung ny c
chc nng tng t nh SONET/SDH nhng vi k thut mi hn khi thay th
mo u v tng thch kch thc khung vi kch thc gi. Mt v d khc l
thc hin dng khung Gigabit Ethernet. 10 Gigabit Ethernet c thit k c bit
cho h thng ghp bc sng quang mt cao DWDM. S dng dng khung
Ethernet, kt ni Ethernet khng cn thit phi ghp tn hiu sang dng giao thc
khc (Nh ATM) truyn dn.
3.3 K thut MPLS
3.3.1 Gii thiu k thut MPLS
Mt khuyt im ca nh tuyn IP l kh nng km linh hot trong vic
thay i ng truyn d liu dn n tnh trng nghn c chai. Nguyn nhn l
do cc gi IP ch truyn theo mt ng c nh da theo qu trnh nh tuyn ban
u. Chnh v vy, vn cn bng lu lng kh thc hin khi lu lng tp
trung vo mt tuyn no . Thm vo vic nh tuyn gia cc gi IP c lp
vi nhau mc d trong thc t nhiu gi IP c mi quan h vi nhau, v d c cng
ch n, cng mt loi lu lng, cng mt cp u tinNgoi ra, s tch bit
gia k thut nh tuyn v chuyn mch bc l nhiu hn ch trong xu hng
m rng v hi t ca cng ngh mng hin nay. Cc hn ch bao gm : kh
nng m rng, qun l cht lng dch v, iu khin lu lng mng
Chnh v vy m k thut MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching) chuyn
mch nhn a giao thc ra i vn chuyn cc gi IP qua cc mng bng
phng php chuyn mch gi o. MPLS l cng ngh kt hp nhng c im tt
nht gia nh tuyn lp 3 v chuyn mch lp 2 cho php truyn gi nhanh
trong mng li. Trc khi thm nhp vo mng MPLS th cc gi IP s c cc
thit b nh tuyn bin ca mng MPLS gn thm cc nhn vn dng k
thut ni - chuyn mch o. V trc khi ri khi mng MPLS cc nhn ny s b
ct b tr li dng nguyn thy ca cc gi IP bi cc thit b nh tuyn vng
bin. Phng php ny dng vn chuyn d liu nhanh vi bng thng ln v
n c th hot ng trong trng hp c nhiu s vn chuyn nhiu loi d liu
trong cng mt mng. Chuyn mch knh o da vo nhn gip cho vic nh
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 52
tuyn d liu din ra nhanh chng so vi trng hp nh tuyn IP truyn thng v
n khng phi x l cc mo u qu phc tp nh trong mng IP. Nh vo s
phn loi cc gi d liu bng cch thm vo mt s trng u tin trong gi
MPLS, ta c th m bo vn QoS cho mng IP.
MPLS cng c th coi nh mt gii php cng ngh t hp, mng MPLS c
kh nng chuyn cc gi tin ti lp 3 v lp 2 s dng c ch hon i nhn nh
mt k thut chuyn tip. MPLS da trn m hnh ngang cp, v vy mi mt thit
b MPLS chy mt giao thc nh tuyn IP n, cp nht trao i thng tin nh
tuyn vi cc thit b ln cn, duy tr mt khng gian cu hnh mng v mt khng
gian a ch.
MPLS chia b nh tuyn IP lm hai phn ring bit : chc nng chuyn gi
tin v chc nng iu khin. Phn chc nng chuyn gi tin gia cc b nh tuyn
IP, s dng c ch hon i nhn. K thut hon i nhn v bn cht l vic tm
nhn ca gi tin trong mt bng cc nhn xc nh tuyn ca gi v nhn ca
n. Vic ny n gin hn nhiu so vi vic x l gi tin thng thng v do vy
ci tin kh nng ca thit b. Cc b nh tuyn s dng thit b ny gi l b nh
tuyn chuyn mch nhn LSR (Label Switching Router). Phn chc nng iu
khin ca MPLS bao gm cc giao thc nh tuyn lp mng vi nhim v phn
phi thng tin gia cc LSR, v th tc gn nhn chuyn thng tin nh tuyn
thnh cc bng nh tuyn cho vic chuyn mch. Do MPLS h tr vic iu khin
lu lng v cho php thit lp tuyn c nh nn vic m bo cht lng dch v
l hon ton kh thi. y l chc nng vt tri ca MPLS so vi cc giao thc
nh tuyn khc. Tuy nhin, do MPLS l cng ngh chuyn mch nh hng kt
ni nn kh nng b nh hng bi li ng truyn l cao hn so vi cc cng
ngh khc.
Bn cnh tin cy, cng ngh MPLS cng khin vic qun l mng c
d dng hn. Trong MPLS, khng gian ca cc kh nng chuyn tip c chia
thnh cc lp chuyn tip tng ng (FEC). Tt c cc gi c cng cng ra v
c cht lng dch v nh nhau th thuc cng mt FEC. Trong qu trnh truyn
dn, u tin cc gi c gn nhn u vo da vo gi tr FEC ca n. Sau ,
mi nt trung gian s s dng nhn ca gi n xc nh nt k tip ca gi, v
thc hin hon i nhn, tc l thay th nhn c bng mt nhn u ra mi. Do
MPLS qun l vic chuyn tin theo cc lung tin, cc gi tin thuc mt lp chuyn
tip tng ng FEC c th c xc nh bi gi tr ca nhn. Do vy, trong
min MPLS cc thit b o lu lng mng c th da trn nhn phn loi gi
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 53
tin. Bng cch gim st lu lng ti cc LSR, nghn lu lng s c pht hin
v v tr xy ra nghn c th c xc nh nhanh chng, y l mt trong nhng
iu kin m bo cho mng MPLS c kh nng h tr QoS tt nht, v vy MPLS
to ra cc li ch cho cc nh cung cp dch v qun l lu lng v h tr cc
dch v mi. Tuy nhin, gim st lu lng theo phng thc ny khng a ra
ton b thng tin v cht lng dch v (nh tr u cui - u cui).
MPLS c th c nhn nhn nh mt mt bng iu khin trn ATM cho
php m rng phng thc nh tuyn v iu khin lu lng IP. Khi chy trn
phn cng ATM, c MPLS v ATM u s dng cng mt khun dng gi tin (53
byte), cng nhn (VPI/VCI), cng mt k thut dn nhn cho t bo chuyn mch,
cng chc nng trn thit b bin mng. C MPLS v ATM u yu cu giao thc
thit lp kt ni (v d, giao thc phn b nhn LDP cho MPLS, UNI/PNNI cho
ATM). S khc nhau c bn nm trong cc vn sau: MPLS khng s dng a
ch ATM, nh tuyn ATM, v cc giao thc trong ATM. Thay vo , MPLS s
dng a ch IP, nh tuyn IP ng, v giao thc iu khin phn b nhn LDP
sp xp cc FEC vo trong LSP. Cui cng, kin trc MPLS c th hot ng trn
bt k mt cng ngh lin kt d liu no, khng ch ATM. V vy, nh cung cp
mng c th cu hnh v chy MPLS trong cng mt vng cc kt ni nh : cc
giao thc im ti im PPP ( Point to Point Protocol), chuyn mch khung Frame
Relay, ATM
3.3.2 Cc k thut MPLS
S pht trin ca k thut MPLS m ra mt bc pht trin mi trong
vic tch hp cc mng truyn ti IP v cc lp lin kt d liu. c im chung
ca cng ngh ny l n c th ng dng iu khin hoc cung cp nn tng cho
cc cng ngh mng d liu lp di khc nhau. Chng hn nh MPLS c
ng dng trong cc cng ngh lin kt d liu m khng th nh dng hoc x l
cc gi IP (nh ATM, Frame Relay). Gn y, chuyn mch Lambda a giao
thc (MPS) c xut, cng ngh ny lm vic vi cc chuyn mch quang
(cc b nh tuyn bc sng) ng vai tr l cc LSR v cc bc sng ng vai
tr nh cc nhn cung cp cc ng nh tuyn bc sng. Hnh 3.7 minh ha
mi quan h gia cc mng MPLS v MPS. Trong phn ny, chng ta s nghin
cu vn tch hp k thut MPLS vi mt s mng WDM s dng cc k thut
chuyn mch khc nhau nh mng nh tuyn bc sng, mng OBS h tr
chuyn mch quang.
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 54

Hnh 3.7 Mi quan h gia cc mng MPLS v MPS
3.3.2.1 Cc mng nh tuyn bc sng IP/MPLS
Nh gii thiu phn trc, nh tuyn bc sng l mt hnh thc ca
chuyn mch knh quang, trong mt kt ni bc sng c thit lp. Kt ni
ny c gi l mt ng dn quang (lightpath). ng dn quang ny c th
gm nhiu bc sng khc nhau dc theo ng truyn nu nh cc b chuyn i
bc sng c s dng. Thng thng, s khng c yu cu no v nh dng v
tc bt ca d liu c pht trong ng dn quang. D liu s c pht qua
ton b ng dn quang trong min quang. Nh vy, n cung cp mt ng dn
ton quang trong sut.
Hnh 3.8 minh ho mng nh tuyn bc sng, gm c cc chuyn mch
knh quang (cc OADM v cc OXC) c s dng kt ni vi cc router IP
li. K thut chuyn mch Lambda a giao thc (MPS) lm vic vi cc chuyn
mch quang (OXC) trong mng nh tuyn bc sng, cc OXC c s dng
thit lp cc ng dn quang gia cc router u vo v u ra. Vi MPS, OXC
cung cp cc ng dn quang bng cch thit lp mi quan h gia (cng u
vo, bc sng u vo) v (cng u ra, bc sng u ra).
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 55

Hnh 3.8 M hnh mng nh tuyn bc sng IP/MPLS/MPS
Cc gi IP c chuyn tip bi cc router thng thng n khi chng n
c router li u vo. Da trn a ch ch ca cc gi IP, router IP u vo s
chuyn cc gi IP trn bc sng thch hp n router IP u ra sau khi i qua
mng OXC nm hon ton trong min quang. Khi n c router u ra, cc
router thng thng li chuyn tip cc gi IP n ch cui cng ca chng. Nh
vy, min li ca MPS s dng cc knh bc sng nh l cc nhn trong MPLS
v thit lp cc ng nh tuyn thch hp trong mng. V vy, cc ng ny
cho php chuyn mch d liu nhanh m khng cn yu cu cc x l nh tuyn
phc tp.
3.3.2.2 Chuyn mch quang OBS v MPLS
Hnh 3.9 minh ha s vn hnh mng IP trn nn mng li quang s dng
OBS. Trong c cu truyn dn ny, cc gi IP u vo c tp hp thnh cc
burst d liu ti router IP u vo v c truyn ti qua mng li quang n
router IP u ra. y khng c bt k b m no ti cc chuyn mch quang
trong mng li quang.
Trong phn ny, chng ta tho lun lm th no cc k thut MPLS c th
c s dng vi OBS chuyn tip cc burst d liu qua mng li quang. Sau
, chng ta xem xt cc vn thit k ti lp MAC OBS v cc chc nng iu
khin ti cc chuyn mch quang.

n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 56













Hnh 3.9 Truyn ti IP qua OBS WDM s dng MPLS
3.3.2.2.1 OBS s dng MPLS
Trong phn ny chng ta s tm hiu cng ngh MPLS s dng trong mng
OBS. MPLS c th ng vai tr quan trng trong k thut lu lng v ci thin
thng lng ca mng da trn OBS nh sau: Mi kt ni cho trong mng trc
quang s c thng tin trao i nhn v cc tuyn tnh ton trc trong c s
thng tin nhn (LIB) ca n. LIB c thit lp bng cch s dng cc k thut
chun nh cc giao thc nh tuyn vi cc m rng ca k thut lu lng
phn b d liu v min quang (bng tn kh dng trong bc sng hoc s lng
cc bc sng trn mt si quang) v giao thc phn b nhn da trn nh tuyn
rng buc (CR LDP) hoc giao thc ginh trc ti nguyn (RSVP) phn b
cc nhn. Bt c khi no router u vo c burst d liu cn truyn ti th n s ly
thng tin t LIB ca n xc nh nhn ph hp. Nhn ny c trong gi iu
khin n trc burst d liu ny, v khi gi iu khin n cc nt trung gian
th cc hot ng sau s c thc hin :
Nhn trong gi iu khin c s dng ch thng tin chuyn tip
burst d liu trong LIB nh giao din u ra, u tin hoc thng tin QoS.
Kt ni cho s thc hin chuyn mch burst d liu tng ng vi
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 57
burst iu khin trong min ton quang. thc hin c iu ny th thng
tin trong gi iu khin v chiu di v thi gian cn bng ca burst d liu c
s dng b sung vo thng tin chuyn tip ly ra t LIB. Sau , c s dng
xc nh vic chuyn i t bc sng vo trn mt si cp quang sang bc
sng ra trn mt si cp quang khc. chuyn tip cc burst d liu lin tip ca
cng mt kt ni (LSP) trn cc bc sng khc nhau ti mt si cp quang, nhn
ch xc nh vic chuyn i cp quang vo sang cp quang ra, cn thng tin v
bc sng s c a thm vo nhn ra ti tng chng. LIB cng cung cp nhng
thng tin QoS khc (nh nh ngha tp cc bc sng trn si cp quang ra, xc
nh kh nng ca burst d liu s dng chuyn i bc sng, ch ra trong
trng hp c va chm th gi iu khin vi yu cu t trc c c php u
tin hay khng).
Gi iu khin sau s c hon i nhn (v gn thm thng tin v
bc sng) v c chuyn tip trn knh iu khin ca si quang u ra do LIB
ch nh.
S chc nng ca kt ni cho quang h tr OBS v s dng chuyn tip
kiu MPLS c minh ha trn hnh 3.10.

Hnh 3.10 Cc chc nng ca chuyn mch quang h tr OBS v MPLS
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 58

3.3.2.2.2 Lp MAC
Mt trong s cc vn cn c gii quyt khi thit k OBS l lp MAC
c yu cu gia lp IP v lp quang. Hnh 3.11 minh ho chc nng ca cc
khi ti lp MAC OBS. Cc chc nng chnh m lp MAC OBS cn phi thc
hin ti router u vo l:
Tp hp cc gi IP thnh cc burst.
Khi mt burst nm u ca hng i burst th gi tr thi gian cn bng
c xc nh cho burst ny, v sau to ra mt gi iu khin cha thng tin v
thi gian cn bng, chiu di ca burst v thng tin nh tuyn (nhn).
Sau khi thi gian cn bng tri qua th khung burst gi burst vo lp
quang.
Ti router u ra th lp MAC OBS ch n gin phn gii cc khung
ca cc burst v tch cc gi IP t cc burst .

Hnh 3.11 Giao din MAC gia cc lp IP v OBS WDM
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 59
Mt vn quan trng trong thit k MAC OBS l vic xc nh thi gian
cn bng gia gi iu khin v burst d liu tng ng. Thi gian cn bng cn
phi ln cho php vic x l cc gi iu khin ti cc chuyn mch quang
trong LSP nhm ti thiu hoc loi b b m quang. Ngoi ra, cn phi pht trin
thut ton xc nh thi gian cn bng lm gim tranh chp gia cc burst d
liu n t cc router u vo khc nhau ti mt nt trong lp quang. Hiu qu ca
k thut xc nh thi gian cn bng c o bng xc sut nghn burst. S xc
nh thi gian cn bng c nh c gi l Just Enough Time (JET) gii
thiu phn trc c xut a ra QoS tt hn cho lu lng mc u tin
cao nh vic gn cc gi tr thi gian cn bng di hn cho cc burst ca n. Tuy
nhin, phng thc ny khng n nh trong mi trng phn tn v s va chm ti
cc nt trung gian gia cc burst i t cc ngun phn tn ri rc.

Hnh 3.12 ng b khi kt hp lung
Hnh 3.12 minh ha trng hp cc gi iu khin i t hai router u vo
l A v B gn nh ng b. Nu c ch xc nh thi gian cn bng c nh c
s dng, nt C trung gian c th p ng (gi thit khng c b m) yu cu t
trc ca A hoc B. iu ny dn n t l nghn burst cao.
Mt gii php khc l ngu nhin ho qu trnh to thi gian cn bng. Th
d c th s dng phng thc thng k xc nh cc thi gian cn bng ti
router vo. Cc LSP c th c thit k vi mc cht lng hot ng mong
mun v mt xc sut nghn burst. Gii php ny c mt s u im sau:
N iu chnh tc trung bnh m cc burst d liu c gii
phng i vo lp OBS WDM trn LSP bt k.
n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 60
Vic pht burst ngu nhin trnh khi vic ng b h thng gia
cc lung burst ca cc LSP quang khc nhau. iu ny l cn thit
v nu nh cc b pht burst ca hai LSP i trn cng mt giao din
ra ca mt s nt trong mng li OBS WDM s xy ra vic ng
b, cc burst d liu trong cc LSP ny s hu nh lun va chm
vi nhau ti giao din , gy ra tn tht qu mc. B pht ngu
nhin cc burst cc router khc nhau c th c thit lp, v d
vi cc a ch IP ring do vy khng bao gi cn phi ng b h
thng.
Chin lc thit lp thi gian cn bng trn tc ng n c tnh
u tin thng k i vi dng cc burst d liu ca LSP ti tng nt
m n i qua gia cp router vo-ra. iu ny l c ch cho k thut
lu lng v cc mc ch cung cp QoS.
Vic kt hp cc gi IP thnh cc burst d liu l mt chc nng quan trng
khc c thc hin ti lp OBS MAC router vo. y, kch thc burst l
mt tham s thit k quan trng. Tc x l in ca knh iu khin s hn ch
s gi iu khin v do vy s hn ch cc burst d liu c th c truyn ti trn
mt n v thi gian qua knh quang. Tc x l in ca knh iu khin c
ci thin thng qua vic s dng chuyn tip kiu MPLS nh ni trn. Do vy
hn ch ch yu l do tc ca cc b chuyn i O/E hay E/O. Ch rng tt c
cc gi i qua kt ni cho c ngha l mt burst d liu c chuyn tip qua nt
trong min ton quang. Do vy nu t s ca di burst d liu vi di gi
iu khin l th vic truyn d liu c th thc hin tc gp ln tc
in. Tuy nhin, kch thc burst khng c qu ln v n xc nh tr do cc gi
IP gy ra . y l vn quan trng i vi cc ng dng thi gian thc yu cu
tr end to end mt cch cht ch. Ngoi ra, mt s loi phng thc lp lch
u tin c th c s dng cung cp QoS khc nhau cho cc dng gi IP khc
nhau. Cc hng i ring bit sau c th c cung cp cho cc burst d liu ti
router vo tu thuc vo mc QoS ca burst.




n tt nghip Chng 3: IP qua mng WDM
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 61
3.4 Kt lun chng :
Chng ny gii thiu xu hng v cc thch thc hin nay trong vic tch
hp mng IP/quang. Trong hai m hnh trn, m hnh xp chng d dng trin khai
trong tng lai gn hn. Do vy, c l tin trnh pht trin mng IP/quang s bt
u trn c s m hnh ny v cha c s trao i thng tin nh tuyn gia IP v
quang. Bc tip theo c l l s tng tc gia hai vng IP v quang cho php
lung quang nh l mt phn ca thit b lung chuyn mch nhn LSP im -
im. V giai on cui s h tr hon ton m hnh ngang hng vi trao i y
thng tin nh tuyn gia hai min IP v quang.
Hin nay mt s hng (Tellium, Cisco, NEC, TILAB, Siemens, Alcatel)
a ra cc gii php tch hp IP/quang thng nht, cho php pht trin mng
mt cch lin tc. Tuy nhin m bo c c mi trng mng cnh tranh, th
cng cn c cc tiu chun ph hp v thng nht. Tnh tng thch v iu khin
kiu IP ang tr thnh hin thc, hin nay cc t chc cng nghip ang th
nghim v hy vng ti y s c chun thng nht.

n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 62
CHNG 4 : HIU NNG QoS TRONG MNG OBS
Trong mng Internet quang th h sau, mt vn quan trng cn gii quyt
l lm th no h tr cht lng dch v (QoS) lp WDM. Bi v mng IP
hin nay ch cung cp dch v n lc ti a ( best effort) nhng cc ng dng thi
gian thc yu cu mt mc QoS cao hn (nh tr thp, jitter v xc sut tn hao
cng phi thp). Vic h tr QoS lp WDM l cn thit khng ch mang mt
s lu lng lp WDM cho cc mc ch bo hiu, bo v hoc khi phc yu cu
u tin cao hn lu lng thng thng, m cn h tr cho cc ng dng
trc tip hoc gin tip hoc cc giao thc mi khng c kh nng h tr QoS.
Nh chng ta cp trong phn trc, c nhiu vn ny sinh trong vic thc
hin QoS cc mng WDM. Chng hn, chng ta khng c cc s QoS hp
nht cc c tnh ca lp WDM. Hn na, cc s QoS hin nay c da trn
chuyn mch gi v s dng b m phn bit cc lp lu lng khc nhau,
c gi l cc s da trn b m. Trong cc s ny, tnh phc tp ca cc
thut ton lp lch l thng rt cao. Ngoi ra, do hin nay khng c b nh quang
nn phi s dng b nh in trong chuyn mch quang, do phi cn c cc b
chuyn i O/E v E/O. iu ny dn n nhiu hn ch. Mc d cc ng tr
quang (FDLs) c s dng thay th cho cc b chuyn i nhng n khng
cung cp y dung lng m c yu cu bi cc lp QoS. Trong phn ny,
chng ta s kho st vic cung cp QoS trong cc mng OBS, l m hnh mng
mi y ha hn, l s kt hp cc u im ca cc mng nh tuyn bc sng v
chuyn mch gi quang. Chng ta c th chia phn ny thnh 3 phn. u tin,
chng ta s gii thiu giao thc bo hiu m c h tr QoS. Sau , chng ta s
nghin cu vic h tr QoS bng thut ton lp lch. Cui cng, chng ta s nghin
cu nh hng ca FDL n hiu nng QoS ca chuyn mch burst quang. Trong
phn cui, chng ta s m t mt s QoS mi, gi l s da trn thi gian
cn bng (time offset), nghin cu v nh gi n vi vic b sung FDL.
4.1 Giao thc bo hiu h tr QoS :
Nh cp phn trc, giao thc JET c s dng trong mng OBS
thc hin vic truyn dn burst iu khin v burst d liu. Sau khi burst iu
khin c gi, giao thc JET lm cho burst d liu ch c truyn sau khi i
trong khong thi gian ti thiu l (.L) chc chn rng mi nt c thi gian
hon thnh vic x l burst iu khin, trong l tng thi gian x l ca gi
iu khin ti mi nt v L l s chng gia nt ngun v ch. Nh vy, giao thc
ny khng h quan tm n u tin ca cc dch v hay ni cch khc, n
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 63
khng h tr QoS. Do , n khng th ng dng trong vic cung cp QoS trong
cc mng OBS.
Trong phn ny, chng ta s gii thiu mt giao thc mi h tr QoS
trong chuyn mch burst quang. Giao thc ny c da trn nn tng ca giao
thc JET nn c gi l giao thc JET u tin (PJET). Giao thc ny s dng
thi gian cn bng cung cp cc lp dch v khc nhau trong cc mng quang
khng b m (khng s dng FDL). Cc burst c quy nh u tin cao hn
bng cch s dng thi gian cn bng b sung v do m bo xc sut rt thp
hn. Gi d liu tng ng c th ginh trc bng thng nhiu hn nhng gi
khc, v vy kt qu l xc sut thnh cng s cao hn.
Gi s chng ta c hai lp dch v, lp 1 l lp dch v c u tin cao v
lp 0 l lp dch v n lc ti a. Nh vy, lp 1 c u tin cao hn ginh
trc bng thng, thi gian cn bng b sung t
offset
c ginh cho lp ny. Gi tr
t
offset
l khng i v ln hn thi gian cn bng gc T
0
ca JET. Ngoi ra, n cn
phi ln hn chiu di burst ln nht trong tt c cc burst lp 0. Vi thi gian
cn bng nhiu hn, xc sut nghn ca cc burst trong lp 1 khng ph thuc vo
lu lng ti trong lp 0 m ch ph thuc vo lu lng ti trong lp 1. Ni cch
khc, lu lng ti trong c hai lp s quyt nh xc sut nghn ca lp 0. Hnh
4.1 minh ho ti sao yu cu ca lp 1 trong c gn t
offset
c u tin cao
hn yu cu ca lp 0 ginh trc ti nguyn.


Hnh 4.1 Thi gian cn bng cho dch v u tin
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 64
Gi t
ai
v t
si
l thi gian n v thi gian bt u dch v cho yu cu lp 1
(vit tt l req (i) ), trong i = 0,1 v d ca chng ta v l
i
l chiu di ca burst
c yu cu bi lp i. C hai trng hp trong cc tranh chp gia hai lp c
th xy ra. Trong trng hp th nht nh minh ha trong hnh 4.1 (a), req (1) n
trc v ginh trc bng thng, v req (0) n ngay sau . R rng, req (1) s
thnh cng, nhng req (0) s b nghn nu t
a0
< t
s1
v t
a0
+ l
0
> t
s1
hoc nu t
a0
< t
s1

+ l
1
. Trong trng hp th hai, req (0) n trc v req (1) theo sau nh minh ha
hnh 4.1 (b). C th thy rng t
offset
cho lp 1 l ln hn chiu di burst ln nht
trong lp 0, nn bt k yu cu no t lp 1 s trnh c nghn bi yu cu t lp
0. Cc nh nghin cu a ra m hnh phn tch n gin nh gi kh nng
nghn v kt lun rng cch ly hon ton gia lp 1 v lp 0 th t
offset
= 5L
0

trong L
0
l kch thc burst trung bnh trong lp 0.
4.2 Thut ton lp lch h tr QoS trong cc mng OBS :
Trong cc mng OBS, khi mt burst iu khin n nt, mt thut ton lp
lch knh bc sng c s dng gn knh bc sng trn ng ra cho burst
d liu tng ng. Thng tin c yu cu bi b lp lch ( scheduler ) nh thi
gian n ca burst v khong thi gian ca n c cha trong burst iu khin.
B lp lch gim st tnh sn sng ca cc khe thi gian trn mi knh bc sng.
Chng ta c th gi thit rng cc FDL l ri nt, nu cn thit, b lp lch c th
chn mt hoc nhiu hn cc FDL lm tr burst d liu. Mt knh bc sng
c gi l khng lp lch thi gian t khi khng c burst s dng knh ti thi
im t hoc sau thi im t. Mt knh c gi l cha s dng cho cc khong
trng gia cc burst thnh cng v sau khi burst cui cng c gn cho knh.
C nhiu vn lm nh hng n hiu sut ca b lp lch OBS. u
tin, n phi la chn cc knh bc sng v cc FDL thch hp lm gim xc
sut mt burst, ng thi n phi n gin c th iu khin s lng ln cc
burst trong mi trng tc rt cao. Ngoi ra, b lp lch cn phi khng dn
n tnh trng burst d liu n sm, tc l burst d liu n trc khi burst iu
khin c x l xong.
Mng WDM chuyn mch burst l mt mng truyn ti bao gm cc router
bin v cc router li. Router bin c t bin ca mng v n gm c router
bin u vo v router bin u ra. Router bin u vo c mt tp cc ng u
vo v mt tp cc ng u ra quang. Mi mt ng dn quang bao gm mt
tp cc knh, mi knh s dng mt bc sng khc nhau. Ngc li, router li l
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 65
nt trung gian trn mt ng gia hai router bin. N c mt tp cc ng dn
u vo v mt tp cc ng dn u ra. Tng t, mi ng dn u vo / u
ra c mt tp cc knh, mi knh s dng mt bc sng khc nhau. Cc knh ca
ng dn quang c chia thnh hai nhm : nhm knh d liu (DCG) v nhm
knh iu khin (CCG). Mt knh d liu (DC) c s dng mang cc burst
d liu (DB) v mt knh iu khin (CC) mang cc gi mo u burst (BHPs) v
cc gi iu khin khc. Cc gi IP c nhn t u vo ca router bin u vo,
c tp hp thnh cc burst da trn cc a ch nh tuyn bin u ra v cc
thng tin khc. Mi mt burst d liu c truyn trong mt min quang trong
sut, ch rng cc DB v cc BHP c truyn theo hai ng khc nhau. Mi
BHP mang cc thng tin nh tuyn, loi burst, thi gian cn bng v chiu di
burst c gi i trc DB ca n. Ti mi router li trn ng i n router u
ra, BHP c x l bng in cu hnh ng chuyn mch quang, cho php DB
theo sau i qua m khng cn cc chuyn i O/E v E/O. Gi tr thi gian cn
bng ban u c thit lp bi router bin u vo v gi tr ny c th thay i
qua tng chng khi BHP v DB ca n i qua mng. Sau khi cc burst d liu
c nhn router bin u ra th chng c phn r thnh cc gi. Hnh 4.2
minh ha cu trc ca router li OBS. BHP v DB ca mt burst i qua cc ng
khc nhau trong b nh tuyn v s dng cc knh khc nhau. BHP c x l bi
khi iu khin chuyn mch quang hoc in (SCU). Cc chc nng chnh ca
SCU l x l BHP, lp bng nh tuyn quyt nh ng ra ca cc DB, lp
lch cho cc DB trn cc knh u ra, thit lp ma trn chuyn mch quang
cung cp cc ng u vo - u ra cho cc DB, ng thi qun l b m FDL
(hng i) trnh cc tranh chp trong khi truyn dn v thc hin chuyn mch
cc BHP n cc knh iu khin u ra v ti to li cc BHP.
Lp lch knh d liu l mt trong nhng chc nng quan trng trong SCU.
Khng mt tnh tng qut, cc gi thit sau c t ra cho vic lp lch knh trong
mt router li. n gin chng ta gi thit rng:
Mt ng dn c k knh d liu Ch
1
, Ch
2
, , Ch
k
v mt knh
iu khin. Tuy nhin, trong thc t, cc ng dn khc nhau c th c s lng
knh khc nhau.
Mi mt ng dn u ra c trang b mt b lp lch chu trch
nhim cho vic lp lch cc DB c chuyn mch n ng dn .
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 66

Hnh 4.2 Cu trc ca nt li OBS
Cc BHP ca cc DB, c truyn trn cng mt ng dn u ra,
c lp lch theo th t m chng nhn c b lp lch ca ng dn .
n gin, chng ta gi thit rng th t l tuyn tnh.
BHP
i
gm mt trng cn bng d
i
xc nh khong thi gian truyn
dn gia BHP
i
v DB
i
v mt trng di length
i
xc nh chiu di ca DB
i
.
Mi DB
i
c lm tr bi FDL u vo trong khong thi gian c
nh D trc khi n i vo ma trn chuyn mch. Khong thi gian tr ny b
cho vic x l BHP v chuyn mch DB.
Gi S
L
l tp cc FDL m c th c la chn bi b lp lch cho
cc DB i qua ma trn chuyn mch, S
L
= { L
1
, L
2
, ,L
q
}.
Cc BHP v cc DB c truyn theo ch truyn dn khe. Trong
ch ny, cc DB c pht trong cc n v l cc khe v cc BHP c pht
theo nhm, mi BHP c mang bi mt khe. Thi gian c t trng bi s
lng cc khe.
Nh minh ha trong hnh 4.3, t
s
in
(BHP
i
) l thi gian m ti khe u
tin ca BHP
i
c nhn v t
s
in
(DB
i
) v t
e
in
(DB
i
) l thi gian nhn ca khe u tin
v khe cui cng ca DB
i
. Ta c :
t
s
in
(DB
i
) = t
s
in
(BHP
i
) + d
i

v t
e
in
(DB
i
) = t
s
in
(DB
i
) + length
i
(DBi)
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 67
Ngoi ra, gi t
s
out
(DB
i
) v t
e
out
(DB
i
) l thi gian truyn dn ca khe u
tin v khe cui cng ca DB
i
qua knh u ra. Ta c:
t
s
out
(DB
i
) = t
s
in
(BHP
i
) + d
i
+ D + L
ri

v t
e
out
(DB
i
) = t
s
out
(DB
i
) + length(DB
i
) + D + L
ri

Trong , L
ri
l thi gian tr u ra v c chn t S
L
= S
L
U {L
0
} vi
L
0
= 0.

Hnh 4.3 Mi quan h gia thi gian nhn ca BHP
i
v DB
i

Chng ta s dng [ t
s
out
(DB
i
) , t
e
out
(DB
i
) ] nh ngha khong thi gian
truyn dn ca DB
i
ti mt nt. Khi , tranh chp s xy ra gia DB
i
v DB
j
nu
chng s dng cng mt knh u ra v c truyn trong khong [ t
s
out
(DB
i
) ,
t
e
out
(DB
i
) ] [ t
s
out
(DB
j
) , t
e
out
(DB
j
) ] 0. Da trn t
s
in
(BHP
i
) , d
i
v length(DB
i
), i =
1,2,3,, cho cng mt knh u ra, b lp lch knh s gn mi DB
i
cho mt knh
u ra Ch
u
, 1 u k v chn mt thi gian tr L
ri
t tp S
L
cho DB
i
,do s khng
xy ra tranh chp gia DB
i
v DB
j
,i j. S gn knh nh vy c gi l lp lch
khng tranh chp. Tuy nhin, khng phi lc no b lp lch cng c th tm c
mt s lp lch khng tranh chp cho tt c cc DB. Do , chng ta ch c th
tm mt s lp lch khng tranh chp cho mt tp con ln nht {DB
i
/ i =
1,2,3,} trong thi gian ti thiu c th. Cc DB m khng c lp lch thnh
cng th s coi nh b mt.

n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 68
4.3 nh hng ca cc FDL n hiu nng QoS ca cc mng
OBS :
Trong phn ny, chng ta s nghin cu cch ci thin QoS vi vic b
sung cc FDL cc nt chuyn mch trung gian thc hin chc nng m. Nh
trnh by trong mc 4.1 giao thc JET u tin (PJET) s dng thi gian cn
bng cung cp cc lp dch v khc nhau trong cc mng quang khng m
(khng s dng FDL). Do y chng ta s tm hiu nh hng ca b m
FDL n s QoS da trn thi gian cn bng, tc l nh hng n xc sut
mt burst v tr hng i ca cc burst. Phn ny c chia thnh 3 phn nh. u
tin chng ta s gii thiu cu trc ca nt chuyn mch quang v b m FDL.
Sau , mt s QoS mi c gi l s da trn thi gian cn bng, s c
gii thiu vi nh hng ca cc FDL. Cui cng, chng ta s tho lun xc sut
mt burst v tr hng i vi vic s dng s QoS da trn thi gian cn bng
vi cc FDL.
4.3.1 Nt chuyn mch quang v b m FDL
Trong cc mng IP qua WDM, cc router bin IP kt ni vi lp quang qua
nt chuyn mch quang (OSN). Mi OSN c lin kt vi cc OSN ln cn
thng qua cc ng dn quang. Hnh 4.4 minh ha cu trc c th c ca OSN.
Nh chng ta thy trn hnh, c L u vo v L u ra, mi mt u vo c k bc
sng mang cc burst d liu (cc ng nt lin) v mt hoc nhiu hn cc
bc sng b sung mang cc gi iu khin (cc ng chm chm). Mi mt
gi iu khin c x l bi khi iu khin in bn trong OSN, khi iu khin
ny to ra cc tn hiu iu khin iu khin cc b chuyn i bc sng, cc
b m FDL v c cu chuyn mch. Cc b m FDL c t u vo ca c
cu chuyn mch lm tr cc burst vi mt thi gian tr quy nh. Mi ng
u vo s c phn knh v cc bc sng s c chuyn i nu cn thit
trc khi i vo c cu chuyn mch quang, l mt ma trn chuyn mch LK x
LK khng tc nghn.





n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 69


















Hnh 4.4 Cu trc ca nt chuyn mch quang (OSN)
Cu trc ca cc b m FDL c minh ho trong hnh 4.5. Nh chng ta
thy trn hnh 4.5 (a), mi b m FDL c N ng tr, mi ng cung cp
mt tr khc nhau nhng c c nh t 0 n thi gian tr ln nht B = (N
1)b, trong b l tr m mt thnh phn tr (c biu din bi mt vng trn
trong hnh 4.5) c th cung cp. Cu trc ny c gi l b m FDL vi tr c
nh. B m FDL trong hnh 4.5 (b) tuy cng c N ng tr nhng mi ng
tr c th cung cp mt tr bin i t 0 n B = (N 1)b = (2
0
+ 2
1
+ + 2
n

)b bng cch s dng cc chuyn mch nhiu bc sng 2x2. Cu trc ny c
gi l b m FDL c tr bin i. B m FDL c tr c nh th n gin
hn, nhng hiu qu thp hn b m c tr bin i. B m FDL minh ho
trong hnh 4.5 (c) l s kt hp ca (a) v (b) trong mi FDL c th cung cp
mt tr bin i nhng c mc chnh lch tr ln nht t b n (N 1)b.
Khi iu khin in
B m
FDL
B chuyn
i
L.k x L.k
C cu chuyn
mch
B chuyn
i
Demux Mux
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 70


Hnh 4.5 Cu trc ca cc b m FDL
Ch rng tt c cc b m trong hnh 4.5 c k chuyn mch 1xN v N b
ghp knh kx1 u vo v u ra c N b phn knh 1xk v k chuyn mch
Nx1. iu ny cho php mt FDL c th c chia s bi tt c k bc sng. Hn
na, cc b chuyn i bc sng c t trc v sau b m FDL l rt c li
v chng cho php mt burst c th s dng cc bc sng khc nhau trong mt b
m FDL v trn ng dn u ra. Do , n gii quyt c cc tranh chp gia
nhiu burst u vo trong cng mt FDL v do hiu qu ng dn s cao.
4.3.2 S QoS da trn thi gian cn bng vi FDL
4.3.2.1 Gii thiu :
Trc khi chng ta tho lun chi tit s QoS da trn thi gian cn bng,
trc tin chng ta nhc li lm th no m cc ti nguyn (bc sng v cc b
m FDL) c ginh trc trong cc mng OBS khng h tr QoS (c gi l
OBS khng lp). Trong cc mng ny, khng c u tin no c trao cho bt
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 71
k lp lu lng c bit no. Ch rng trong trng hp ny, n s s dng giao
thc JET ni cc phn trc. Ti mt router bin pha pht, mt thi gian cn
bng gc c xc nh da trn tng thi gian x l (f.L). Nguyn tc lm vic
nh sau, gi iu khin s c gi trc v burst d liu tng ng s i
router bin ca pha pht trong khong thi gian cn bng gc. Sau khi gi iu
khin c x l xong ti cc OSN trung gian thit lp ng dn ton quang
th burst tng ng s i qua cc OSN theo ng dn c thit lp.
Trong cc mng OBS c h tr QoS th thi gian cn bng m rng c s
dng. Gi iu khin mang gi tr ca thi gian cn bng tng, l tng thi gian
cn bng gc v thi gian cn bng m rng, vi cc thng tin khc nh a ch
ch v khong thi gian n ca burst. Sau khi gi iu khin c x l ti mi
OSN trung gian th mt bc sng trn ng dn u ra mong mun s c
ginh trc trong khong thi gian t lc burst n n lc burst i. Nu khng c
bc sng no ri th burst s b nghn v mt FDL s c ginh trc. Ch
rng trong OBS, khi s ginh trc bc sng c thc hin vi mt khong
thi gian bit trc th thi gian nghn ca burst c th d dng xc nh c.
Da trn thi gian nghn, FDL vi chiu di tng ng s c ginh cho burst
. Nu thi gian nghn m ln hn thi gian tr ln nht B ca FDL th s khng
c FDL no c ginh trc v burst s b mt m khng hao tn bt k b
m no. n gin chng ta gi thit rng thi gian cn bng gc khng ng
k so vi thi gian cn bng m rng.
4.3.2.2 Thc hin vi cc FDL trong OBS u tin :
Trong phn ny chng ta s m t lm th no thc hin s da trn
thi gian cn bng trong OBS c h tr QoS (gi l OBS u tin) vi cc FDL.
n gin chng ta coi rng c 2 lp lu lng, lp 0 v lp 1 trong lp 1 c
u tin cao hn lp 0. S lng cc lp s c to ra tu thuc vo s nguyn n.
Do lp 1 c u tin cao hn trong vic ginh trc ti nguyn nh bc
sng v FDL nn thi gian cn bng m rng, k hiu l t
0
1
, c s dng cho lu
lng lp 1. n gin, y, chng ta ch quan tm mt bc sng d liu n
v mt FDL n m c th cung cp mt tr bin i t 0 n B. Hnh 4.6 minh
ho ti sao gi tr t
0
1
c th gip cho yu cu lp 1 c u tin cao hn yu cu
lp 0 trong vic ginh trc ti nguyn. Gi t
a
i
l thi gian n ca yu cu lp i,
k hiu l req (i), v t
s
i

l thi gian bt u dch v, ngha l thi gian n ca burst
d liu tng ng. Chiu di burst ca lp i c k hiu l l
i
. Do , chng ta c
t
s
1
= t
a
1
+ t
0
1
v t
s
0
= t
a
0
.
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 72
By gi chng ta tho lun lm th no phn bit 2 lp lu lng trong
vic ginh trc ti nguyn bng vic s dng thi gian cn bng m rng. Chng
ta s chia thnh hai phn : s phn bit trong vic ginh trc bc sng v s
phn bit trong vic ginh trc FDL.
+ Nu gi thit rng req (0) n ti thi im t
a
0
( = t
s
0
), chng ta c
th thy trn hnh 4.6 (a), ch c mt bc sng d liu c php xut hin bi
mt burst n sm hn. Do , burst tng ng ca req (0) s c lm tr trong
khong thi gian nghn, t
b
0
n v. Nu t
b
0
< B, FDL s c ginh cho burst lp 0
t t
s
0
n t
s
0
+ l
o
, c ch trn hnh (b) v bc sng s c phc v t t
s
0
+ t
b
0
n t
s
0
+ t
b
0
+ l
0
, ch trn hnh (a). Sau , req (1) n ngay sau ti thi im t
a
1
(
> t
a
0
) v c gng ginh trc bc sng cho burst lp 1 tng ng. T (a), chng
ta c th thy r rng l req (1) s thnh cng trong vic ginh trc bc sng
nh vo thi gian cn bng m rng t
0
1
v t
0
1
ln t
s
1
= t
a
1
+ t
0
1
> t
a
0
+ t
b
0
+
l
0
. Ch rng nu req (1) n sm hn req (0) nh hnh (c) th req (1) s thnh
cng trong vic ginh trc bc sng t t
s
1
n t
s
1
+ l
1
nhng req (0) th khng
th. iu c ngha l lp 1 t c u tin cao hn lp 0 bng cch s dng
thi gian cn bng m rng.













Hnh 4.6 S phn loi lp s dng thi gian cn bng m rng
Burst n trc Burst lp 0 Burst lp 1
Thi gian
Thi gian

Thi gian

n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 73
+ Tng t, hnh 4.6 (b) minh ha s phn bit cc lp trong s ginh
trc FDL vi vic s dng thi gian cn bng m rng. Chng ta gi thit rng
req (0) ginh trc FDL nh trnh by trc, v t
0
1
th khng di ( t
s
1
=
t
a
1
+ t
0
1
< t
a
0
+ t
b
0
+ l
0
), kt qu l req (1) s b nghn trong vic ginh trc bc
sng v do cn ginh trc FDL lm tr burst lp 1 tng ng. Trong trng
hp ny, req (1) s thnh cng trong vic ginh trc FDL nu t
0
1
l di c
t
s
1
= t
a
1
+ t
0
1
> t
a
0
+ l
0
, khi phn u ca burst lp 1 mi c th i vo FDL sau
phn ui ca burst lp 0 vo trc . Ngc li, nu t
s
1
< t
a
0
+ l
0
th req (1)
s khng thnh cng v burst lp 1 s b mt. Ch rng nu req (1) n trc, n
c th ginh trc FDL nhng req (0) s b nghn (v burst lp 0 s b mt) khi t
a
1

< t
a
0
< t
s
1
v t
a
0
+ l
0
> t
s
1
hoc khi t
a
1
< t
a
0
< t
s
1
+ l
1
.
Tho lun trn cho thy rng lp 1 c th tch bit vi lp 0 trong c vic
ginh trc bc sng v FDL bng cch s dng thi gian cn bng m rng, tc
l cung cp cho lp 1 mt u tin cao hn lp 0. Ni cch khc, vi u tin
thp trong vic ginh trc ti nguyn th xc sut nghn hoc xc sut mt burst
ca lp 0 s cao hn lp 1.
4.3.2.3 Tnh ton thi gian cn bng cn thit :
Trong phn ny, chng ta s lm mt vi php tnh tnh thi gian cn
bng c yu cu cho s phn bit cc lp khi ginh trc bc sng v FDL.
Chng ta gi thit trong trng hp tng qut, s lng cc lp l n >1. Gi
t
i,j
> 0 l s chnh lch v thi gian cn bng c gn cho lp i v lp j, tc l t
i,j

= t
0
i
t
0
j
, trong 0 j < i n 1 v 0 R
i,j
1 l xc sut m req (i) s b nghn
khi req (j) n sm hn. Do chng ta c th thy rng t
i,j
v R
i,j
s ph thuc vo
s chnh lch thi gian cn bng v phn bit gia cc lp. Nh ni phn
trc, phn bit hon ton lp i vi lp i 1 ( y R
i,i -1
= 0) trong vic ginh
trc FDL th t
i,i-1
cn phi ln hn chiu di burst ln nht ca lp i 1. Tng
t, trong vic ginh trc bc sng th t
i,i-1
cn phi ln hn tng ca B v chiu
di burst ln nht ca lp i 1.
Trong s ginh trc FDL, quan h gia R
i,i -1
v t
i,i-1
ch ph thuc vo s
phn b ca chiu di burst lp i 1. Khi chng ta gi thit rng chiu di burst
lp 1 theo phn b hm m vi chiu di L
i-1
. Khi , xc sut m mt burst lp i
1 c chiu di khng ln hn mt gi tr t l (1 e
-
i-1
x t
), trong
i-1
= 1/L
i-1
. Cho
rng mt burst lp i s khng b nghn khi chiu di ca burst lp i 1 n sm
hn l khng ln hn t
i,i-1
. Chng ta c:
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 74
R
i,i -1
= ( 1 e
-
i-1
. t
i,i-1
)
hoc t
i,i-1
= t
0
i
t
0
i-1
= -ln(1 R
i,i-1
).L
i-1

Trong s ginh trc bc sng, mt burst lp i s khng b nghn khi
chiu di ca burst lp i 1 l khng ln hn t
i,i-1
B. Do , chng ta c:
R
i,i -1
= [ 1 e
-
i-1
. (t
i,i-1
- B)
]
hoc t
i,i-1
= t
0
i
t
0
i-1
= -ln(1 R
i,i-1
).L
i-1
+ B
Bng 4.1 cho mt s gi tr ca t
i,i-1
v R
i,i-1
trong s ginh trc bc sng
v FDL.
R
i,i -1
0.6321 0.9502 0.9932
t
i,i-1
(FDL) L
i-1
3L
i-1
5L
i-1

t
i,i-1
() L
i-1
+ B 3L
i-1
+ B 5L
i-1
+ B
Bng 4.1 phn bit v chnh lch thi gian cn bng
4.3.3 Tr hng i v xc sut mt burst
4.3.3.1 Thi gian cn bng v tr u cui - u cui :
Vi cc ng dng thi gian thc th cn phi cp n tr t u cui n
u cui, bao gm 3 thnh phn tr trong m hnh QoS da trn thi gian cn bng
: tr pht sinh t ngun n ch P, tr trc khi truyn dn t
p
( do thi gian cn
bng) v tr hng i trong cc FDL t
q
(do nghn). Nh chng ta bit, P khng
ph thuc vo vic c s dng hay khng s dng thi gian cn bng. y,
chng ta cn quan tm n tr trc truyn dn v thnh phn tr ny lin quan n
vic s dng thi gian cn bng. Chng ta cn nhc li l thi gian cn bng bao
gm 2 thnh phn : thi gian cn bng gc v thi gian cn bng m rng. Khi so
snh vi chuyn mch gi, vic s dng thi gian cn bng gc s khng lm tng
thm tr t u cui n u cui. Tuy nhin, vic s dng thi gian cn bng m
rng m nh gip phn bit c lp c u tin cao vi cc lp c phn
bit thp hn, s lm tng tr u cui n u cui. Khi chng ta s dng thi
gian cn bng m rng th tr trc truyn dn s tng theo s lng cc lp n v
s chnh lch thi gian cn bng t
i,i-1
( hoc R
i,i-1
). n gin, chng ta gi thit
rng s chnh lch thi gian cn bng l nh nhau cho tt c cc lp k nhau, tc
l t
n-1,n-2
= t
n-2,n-3
= = t
1,0
= t
diff
, khi tr trc truyn dn tng thm ln nht
m lp u tin cao nht n 1 phi chu l t
p
= t
0
n-1
= (n 1).t
diff
. T nhn xt trn,
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 75
chng ta thy rng h tr cc ng dng nhy cm vi tr bng s QoS da
trn thi gian cn bng th s lng cc lp v chiu di burst trung bnh l cc
tham s ch yu cn phi c quan tm sao cho ph hp vi yu cu t ra khi
thit k.
Mt khc, tr hng i t
q
li ph thuc vo xc sut nghn v t l nghch
vi chnh lch thi gian cn bng. Nh chng ta bit, khi tng chnh lch
thi gian cn bng, tc l tng phn bit gia hai lp k nhau, th xc sut
nghn s gim v do tr hng i s thp cho cc lp c u tin cao. Ch
rng trong tr t u cui n u cui th t
p
l tr c nh, trong khi t
q
l tr c
kh nng bin i. C ngha l trong m hnh QoS da trn thi gian cn bng th
cc lp c u tin cao s c gi tr t
q
thp, thm ch khng ng k. Do , u
im ca vic s dng thi gian cn bng m rng l tr t u cui n u cui
ca cc lp u tin cao c th s gim v ngoi ra cn c th d on c.
4.3.3.2 Xc sut mt burst trong OBS :
Trong phn ny, chng ta s phn tch xc sut mt burst ca hai giao thc
trong OBS, gi l OBS khng lp v OBS u tin m chng ta cp cc
phn trc. Gi thit rng tc n trung bnh ca lp i l
i
v tc phc v
trung bnh ca lp i l
i
= 1/L
i
. Nh vy, mt lu lng (traffic intensity) ca
lp i c tnh bi cng thc
i
=
) . ( k
i
i

=
k
r
i
, trong r
i
=
i
i

v tng mt
lu lng l
i
=
=
n
i
i
1

. n gin, chng ta xem nt OSN ca chng ta ging
nh trong hnh 4.4 v ng dn u ra c k bc sng v mt b m FDL n
cha N FDL
a) OBS khng lp :
Trc khi xt xc sut mt burst trong OBS khng lp, u tin chng ta
phn tch cc gi tr ca cc bin di v bin trn ca n. Trong OBS khng lp,
bin trn ca xc sut mt burst, k hiu pb
u
, c c khi ti khng c b m
FDL no (ngha l nu 1 burst b nghn th n s b mt ngay sau ), tc l B = 0,
v bin trn ny c xc nh bng cng thc tn hao ca Erlang (M/M/k/D),
trong r = .k :
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 76
pb
u
= (k, ) =

=
k
m
m
k
r
m
r
k
0
.
!
1
.
!
1
(1)
Mt khc, bin di c c khi gi thit rng chuyn mch c mt b m
FDL m c m hnh gn ng l (M/M/k/D) (trong D l c xc nh). Gi
N l s lng FDL c trong b m FDL. Do , s lng FDL c s dng
trong m hnh ny l d = N.k, khi , s cc burst ln nht trong chuyn mch (bao
gm nhng burst c truyn v cc burst c lm tr) l D = k + d = k + k.N.
Theo m hnh (M/M/k/D), bin di xc sut mt burst pb

l :
pb

= P(k,,D) =
0
k - D
.
! .
P
k k
r
D
(2)
trong P
0
=
1
1
0
)
! . !
(

=

=

+
D
k n
k n
n k
n
n
k k
r
n
r

b) OBS u tin :
Trong OBS u tin, bin trn v bin di ca xc sut mt burst ca lp i
c k hiu l pb
u
i
v pb

i
, trong i = n 1,n 2, ,0. n gin chng ta
gi thit rng lp i l phn bit hon ton vi lp i 1 (tc l R
i,i-1
= 0). Gi
n-1,j
l
tng mt lu lng t lp n 1 n lp j (
n-1,j
=

=
1 n
j i
i

). Do s tch bit ca
cc lp nn lu lng ca cc lp u tin thp hn ( t lp j 1 n lp 0) khng
nh hng n xc sut mt burst ca cc lp u tin cao hn ( t lp n 1 n
lp j). Do theo (1) v (2) c th tnh c cc bin trn v di trung bnh t
lp n 1 n lp j theo cng thc :
pb
u
n-1,j
= (k,
n-1,j
)
pb

n-1,j
= P(k,
n-1,j
,D)
Chng ta cng c th biu din cc xc sut mt burst trung bnh bng cch
s dng tng xc sut mt burst ca mi lp. Gi c
i
=

i
l t l ca mt lu
lng trong lp i trn tng mt lu lng. Khi , cc bin trn v di trung
bnh ca xc sut mt burst t lp n 1 n lp j c th c vit nh sau :
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 77
pb
u
n-1,j
=

=
1
.
n
j i
i
u i
pb c

pb

n-1,j
=

=
1
.
n
j i
i
i
pb c

T 4 phng trnh trn, chng ta c bin trn trung bnh ca xc sut mt
burst l :
pb
u
n-1,j
= (k,
n-1,j
) =

=
1
.
n
j i
i
u i
pb c
(3)
v bin di trung bnh l :
pb

n-1,j
= P(k,
n-1,j
,D) =

=
1
.
n
j i
i
i
pb c
(4)
T hai phng trnh trn chng ta c th suy ra cc bin trn v bin di
ca mi lp pb

i
v pb
u
i
. u tin chng ta s tnh cho lp u tin cao nht i = n
1. Lp n 1 l lp u tin cao nht v n hon ton tch bit vi cc lp khc,
bin trn ca n l pb
u
n-1
= (k,
n-1
) theo phng trnh (1) v bin di l pb

n-1

=P(k,
n-1
, D) theo phng trnh (2). tnh bin trn cho lp n 2 vi u tin
thp hn lp n 1, chng ta s dng phng trnh (3) :
pb
u
n-1,n-2
= (k,
n-1,n-2
) =

=
1
2
.
n
n i
i
u i
pb c

v pb
u
n-1
= (k,
n-1
)
T hai phng trnh , chng ta d dng tnh c :
pb
u
n-2
=
2
1
1 2 , 1
. ) , (



n
n
u n n n
c
pb c k |

Tng t, theo phng trnh (4) v bin di ca lp n 1 m chng ta
c, chng ta c th tnh c bin di ca lp n 2 nh sau :
pb

n-2
=
2
1
1 2 , 1
. ) , , (



n
n
n n n
c
pb c D k P

|

Tng t nh vy, chng ta c th tnh cho cc lp khc. Tng qut, bin
trn ca xc sut mt burst cho lp j, trong 0 j n 2 l :
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 78
pb
u
j
=
j
n
j i
i
u i j n
c
pb c k

+ =


1
1
, 1
. ) , ( |
(5)
v bin di tng ng l :
pb

j
=
j
n
j i
i
i j n
c
pb c D k P

+ =


1
1
, 1
. ) , , (

|
(6)
4.3.4 FDL v hng i trong m hnh (M/M/k/D)
Chng ta nn ch rng FDL khng th m hnh ho chnh xc nh hng
i bi v mt hng i trong m hnh (M/M/k/D) c th lu tr bt k burst no
m n khng quan tm n thi gian nghn, trong khi , mt FDL s lm mt
burst khi thi gian nghn ca burst ln hn B. V vy, nu gi tr B cng ln th
s khc nhau gia FDL v hng i s cng nh.


Hnh 4.7 S khc bit gia FDL v hng i
Ngoi s khc nhau v gi tr B ni trn, th gia FDL v hng i cn c
mt im khc nhau cn ch . Nu chng ta khng quan tm n gi tr B th thi
gian m mt FDL tr nn ri khng ging thi gian m mt hng i trong m
hnh (M/M/k/D) ri. S khc nhau ny c minh ha trong hnh 4.7. Trong hnh,
chng ta gi thit rng burst I ang s dng bc sng ri duy nht nh minh ha
hnh 4.7 (a) th burst II (hoc III) khc n theo sau nh minh ho hnh 4.7 (b)
(hoc (c)). Trong m hnh (M/M/k/D), mt hng i s tr nn ri (cho cc burst

Thi gian nghn
FDL
ri
Hng
i ri
FDL
ri
Thi gian
n tt nghip Chng 4: Hiu nng QoS trong mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 79
khc) ngay khi m burst I c gii phng khi bc sng cho burst II (hoc III).
Nhng ngc li, mt FDL s tr nn ri ch khi ui ca burst II (hoc III) i vo
FDL v burst I c gii phng khi bc sng. iu ny dn n thi gian
FDL tr nn ri s ph thuc vo chiu di ca burst II hoc III v c th tr hn
(hoc sm hn) thi gian m mt hng i tr nn ri nh minh ho trong hnh
4.7 (b) hoc (c).
T tho lun trn, chng ta c th thy rng nu chiu di burst trung bnh
m ln hn thi gian nghn trung bnh th m hnh (M/M/k/D) thng d on xc
sut nghn thp hn cc m phng c thc hin vi FDL. Trong trng hp
ny, thi gian tr ln nht B l nh hn chiu di burst trung bnh, v khi s lng
bc sng k m nh th kt qu l thi gian nghn trung bnh s ln. Ngc li,
nu chiu di burst trung bnh m nh hn thi gian nghn trung bnh th xc sut
nghn c thc hin bi m phng s dng FDL s thp hn cc d on c
thc hin bi m hnh (M/M/k/D) v trong trng hp ny, gi tr B s ln hn
chiu di burst trung bnh v khi k ln th thi gian nghn s nh.
4.4 Kt lun chng :
Trong chng ny, u tin gii thiu mt giao thc mi cho vic h tr
cht lng dch v (QoS) trong mng chuyn mch burst quang, gi l JET u tin
(PJET). Sau , bn thut ton lp lch h tr QoS cho cc mng OBS c a ra
v xem xt. Tip theo chng ta trnh by m hnh QoS da trn thi gian cn bng
v chc nng ca cc FDL. Cui cng, chng ta xem xt vn QoS ca cc mng
OBS c bit l nh hng ca cc FDL n hiu sut QoS. Trong chng ny,
chng ta quan tm n hai tham s l xc sut mt burst v tr hng i.









n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 80

CHNG 5 : KHO ST NH HNG CA CC FDL
N QoS CA CC MNG OBS
Trong phn ny, ta s phn tch nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca cc
mng OBS.
u tin, ta s phn tch cc bin trn v bin di ca xc sut mt burst
da vo cc phng trnh (1), (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) trong mc 4.3.3.2. Sau , ta s
xem xt m hnh m phng c thc hin bi Yoo.
5.1 Kho st cc bin trn v bin di ca xc sut mt burst
trong mng OBS
5.1.1 Phn tch
Trong phn ny ta s phn tch cc bin trn v bin di ca xc sut mt
burst trong cc mng OBS da trn cc kt qu tnh ton l thuyt. T phng
trnh (1) v (2) trong mc 4.3.3.2, chng ta c c cc bin trn v bin di ca
xc sut mt burst trong cc mng OBS khng lp. Cho cc mng OBS u tin,
n gin, chng ta ch xem xt hai lp lu lng (lp 1 c u tin cao hn v
lp 0 c u tin thp hn) v mt lu lng ca mi lp l bng nhau (
0
=

1
=
2

). Do r
i
=
i
i

=
i
.k v c
i
=

i
nn chng ta c c r
0
+ r
1
= r v c
0
+ c
1

= c.
T phng trnh (1), pb
u
n-1,j
= (k,
n-1,j
) v pb
u
n-1
= (k,
n-1
), chng ta c th
suy ra rng :
pb
u
1,0
= (k,
1,0
) =

=
k
m
m
k
r
m
r
k
0
.
!
1
.
!
1

pb
u
1
= (k,
1
) =

=
k
m
m
k
r
m
r
k
0
1
1
.
!
1
.
!
1
(7)
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 81
pb
u
0
= (k,
0
) =
0
0
1
1
1
0
.
!
1
.
!
1
.
.
!
1
.
!
1
c
r
m
r
k
c
r
m
r
k
k
m
m
k
k
m
m
k

= =

(8)
Cc phng trnh (7) v (8) trn l bin trn ca xc sut mt burst ca
lp 1 v lp 0. Tng t, chng ta c th suy ra bin di ca lp 1 v lp 0, c
biu din bi cc phng trnh (9) v (10) di y :
pb

1,0
= P(k,
1,0
,D) =
0
.
! .
p
k k
r
k D
D


trong : p
0
=
1
1
0
)
! . !
(

=

=

+
D
k n
k n
n k
n
n
k k
r
n
r

pb

1
= P(k,
1
,D) =
0
1
.
! .
p
k k
r
k D
D

(9)
trong : p
0
=
1 1
1
0
1
)
! . !
(

=

=

+
D
k n
k n
n
k
n
n
k k
r
n
r

pb

0
=
0
1
1
0 , 1
0
1 1 0 , 1
.
) , , ( . ) , , (
c
pb c pb
c
D k P c D k P


=
| |
(10)
5.1.2 Kt qu
Trong phn ny, ta s phn tch v nh gi cc bin trn v bin di ca
xc sut mt burst trong lu lng lp 1, lp 0 v khng lp theo 4 tham s : thi
gian tr ln nht B, s lng N cc FDL, s lng cc bc sng k v mt lu
lng tng . Cc kt qu c kho st trong MATLAB da trn 6 phng trnh
c suy ra trong phn trc, trong cc phng trnh (1) v (2) biu din cc
bin trn v bin di ca xc sut mt burst cho OBS khng lp; cc phng
trnh (7) v (8) biu din bin trn cho OBS u tin v cc phng trnh (9), (10)
biu din bin di cho OBS u tin.
a) Thi gian tr ln nht B
kho st cc bin ca xc sut mt burst theo theo thi gian tr ln nht
B, ta c nh cc gi tr N, k, v , sau cho gi tr B thay i v tnh gi tr cc
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 82
bin ny. y ta s dng cng c MATLAB kho st v c c bng 5.1 v
hnh 5.1.
Trong trng hp ny, s lng cc FDL l N = 4, s lng cc bc sng
k = 4, v mt lu lng = 0.8. T hnh 5.1 chng ta thy rng bin trn v
bin di ca xc sut mt burst khng ph thuc vo thi gian tr ln nht B.
N = 4, k = 4, = 0.8
B = 0 B=0.5 B = 1 B = 3 B = 5 B = 7 B = 9
Lp 0 Bin
trn
0.3998 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998
Bin
di
0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068 0.0068
Khng lp Bin
trn
0.2281 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281
Bin
di
0.0034 0.0034 0.0034 0.0034 0.0034 0.0034 0.0034
Lp 1 Bin
trn
0.0565 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565
Bin
di
2.34E-08 2.34E-08 2.34E-08 2.34E-08 2.34E-08 2.34E-08 2.34E-08
Bng 5.1 Xc sut mt burst v tr thi gian ln nht
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 83

Hnh 5.1 Xc sut mt burst v thi gian tr ln nht B

b) S lng N cc FDL :
nh gi nh hng ca s lng FDL n xc sut mt burst, ta t cc
tham s k = 4 v mt lu lng = 0.8. Ta c kt qu nh bng 5.2 v hnh
5.2 di y. Chng ta c th thy c c bin trn v bin di ca lu lng
lp 1 u c xc sut mt burst thp nht do c u tin cao. Ngc lai, cc bin
trn v bin di ca lu lng lp 0 u c xc sut mt burst cao nht. Ngoi ra,
chng ta cn thy rng bin di ca c hai lp lu lng v lu lng khng lp
u gim khi s lng cc FDL tng ln. Ngha l khi c nhiu hn cc FDL c
s dng th cc bin di theo l thuyt u gim . Tuy nhin, khi tng N th cc
bin trn khng nh hng g c.

n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 84
k = 4, = 0.8
N = 0 N = 1 N = 2 N = 3 N = 4 N = 5
Lp 0 Bin trn 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998 0.3998
Bin di 0.3998 0.1201 0.0435 0.0169 0.0068 0.0028
Khng
lp
Bin trn 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281 0.2281
Bin di 0.2281 0.0607 0.0218 0.0085 0.0034 0.0014
Lp 1 Bin trn 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565 0.0565
Bin di 5.65E-02 1.40E-03 3.57E-05 9.13E-07 2.34E-08 5.98E-10

Bng 5.2 Xc sut mt burst v s lng cc FDL

Hnh 5.2 Xc sut mt burst v s lng cc FDL


n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 85
c) S lng cc bc sng k :
N = 4, = 0.8
k = 0 k = 8 k = 16 k = 24 k = 32 k = 40
Lp 0 Bin trn 1 0.2776 0.1607 0.1053 0.0737 0.0537
Bin di 1 0.1444 0.0806 0.0527 0.0369 0.0268
Khng
lp
Bin trn 1 0.0112 6.29E-04 4.10E-05 2.83E-06 2.02E-07
Bin di 1 1.45E-04 7.66E-08 4.33E-11 2.53E-14 1.51E-17
Lp 1 Bin trn 1 7.25E-05 3.83E-08 2.16E-11 1.27E-14 7.57E-18
Bin di 1 2.05E-15 2.14E-29 2.57E-43 3.28E-57 4.31E-71

Bng 5.3 Xc sut mt burst v s lng bc sng

Hnh 5.3 Xc sut mt burst v s lng k cc bc sng
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 86
Hnh 5.3 minh ha quan h gia xc sut mt burst theo l thuyt v s
lng bc sng k. Trong trng hp ny, s lng cc FDL l N = 4 v mt
lu lng l = 0.8. Khi tng s bc sng k th cc bin di ca xc sut mt
burst s gim. Nguyn nhn do khi c nhiu hn cc bc sng th s c nhiu
bc sng ri hn, dn n kh nng m c cung cp bi cc FDL s c
tng ln do cng thc d = N.k. Trng hp ny khc vi trng hp trc l bin
trn ca xc sut mt burst c gim i, mc d gim rt t khi chng ta tng s
lng bc sng k.
d) Mt lu lng tng :
Trong trng hp ny, cc tham s c chn l N = 4, k = 4. Hnh 5.4 ch
ra rng cc bin di ca xc sut mt burst s tng ln ng k khi mt lu
lng tng ln. iu ny c gii thch l khi ti lu lng tng thm trong OSN
th dn n s c nhiu hn cc burst cn c m trong cc FDL. Do xc sut
mt burst s cao hn . Kt qu l xc sut mt burst s tng theo.
N = 4, k = 4
= 0.2 = 0.4 = 0.6 = 0.8 = 1
Lp 0 Bin
trn
0.0146 0.1053 0.2512 0.3998 0.5261
Bin
di
0.0077 0.0565 0.1387 0.2281 0.3107
Khng
lp
Bin
trn
7.15E-04 0.0077 2.62E-02 5.65E-02 9.52E-02
Bin
di
1.00E-13 4.67E-08 6.48E-05 6.80E-03 1.04E-01
Lp 1 Bin
trn
5.02E-14 2.34E-08 3.24E-05 3.40E-03 5.20E-02
Bin
di
7.15E-20 5.02E-14 1.12E-10 2.34E-08 1.33E-06

Bng 5.4 Xc sut mt burst v mt lu lng tng
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 87

Hnh 5.4 Xc sut mt burst v mt lu lng tng
5.2 M hnh Yoo
Trong cc m phng ca Yoo, chng ta ch coi rng c 2 lp v mi OSN
n c k bc sng u ra v mt b m FDL cha N FDL. Chng ta c th gi
thit rng lu lng trong mi lp l bng nhau (
0
=
1
= v
0
=
1
= , trong
=
L
1
, do
0
=
1
). Ngoi ra, 2 lp c chiu di burst trung bnh l nh nhau
v s chnh lch thi gian cn bng ging nhau. Cc kt qu kho st trn xc sut
mt burst v tr hng i theo cc tham s thi gian tr ln nht B, s lng N cc
FDL v s lng k cc bc sng.
5.2.1 nh hng ca thi gian tr ln nht B ln xc sut mt burst
c c cc dch v khc nhau th chng ta cn phi gi tr hng i
thp khi chng ta s dng cc b m FDL. Do , mc d thi gian tr ln nht B
(hoc chiu di FDL) di c th lm gim xc sut mt burst nhng li lm tng tr
hng i. Do vy, cn phi lm cho tr ny gim n mc c th. Trong phn ny,
chng ta s xem xt tc ng ca thi gian tr ln nht n QoS nh xc sut mt
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 88
burst v tr hng i v c bit lm th no c th gim tr hng i ca cc lp
u tin cao khi s dng cc FDL di.

Hnh 5.5 Xc sut mt burst v thi gian tr ln nht
Hnh 5.5 cho thy xc sut mt burst ph thuc vo thi gian tr ln nht B.
Cc tham s c s dng l n = 2, k = 4, N = 2 (d = 8) v = 0.8 vi t
0
1
= 3L
+B khi s dng OBS u tin v t
0
1
= 0 khi s dng OBS khng lp. Nh chng ta
c th thy, xc sut mt burst ca mi lp l cao nht khi B = 0 (tc l chuyn
mch khng b m) v xc sut mt burst c thc hin bi cc m phng th
nm bn trong cc bin (M/M/k/D) khi B c gi tr nh (nh hn 3L). Khi B cng
tng th xc sut mt burst tin gn hn v thm ch l vt ra ngoi mt t so vi
cc bin di. Hin tng ny l do s khc nhau gia FDL v hng i nh
c gii thch trong mc 4.3.4. Ngoi ra chng ta cn thy rng khi u tin
ca mt lp l cao hn th xc sut mt burst ca n s thp hn.
Hnh 5.6 minh ha tr hng i trung bnh trong mi lp, cc tham s c
s dng ging nh cc tham s trong hnh 5.5. Nh chng ta bit, tr hng i t
l vi xc sut nghn, ngha l tr hng i ca cc lp khc nhau trong OBS u
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 89
tin th khc nhau v lp c u tin cao hn th c tr hng i thp hn. Nh
chng ta thy trong hnh 5.6, ngay c vi gi tr ln ca B (B = 9L) th tr hng i
trung bnh ca lp 1 cng cha n 0.05L. Ni cch khc, cc lp u tin cao (
y l lp 1) khng ph thuc nhiu vo vic s dng cc FDL di do xc sut
nghn ca chng thp. Mc d vy, i vi lu lng thi gian thc, khi cc burst
trong lp u tin cao c th c tr hng i di th lc ny mi nt cn phi kim
tra xem tng tr ca mt burst c vt qu ngng (bin tr) hay khng, v nu c
th burst s b mt.

Hnh 5.6 Tr hng i trung bnh v thi gian tr ln nht B
5.2.2 Hiu qu thc t ca s da trn thi gian cn bng:
Hnh 5.7 minh ha bin di ca xc sut mt burst ph thuc vo s lng
mng d ca cc FDL (d = N.k) trong OBS u tin, trong k = 4, B = 5L, = 0.8
v t
0
1
= 5L. Nh chng ta thy, xc sut mt burst ca cc lp 0 v khng lp
khng c ci thin nhiu do d nh hng rt t n hai lp ny.
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 90

Hnh 5.7 Xc sut mt burst v s cc mng FDL
Mt im quan trng m chng ta c th nhn thy trong hnh l xc sut
mt burst ca cc lp u gim n gi tr nh nht khi d = 12. iu ny c gii
thch l do xc sut mt burst ca cc lp chu nh hng trc tip vi gi tr B.
Khi gi tr B c gi c nh th thi gian nghn ca bt k burst no m ln hn
gi tr B th burst s b mt. Do , mc d s FDL tng (d tng) m khng tng
B th s khng ci thin c nhiu hiu nng ca chng. Do vy, chng ta cn
phi tng c d v B nu mun ci thin hiu nng ca chng. Ngoi ra, chng ta
cn nhn thy xc sut mt burst ca lp 1 gim ng k khi tng d.
Hnh 5.8 cho thy xc sut mt burst l mt hm ca s lng bc sng k,
khi N = 4, (d = 4.k) v = 0.8. Khi tng k, th t l gia xc sut mt burst ca lp
1 v xc sut mt burst ca OBS khng lp s gim i ng k. Chng hn, vi k =
40, xc sut mt burst ca lp 1 c th gim hn 50 ln so vi OBS khng lp v
kt qu ny cn ln hn nu so vi lp 0. Do , c th thy rng vic ci thin
hiu nng ca OBS khng lp v lp 0 l khng ng k khi tng k. Ngoi ra d
dng thy rng vi mt gi tr k, chnh lch gia xc sut mt burst ca cc bin
trn v di trong lp 1 c th ln hn 60 ln vi ch cn s dng 4 FDL. Bn
n tt nghip Chng 5: Kho st nh hng ca cc FDL n QoS ca mng OBS
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 91
cnh , khi so snh hnh 5.7 vi hnh 5.8 chng ta thy rng vic tng s lng
bc sng c hiu qu cao hn so vi tng s lng FDL ci thin QoS.

Hnh 5.8 Xc sut mt burst v s lng bc sng k
5.3 Kt lun chng
Qua m hnh m phng ca Yoo, chng ta thy rng cc tham s o lng
hiu sut ca QoS nh xc sut mt burst v tr hng i l mt hm ca thi gian
tr ln nht ca FDL, s lng FDL v s lng bc sng. Qua , chng ta thy
l m hnh QoS da trn thi gian cn bng c th to ra s phn bit ca cc lp
dch v c bit l cho cc lp c u tin cao, trong tr hng i v tr trc
truyn dn c th c gi mc thp trong khi vn duy tr c xc sut mt
burst thp. Tm li, m hnh QoS da trn thi gian cn bng c th h tr hiu
qu QoS trong mng Internet quang th h sau do n n gin v hiu qu li cao
khi tng s lng bc sng.
n tt nghip Kt lun
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 92
KT LUN
+ Tng kt :
Trong n ny, em gii thiu mt s vn v k thut IP qua cc
mng WDM nh cc k thut trong cc mng WDM, trong em tp trung vo 3
k thut chuyn mch (nh tuyn bc sng, chuyn mch gi quang, chuyn
mch burst quang) v k thut MPLS. Ngoi ra, trong chng 2, em gii thiu
nh ngha QoS v cc gii php m bo QoS trong cc mng IP, trong em tp
trung vo 2 gii php chnh l IntServ v DiffServ.
Sau , ni dung chnh trong n ny l tp trung vo vn QoS trong
cc mng chuyn mch burst quang OBS. Trong phn ny, cc thut ton lp lch
cho cc mng OBS m bo QoS c gii thiu v nghin cu. Tip theo, vn
lm th no cung cp QoS trong cc mng OBS vi cc FDL c a ra v
gii quyt, trong c a ra s da trn thi gian cn bng nhm phn bit
cc lp lu lng khc nhau. S ny c xem l m hnh QoS ph hp cho
cc mng quang th h sau.
Trong phn phn tch v nh gi, chng ta xem xt tc ng ca cc
ng tr quang FDL n hiu sut QoS ca cc mng OBS. Ni dung ny c
chia thnh hai phn : cc kt qu tnh theo l thuyt v cc kt qu c c t thc
nghim. Trong phn l thuyt, mt s phng trnh c a ra tnh cc bin
trn v di ca xc sut mt burst theo l thuyt cho c OBS khng lp v OBS
u tin. Da vo cc phng trnh ny, em s dng cng c Matlab kho st
mt s tham s tc ng n cc bin trn v di ca xc sut mt burst nh: thi
gian tr ln nht B, s lng FDL, s bc sng k v mt lu lng . Trong
phn thc nghim, cc kt qu m phng c thc hin bi Yoo c a ra tho
lun v nh gi hiu sut QoS vi cc tham s nh xc sut mt burst v tr hng
i. Tt c nhng kt qu ny cho thy rng m hnh QoS da trn thi gian cn
bng c th to ra s phn bit ca cc lp dch v c bit l cho cc lp c u
tin cao, trong tr hng i v tr trc truyn dn c th c gi mc thp
trong khi vn duy tr c xc sut mt burst thp.
Em xin c cm n cc thy c gio trong Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh
vin thng ni chung v khoa Vin thng 1 ni ring ging dy kin thc cho
chng em trong sut thi gian qua.
n tt nghip Kt lun
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 93
Em xin chn thnh cm n Thy gio T.S Bi Trung HIu, ngi gip
, ch bo em trong sut thi gian lm n tt nghip.
+ Hng pht trin tip theo :
Trong phn phn tch v nh gi, do hn ch v mt thi gian nn em ch
phn tch v nh gi da trn kt qu tnh theo l thuyt bng cng c Matlab m
cha m phng c mng OBS qua kho st cc tham s da trn thc
nghim. Cc kt qu thc nghim trong n ny c da theo kt qu thc
nghim t m hnh Yoo. cng l mt hn ch ca n ny. V vy, mt trong
nhng hng trong tng lai l em s c gng lm th no m phng c
mng OBS nhm hon thin hn ni dung m em ang quan tm.
T vn QoS trong mng OBS, em mun nghin cu QoS trong mt
phm vi rng hn. Do , hng pht trin tip theo ca em l vn QoS trong
mng IP qua WDM. Cc mng IP qua WDM hin nay ang c xem l hng
pht trin ph hp xy dng mng Internet th h sau. Chng ta bit mng IP
hin ti ch cung cp dch v phi kt ni, khng tin cy, dch v truyn ti gi theo
kiu n lc ti a. Cc dch v ny khng th p ng cho cc ng dng thi gian
thc yu cu QoS rt kht khe. V vy, vn h tr QoS l mt vn c bit
quan trng trong mng Internet th h sau.









n tt nghip Ti liu tham kho
____________________________________ Nguyn Kim Tuyn - Lp: D04VT1 94

TI LIU THAM KHO
[1] Dan Luo. QoS in IP over WDM . Curtin University of Technology, 10/2003.
[2] Ping DU. QoS control and performance improvement methods for Optical
Burst Switching Networks , 3/2007.
[3] Hao Buchta. Analysis of Physical Constraints in an Optical Burst Switching
Network , 4/2005.
[4] Miroslow Klinkowski. Emulated Architecture for Optical Burst Switching
Modelling and Performance Evaluation , 11/2007.
[5] Achyut K. Dutta, Niloy K. Dutta v Masahiko Fujiwara. WDM Technologies
: Optical Networks , 2004.
[6] Wang Tao. Analysis of QoS in IP over DWDM , 28/10/2003.
[7] Kishore Koduru. New Contention Resolution Techniques for Optical Burst
Switching , 5/2005.
[8] Prof Rod Tucker v Dr Keping Long. Optical Burst Switching for Next
Generation Transport Networks , 13/3/2002.