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Mc lc

MC LC
MC LC ...................................................................................................................... i
DANH MC HNH V ............................................................................................... iv
DANH MC BNG BIU ...........................................................................................v
THUT NG VIT TT ........................................................................................... vi
LI NI U ................................................................................................................1
CHNG I: TM HIU CHUNG V MNG TRUYN TI QUANG................2
1.1 Gii thiu ...............................................................................................................2
1.2 Cc lp quang ........................................................................................................2
1.3 T m FEC trong mng truyn ti quang ..............................................................4
1.4 Cu trc khung trong mng truyn ti quang ........................................................6
1.4.1 Khi ti tin quang OPU-k ...............................................................................6
1.4.2 Khi d liu quang ODU-k ............................................................................6
1.4.3 Khi truyn ti quang OTU-k.........................................................................9
1.4.4 Lp knh quang ............................................................................................11
1.4.5 Sng mang knh quang (OCC) v nhm knh quang (OCG) ......................12
1.4.6 Mo u khng lin kt ................................................................................13
1.4.7 Sp xp cc khung GFP vo khung OPU-k .................................................15
1.5 Mng truyn ti quang v cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng .......15
1.6 Qun l mng truyn ti quang ...........................................................................17
CHNG II: KIN TRC MNG TRUYN TI QUANG ................................18
2.1 Cu trc lp mng truyn ti quang ....................................................................18
2.2 Lp knh quang ...................................................................................................20
2.2.1 ng lin kt knh quang ..........................................................................20
2.2.2 Phn t truyn ti OCh ................................................................................21
2.3 Lp on ghp knh quang ................................................................................21
2.3.1 ng lin kt on ghp knh quang ........................................................22
2.3.2 Cc phn t truyn ti quang ........................................................................23
2.4 Lp mng on truyn dn quang .....................................................................23
2.4.1 u cui ng lin kt on truyn dn quang ..........................................24
2.4.2 Cc phn t truyn ti OTS ..........................................................................25
2.5 Lin kt client/server ...........................................................................................25
2.5.1 p ng OCh/client ......................................................................................25
2.5.2 p ng OMS/OCh ......................................................................................26
2.5.3 p ng OTS/OMS ......................................................................................26
2.6 Cu trc lin kt mng quang ..............................................................................27
2.6.1 Cc ng lin kt v cc kt ni n hng v song hng .....................27
2.6.2 Cc ng lin kt v cc kt ni im-a im .........................................27
CHNG III: CU TRC GHP KNH CA MNG TRUYN TI QUANG
.......................................................................................................................................28
3.1 Cu trc tn hiu c bn .......................................................................................28
3.1.1 Cu trc con OCh .........................................................................................28
3.1.2 Cu trc chc nng y OTM-n.m ..........................................................29
3.1.3 Cu trc chc nng rt gn OTM-nr.m v OTM-0.m..................................29
3.2 Cu trc thng tin cho giao din OTN ................................................................29
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3.3 Cc nguyn l ghp knh/nh x v tc bit ....................................................32


3.3.1 nh x...........................................................................................................33
3.3.2 Ghp knh phn chia bc sng...................................................................33
3.3.3 Cc tc bit v dung lng........................................................................33
3.3.4 Ghp knh phn chia thi gian ODUk .........................................................35
3.4 Cu trc module truyn ti quang .......................................................................37
3.4.1 OTM vi chc nng rt gn ( OTM-0.m, OTM-nr.m) ................................37
3.4.1.1 OTM-0.m ...............................................................................................37
3.4.1.2 Module truyn ti quang OTM-16r.m ...................................................38
3.4.2 OTM vi chc nng y (OTM-n.m) ......................................................40
CHNG 4 CC GIAO DIN MNG TRUYN TI QUANG ..........................42
4.1 Cc giao din lin min a knh..........................................................................42
4.2 Cc giao din lin min n knh ......................................................................45
4.3 Tnh tng thch ngang .......................................................................................48
4.4 Cc tham s cho h thng lin min n knh v a knh .................................49
4.4.1 Cc thng tin chung v cc tham s .............................................................52
4.4.1.1 S knh ln nht ....................................................................................52
4.4.1.2 M ha tc bit/ng dy ca cc tn hiu nhnh quang .................52
4.4.1.3 T s li bit ln nht ..............................................................................52
4.4.1.4 Kiu si ..................................................................................................52
4.4.2 Giao din ti cc im MPI-SM hoc MPI-S ................................................52
4.4.2.1 Ngun u ra trung bnh ln nht v nh nht ......................................52
4.4.2.2 Ngun u ra tng trung bnh ln nht .................................................53
4.4.2.3 Tn s trung tm ....................................................................................53
4.4.2.4 Khong cch knh .................................................................................53
4.4.2.5 sai lch tn s trung tm ln nht ....................................................53
4.4.2.6 Di bc sng hot ng .......................................................................53
4.4.2.7 Kiu ngun ............................................................................................53
4.4.2.8 Chu trnh lm vic ln nht v nh nht ...............................................54
4.4.2.9 rng RMS ln nht ..........................................................................54
4.4.2.10 rng ln nht -20dB .......................................................................54
4.4.2.12 T s loi b side mode nh nht ........................................................54
4.4.2.13 T s tt dn nh nht .........................................................................54
4.4.2.14 Gin mt cho cc tn hiu pht quang NRZ ...................................55
4.4.2.15 Gin mt cho cc tn hiu pht quang ............................................56
4.4.3 Mt ng lin kt quang t im MPI-SM n MPI-RM hoc MPI-S n
MPI-R ....................................................................................................................57
4.4.3.1 suy gim ln nht.............................................................................57
4.4.3.2 suy gim nh nht ............................................................................58
4.4.3.3 Tn sc ln nht .....................................................................................58
4.4.3.4 Sai lch tn sc ln nht ........................................................................58
4.4.3.5 Suy hao phn x quang nh nht ti MPI-SM hoc MPI-S....................59
4.4.3.6 Phn x ri rc ln nht gia MPI-SM v MPI-RM hoc MPI-S v
MPI-R ................................................................................................................60
4.4.3.7 tr nhm vi sai ln nht ...................................................................61
4.4.4 Giao din ti im MPI-RM hoc MPI-R .....................................................61
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4.4.4.1 Cng sut knh u vo trung bnh ln nht .........................................61


4.4.3 Cng sut u vo tng trung bnh ...............................................................61
4.4.4.4 Vi sai cng sut knh ln nht...............................................................62
4.4.4.5 ng quang penalty ln nht ..............................................................62
4.4.4.6 nhy tng ng nh nht .............................................................63
4.4.4.7 phn x ln nht ca cc phn t quang ..........................................63
4.4.4.8 nhy nh nht...................................................................................64
CHNG 5 MT S IM NI BT CA MNG TRUYN TI QUANG ..65
5.1 Sa li hng thun .............................................................................................65
5.1.1 M t l thuyt ..............................................................................................66
5.1.1.2 li m ha ........................................................................................68
5.1.2.1 Xc nh li m ha theo tham s Q ...............................................68
5.1.2.2 Khuych i m ha c xc nh qua Eb/N0 .....................................70
5.1.2.3 Khuych i c xc nh theo OSNR ...............................................70
5.3 Truyn ti thng sut ca cc tn hiu client .......................................................74
5.4 M rng quy m chuyn mch ............................................................................74
KT LUN ..................................................................................................................76
TI LIU THAM KHO ...........................................................................................77

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Danh mc hnh v

DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1. 1 T l li bit BER trc v sau khi c t m FEC trong h thng ...................4
Hnh 1. 2 Cu trc ca RS(255,239) ...............................................................................5
Hnh 1. 3 Cu trc OPU-k ...............................................................................................7
Hnh 1. 4 Cu trc ODU-k...............................................................................................7
Hnh 1. 5 Cu trc OTU-k ...............................................................................................8
Hnh 1. 6 Qu trnh ghp 16 khung con OTU-k ln mt khung OTU-k .......................10
Hnh 1. 7 Cc bc c bn nh dng mt khung OTU-k da trn mt lin kt imim ...............................................................................................................................10
Hnh 1. 8 Cc lp con trong knh quang c bn (OCh) ................................................12
Hnh 1. 9 Cu trc c bn ca nhm knh quang OCG-k qua DWDM ........................13
Hnh 1. 10 Hnh thnh v truyn ti tn hiu OTM qua cc knh WDM ring .............15
Hnh 1. 11 Sp xp cc khung GFP vo OPU-k............................................................16
Hnh 1. 12 nh x cc kiu ti tin khc nhau trn mng OTN vo WDM ...................16
Hnh 2. 1 Lin kt u cui-u cui trong mt mng truyn ti quang.......................19
Hnh 2. 2 Lp knh quang .............................................................................................20
Hnh 2. 3 V d lp mng OMS ....................................................................................22
Hnh 2. 4 V d lp mng OTS .....................................................................................24
Hnh 3. 1 Cu trc ca giao din OTN ..........................................................................28
Hnh 3. 2 Thng tin ch yu cha cc tng quan OTM-n.m ......................................30
Hnh 3. 3 Thng tin ch yu cha cc tng quan OTM-0.m ......................................30
Hnh 3. 4 Thng tin ch yu cha cc tng quan OTM-nr.m .....................................31
Hnh 3. 5 V d ca thng tin lung ch yu.................................................................32
Hnh 3. 6 Cu trc ghp knh v nh x OTM .............................................................33
Hnh 3. 7 Phng php ghp knh ODU1 vo trong ODU2 .........................................36
Hnh 3. 8 Phng php ghp knh ODU1 v ODU2 vo trong ODU3 ........................36
Hnh 3. 9 Cu trc OTM-0.m ........................................................................................38
Hnh 3. 10 Cu trc ghp knh OTM-16r.m .................................................................39
Hnh 3. 11 Cu trc ghp knh OTM-n.m.....................................................................41
Hnh 4. 1 Cc ng dng a knh s dng b tin khuch i .......................................43
Hnh 4. 2 Cc ng dng a knh s dng b khuch i trung gian ............................44
Hnh 4. 3 Cc ng dng IrDI a knh khng khuch i ..............................................45
Hnh 4. 4 Cc ng dng IrDI n knh .........................................................................45
Hnh 4. 5 Mt n biu mt cho cc tn hiu pht quang NRZ ..................................55
Hnh 4. 6 Mt n ca biu mt cho tn hiu pht quang RZ 40G .............................57
Hnh 4. 7 IrDI knh n vi b tn sc (DC) trong b thu ...........................................59
Hnh 5. 1 S khi FEC ............................................................................................67
Hnh 5. 2 T m Reed-Solomon ...................................................................................67
Hnh 5. 3 Gin mt ...................................................................................................69
Hnh 5. 4 M BER vs Q cho R-S (t =8).........................................................................69
Hnh 5. 5 BER v Eb/N0.................................................................................................70
Hnh 5. 6 Khuych i m ha qua OSNR ....................................................................71
Hnh 5. 7 Gim st kt ni ni tip ................................................................................72
Hnh 5. 8 Gim st cc kt ni ......................................................................................73
Hnh 5. 9 Chng ln gim st cc kt ni ODUk ..........................................................74
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Danh mc bng biu

DANH MC BNG BIU


Bng 1. 1 Tng quan gia cc khung STS/STM v khung OTN OPU-k ....................5
Bng 1. 2 T m FEC s dng trong cc khung OTN OPU-k ........................................6
Bng 1. 3 Cc tc bit truyn dn danh nh ...............................................................7
Bng 1. 4 Tc OTU-k danh nh ( 20ppm) ..............................................................9
Bng 1. 5 bin ng UIpp theo cc tn s ...............................................................11
Bng 3. 1 Cc kiu v dung lng OUT .......................................................................34
Bng 3. 2 Cc kiu v dung lng ODU .......................................................................34
Bng 3. 3 Cc kiu v dung lng OPU .......................................................................34
Bng 3. 4 Cc chu k khung OTUk/ODUk/OPUk........................................................35
Bng 4. 1Cc loi giao din lin min a knh .............................................................42
Bng 4. 2 Phn loi cc giao din lin min n knh cho lp tn hiu nhnh quang
NRZ 2.5G v NRZ 10G .................................................................................................47
Bng 4. 3 Phn loi cc giao din lin min n knh cho lp tn hiu nhnh quang
NRZ 40G v RZ 40G.....................................................................................................48
Bng 4. 4 Cc tham s vt l cho IrDI n knh v a knh ........................................50
Bng 4. 5 Cc tham s lp vt l cho IrDI n knh v a knh ..................................51
Bng 4. 6 Cc gi tr chi tit ca NRZ trong cc gin mt .......................................56
Bng 4. 7 Trung bnh DGD v cc xc sut .................................................................61

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Thut ng vit tt

THUT NG VIT TT
Vit tt

Ting Anh

Ting Vit

3R

Retiming, Reshaping and


Reamplifying
Asynchronous Transport Mode

EDC

Bit Error Ratio


Differential Wavelength
Division Multiplexer
Error Detect Check

nh thi, ti to v
khuch i
Ch truyn ti khng
ng b
T l li bit
Ghp knh chia bc
sng vi sai
Pht hin sa li

FAS

Frame Alignment Signal

Tn hiu ng chnh khung

FEC

Forward Error Correction

Sa li hng thun

FR

Frame Relay

Chuyn tip khung

GCC

General Communication Channel

Knh truyn dn chung

GFP

Generic Frame Procedure

Th tc ng khung chung

HO

Hold Off

Hold Off

IP

Internet Protocol

Giao thc Internet

IrDI

Inter Domain Interface

Giao din lin min

LAN

Local Area Network

Mng cc b

MFAS

Multiframe Alignment Signal

Tn hiu ng chnh a khung

MPI

Multile Protocol Interface

Giao din a giao thc

NE

Network Element

Phn t mng

OA

Optical Amplifier

Khuch i quang

OADM

Optical Add Drop Multiplexer

B xen tch quang

ATM
BER
DWDM

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Thut ng vit tt
andHot ng, qun l v bo dng

OCC

Operatons
Administration
Managemnet
Optical Channel Carrier

OCCo

Optical Channel Carrier Overhead Mo u sng mang knh quang

OCCp

Optical Channel Carrier Payload

Mo u sng mang knh quang

OCG

Optical Channel Group

Nhm knh quang

OCG-nr

Optical Channel Group reduced

Nhm knh quang chc nng rt gn

OCh

Optical Channel

Knh quang

OCh-OH

Optical Channel- Ovehead

Mo u knh quang

OCh-PE

Optical

OA&M

Channel-

Sng mang knh quang

Payload Ti tin knh quang m rng

Evolope
ODU

Opical Data Unit

Khi d liu quang

OMS

Optical Multiplexer Section

on ghp knh quang

OMS_LC

OMS- Link Connection

Kt ni lin kt OMS

OMS_NC

OMS- Network Connection

Kt ni mng OMS

OMU

Optical Multiplex Unit

Khi ghp quang

ONT

Optical Network Termination

u cui mng quang

OOS

Optical Output Signal

Tn hiu u ra quang

OPU

Optical Payload Unit

Khi ti tin quang

OSC

Optical Supervision Chanel

Knh gim st quang

OSNR

Optical Signal to Noise Ratio

T s tn hiu trn tp m quang

OTM

Optical Transport Module

Ch truyn ti quang

OTN

Optical Transport Network

Mng truyn ti quang

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OTS

Optical Transport Section

Thut ng vit tt
on truyn ti quang

OTS_SNC OTS _ Subnetwork Connection

Kt ni mng con OTS

OTS OH

Mo u on truyn ti quang

Optical Transport Section


Overhead

OTU

Optical Transport Unit

Khi truyn ti quang

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

Phn cp cn ng b

PTI

Payload Type Identifier

Nhn dng kiu ti tin

RS

Reed- Solomon

Reed- Solomon

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Phn cp s ng b

SN

Signal Networking

Tn hiu mng

SONET

Synchronous Optical Network

Mng quang ng b

STM

Synchronous Transport Mode

Ch truyn ti ng b

STS

Synchronous Transport Signal

Tn hiu truyn ti ng b

TCP

Transmission Control Protocol

Giao thc iu khin truyn


dn

TDM

Time Division Multiplexing

Ghp knh phn chia theo


thi gian

TTE

Terminal Transport Equipment

Thit b truyn dn u cui

TTI

Trail Trace Indentificaton

Nhn dng vch ng truyn

WDM

Wavelenght Division Multiplex

Ghp knh phn chia bc sng

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Li ni u

LI NI U
ng trc s pht trin khng ngng ca khoa hc cng ngh, truyn
thng bng rng ang tr thnh nhu cu thit yu mang li nhiu li ch cho ngi
s dng. Bn cnh vic cung cp cc dch v nh truy nhp Internet, cc tr chi
tng tc, hi ngh truyn hnh,.. th truyn thng bng rng d liu ln qua cc
mng ng trc cng ang c ng dng rng ri, cung cp cc kt ni tin cy
cho ngi s dng ngay c khi di chuyn qua mt phm vi rng ln. S pht trin
mnh m ca Internet v mng ton cu em li cng nhiu hn nhiu ngi s
dng trc tuyn, chi phi lng bng thng ln truyn d liu bao gm c video
v hnh nh. phc v cho cc yu cu truyn ti khi lng d liu ln, s
nghin cu cho nng lc mng vi dung lng cc ln bt u.Cc chi ph tng
ln v cn h thng thng sut hn na hot ng mt vai tr quan trng trong
nghin cu cc cng ngh mi.
Si quang em li bng thng cao hn nhiu, suy gim thp qua cc
khong cch ln v u im chi ph hn so vi cp ng. Chng a ra suy
gim thp qua khong cch rng .Cc yu cu ca b ti to v b khuch i bi
vy kh nh. Tt c cc h s ch to si quang c u tin cho truyn dn d
liu .Khi yu cu bng thng v ng truyn cng ln th vic tin hnh truyn d
liu trn si quang yu cu xy dng mt h thng mng quang hon chnh hn. V
vy, mng truyn ti quang ra i nhm p ng yu cu vi kh nng cung cp
ng truyn d liu ln t 2.5Gbps, 10Gbps cho n 40 Gbps ng thi tch hp
nhiu loi d liu hoc cc dng khung d liu ca cc cng ngh trc y nh
SONET/SDH trn cng mt khi truyn ti quang OTU.
Trong ti liu ny ti xin gii thiu nhng nt tng qut ca mng truyn ti
quang cc bn c th phn no hiu c tnh cht quan trng ca mng truyn ti
quang. Ni dung c th c chia lm nm chng nh sau:
Chng 1 : Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang
Chng 2 : Kin trc truyn ti ca mng truyn ti quang
Chng 3 : Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang
Chng 4 : Cc giao din ca mng truyn ti quang
Chng 5 : Mt s im ni bt ca mng truyn quang

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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

CHNG I: TM HIU CHUNG V MNG


TRUYN TI QUANG
1.1 Gii thiu
Cc mng s dng cc node quang to nn mt trong cc cu trc kt ni
thng dng nh : cu trc li, cu trc vng, v cu trc im im. Tuy nhin xt
n hiu qu v cht lng, cc mng quang c m t vi cc chc nng truyn ti
tin, ghp knh ti tin client, nh tuyn, kh nng duy tr dch v, bo v , gim st v
bo dng mng. p ng hiu qu mng, mng truyn ti quang ti pha pht bao
gm cc lp truyn ti quang , khi cc tn hiu client ring r s kt hp truyn
ti qua mt lin kt. Ti pha thu, mt lp mng c phn chia cu trc v cc tn
hiu u cui c dng nh tuyn li cho tng hng ring ca chng. Xt trn
mt phng din th mt node c xem nh l mt sn bay trung tm, mi hnh
khch xc nh v tr trn mi my bay, mi client c vn chuyn n tng v tr
khc nhau. V y mi hnh khch mang tnh cht duy tr mt qun l nh tuyn
u cui n u cui. Mng truyn ti quang pht trin cho ng dng truyn ti c ly
di vi cc tc d liu t 2,5 G n 40G trn mi knh quang. Trong cc khuyn
ngh, mng truyn ti quang s dng h tr cho cc kt ni im-im n hng
v song hng, v cc kt ni im-a im n hng.

1.2 Cc lp quang
Cu trc mng truyn ti quang xc nh mi trng vt l lp mng ng thi
nh ngha kiu si quang. Cu trc mng truyn ti quang gm ba lp : lp knh
quang, lp on ghp knh quang, lp on truyn dn quang.

Lp knh quang : cung cp kt ni u cui n u cui mng ca knh


quang chuyn thng sut thng tin u cui khc nhau nh SONET/SDH, PDH 563
Mps, ATM. Lp knh quang cha y chc nng nh hon v kt ni knh quang
vi mc ch nh tuyn mng mm do, mo u knh quang m bo tnh nguyn
vn ca thng tin p ng knh quang, cc chc nng OA&M knh quang (hot ng,
qun l v bo dng) cho php duy tr kt ni v thay i cht lng dch v cng
kh nng duy tr mng.

Lp on ghp quang : cung cp chc nng cho cc mng qua cng ngh
ghp tn hiu trn nhiu bc sng (WDM). Lp on ghp quang cha y cc
chc nng nh mo u on ghp knh quang m bo tnh nguyn vn thng tin p

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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

ng on ghp quang nhiu bc sng, on ghp quang knh quang OA&M cho
php hot ng mc on v cc chc nng qun l v duy tr on ghp.

Lp on truyn dn quang : cung cp chc nng truyn dn tn hiu

quang trn cc si quang. Lp on truyn dn quang cha y cc chc nng nh


: x l mo u on truyn dn quang m bo tnh nguyn vn thng tin p ng
on truyn dn quang, on truyn dn OA&M cho php cc hot ng mc on v
cc chc nng qun l v kh nng duy tr on truyn dn.
Tng t nh mng SONET/SDH th h sau, mng truyn ti quang xc nh mt
ti tin ng b c di khung c nh c gn vi mt mo u chi tit h tr
cc ti tin u cui khc nhau, ng thi mt m sa li hng thun (FEC) c t
ti u cui tip theo ca khung phn bit mng truyn ti quang vi cc mng
quang th h sau khc.
Cc t m FEC pht hin li v cc m sa li xc nh cc bit li ( 16) v sa mt
phn cc m (8). FEC c kh nng sa 8 bit li hoc nhiu hn c xem nh l
mt m mnh, nu sa t hn 8 bit li c xem nh l mt m yu.
V d : m RS(255,239) l mt m nh phn thuc h thng cc m vng tuyn
tnh. M RS sinh ra t a thc nh phn. V d : m RS(255,239) sinh ra t a thc x8
+ x 4 + x3 + x2 + 1.
nhn thc r vai tr ca t m FEC n cht lng tn hiu, ta gi thit c
mt h thng yu cu gi tr BER 10-12 . Mt tn hiu c t l li bit BER 10-4 . Sau khi
b sung m FEC mnh th c ci thin cn 2 10-12 . V vy FEC c s dng cho
tn hiu khi truyn trong cc khong cch xa vi tc bit cao m vn t c ch s
BER l 10-12.
Tng t mt tn hiu vi t l li bit BER 10-7 khi c b sung m FEC th
ch s BER c ci thin cn 10-40 .
T m FEC cn c b sung cho pha thu p ng c ly di t c BER
yu cu. Mt u im c th l khi s dng trong truyn c ly xa v truyn qua cc si
quang vt i dng s dng cc b khuch i v b ti to nh hn m vn m
bo tc truyn dn bit cao. FEC c ng dng trong cc b chuyn i quang-in
ti cc thit b truyn dn u cui (TTE). Trong cc lin kt im-im c ly ngn th
b ti to cha tht cn thit do suy hao thp. Vi cc lin kt c ly di th yu cu b
ti to l khng th thiu c m bo tn hiu. FEC c th sa cha mt s bit li
(thng l 8). Khi s bit li vt qu kh nng sa li ca FEC , cc bit li cha c

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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

sa a vo b ti to thnh mt burt bit li nh hng n hiu nng ca h thng.


trng hp ny, t m FEC xc nh chc nng vt l v chc nng qun l li.

Hnh 1. 1 T l li bit BER trc v sau khi c t m FEC trong h thng

1.3 T m FEC trong mng truyn ti quang


Mng truyn ti quang cho php ghp cc khung t c tc d liu
truyn dn cao hn. V d : mng truyn ti quang nh ngha nhiu mc ghp knh
nh STS-48 (SONET)/STM-16(SDH), hoc STS-192/STM-64 hoc STS-768/STM256. Khi M khung STS-48 (SONET) hoc STM-16(SDH) c ghp t tc M
2,5Gps. Trong trng hp ny, t m FEC c hnh thnh ti cc m khung
SONET/SDH trc khi thc hin ghp khung trong khi thit b u cui ti cc b
thu , chc nng pht hin v sa li c s dng sau khi tch cc khung. Trong mng
truyn ti quang, khi ti tin quang-k (OPU-k) vi k l ch s gm cc khung
SONET/SDH c ghp li v trng FEC nh km sau mi khung SONET/SDH.
Bng 1.1 cung cp gi tr k cho khi ti tin quang OPU

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SONET

SDH

Tc d liu

OPU-k

STS-48

STM-16

2,5Gbps

OPU-1

STS-192

STM-64

10Gbps

OPU-2

STS-768

STM-256

40Gbps

OPU-3

Bng 1. 1 Tng quan gia cc khung STS/STM v khung OTN OPU-k


Mng truyn ti quang s dng m pht hin sa li (EDC) Reed Solomon (RS)
khi xc sut ca cc bit photon c b qua v do t s li bit BER chu nh hng
n cc tham s khc nh : chiu di si, suy hao, mt knh, phi tuyn, cng sut
tn hiu quang, v nhy thu ph thuc vo tc d liu truyn dn.
Vi cc khung OPU-k khc nhau th t m Reed-Solomon (RS) FEC c to ra
t cc a thc sinh khc nhau. T m Reed-Solomon EDC thng c vit di dng
RS(x,y) trong x ch th chiu di d liu pht hin li, y l chiu di EDC b sung.
V d: t m RS(255,239) s dng 16 byte kim tra 239 byte d liu (239 + 16 =
255). Hnh 1.2 trnh by cu trc t m FEC s dng trong mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 1. 2 Cu trc ca RS(255,239)

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OPU-k

Kiu FEC

OPU-1

RS(239/238)

OPU-2

RS(238/237)

OPU-3

RS(237/236)
Bng 1. 2 T m FEC s dng trong cc khung OTN OPU-k

Khi FEC khng c s dng trong trng hp ny th t m RS lc bao gm


cc s 0.

1.4 Cu trc khung trong mng truyn ti quang


1.4.1 Khi ti tin quang OPU-k
n v khung c bn nh ngha trong mng truyn ti quang l khi ti tin quang
OPU-k , trong cc tn hiu u cui c nh x vo. Khi tnh ti FEC, tc bit
truyn dn danh nh ca OPU-k vi k = 1, 2 , 3 c a ra trong bng 1.3.
Mi khi OPU-k bao gm 4 hng, mi hang gm 3810 ct tng ng vi 3810
byte , ti u cui mi hng c thm 2 byte mo u h tr p ng cc tn hiu u
cui khc nhau. Hnh 1.3 lu theo khuyn ngh G.709/Y.1331 c bt u nh s
t 15, vic nh s ny s r rng hn trong qu trnh xy dng khung OTN.
1.4.2 Khi d liu quang ODU-k
Khi d liu quang bao gm khi ti tin quang OPU v b sung 14 byte mo
u ti u mi hng ca mo u OPU-k.
14 byte mo u ca hng u tin OPU-k c nh ngha nh sau:

Trng FAS (tn hiu ng chnh khung) (byte 1-7) cha dy ng chnh khung
c nh 0xA1 0xA1 0xA1 0xA2 0xA2 0xA2.

Trng MFAS (tn hiu ng chnh a khung) (byte 8) cha s khung trong
256 a khung

Trng mo u OTU-k (khi truyn ti quang k) (cc byte 8-14) cha gim st
on (byte 8-10), knh truyn dn chung 0 (GCC0) (byte 11 v 12), v hai byte d tr
(byte 13 v 14)

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OPU-k

Tc thng thng

OPU-1

2488320 Kbps 20ppm

OPU-2

9995276,972 Kps 20 ppm

OPU-3

40150519,322 Kps 20ppm


Bng 1. 3 Cc tc bit truyn dn danh nh

Hnh 1. 3 Cu trc OPU-k

Hnh 1. 4 Cu trc ODU-k


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Mo u ODU-k cn li (cc byte 1 n 14 ca hng 2-4) c phn chia thnh


cc on vi chc nng khc nhau, mt on khc c s dng xc nh u cui
n u cui ca ng OPU-k, mt on khc c s dng h tr 6 mc gim st
kt ni ni tip v cc on khc s dng cho cc chc nng bo dng v hot ng.
Mo u c s dng cho 64 khung ODU-k. Mo u ng ODU-k s dng ti tr
m ODU-k c ghp v tch ra. Mo u cho kt ni ni tip c b sung v kt
thc ti ngun v u cui ca cc kt ni ni tip.
ODU-k h tr cc chc nng sau y:

p ng cc tn hiu u cui qua OPU-k

Gim st ng u cui n u cui qua ODU-kP

Gim st kt ni ni tip qua ODU-kT


Trong cc mng quang tiu chun, nhm ti u bng thng truyn ti, ghp knh

phn chia thi gian(TDM) ca cc ODU-k duy tr lin kt u cui n u cui


cc knh TDM c tc thp hn. Do , hin ti ODU-k c nh ngha cc mi
quan h server/client nh sau:

Mt ODU-2 truyn ti ti a 4 ODU-1 (mt ODU2 tng ng vi 4 ODU-1)

Mt ODU-3 truyn ti ti a 16 ODU-1 hoc 4 ODU-2 hoc c th truyn ti


hn hp c ODU-1 v ODU-2 trong gii hn bng thng cho php

Hnh 1. 5 Cu trc OTU-k

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OTU-k

Tc bit thng thng OTU-k

Chu k

OTU-1

255/238 2488320 = 2666057,143 Kbps

48,971

OTU-2

255/237 9953238 = 10709255,316 Kbps

12,191

OTU-3

255/236 39813120 = 43018413,559 Kbps

3,035

Bng 1. 4 Tc OTU-k danh nh ( 20ppm)

1.4.3 Khi truyn ti quang OTU-k


Cu trc khung ca khi truyn ti quang k (OTU-k) c hon thin bi cc
byte mo u OTU-k ghp thm m FEC ti pha cui khung OPU-k nh trnh by
trong hnh 1.5.
Cc mo u OTU cha cc byte gim st on (byte 8-10), knh truyn dn
chung 0 (GCC0) (cc byte 11 v 12) v d tr (cc byte 13 v 14). Vng FEC cha 4
hng vi 256 byte mi hng. V vy, cc khung OTU-k gm 4 hng vi 4080 ct . p
dng m RS(255,239), mt m FEC 16 byte c tnh cho mi khung con. Nh vy
hnh 1.6, tt c cc byte c ghp xy dng 4080 byte trong 4 hng ca OTU-k.
trnh s xut hin lin tc ca cc bit 0 hay bit 1 trong khung OTU-k d
liu c xo trn nh s dng mt t m ngu nhin di 65535 bit sinh ra bi a
thc x0 + x1 + x3 + x12 + x16. ng vi mi a thc tun theo khuyn ngh ITU-T
G.709 th b xo trn khi to n 0xFFFF ti v tr bt u khung m khng m
ha cc byte ng chnh khung (FAS) ca mo u OTU-k (byte 1-7 ca hng u
tin ). Qu trnh xo trn bit c trng s ln nht ca byte MFAS (byte th 8 ca hng
u tin) v lin tc n byte cui ca khung OTU-k.

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Hnh 1. 6 Qu trnh ghp 16 khung con OTU-k ln mt khung OTU-k

Hnh 1. 7 Cc bc c bn nh dng mt khung OTU-k da trn mt lin kt


im-im
Nh vy, b m ha OTN gm cc bc ln lt theo th t nh sau:
Tn hiu u cui c sp xp vo khung OTN, sau thm phn mo u OH,
t m FEC thc hin ghp knh v qua b xo trn d liu c truyn i.
Mc d khng trnh by r rng tuy nhin, cc dung sai thi gian v bin
ng tr l rt quan trng trong qu trnh ny. ITU-T G.825.1 cung cp bin ng
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tr cho php ln nht ti giao din OTU-k tng ng vi chiu di lin kt khc nhau.
y l nhng qui nh ti cc iu khon cho n v nh-nh (UIpp) v bin
ng tr o c tai im tn s 3dB (trong Hz). Khong n v (UI) c tnh ton
t tc bit v m RS nh sau:
OTU1-1: 1UI = (238/255) (1/2,48832)ns = 375,1 ps
OTU1-2: 1UI = (238/255) (1/9,95328)ns = 93,38 ns
OTU1-1: 1UI = (238/255) (1/39,81312)ns = 375,1 ps
Cn c trn cho php cc UI, cc bin ng UIpp cho php ln nht vi cc
bng thng khc nhau v cc OTU-k nh ngha bi khuyn ngh G.825.1 nh sau :
OTU-k

Di tn s

bin ng (UIpp)

OTU-1

5 KHz- 20MHz

1,5

OTU-1

1 MHz 20 MHz

0,15

OTU-2

20 KHz- 80 MHz

1,5

OTU-2

4 MHz 80MHz

0,15

OTU-3

20 KHz 320MHz

6,0

OTU-3

16 MHz 320 MHz

0,15

Bng 1.5 bin ng UIpp theo cc tn s


1.4.4 Lp knh quang
Lp knh quang nh ngha khuyn ngh ITU-T G.709/Y.1331 trn min in .
Khi tn hiu ny chuyn i sang min quang th c bit nh knh quang (OCh).
c tnh nh ngha trong khuyn ngh ITU-T G.872 ng thi khuyn ngh G.872
nh ngha chc nng h tr qun l mng v chc nng lp mng ca mng truyn
ti quang.

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Hnh 1. 8 Cc lp con trong knh quang c bn (OCh)


Hai knh quang (OCh) c nh ngha :

Knh quang vi chc nng y (OCh)

Knh quang vi chc nng rt gn (OChr) cung cp cc kt ni thng sut

mng gia cc khi phc 3R trong mng truyn ti quang


OCh bao gm mo u khng lin kt; y l mo u khng c gn vo trong
khung OCh nhng truyn ti qua mt sng mang khc. Hnh 1.8 cho thy mo u
OCh (OCh OH) cha thng tin cho bo dng h tr qun l li v bo v. Mo u
OCh nm cui OCh c chc nng ghp knh v phn knh.
1.4.5 Sng mang knh quang (OCC) v nhm knh quang (OCG)
Sng mang knh quang c nh ngha l mt bc sng WDM m cc a ch
OTN ca mt knh quang OCh nh x ln. Hai kiu OCC c nh ngha:

OCC vi chc nng rt gn (OCCr): cha duy nht ti tin OCCp. OCCr mang
ti tin OCh v c gn vi mt bc sng ITU-T ca li ITU-T. OCCr khng c
mo u lin kt.

OCC vi chc nng y (OCC): cha ti tin (OCCp) v mo u (OCCo).


OCCp mang ti tin OCh v c gn mt bc sng ca li ITU-T. OCCo mang
mo u OCh, v c truyn i nh knh thng tin tn hiu mo u ca module
truyn ti quang (OTM).
Nhm knh quang (OCG) l mt nhm cc sng mang knh quang OCC. Vi
nhm sng mang knh quang bc vi chc nng rt gn OCG n[r], cc OCC nhnh

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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

c th c cc kch thc khc nhau. Do , khi n sng mang knh quang OCC-n[r]
c ghp knh WDM xc lp c nh mt s bc sng ca li ITU-T.
Hai OCG c nh ngha:

OCG-n vi chc nng rt gn (OCG-nr): cha n ti tin OCC(OCCp) v khng


cha mo u lin kt OCG-nr.

OCG-n vi chc nng y (OCCG-n): cha n ti tin OCC (OCCp) v cc


mo u lin kt (OCCo).

Hnh 1. 9 Cu trc c bn ca nhm knh quang OCG-k qua DWDM

1.4.6 Mo u khng lin kt


Trong mng truyn ti quang, bn cnh mo u c nh ngha trong OPU-k,
ODU-k, OTU-k cn cc mo u khng lin kt cho lp knh quang OCh cho on
ghp quang v on truyn dn quang.
Mo u on ghp quang (OMS OH) lin kt vi OCG to ra khi ghp
quang (OMU). Mo u s dng cho cc chc nng bo dng v hot ng dnh
ring cho cc on ghp quang. OMS OH nm v tr cui ti mi OTM s dng
ghp knh v phn knh. OTM cn c b sung thng tin cho ti tin t cc mo u
truyn dn chung (COMMS OH).
Tp hp m nhm knh quang OCG-n[r] to thnh mt module truyn ti quang
(OTM-n, m). Khi cc module OTM-n,m c chc nng y cha mo u khng
lin kt truyn ti tn hiu mo u module truyn ti quang (OOS) qua mt knh
gim st mng truyn ti quang OSC.

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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

C 3 kiu module truyn ti quang OTM:

OTM-0,m khng cha OSC h tr knh quang noncolored qua mt


ng lin kt quang vi khi phc 3R ti mi u cui.

OTM-16r,m h tr 16 knh quang (c s th t t OCCr#0 cho n


OCCr#15) trn mt lin kt quang vi khi phc 3R ti mi u cui.

OTM-n,m vi chc nng y cha OSC h tr n knh quang cho mt

hay nhiu lin kt quang. Khi khi phc 3R khng c yu cu.


Knh OSC truyn mi bc sng ring v cu trc khung, tc bit v bng
thng ring v OSC ghp knh phn chia bc sng vi OTM-n,m c trnh by
trong hnh 1.10.

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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 1. 10 Hnh thnh v truyn ti tn hiu OTM qua cc knh WDM ring
1.4.7 Sp xp cc khung GFP vo khung OPU-k
Vi vic chn cc khung ri ti cc v tr ng gi GFP, cc khung GFP to
thnh mt lung bit lin tc. V vy, sp xp cc khung GFP vo trong OPU-k t
c bng cch ng chnh cu trc byte ca mi khung GFP vi cu trc byte ca
ti tin OPU-k. Trong trng hp ny, iu khin cn chnh l khng cn thit v phn
ti trng ca OPU-k vi 4 3808 byte c s dng sp xp vi khung GFP. Do
p ng tc v m ha c s dng trong ng gi GFP, hai chc nng khng
c yu cu trong qu trnh x l sp xp. Ngoi ra do cc khung GFP c di
thay i, GFP c cp pht chuyn qua cc khung OPU-k. Trong trng hp
ny, mo u OPU-k cha 7 byte d tr (RES) v mt byte nhn dng cu trc ti tin
cho bit kiu ti tin (PT) (hng 14, 4).

1.5 Mng truyn ti quang v cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc
sng
Mng truyn ti quang cho php truyn ti cc tn hiu khc nhau nh cng
ngh DWDM. Hnh 1.11 m t qu trnh nh x cc kiu ti trng khc nhau ca mng
OTN truyn trn DWDM.

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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 1. 11 Sp xp cc khung GFP vo OPU-k

Hnh 1. 12 nh x cc kiu ti tin khc nhau trn mng OTN vo WDM


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Chng I: Tm hiu chung v mng truyn ti quang

Mng OTN s dng cng ngh DWDM nh mt phng tin truyn ti, c th truyn
trn cc knh quang nh qu trnh ng gi khung vo mt khi truyn ti quang.
Trong trng hp ny, b kt ni cho quang c th cho tn hiu i qua cho d n
khng cung cp cc chc nng OA&M lin kt vi mt OTU ca mng truyn ti
quang.

1.6 Qun l mng truyn ti quang


m bo rng, cc kt ni li khng c thit lp hoc cc kt ni c xc
lp mt cch hiu qu, mng truyn ti quang cn thit lp qun l li, cu hnh v
hiu nng trong min qun tr v gia cc min vi nhau cng nh cc kt ni t u
cui n u cui. Nhm h tr truyn dn gia cc c ly xa, gia cc thit b mng ,
gia cc thit b mng vi h thng quang, v cc h thng bn ngoi mng truyn ti
quang ta cn cung cp cc bin pht pht hin v thng bo. C th nh l :

Pht hin, phn chia v nh v cc kiu s c, ng thi khi phc cc s c


. S dng cc ch bo pht hin cc sai hng hng thun (FDI) v hng ngc
(BDI) trong cc lin kt gia lung ln v lung xung hoc gia cc ng kt ni
quang. Vi cc s c ny, mng truyn ti quang c s dng cc phng php thi
gian hold-off v phng php loi b cnh bo bn trong mi lp v gia lp server v
lp client khc phc cc trng thi .

Kim tra tnh ton vn lin kt gia cc phn t mng truyn ti thch ng
vi thng tin c tnh; gim st lin tc qu trnh thit lp vi cc yu cu x l m
bo tnh ton vn ca ng lin kt u cui n u cui. Gim st kh nng lin kt
s dng nhn dng TTI( mt kiu nhn dng ng lin kt u cui).

Kim tra cht lng dch v: gim st cht lng tn hiu nh gim st hiu
nng ca mt kt ni h tr lin kt u cui.

Qun l cc p ng u cui lp mng: mc ch nhm qun l lp client

p ng t mt lp server s dng mt nhn dng kiu ti tin (PTI); mo u ATM


cng cha 3 bit nhn dng PTI. Mt nhn dng PTI khi khng c tng thch gia
ngun v u cui c dng ch th cho iu chnh d tr hoc p ng s thay
i gia lp client-OCh server.

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

CHNG II: KIN TRC MNG TRUYN TI QUANG


2.1 Cu trc lp mng truyn ti quang
Cu trc lp mng truyn ti quang bao gm lp knh quang, lp on ghp
quang v lp on truyn ti quang c minh ha trong hnh 2.1. Cu trc ba lp ny
nh sau :

Lp mng knh quang : Lp mng cung cp u cui n u cui mng


ca knh quang thng sut chuyn ch tn hiu client ca dng bin i ( cng nh
SDH STM-N, PDH 565 Mbit/s, t bo ATM c bn, vn vn) ng thi cung cp u
cui n u cui mng, cc kh nng k c trong lp mng :
- Sp xp li kt ni knh quang cho nh tuyn mng linh hot.
- Mo u knh quang x l bo m nguyn vn ca thng tin p ng knh
quang;
- Cc hot ng, qun l, v chc nng bo dng knh quang cho php mc
hot ng mng v qun l chc nng, cng nh cung cp kt ni, cht lng
ca thay i tham s dch v v s tn ti mng.

Lp mng on ghp knh quang : Lp mng ny cung cp chc nng


cho mng ca mt tn hiu quang a bc sng. Nh rng tn hiu a bc sng
bao gm trng hp ch mt knh quang. Kh nng ca lp mng ny bao gm :
- X l mo u on ghp knh quang bo m nguyn vn thng tin p
ng on ghp knh quang.
- Cc hot ng, qun l, v chc nng bo dng knh quang cho php mc
hot ng mng v qun l chc nng, cng nh s tn ti on quang.
Cc kh nng mng c s dng cho cc tn hiu quang a bc sng cung cp h
tr cho hot ng v qun l mng quang.

Lp mng on truyn dn quang : Lp mng cung cp chc nng cho


truyn dn ca cc tn hiu quang trn mi trng quang ca cc kiu khc nhau (
cng nh si G.652, G.653 v G.655).
Chc nng ca lp mng ny bao gm :

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

- X l mo u on truyn dn bo m nguyn vn thng tin p ng on


truyn dn knh quang
- Cc hot ng, qun l, v chc nng bo dng knh quang cho php mc
hot ng mng v qun l chc nng, cng nh s tn ti on quang.
Cc mi trng vt l: cc mi trng vt l ca mt mng quang xc nh kiu
si quang. Cc mi trng vt l ch yu l on truyn dn quang.

Hnh 2. 1 Lin kt u cui-u cui trong mt mng truyn ti quang

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

2.2 Lp knh quang


Lp knh quang cung cp truyn ti cc tn hiu u cui qua mt lin kt
knh quang gia cc im truy nhp. Thng tin c tnh ca mt lp knh quang bao
gm hai tn hiu lgic phn bit v tch ri:
-

Mt tn hiu quang nh ngha bng thng ln nht v t l tn hiu trn tp m ,


lin kt vi kt ni mng knh quang.

Mt dng d liu cu to mo u ngoi knh.

Thng tin c tnh phn nh dng thng tin cn thit a ra lp server v truyn
ti qua kt ni mng .
Lp knh quang cha chc nng truyn ti v phn t truyn ti sau y:( thy
hnh 2.2):
-

ng kt ni knh quang

Node ngun knh quang (OCh_TT_Source);

Node k tip knh quang (OCh_TT_Sink);

Kt ni mng knh quang (OCh_NC);

Kt ni lin kt knh quang(OCh_LC);

Mng con knh quang (OCh_SN);

Kt ni mng con knh quang (OCh_SNC).

Hnh 2. 2 Lp knh quang


2.2.1 ng lin kt knh quang
Phng php chung sau y c th gn ti ng lin kt knh quang:
-

Xc nhn ton vn kh nng lin kt;

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

nh gi cht lng lin kt

Pht hin v du hiu li truyn dn

C ba kiu ng lin kt knh quang:


- ng lin kt knh quang song hng knh quang : bao gm hai lin kt n sp
xp node ngun knh quang v cc chc nng node k tip.
-Node ngun knh quang : nhn thng tin p ng t mt u cui ti u vo,
chn mo u u cui ng lin kt knh quang nh mt dng d liu logic phn
chia v ring bit v a ra thng tin c tnh ca lp mng knh quang ti u ra.
-Node k tip knh quang : nhn thng tin p ng t lp mng knh quang ti u
vo, tch mt dng d liu logic phn chia v ring bit cha mo u u cui ng
lin kt knh quang v a ra thng tin c tnh ca lp mng knh quang ti u ra
2.2.2 Phn t truyn ti OCh
Cc phn t truyn ti OCh kt ni mng, kt ni lin kt v cc ng lin kt.
Mng con OCh, OCh_SN cung cp mm do bn trong lp knh quang . Thng tin
c tnh nh tuyn cc im kt ni u vo v u ra . Nh cung cp mng cung cp
nh tuyn, grooming, bo v v khi phc s dng cc chc nng kt ni.

2.3 Lp on ghp knh quang


Lp on ghp knh quang cung cp truyn ti cc knh quang qua mt lin kt
knh quang gia cc im truy nhp. Thng tin c tnh ca mt lp on ghp knh
quang bao gm tn hiu lgic phn chia v ring bit:
-

Mt dng d liu to thnh thng tin p ng ca lp knh quang. Dng d


liu cha mt thit lp ca n knh quang a ra mt thit lp cp phi bng
thng quang ;

Mt dng d liu bao gm mo u u cui ng lin kt on ghp knh


quang.

Mi knh xc nh bc sng mang v bng thng quang( h tr bng thng


quang thm n nh ngun) Cc knh quang ring l bn trong mt b ghp knh
quang c th cng s dng bn trong hoc bn ngoi dch v. Thng tin c tnh ca
on ghp knh quang l mt khi ghp knh quang ca bc n (OMU-n).
Lp mng on ghp knh quang cha chc nng truyn ti v cc phn t truyn
ti sau y:

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

ng lin kt OMS;

Node ngun lin kt OMS (OMS_TT_Source);

Node k tip lin kt OMS (OMS_TT_Sink);

Kt ni mng OMS (OMS_NC);

Kt ni lin kt OMS (OMS_LC).

Hnh 2. 3 V d lp mng OMS


2.3.1 ng lin kt on ghp knh quang
Phng php u cui chung sau y c th gn cho ng lin kt on ghp
knh quang:
-

nh gi cht lng lin kt

Pht hin v du hiu li truyn dn

C 3 kiu ca u cui ng lin kt on ghp knh quang:


- u cui ng lin kt song hng OMS : bao gm mt i sp xp Node
ngun ng lin kt knh quang v cc chc nng node k tip.
- Node ngun ng lin kt knh quang : nhn thng tin p ng t mt mng
lp client ti u vo, chn mo u u cui ng lin kt OMS nh mt dng d
liu logic phn chia v ring bit v a ra thng tin c tnh ca lp mng OMS ti
u ra.
- Node k tip ng lin kt knh quang : nhn thng tin p ng t lp mng
OMS ti u vo, tch mo u OMS v a ra thng tin c tnh ca lp mng knh
quang ti u ra.

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

2.3.2 Cc phn t truyn ti quang


Kt ni mng, kt ni lin kt v cc ng lin kt m t trong khuyn ngh
ITU-T G.805. Mng con OMS s c nh ngha v qua cc phn t quang s cho
thy mm do trong lp mng ny.

2.4 Lp mng on truyn dn quang


Lp mng on truyn dn cung cp cho truyn ti mt on ghp knh quang
qua mt ng lin kt on truyn dn quang gia cc im truy nhp. Mt on
truyn dn quang bc n h tr mt thc th n ca mt on truyn dn quang vi
bc nh vy. C mt nh x one-to-one gia 2 lp. OTS nh ngha mt giao din vt
l, vi tham s quang nh tn s, mc ngun v t l tn hiu trn tp m. Thng tin
c tnh ca OTS gm c tn hiu lgic phn chia v ring bit.
-

p ng thng tin ca lp OMS:

Mo u qun l/ bo dng ring u cui ng lin kt OTS.

C th n n cha cc phn sau y:


-

mt ghp knh quang bc n;

mt knh gim st quang

Thng tin c tnh ny l mt mun truyn quang bc n (OTMn)


Lu - Trong trng hp ca OTS-1 trong mt h thng ngoi u cui OTS xung
i (vng) , hoc trong trng hp mt OTS-1 s dng nh mt OTN_IrDI s thay th
mt OSC mang thng tin mo u cho nghin cu tip theo.
Lp mng OTS cha cc chc nng truyn ti v phn t truyn ti sau y ( thy
hnh 2.4)
-

ng lin kt OTS;

Node ngun ng lin kt OTS (OTS_TT_Source);

Node k tip ng lin kt OTS (OTS_TT_Sink);

Kt ni mng OTS (OTS_NC);

Mng con OTS (OTS_SN);

Kt ni mng con OTS (OTS_SNC).

Nh rng OTS_SN v OTS_SNC hin c ch trong trng hp ca bo v OTS 1+1


NC.

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 2. 4 V d lp mng OTS


2.4.1 u cui ng lin kt on truyn dn quang
Phng php chung sau y c th gn ti u cui ng lin kt on truyn dn
quang:
-

Xc nhn ton vn kh nng lin kt;

nh gi cht lng lin kt

Pht hin v du hiu li truyn dn

C ba kiu u cui ng lin kt on truyn dn quang:


- u cui ng lin kt song hng OTS : bao gm mt i sp xp Node
ngun ng lin kt on truyn dn quang v cc chc nng node k tip.
- Node ngun ng lin kt OTS : nhn thng tin p ng t mt mng lp
client ti u vo, chn mo u u cui ng lin kt knh quang nh mt dng d
liu logic phn chia v ring bit v a ra thng tin c tnh ca lp mng knh
quang ti u ra.
- Node k tip ng lin kt knh quang : nhn thng tin p ng t lp mng
knh quang ti u vo, b sung knh gim st quang n tn hiu chnh.Trng thi
chc nng u cui ng lin kt thng tin cho truyn dn qua mi trng vt l v
m bo cc tn hiu quang p ng yu cu giao din vt l. u ra ca Node ngun
ng lin kt l thng tin c tnh ca lp mng on truyn dn quang . Thng tin
c tnh ny tham chiu nh mun truyn quang (OTM) .

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

- Node k tip ng lin kt OTS : tha nhn thng tin c tnh lp mng on
truyn dn ti u vo , khi phc thng tin b cho tn hiu b suy gim t truyn
dn qua mi trng vt l , tch knh gim st quang t tn hiu quang ng trc
(chnh), x l mo u u cui ng lin kt OTS cha bn trong knh gim st
quang v a ra thng tin p ng ti u ra.
2.4.2 Cc phn t truyn ti OTS
Cc kt ni mng, cc kt ni lien kt v cc ng lin kt m t trong khuyn
ngh ITU-T G.805.
Mng con OTS, OTS_SN, cung cp bo v NC, bn trong lp on truyn dn
quang . Thng tin c tnh nh tuyn gia cc im kt ni u vo ( u cui) [ cc
(T)CP] v u ra cc (T)CP.

2.5 Lin kt client/server


Mt c im c bn ca mng truyn ti quang l kh nng h tr mt s a
dng rng ca cc lp mng client. Cc v d ca cc lp mng client bao gm mt
SDH STM-N, v mt dng t bo ATM lin k. S gii hn hoc nguyn tc gii hn
dung lng ca mt knh quang n truyn ti mt lp mng client ring cho cc
nghin cu tip theo.
Cu trc ca lp mng quang v chc nng p ng trnh by trong hnh 2.1.
Mc ch ca m t mng truyn ti quang , p ng lp trung gian c tn s dng
quan h server /client.
2.5.1 p ng OCh/client
p ng OCh/client (OCh/Client_A) c xt cha hai kiu x l : x l client
ring v x l server ring .
Chc nng p ng OCh/client song hng (OCh/Client_A) thc hin bi mt kt
hp cp ngun v chc nng p ng OCh/client node k tip .
Ngun p ng OCh/client (OCh/Client_A_So) thc hin x l sau y gia u ra
v u vo ca n :
-

tt c x l yu cu to ra mt dng d liu lin tc c th b iu bin v pha


trn mt mang tn s quang. Cc x l yu cu ph thuc vo mi quan h
client/ch ring v c th trit tiu. Cho mt p ng client k thut s c th
bao gm x l nh s xo trn v m ha knh ( cng nh NRZ). Cho mt nh

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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

x s p ng thng tin l mt dng d liu lin tc xc nh tc bit v s


m ha;
-

S pht sinh v u cui ca cc tn hiu qun l/bo dng.

Node k tip p ng OCh/Client (OCh/Client_A_Sk) thc hin cc x l sau y


gia u vo v u ra ca n
-

khi phc tn hiu client t dng d liu lin tc . Cc x l ph thuc vo mi


quan h client/ch ring v c th trit tiu. Cho mt p ng client k thut s
c th bao gm x l nh khi phc nh thi, gii m v gii xo trn;

S pht sinh v u cui ca cc tn hiu qun l/bo dng.

2.5.2 p ng OMS/OCh
Chc nng p ng OMS/OCh song hng ((OMS/OCh_A)thc hin bi mt kt
hp cp ngun v chc nng p ng OMS/OCh node k tip .
Ngun p ng OMS/OCh (OMS/OCh_A_So) thc hin x l sau y gia u ra
v u vo ca n :
-

iu ch mt song mang quang bng tn hiu ti tin knh quang bi phng


php xc nh s iu ch;

Bc sng ( hoc tn s) v cp pht ngun n sng mang quang;

Ghp knh quang tu dng mt ghp knh quang;

S pht sinh v u cui ca cc tn hiu qun l/bo dng.

Lu Chc nng p ng c xt c hai dng d liu lin kt vi n, v phn ti


tin quang chnh v mt lin kt th hai vi phn mo u khng c x l bi
OMS_TT.y cng ng cho chc nng p ng node k tip.
Node k tip p ng OMS/OCh thc hin cc x l sau y gia u ra v u
vo ca n :
-

Phn knh quang theo bc sng mang ( hoc tn s);

u cui ca sng mang knh quang v khi phc ti tin knh quang;

Hnh thnh cc tn hiu qun l/bo dng v cc u cui ca cc tn hiu

2.5.3 p ng OTS/OMS
Chc nng p ng OTS/OMS song hng (OTS/OMS_A) thc hin bi mt kt
hp cp ngun v chc nng p ng OMS/OCh node k tip .
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Chng II: Kin trc mng truyn ti quang

Ngun p ng OMS/OCh (OMS/OCh_A_So) thc hin x l sau y gia u ra v


u vo ca n :
-

S pht sinh v u cui ca cc tn hiu qun l/bo dng.

Lu - Chc nng p ng c xt c hai dng d liu lin kt vi n , i vi ti tin


quang chnh v mt lin kt th hai vi phn thong tin knh gim st khng c xe
l bi OTS_TT. y cng l trng hp cho chc nng p ng node k tip.
Cc dng node k tip p ng OTS/OMS x l nh sau gia u ra v u vo ca
n:
-

Hnh thnh cc tn hiu bo dng v qun l v u cui ca cc tn hiu .

2.6 Cu trc lin kt mng quang


Cc lp mng quang c th h tr cc kt ni imim n hng, song hng
v cc kt ni im a im n hng.
2.6.1 Cc ng lin kt v cc kt ni n hng v song hng
Mt kt ni song hng trong mt lp mng ch c th h tr song hng hoc
n hng cc kt ni lp mng client nhng mt lp mng ch n hng c th ch
h tr tn hiu client n hng.
Mt kt ni lp mng on truyn dn quang song hng c th h tr bi si
quang cho c hai hng ( lm vic n si) hoc mi hng ca kt ni c th h tr
bi cc si quang khc nhau.
2.6.2 Cc ng lin kt v cc kt ni im-a im
Mt kt ni im-a im n hng pht qung b lu lng t ngun n mt
s node k tip . y l minh ha khi mt kt ni im-a im cung cp trong lp
knh quang bi phng php cu mt im a kt ni. Mt im a kt ni l mt
im tham chiu buc mt cng thit lp cc kt ni. N trnh by bn cht ca mt
kt ni a im .
Chc nng qung b cung cp bi lin kt MPCP gii hn mng con trong l
chn hin ti . N c th nh dng phn ca chc nng a im ( qung b la chn )
bn trong mt mng con ( cha) rng hn . Cc kt ni a im b hn ch kt ni a
im qung b qung b n hng trong cc mng truyn ti quang . Kiu ny ca
kt ni c th p dng trong lp mng knh quang.

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

CHNG III: CU TRC GHP KNH CA MNG TRUYN


TI QUANG
3.1 Cu trc tn hiu c bn
Cu trc c bn trnh by trong hnh 3-1.

Hnh 3. 1 Cu trc ca giao din OTN


3.1.1 Cu trc con OCh
Lp knh quang xc nh trong khuyn ngh G.872 l cu trc tip theo trong cc
lp mng h tr qun l mng v cc chc nng gim st nh ngha trong khuyn
ngh G.872:
-

Knh quang vi chc nng y (OCh) hoc chc nng rt gn (OChr) , c


la chn cung cp thng sut cc kt ni mng gia cc im khi phc 3R
trong OTN.

Khi truyn ti knh quang chun ha chc nng hoc hon ton (
OTUk/OTUkV) cung cp gim st v trng thi tn hiu cho truyn ti gia cc
im khi phc 3R trong OTN.

Khi d liu knh quang (ODUk) cung cp :


Gim st kt ni tandem ( ODUkT)

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Gim st ng ln kt u cui- u cui (ODUkP)


p ng cc tn hiu client qua khi ti tin knh quang (OPUk).
3.1.2 Cu trc chc nng y OTM-n.m
OTM-n.m (n 1) cha cc lp sau y :
on truyn dn quang (OTSn);
on ghp knh quang (OMSn);
Knh quang chc nng y (OCh);
Khi truyn ti quang chun ha chc nng hoc hon ton (OTUk/OTUkV);
Khi d liu knh quang (ODUk).
3.1.3 Cu trc chc nng rt gn OTM-nr.m v OTM-0.m
OTM-nr.m v OTM-0.m cha cc lp sau y:
on vt l quang (OPSn);
Knh quang chc nng rt gn (OChr);
Khi truyn ti knh quang chun ha chc nng hoc chun ha hon ton
(OTUk/OTUkV);
Khi d liu knh quang (ODUk).

3.2 Cu trc thng tin cho giao din OTN


Thng tin cu trc cho giao din knh quang c biu din bi thng tin cha cc
tng quan v cc lung. Cc thng tin ch yu cha trong cc tng quan c m t
trong hnh 3-2, 3-3, 3-4. Thng tin lung c minh ha trong hnh 3-5.
Vi mc ch gim st trong OTN, tn hiu OTUk/OTUkV kt thc mi khi tn
hiu OCh kt thc.

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 3. 2 Thng tin ch yu cha cc tng quan OTM-n.m

Hnh 3. 3 Thng tin ch yu cha cc tng quan OTM-0.m


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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 3. 4 Thng tin ch yu cha cc tng quan OTM-nr.m

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 3. 5 V d ca thng tin lung ch yu

3.3 Cc nguyn l ghp knh/nh x v tc bit


Hnh 3.6 trnh by tng quan gia cc phn t cu trc thng tin khc nhau v
m t cu trc ghp knh v nh x ( bao gm ghp knh phn chia thi gian v bc
sng ) cho OTM-n.

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 3. 6 Cu trc ghp knh v nh x OTM


Mo u OTS, OMS, OCh, v COMMS c chn vo trong OOS s dng k
thut nh x v ghp knh .
3.3.1 nh x
Tn hiu client hoc mt tp hp khi nhnh d liu knh quang (ODTUGk) c
nh x vo trong OPUk. OPUk nh x vo trong mt ODUk v ODUk nh x vo
trong mt OTUk[V] . OTUk[V] c nh x vo trong mt OCh[r] v sau c
iu ch ln trn mt OCC[r].
3.3.2 Ghp knh phn chia bc sng
Ln ti n (n 1) OCC[r] c ghp knh vo trong mt OCG-n[r].m s dng ghp
knh phn chia bc sng . Cc khe ph ca OCG-n[r].m c th c cc kch c khc
nhau..
OCG-n[r].m c truyn ti qua OTM-n[r].m Vi trng hp ca chc nng y
OTM-n.m giao din OSC c ghp knhvo trong OTM-n.m s dng ghp knh
phn chia bc song.
3.3.3 Cc tc bit v dung lng
Cc tc bit v dung lng ca tn hiu OTUk nh ngha trong bng 3.1.
Cc tc bit v dung lng ca tn hiu ODUk nh ngha trong bng 3.2.
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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Cc tc bit v dung lng ca tn hiu OPUk v OPUk-Xv nh ngha trong


bng 3.3.
Cc chu k khung OTUk/ODUk/OPUk/OPU-Xv nh ngha trong bng 3.4.
Kiu OTU

Tc bit OTU thng thng

OTU1

255/238 2488320 kbit/s

OTU2

255/237 9953280 bit/s

OTU3

255/236 39813120 kbit/s

Dung sai tc bit OTU

20ppm

Bng 3. 1 Cc kiu v dung lng OUT

Kiu OTU

Tc bit OTU thng thng

ODU1

239/238 2488320 kbit/s

ODU2

239/237 9953280 bit/s

ODU3

2239/236 39813120 kbit/s

Dung sai tc bit OTU

20ppm

Bng 3. 2 Cc kiu v dung lng ODU

Kiu OPU

Tc bit ti tin OPU

OPU1

2488320 kbit/s

OPU2

9953280 kbit/s

OPU3

39813120 kbit/s

OPU1-Xv

X 2488320 kbit/s

OPU2-Xv

X 9953280 kbit/s

OPU3-Xv

X 39813120 kbit/s

Dung sai tc bit ti tin OPU

20ppm

20ppm

Bng 3. 3 Cc kiu v dung lng OPU

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Kiu OTU/ODU/OPU

Chu k

OTU1/ODU1/OPU1/OPU1-Xv

48,971s

OTU1/ODU1/OPU1/OPU1-Xv

12,191s

OTU1/ODU1/OPU1/OPU1-Xv

3,035 s

Chu k l mt gi tr xp x, c lm trn v 3 ch s
Bng 3. 4 Cc chu k khung OTUk/ODUk/OPUk
3.3.4 Ghp knh phn chia thi gian ODUk
Hnh 3.7 trnh by mi lin quan gia cc phn t ghp knh phn chia thi gian
khc nhau, v m t cc cu trc ghp knh c th c. Ln ti 4 tn hiu ODU1 c
ghp vo trong mt ODTUG2 s dng ghp knh phn chia thi gian . ODTUG2 c
nh x vo trong OPU2. Mt hn hp ca j (j <=4) tn hiu ODU2 v 16-4j tn hiu
ODU1 c th c ghp vo trong mt ODUTUG3 s dng ghp knh phn chia thi
gian. ODTUG3 c nh x vo trong OPU3.
Hnh 3.7 v 3.8 trnh by cc tn hiu khc nhau ghp knh s dng cc phn t
ghp knh. Hnh 3.7 biu din ghp 4 tn hiu ODU1 vo trong tn hiu OPU2. Mt tn
hiu ODU1 c m rng vi mo u ng chnh khung v khng ng b nh x
vo trong khi d liu knh quang ph 1 vo trong 2 (ODTU12) s dng cn chnh
mo u (JOH). 4 tn hiu ODTU12 ghp knh phn chia thi gian vo trong nhm
khi d liu knh quang ph 2 (ODTUG2) , sau tn hiu ny nh x vo trong
OPU2.

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 3. 7 Phng php ghp knh ODU1 vo trong ODU2

Hnh 3. 8 Phng php ghp knh ODU1 v ODU2 vo trong ODU3

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 3.8 biu din ghp 16 tn hiu ODU1 v/hoc 4 tn hiu ODU2 vo trong
tn hiu OPU3. Mt tn hiu ODU1 c m rng vi mo u ng chnh khung v
bt ng b nh x vo trong khi d liu knh quang ph 2 vo trong 3 (ODTU23) s
dng mo u cn chnh (JOH) .x tn hiu ODTU23 ( 0<=x<=4) v 16-4x tn hiu
ODTU13 ghp knh phn chia thi gian vo trong nhm khi d liu knh quang 3
(ODTUG3), sau tn hiu ny nh x vo trong OPU3.

3.4 Cu trc module truyn ti quang


Module truyn ti quang ( OTM-n.m, OTM-nr.m, OTM-0.m)
Hai cu trc OTM c nh ngha , mt vi chc nng y v mt vi chc
nng rt gn . Ch c IrDI giao din OTM chc nng rt gn hin ti c nh ngha .
Cc chc nng y v chc nng rt gn khc OTM IrDI s c tip tc nghin
cu.
3.4.1 OTM vi chc nng rt gn ( OTM-0.m, OTM-nr.m)
OTM-n h tr n knh quang trong mt lin kt vi khi phc 3R v kt thc ca
OTUk[V] trong mi u cui. Khi phc 3R s dng trong c hai giao din OTM-0.m
v OTM-nr.m truy nhp ti mo u OTUk[V] c th s dng v bo dng/gim st
giao din cung cp qua mo u ny. Cho nn mo u OTN khng lien kt khng yu
cu qua giao din OTM-0.m v OTM-nr.m v mt OSC/OOS khng h tr.
Hai lp giao din OTM vi chc nng rt gn c nh ngha , OTM-0.m v OTM16r.m . Cc lp giao din chc nng rt gn khc cho cc nghin cu sau ny.
3.4.1.1 OTM-0.m
OTM-0.m h tr mt knh quang khng mu trong mt lin kt vi khi phc 3R
ti mi u cui.
Ba tn hiu giao din OTM-0.m ( nhn hnh 3-9) nh ngha mi tn hiu knh n
mang cha mt tn hiu OTUk[V] :
-

OTM-0.1 ( mang mt OTU1[V] );

OTM-0.2 ( mang mt OTU2[V]) ;

OTM-0.3 ( mang mt OTU3[V] );

Trong s hng chung : OTM-0.m.

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Hnh 3. 9 Cu trc OTM-0.m


Hnh 3.9 trnh by tng quan gia cc phn t cu trc thng tin khc nhau nh
ngha
Bn di v minh ha nh x c th cho OTM-0.m.
Mt OSC khng biu din v khng c OOS khc.
3.4.1.2 Module truyn ti quang OTM-16r.m
OTM-16r.m h tr 16 knh quang trn mt lin kt vi khi phc 3R ti mi
u cui .
Su tn hiu giao din OTM-16r c nh ngha :
-

OTM-16r.1 ( mang i ( i<=16) tn hiu OTU1[V]) ;

OTM-16r.2 ( mang j (j<=16) tn hiu OTU2[V]);

OTM-16r.3 ( mang k (k<=16) tn hiu OTU3[V]);

OTM-16r.123 ( mang i(i<=16) tn hiu OTU1[V], j (j<=16) OTU2[V] v k


(k<=16) OTU3[V] vi i + j + k<=16);

OTM-16r.12 ( mang i tn hiu (i <=16) OTU1[V] v j (j<=16) OTU2[V] vi i +


j <=16) ;

OTM-16r.23 ( mang j tn hiu (j<=16) OTU2[V] v k (k<=16) OTU3[V] vi j +


k <=16);

Trong nhn dng cc iu khon chung nh OTM-16r.m.


Cc tn hiu OTM-16r.m l mt tn hiu OTM-nr.m vi 16 sng mang knh quang
(OCCr) c nh th t OCC#0 n OCC#15 (thy hnh 3-10), Mt knh gim
st quang (OSC) khng a ra v cng khng c OOS.
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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

6 nh ngha tn hiu giao din OTM-16r.m v cu trc ghp knh OTM-16r.m trnh
by trong hnh 3.10.
Lu : Mo u OTM-16r.m OPS khng c nh ngha. Giao din s dng
OTUk[V] SMOH trong giao din a bc sng cho gim st v qun l. Bo hng kt
ni OTM-16r.m (TIM) s tnh ton t bo co OTUk[V] ring l bng phng php
tng quan sai hng trong qun l li. Tham chiu n khuyn ngh thit b cho cho
chi tit sau ny.

Hnh 3. 10 Cu trc ghp knh OTM-16r.m

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

3.4.2 OTM vi chc nng y (OTM-n.m)


Giao din OTM-n.m h tr ln n n knh quang cho cc mt lin kt knh hoc
a knh. Khi phc 3R khng c yu cu ti cc giao din.
Su tn hiu giao din OTM-n c nh ngha
- OTM-n.1 ( mang i (i<=n) tn hiu OTU1[V] );
- OTM-n.2 ( mang j (j<=n) tn hiu OTU2[V] );
- OTM-n.3 ( mang k (k<=n) tn hiu OTU3[V] );
- OTM-n.123 ( mang i (i<=n) tn hiu OTU1[V] ); j (j<=n) OTU2[V]; k (k<=n)
OTU3[V] vi i + j + k <=n);
OTM-n.12 ( mang i (i<=n) tn hiu OTU1[V] ); j (j<=n) OTU2[V] vi i + j <=n);
OTM-n.23 ( mang j (j<=n) tn hiu OTU2[V]; k (k<=n) tn hiu OTU3[V] vi j + k
<=n);
trong iu khon chung xc nh nh OTM-n.m.
Mt tn hiu giao din OTM-n.m chaa ln ti n OCC lin kt vi tc bit thp
nht h tr nh ch th bi m v mt OSC ( thy hnh 3-11). N c th mt gi tr rt
gn ca kh nng tc bit cc OCC c h tr .

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Chng III: Cu trc ghp knh ca mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 3. 11 Cu trc ghp knh OTM-n.m

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ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

CHNG 4 CC GIAO DIN MNG TRUYN TI QUANG


4.1 Cc giao din lin min a knh
Cc giao din IrDI a knh mc ch cho php kh nng tng thch ngang
(nhiu nh cung cp). Cc giao din ny c th hot ng si G.652, G.653, hoc
G.655 , tng thch truyn ti ln n 16 knh quang, s dng c hao tn hiu nhnh
NRZ 2.5G hoc NRZ 10G ph thuc vo m ng dng ring. Cc tham s quang nh
vy p dng n tt c m ng dng c danh sch trong mi ct ring l ca bng 4-7.
Bng 4.1 tng kt cc m ng dng a knh

ng dng

Ni b vn phng (I)

C ly ngn

Bc sng ngun 1550 (liG.694.1) (Lu 2)


danh nh (nm)

1550 (liG.694.1) (Lu 2)

Kiu si

G.653

G.655

G.652

G.653

G.655

20

40

40

40

Lp tn hiu nhnh
quang
NRZ 2.5G

P16S11D2

P16S11D5

Lp tn hiu P16I1nhnh
quang 2D2
NRZ 10G

P16I12D3

P16I12D5

P16I12B2
P16I1-

P16I12C3

P16I12B5
P16I1-

Khong

G.652
cch 20

ch (km) (Lu
1)

2C2

2C5

Lu 1-Cc khong cch ch phn loi v khng m t


Lu 2- Nhn vo bng 4-7
Bng 4. 1 Cc loi giao din lin min a knh
Cc ng dng vi cc thch ng cc mc ngun b tin khuch i ch bao gm
ch C trong m ng dng v minh ha trong hnh 4-1.

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ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

Cc ng dng vi cc thch ng cc mc ngun b khuch i trung gian ch


bao gm ch C trong m ng dng v minh ha trong hnh 4.2.
Cc ng dng vi cc thch ng cc mc ngun hot ng vi b khng
khuch i trung gian ch bao gm ch D trong m ng dng v minh ha trong hnh
4.3.

Hnh 4. 1 Cc ng dng a knh s dng b tin khuch i

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ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 4. 2 Cc ng dng a knh s dng b khuch i trung gian

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ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 4. 3 Cc ng dng IrDI a knh khng khuch i

4.2 Cc giao din lin min n knh


Cc giao din lin min n knh c minh ha trong hnh 4-4

Hnh 4. 4 Cc ng dng IrDI n knh

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ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

Cc giao din mc ch cho php tng thch ngang (nhiu nh cung cp) v c
th hot ng trn si G.652, G.653, hoc G.655 s dng c cc tn hiu nhnh quang
NRZ 2.5G, NRZ 10G hoc NRZ 40G ty theo m ng dng ring.
Cc ng dng bt buc kt hp tt c cc thnh phn t khong cch, lp tn hiu
nhnh quang, bc sng ngun danh nh v kiu si. Cc ng dng vi ni dung p
ng c s thay i ln ca yu cu mng vi chi ph ci t thp. Bng 4.2 v bng
4-3 tng kt cc m ng dng IrDI n knh.
Cc gi tr tham s cho ni b vn phng, cc ng dng c ly ngn v c ly di
c xt trong 8.2. Vi cc ng dng lp tn hiu nhnh quang NRZ 2.5G, phin bn
mi nht cc gi tr trong 8.2 tng t nh cc gi tr cho cc ng dng tm kim trong
khuyn ngh ITU-T G.957, loi tr cc gi tr G.957 b thay i, ti v tr cn thit
t c mt t s bit li t hn hoc bng 10-12. Vi cc ng dng NRZ 10G lp tn
hiu nhnh quang , trong cc i tng mi nht cc gi tr trong 8.2 cng nh cc gi
tr cho ng dng trc y tm trong khuyn ngh ITU-T G.691.

Cc
dng

ng

Ni b vn phng (I)

Bc sng
ngun danh
nh (nm)

1310

1550

Kiu si

G.652

G.652

G.653

G.65
5

C ly ngn (S)

C ly di (L)

1310

1550

1310

1550

G.652

G.65
2

G.652

G.652
,

G.65
3

G.65
5

G.653
,
G.655
Lp tn hiu
nhnh
quang
Khong
cch ch
cho
lp
NRZ 2.5G
(Lu )

P1I11D1

ffs

ffs

ffs

ffs

2
-

Bng 4-8

P1I11D1

P1I11D2

15

15

Bng

Bng

4-8

4-8

15

ffs

P1I11D1

40

80

Bng
4-8

Cc tham s

cho
trong

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Lp tn hiu
nhnh
quang
Khong
cch ch
cho
lp
NRZ
10G(Lu )
Tham s
cho trong
Nh m

ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

P1I12D1R

P1I12D1R

0.6

G.693

G.693

VSR60
0-2R1

VSR200
0-2R1

P1I1
2D1
R

P1I12D2

P1I12D3

P1I12D5

P1I12D5

P1I12D2

P1I12D3

P1I12D5

P1I12D1

P1I12D2

25

25

25

20

40

40

ffs

40

80

Bng
4-9

Bng 49

Bng
4-9

Bng
4-10

Bng
4-10

Bng
4-10

Bng
4-10

Bng
4-11

Bng
4-11

G.69
3

VSR
2000
-2I.2

Lu - Cc khong cch ch phn loi v khng m t

Bng 4. 2 Phn loi cc giao din lin min n knh cho lp tn hiu nhnh quang
NRZ 2.5G v NRZ 10G
Cc
dng

ng

Ni b vn phng (I)

C ly ngn (S)

C ly di (L)

Bc sng

131

131

131

ngun danh
nh (nm)

Kiu si

G.6
52

G.65
2

G.65
3

G.65
5

G.65
2

G.65
2

G.653

G.65
5

G.652

G.653

G.655

Lp
tn
hiu nhnh

P1S
1-

P1S13C3

P1S
1-

P1L13A2

P1L13A3

P1L1-3A5

I1L-3C2F

I1L-3C3F

I1L-3C2F

I1L-3C3F

80

80

1550

quang
Khong
cch ch
cho
lp
NRZ 2.5G
(Lu )

1550

3C2
-

3C5

40
40

Cc tham
s cho

1550

40

Bn
g 412

Bng
4-12

Bn
g 412

Bng
12

4-

Bng
12

I1L-3C5F
I1L-3C5F
D
80
Bng 4-12
4-

trong

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Lp
tn
hiu nhnh
quang
Khong
cch ch
cho
lp
NRZ
10G(Lu )

ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

P1L17A2

P1L17A2

80

80

P1L1-7A2

80

Bng VI.1

Bng
VI.1

Bng
VI.1

Tham s
cho trong
Nh m

Lu - Cc khong cch ch phn loi v khng m t

Bng 4. 3 Phn loi cc giao din lin min n knh cho lp tn hiu nhnh quang
NRZ 40G v RZ 40G

4.3 Tnh tng thch ngang


IrDI a ra cc tham s cho php h thng dy tng thch ngang (nh nhiu
nh cung cp )cho cc ng dng c ly ngn, c ly di v im n im.
Cc giao din lin min mc ch kt ni hai min qun tr khc nhau. Cc min
nh vy c th cha thit b t hai nh cung cp khc nhau. Hai min qun tr c th
cng thuc v hai nh khai thc mng khc nhau.
- Tng thch ngang ( nhiu nh cung cp) cho php tt c IrDI c chnh xc cc
m ng dng ging nhau nWx-ytz. Nh mt v d, mt giao din P16S1-2B2 t mt
nh cung cp ci t trong min A, c th c kt ni vi mt giao din P16S1-2B2
t mt nh cung cp khc ci t trong min B. S bo qun cng a ra s rang buc
tc bit v cc dng nhnh quang.
- Kt ni cc giao din vi cc m ng dng khc nhau l mt vt liu ca k
thut ghp ni. S bo qun cng a ra chi tit vi mi lin quan i vi cc tham s
gii hn phi ph hp nh ngun u ra MPI-SM , cc mc ngun MPI-RM, tn sc ln
nht, suy gim nh nht/ln nht. Nh mt v d , mt giao din P16S1-2B2 (cc
mc ngun khuch i trung gian ) trong min A s khng kt ni vi mt giao din
P16S1-2C2 (cc mc tin khuch i ) trong min B m khng b sung cc bin php
o nh b sung mt b suy gim. Trong v d ny, b ngun u ra giao din kiu
khuch i trung gian c th +15dBm (thy bng 4-7) v suy gim c th l 0dB.
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ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang

V vy, ngun u vo n giao din kiu tin khuch i l 15 dBm. Tuy nhin,
ngun vo b thu ln nht ca giao din kiu tin khuch i phi khng vt qu
+5dBm (thy bng 4.7) v b thu b qu ti ln n 10dB. Bo qun cng a ra s
thch hp gia tc bit v dng tn hiu nhnh quang

4.4 Cc tham s cho h thng lin min n knh v a knh


Cc tham s

n v

Theo

Theo

Theo

Bng 4- Bng 4- Bng


7
8 n 4-12

Theo
Bng
VI.1 nh

nh

4-11

nh

ngha

ngha
trong

nh
ngha
trong

ngha

trong

4.4.1.1

4.4.1.1

4.4.1.1

4.4.1.1

Tc m ha bit/ng -

4.4.1.2

4.4.1.2

4.4.1.2

4.4.1.2

4.4.1.3

4.4.1.3

4.4.1.3

4.4.1.3

4.4.1.4

4.4.1.4

4.4.1.4

4.4.1.4

dBm

4.4.2.1

4.4.2.1

4.4.2.1

4.2.1

4.4.2.1

4.4.2.1

4.2.1

4.2.1

4.2.2

NA

NA

NA

4.2.3

NA

4.2.3

4.2.3

trong

Thng tin chung


S cc knh ln nht
dy ca cc tn hiu nhnh
quang
T s bit li ln nht
Kiu si

Giao din ti im MPI-SM


hoc MPI-S
Cng sut u ra trung bnh
(knh) ln nht
Cng sut u ra trung bnh
dBm
nh nht
dBm
Cng sut u ra tng trung
bnh ln nht
Tn s trung tm

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ChngIV: Cc giao din Mng truyn ti quang


GHz

4.2.4

NA

NA

NA

Sai s tn s trung tm ln GHz


nht
nm

4.2.5

NA

4.2.5

4.2.5

NA

4.2.6

NA

4.2.6

NA

4.2.7

4.2.7

4.2.7

NA

NA

NA

4.2.8

NA

NA

NA

4.2.8

NA

4.2.9

NA

NA

NA

4.4.2.10 NA

NA

NA

4.4.2.11 4.2.11
4.4.2.12 4.2.12

4.2.11

4.4.2.13 4.4.2.13 4.2.13


4.4.2.14 4.4.2.14 4.2.14

4.2.13

Di bc sng hot ng
Kiu ngun

Chu trnh hot ng ln nht


Chu trnh hot ng nh nm
nht
nm
rng RMS ln nht ()
mW/10MHz
rng -20dB ln nht
dB
Mt cng sut ph ln
dB
nht
T s kh mode bin nh

NA

4.2.12

4.2.15

nht
T s tt dn (knh) nh nht
Gin mt
Bng 4. 4 Cc tham s vt l cho IrDI n knh v a knh

Cc tham s

ng quang (mt ng lin


kt) t im MPI-SM n MPIRM, hoc MPI-S n MPI-R

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dB

Theo

Theo

Bng 47 nh
ngha
trong

Bng 4- Bng 4- Bng


8
12
VI.1
nh
n 4- nh
ngha
11
ngha

4.4.3.1

Theo

Theo

nh
ngha
trong

trong

trong

4.4.3.1

4.4.3.1

4.4.3.1
50

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suy gim ln nht

dB

4.4.3.2

4.4.3.2

4.4.3.2

4.4.3.2

suy gim nh nht

ps/nm

4.4.3.3

4.4.3.3

4.4.3.3

4.4.3.3

Tn sc ln nht

ps/nm

NA

NA

4.4.3.4

4.4.3.4

lch tn sc ln nht

dB

4.4.3.5

4.4.3.5

4.4.3.5

4.4.3.5

dB

4.4.3.6

4.4.3.6

4.4.3.6

4.4.3.6

ps

4.4.3.7

4.4.3.7

4.4.3.7

4.4.3.7

Cng sut u vo trung bnh dBm


(knh) ln nht

4.4.4.1

4.4.4.1

4.4.4.1

4.4.4.1

Cng sut u vo trung bnh


dBm
(knh) nh nht

4.4.4.2

NA

NA

NA

Cng sut u vo tng trung


dBm
bnh ln nht

4.4.4.3

NA

NA

NA

S khc nhau cng sut knh


ln nht
dB

4.4.4.4

NA

NA

NA

Penalty ng quang ln nht

dB

4.4.4.5

4.4.4.5

4.4.4.5

4.4.4.5

nhy tng ng nh nht

dBm

4.4.4.6

NA

NA

NA

4.4.4.7

4.4.4.7

4.4.4.7

4.4.4.7

NA

4.4.4.8

4.4.4.8

4.4.4.8

Suy hao phn x quang nh


nht ti MPI-SM hoc MPI-S
Nng sut phn x ln nht
gia MPI-SM v MPI-RM , hoc
MPI-S v MPI-R
tr nhm vi sai ln nht
Giao din ti im MPI-RM
hoc MPI-RM

phn x ln nht ca phn dB


t mng quang
nhy nh nht

dBm

Bng 4. 5 Cc tham s lp vt l cho IrDI n knh v a knh

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4.4.1 Cc thng tin chung v cc tham s


4.4.1.1 S knh ln nht
S knh quang ln nht hin ti c th tng thch ti tng giao din
4.4.1.2 M ha tc bit/ng dy ca cc tn hiu nhnh quang
Lp tn hiu nhnh quang NRZ 2.5G p dng cho cc tn hiu s lin tc vi m
ha ng dy khng tr v zero, t danh nh 622Mb/s ln n 2.67Gbit/s. Lp tn
hiu nhnh quang NRZ 10G p dng cho cc tn hiu s lin tc vi m ha ng
dy khng tr v zero, t danh nh 2.4Gbit/s ln n 10.71Gbit/s. Lp tn hiu nhnh
quang NRZ 40G p dng cho cc tn hiu s lin tc vi m ha ng dy quay v 0,
t danh nh 9.9Gb/s ln n 43.02Gbit/s. Lp tn hiu nhnh quang RZ 40G p dng
cho cc tn hiu s lin tc vi m ha ng dy khng tr v zero, t danh nh
9.9b/s ln n 43.02/s. Vi tn hiu nhnh quang NRZ 2.5 cha tc bit OTU1. NRZ
10G cha tc bit OTU2 v NRZ 40G v RZ 40G cha tc bit OTU3 nh ngha
trong khuyn ngh G.709/Y.1331.
4.4.1.3 T s li bit ln nht
Cc tham s m t lin quan n mt mc tiu thit k on quang ca mt t s
li bit (BER) khng km hn gi tr m t bi m ng dng. Gi tr ny p dng n
mi knh quang nm di gii hn cao nht ca cc trng thi suy gim ng quang
v tn sc trong mi ng dng. Trong trng hp cc m ng dng yu cu cc byte
FEC chuyn pht i ( cng nh c mt m vi hu t F), BER yu cu p ng sau
hiu chnh (nu s dng ) c p dng. Vi tt c cc m ng dng khc, BER yu
cu p ng m khng s dng FEC.
4.4.1.4 Kiu si
Cc kiu si quang n mode c la chn tu cc nh ngha trong khuyn ngh
G.652, G.653, v G.655.
4.4.2 Giao din ti cc im MPI-SM hoc MPI-S
4.4.2.1 Ngun u ra trung bnh ln nht v nh nht
Ngun khi ng trung bnh ca mi knh quang ti cc im tham chiu MPI-SM
hoc MPI-S l ngun chun (bnh qun)ca dy d liu gi ngu nhin c ghp vo
trong si t ONE. N xc nh mt di (ln nht v nh nht ) cp pht cho vi ti
u ha chi ph v bo v dung sai cho hot ng di cc trng thi hot ng tiu
chun, suy gim ghp ni (connector), dung sai o v cc hiu ng lo ha.
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4.4.2.2 Ngun u ra tng trung bnh ln nht


Cc gi tr ln nht ca ngun quang pht trung bnh ti im MPI-SM.
4.4.2.3 Tn s trung tm
Cc tn s n knh danh nh trn thng tin m ha s ca cc knh bc sng
quang ring c iu bin khi s dng m ha ng dy NRZ hoc RZ.
Cc tn s trung tm cn c trn li tn s cho trong khuyn ngh G.694.1.
Cp pht cc tn s trung tm cho IrDI a knh c m t trong bng 4-7.
Nh rng gi tr ca c (tc ca nh sang trong chn khng) s s dng cho bin
i gia cc tn s v bc sng l 2.99792458 * 108 m/s.
4.4.2.4 Khong cch knh
Khong cch knh c nh ngha danh nh khc nhau trong tn s gia hai
knh k cn. Tt c dung sai c th ca cc tn s thc t c xt trong 4.2.5.
4.4.2.5 sai lch tn s trung tm ln nht
sai lch tn s trung tm l s khc nhau gia tn s trung tm danh nh v
tn s trung tm thc t. sai lch tn s trung tm cn bao gm tt c x l nh
hng n cc gi tr tc thi ca tn s trung tm ngun qua mt khong o thch
ng n knh tc bit . Cc x l bao gm tn hiu ngun nh, thng tin bng thng,
m rng iu ch pha v cc hiu ng theo nhit v lo ha.
4.4.2.6 Di bc sng hot ng
Di bc sng hot ng h thng ph thuc vo c tnh ngun, c tnh si
truyn dn (suy gim, tn sc ) v trn bng thng gia tng ca mt b khuch i
quang (nu s dng).
4.4.2.7 Kiu ngun
Ty thuc vo cc c tnh suy gim/ tn sc v mc phn cp ca mi m ng
dng, cho php cc thit b pht bao gm laser a mode theo chiu dc (MLM) v
laser n mode theo chiu dc (SLM). i vi mi ng dng, khuyn ngh ny s ch
dn mt kiu ngun danh nh. N c hiu rng du hiu ca mt kiu ngun danh
nh trong khuyn ngh khng l mt yu cu cc thit b SLM c th thay th cho bt
k ng dng th hin trong MLM nh kiu ngun danh nh m khng c bt k suy
gim no trong cht lng h thng.

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4.4.2.8 Chu trnh lm vic ln nht v nh nht


S c tip tc nghin cu trong cc ti liu sau ny.
4.4.2.9 rng RMS ln nht
rng trung bnh qun phng (RMS) ln nht ca lch tiu chun (trong
nm) ca phn b ph ca mt laser MLM xt n tt c mode laser m khng nhiu
hn 20 dB v xung ch nh. Ch c mt h thng vi mt laser MLM ti 1310nm
yu cu c tnh ny.
4.4.2.10 rng ln nht -20dB
Mt ngun ph (quang) ln nht nh ngha nh l mt mc ngun trung bnh
theo thi gian cao nht cho mi on 10MHz bt k v tr no trong iu ch ph tn
hiu. Cc b o v vy phi thc hin vi mt chnh xc tt hn (cng nh bng
thng b lc quang s nh hn) 10 MHz FWHM.
Cc tham s c s dng trnh cp vo trong ch tn x Brillouin cho cc
b ngun cng sut cao vi rng ng lin kt inherent in p nh, ging nh b
kt hp khuch i laser iu bin .c tnh tuy vy, p dng cho tt c cc kiu
ngun.
4.4.2.12 T s loi b side mode nh nht
T s loi b side mode nh nht l gi tr nh nht ca t s ca nh ln nht
ca tng ph pht n nh ln nht th hai.Phn tch ph ca my o s tt hn
rng ph ln nht ca nh nh nh ngha trong 4.2.10. nh ln nht th hai c th
p vi nh chnh hoc loi b u xa t n.
4.4.2.13 T s tt dn nh nht
T s tt (EX) c nh ngha nh : EX = 10 log10 (A/B)
Khi
A l bnh qun mc ngun quang ti trung tm ca mc logic 1 ;v
B l bnh qun mc ngun quang ti trung tm ca mc logic0.
Quy c thng qua cho cc mc logic quang l
-

pht x quang cho mc logic 1;

khng pht x cho mc logic 0.

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nh ngha ny c th trc tip p dng n cc h thng n knh. Trong trng


hp ca IrDI a knh, hai phng php thay th c th c s dng.
-

Phng php A c th s dng khi cc im tham chiu n knh c th t


c ti u pht cu lin kt kim tra. Phng php ny , quy trnh c
m t trong khuyn ngh G.957 v G.691 c s dng. Cu hnh cho phng
php ny cha trong ph lc A.

Phng php B s dng mt b lc di gia quang tiu chun tch cc tn


hiu pht ring l. Cc c tnh ca b lc di gia quang tiu chun cha trong
ph lc B.

4.4.2.14 Gin mt cho cc tn hiu pht quang NRZ


Trong khuyn ngh ny, cc c tnh dng xung pht chung bao gm thi gian
thit lp, thi gian suy gim , qu ti xung, t di mc xung, v chung, tt c s
c iu khin ngn cn qu suy gim ca nhy u thu, nh m t trong dng
ca mt mt n ca biu mt pha pht ti im MPI-S. Mc ch ca nh gi tn
hiu pht , n quan trng xt n khng ch khu mt, nhng cng xt n cc
gii hn qu ti v di ti. Cc tham s ch r mt n ca biu mt pha pht trnh
by trong hnh 4.5. Cc biu mt pha pht nhn c phi trnh giao nhau gia bt
k ca cc ng gch bng .Cc thit b kim tra c m t cho STM-64 trong ph
lc A/G.691. Dung sai b lc cho b thu quang tiu chun NRZ 10G c m t cho
STM-64 trong ph lc A/G.691. Dung sai b lc cho b thu quang tiu chun NRZ
40G l ffs.

Hnh 4. 5 Mt n biu mt cho cc tn hiu pht quang NRZ

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NRZ 2,5G

NRZ
min
nm

10G NRZ
1310 min
nm

10G NRZ 10G NRZ 40G


1550 khuch i

x3x2

0,2

0,2

0,2

0,2

0,2

y1

0,25

0,25

0,25

0,25 +

0,25

y2

0,75

0,75

0,75

0,75 +

0,75

y3

0,25

0,4

0,25

0,25

0,25

y4

0,25

0,25

0,25

0,25

0,25

- l mt bin 0,25 << +0,25


-x2 v x3 ca gin mt vung gc khng cn phn chia u i vi trc tung ti 0
UI v 1 UI
Bng 4. 6 Cc gi tr chi tit ca NRZ trong cc gin mt
nh ngha ny c th trc tip p dng cho cc h thng n knh. Trong trng hp
ca IrDI a knh, hai phng php dung sai c th s dng .
- Phng php A c th s dng khi cc im tham chiu n knh c th t c
ti u pht ca lin kt kim tra. Phng php ny , quy trnh c m t trong
khuyn ngh G.957 v G.691 c s dng. Cu hnh cho phng php ny cha
trong ph lc A.
-Phng php B s dng mt b lc di gia quang tiu chun tch cc tn hiu
pht ring l, c dng theo mt b thu tiu chun. Cc c tnh ca b lc di
gia quang tiu chun cha trong ph lc B.
4.4.2.15 Gin mt cho cc tn hiu pht quang
Vi c tnh xung RZ 40G lp tn hiu nhnh quang, nh vy vi chiu di
xung thay i, cng m t trong dng ca mt gin mt pha pht.
Cc tham s ch r gin mt pha pht c trnh by trong hnh 7-2. Cc
gin mt c chp nhn phi loi tr giao nhau ca bt k ng gch bng. Cc
thit b kim tra nh m t cho STM-64 trong ph lc A/G.691. Dung sai b lc cho
mt b thu tiu chun quang RZ 40G l
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Hnh 4. 6 Gin mt cho tn hiu pht quang RZ 40G


nh ngha ny c th trc tip p dng n cc h thng n knh. Trong
trng hp ca IrDI a knh, hai phng php thay th c th c s dng.
- Phng php A c th s dng khi cc im tham chiu n knh c th t
c ti u pht ca lin kt kim tra. Phng php ny , quy trnh c m t
trong khuyn ngh G.957 v G.691 c s dng. Cu hnh cho phng php ny
cha trong ph lc A.
- Phng php B s dng mt b lc di gia quang tiu chun tch cc tn
hiu pht ring l, c dng theo mt b thu tiu chun. Cc c tnh ca b lc
di gia quang tiu chun v b thu tiu chun cha trong ph lc B.

4.4.3 Mt ng lin kt quang t im MPI-SM n MPI-RM hoc MPI-S n


MPI-R
4.4.3.1 suy gim ln nht
suy gim ng ln nht khi h thng trong cu hi tc ng bn di cc
trng thi khng s dng ti mt ch s BER ca 10-12 ( hoc nh cho bi m ng
dng), di cc tn hiu bn pht trng hp xu nht v tn sc. Xc nh cc nh
hng cha trong suy gim ln nht cho trong 6.3.1/G.691. Cc gi tr suy gim
yu cu cho khong cch ch cn c trn gi thit ca 0.275dB/km ci t cho tn
hao si quang (bao gm ghp ni v mp cp) trong di 1530-1565 nm, v trn mt l

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thuyt gi tr 0.55 dB/km cho IrDI n knh 1310nm. T mt cch nhn im thc t ,
di suy gim ca 11dB cho 40 km v 22dB cho 80km ti 1550 nm v 11 dB cho 20 km
v 22dB cho 40km ti 1310nm c xc nh, tr cc ng dng c tm hot ng rt
ngn v ni n vn phng. N cng lu phng php ny s dng nh ngha cc
giao din khc ti bc sng cho, a ra mt gi tr l thuyt ca khong cch ch.
Kt ni (connector) v cc tn tht mi ni, a ra trong cc ci t thc t c th ch
dn n cc ch khc.
4.4.3.2 suy gim nh nht
suy gim ng nh nht cp pht h thng trong phn cu hi, hot ng
di cc trng thi pha pht xu nht , t c ch s BER khng km hn 10-12
(hoc cho bi m ng dng ).
4.4.3.3 Tn sc ln nht
Tham s ny nh ngha gi tr tuyt i khng b ln nht ca tn sc ng
chnh m h thng cho php. Dung sai tn sc ln nht c yu cu ca h thng
thit lp n mt gi tr tng ng thi gian khong ch 20 ps/km cho si
G.652, v 3.3 ps/nm km cho si G.653 trong min 1550 nm, cng nh i vi si
G.652 trong vng 1310 nm. y l mt gi tr tn sc trng hp xu nht c xt
cho cc kiu si thch hp. Tip cn trng hp xu nht trn tham s vi mc ch
mang n cc gii hn trn cc tham s nhy cng nh lm cho n c th dn ra
khong cch truyn cho cc iu kin si c tn tht.
Cp pht ng quang penalty xt n tt c cc hiu ng quyt nh dn n
tn sc, cng nh penalty dn n gi tr tr nhm vi sai ln nht.
4.4.3.4 Sai lch tn sc ln nht
ln ca s khc nhau c php ln nht gia cc gi tr thc t tn sc ca
ng quang t MPI-S n MPI-R v xc nh gi tr tn sc ng ln nht ti thi
gian thit lp. Sai lch tn sc c xt trong cc ng dng s dng b tn sc.(DC).
Mt v d c m t hnh 7-3. Khi b thu cha mt module DC pha trc ca
Dectetor( b d). Mt b khuch i quang ty chn (OA) c th cng c biu din.

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Hnh 4. 7 IrDI knh n vi b tn sc (DC) trong b thu


Ti thi gian thit lp ca b thu, cc gi tr c o ca ng quang DI s
dng thit lp ln ca b b tn sc bn trong b thu. nh ngha gi tr thc t
ca tn sc ca ng quang l DP v gi tr thc t ca b tn sc bn trong b thu l
DC , c yu cu ti mt thi im bt k trc khi thit lp :

Vi Dr max l tn sc thng d cp pht cho php ln nht. Nh mt v d Dr max


= 30 ps/nm cho cc ng dng NRZ 40G m khng p ng b tn sc. Cc nh hng
bao gm chnh xc o, nhit , cc khi phc v lo ha gy ra DP phn bit vi
DI bi mt gi tr P . Cng vy , cc nh hng bao gm chi thit thit lp (tnh
cht ht), nhit v cc khi phc v lo ha gy ra D C phn bit vi DI bi mt gi
tr C. Bn trn lin kt v vy cc phng php chc chn D r max khng vt qu, n
c yu cu :

Trong khi cc gi tr ph hp cho Dr max v C s dng trong m t c to ra


cho lch tn sc (P), khuyn ngh ny ch m t cc gi tr cho P v c th tm
kim trong cc bng ca mnh 8.
4.4.3.5 Suy hao phn x quang nh nht ti MPI-SM hoc MPI-S
Phn x c nguyn nhn do gin on chit xut qua cc ng quang. Nu
khng iu khin c chng c th suy gim hiu nng h thng qua cc hiu ng
nhiu lon trn hot dng ca ngun quang hoc b khuch i , hoc qua cc phn x
, ti dy nhiu giao thoa ti b thu. Cc phn x t cc ng quang c iu
khin ch ra bi :

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Suy hao phn x quang nh nht ca thit b cp ti im tham chiu ngun


(cng MPI-SM, MPI-S), cha conector bt k; v

Phn x ri rc ln nht gia cc im tham chiu ngun (nh MPI-SM, MPI-S,


v cc im tham chiu thu nhn (nh MPI-RM, MPI-R).
Cc phn x biu hin t im phn x ri rc n bt k , suy hao phn x

l t s ca cng sut quang n vi tng cng sut phn hi quang t ton b ng


dy bao gm c cc phn x ri rc v tn x ngc phn tn nh tn x Rayleigh.
Cc phng php o cho cc phn x , m t trong ph lc I/G.957. Mc ch ca cc
php o nng sut phn x v suy hao phn x , cc im MPI-S v MPI-R c tnh
ton trng khp vi mt cui ca mi u connector. N c cng nhn nhng
khng bao gmhiu nng phn x thc t ca cc connector tng ng trong h thng
vn hnh. Cc phn x c tnh ton cc gi tr thng thng ca phn x cho kiu
m t ca cc connector c s dng.
4.4.3.6 Phn x ri rc ln nht gia MPI-SM v MPI-RM hoc MPI-S v MPI-R
Phn x quang xc nh t s gia cng sut quang phn x hin ti ti mt im,
n cng sut quang n im . iu khin cc phn x c xem xt tng qut
trong khuyn ngh G.957. S connector ln nht hoc cc im phn x ri rc khc c
th cha trong mt ng quang (nh cho cc khung phn b, hoc cc thnh phn
WDM), c th cp pht xc lp suy hao phn x quang ton phn t c.Nu
iu ny khng th hon ton s dng cc mi ni connector phn x ri rc ln nht
c dn trong bng 8, sau cc connector t c hiu nng phn x tt hn phi
c s dng . V vy, s cc connector phi b suy gim. N cng c th cn thit
gii hn s connector hoc s dng cc connector c ci thin hiu nng phn x
trnh cc suy gim khng chp nhn c do cc phn x nhiu ln.
Gi tr -27dB phn x ri rc ln nht gia cc im tham chiu ngun v cc
im tham chiu b thu mc ch ti thiu ha cc nh hng hoc cc phn x
nhiu ln (nh nhiu giao thoa). Cc gi tr cho phn x b thu ln nht la chn
m bo nhn c cc penalty do cc phn x nhiu ln cho tt c cc cu hnh h
thng thch hp bao gm nhiu connector (ni phc). Cc h thng s dng cc
connector t hn hoc hiu nng cao hn hn iu ch cc phn x nhiu ln t hn
v do c th lm cc b thu chu ng th hin phn x cao hn.

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4.4.3.7 tr nhm vi sai ln nht


tr nhm vi sai (DGD) l sai khc thi gian gia cc thnh phn mt xung s
dng pht trong hai trng thi chnh ca phn cc ca mt tn hiu quang.
khong cch ln hn vi km, v gi nh ngu nhin (mnh) ghp ni mode phn cc ,
DGD trong mt si quang c th thng k cc m hnh nh mt phn b Maxwellian.
Trong khuyn ngh ny, tr nhm vi sai ln nht nh ngha gi tr DGD m h
thng cho php vi mt suy gim nhy ln nht xp x 1 dB.
Do bn cht thng k ca tn sc mode phn cc , mi lin quan gia DGD ln
nht v DGD trung bnh c th ch nh ngha xc sut. Xc sut ca DGD tc thi
vt qu gi tr cho bt k c th suy ra t cc thng k Maxwellian.
V vy, nu chng ta bit DGD ln nht m h thng cho php, chng ta c th
rt ra DGD trung bnh tng ng bng phn chia bi t s ln nht trung bnh
p ng n mt xc sut chp nhn c. Vi t s v d cho trong bng 4-6.

T s trung bnh ln nht

Xc sut vt qu ln nht

3,0

4,2 10-5

3,5

7,7 10-7

4,0

7,4 10-9
Bng 4. 7 Trung bnh DGD v cc xc sut

4.4.4 Giao din ti im MPI-RM hoc MPI-R


4.4.4.1 Cng sut knh u vo trung bnh ln nht
Gi tr nh nht ca bnh qun cng sut knh u thu ti im MPI-RM. Ngun
ny l cng sut u ra knh trung bnh nh nht tr suy gim ln nht ca cc ng
dng, v dn n khng quan tm n ng quang penalty.
4.4.3 Cng sut u vo tng trung bnh
Gi tr ln nht cng sut u vo tng nhn c ti im MPI-RM.

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4.4.4.4 Vi sai cng sut knh ln nht


Vi sai gia gi tr ln nht ca cng sut u vo knh trung bnh v gi tr nh
nht cu cng sut u vo knh trung bnh ti cc thi gian nh nhau bn trong mt
bng thng phn di quang cho c lp vi s knh bn trong ng dng.
4.4.4.5 ng quang penalty ln nht
ng penalty l rt gn bn ngoi ca nhy( hoc nhy tng ng
trong trng hp ca cc ng dng a knh ) do bin ng tr ca dng sng tn
hiu trong sut qu trnh truyn dn qua ng. N biu hin nh mt dch ca cc
h thng ng cong BER i vi cc mc cng sut u vo cao hn. p ng ny
theo mt ng penalty dng. Cc ng penalty m c th tn ti di vi trng
hp, nhng rt nh. (Mt ng penalty m ch th rng c t hn mt pht dng mt l
tng c ci thin tng phn bi cc ng c lp ). L tng ng cong BER s
ch tnh tin nhng cc bin di dng khng khc thng, v c th ch th u ra ca
y BER. Trong khi ng penalty thay i trong nhy thu, n c o ti mc
BER 10-12.
i vi cc ng dng vi p ng tc bit knh n NRZ 2.5G v NRZ 10G,
mt ng penalty ln nht ca 1 dB cho cc h thng bin ng tr thp, v 2 dB cho
h thng bin ng tr cao c cp pht. Cc ng penalty khng c lm theo t
l n cc khong cch ch trnh h thng hot ng vi cc penalty cao.
i vi cc ng dng vi p ng tc bit knh n NRZ 40G, cc gi tr ca
penalty ng quang s cao hn 1 dB cho cc tc thp hn. iu ny cp pht cho
penalty lin quan n PMD (c hai bc 1 v bc 2).
Trong tng lai, cc h thng s dng cng ngh thch ng tn sc cn c trn
bin ng tr trc ca tn hiu ti my pht c th a vo. Trong trng hp ny,
ng penalty trong b cm bin pha trn c th ch xc nh cc im vi cc tn
hiu khng bin ng tr. Cc im ny, tuy nhin khng trng vi cc giao din
ng chnh, v c th v vy khng t c.nh ngha ng penalty cho trng
hp ny c nghin cu tip.
Cc gi tr trung bnh ca cc tn sc penalty ngu nhin do PMD cha trong
ng penalty c cp pht. Trong phng din ny , b pht/thu yu cu dung sai
mt DGD thc t ca chu k 0.3 bit vi mt suy gim nhy ln nht xp x 1 dB(
vi 50/100 cng sut quang trong mi trng thi chnh ca phn cc).i vi mt b
thu c thit k, p ng ny m mt penalty ca 0.1-0.2 dB cho mt DGD ca chu

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k 0.1 bit. DGD thc t DGD c th bt gp trong hot ng l c tnh si /cp bin
i ngu nhin .
Nh rng mt t s tn hiu trn tp m suy gim do ng dng quang khng
c xt nh mt ng penalty.
Khuyn ngh ny c th trc tip p dng cho cc h thng n knh. Trong
trng hp ca a knh IrDI hai phng php khc c th c s dng.
-

Phng php A s th s dng cc im tham chiu n knh t c ti u


thu ca lin kt kim tra. i vi phng php ny , cc bin php c m
t trong khuyn ngh G.957 v G.691 c s dng. Cu hnh cho phng php
ny cha trong ph lc A.

Phng php B s dng mt b lc ly di quang tiu chun tch cc tn


hiu pht, theo mt b thu tiu chun. c tnh ca b lc ly di quang tiu
chun v b thu tiu chun cha trong ph lc B.

4.4.4.6 nhy tng ng nh nht


y l nhy tng ng m yu cu ca v tr b thu ti MPI-RM trong cc
ng dng a knh t c thit lp BER ln nht ca m ng dng nu tt c tr
mt knh b loi b (vi mt b lc tn hao t l tng) ti im MPI-RM . N quan
tm n cc penalty cng sut gy ra bi s dng mt b pht di trng thi hot
ng vi cc gi tr trng hp xu nht ca t s tt dn , tng xung v thi gian gim
, suy hao phn x quang ti im MPI-SM, cc suy hao connector , xuyn m bn pht,
nhiu khuch i quang, v cc dung sai o. Khng bao gm cc penalty cng sut kt
hp vi tn sc, bin ng tr,phi tuyn, hoc cc phn x t cc ng quang ; cc
hiu ng xc lp phn chia trong cp pht penalty ng quang ln nht. Nh rng,
tuy nhin cng sut u vo knh trung bnh nh nht ti MPI-RM phi cao hn
nhy tng ng nh nht bi gi tr ca ng quang penalty. Cc hiu ng lo ha
khng m t ring. Trng hp xu nht, gi tr cui ng dy c thit lp.
4.4.4.7 phn x ln nht ca cc phn t quang
Cc phn x t ONE vo trong thit b cp c xc lp bi phn x cho php
ln nht ca ONE c o ti im tham chiu MPI-RM hoc MPI-R. phn x
quang c nh ngha trong 4.3.6.

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4.4.4.8 nhy nh nht


Gi tr nh nht ca cng sut thu trung bnh ti im MPI-R hon thnh BER
ln nht ca m ng dng. N ch n cc penalty cng sut s dng mt b pht
di cc trng thi hot ng tiu chun vi cc gi tr trng hp xu nht ca t s
tt dn , tng xung v thi gian gim suy hao phn x quang MPI-S, suy gim
connector, xuyn m, nhiu khuch i quang v cc dung sai o. Khng cha cc
penalty cng sut kt hp vi tn sc, bin ng tr, hoc cc phn x t ng quang;
cc hiu ng ch r phn chia trong cp pht ca ng quang penalty ln nht. Lu ,
tuy nhin, cng sut quang trung bnh nh nht ti b thu phi cao hn nhy nh
nht bi gi tr ca ng quang penalty. Cc nh hng lo ha khng c m t
c lp. Trng hp xu nht, cc gi tr end-of-life c m t.

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CHNG 5 MT S IM NI BT CA MNG TRUYN


TI QUANG
Mng truyn ti quang OTN c ng dng trn hu ht cc ng dng yu cu
ng truyn cc ln nh mng ng trc Backbone, cc mng quang vt i dng
v trn t lin. Yu cu cho bng thng trong truy nhp v mng ng trc tng
nhanh .Bi v chng yu cu bng thng cao, hiu qu chi ph, s thng sut mng, v
nhiu u im khc na, cc mng quang tr thnh phng tin truyn dn ch yu.S
pht trin tip theo ca cc cng ngh v cc chun mi trong min quang lm cho
mng quang cc gii php cho yu cu bng thng cao trong tng lai pha trc. Cc
tc d liu cao hn, n tr thnh nhiu kh khn cho in t x l d liu theo
ng s gii hn tc thc t . Mng quang mt khc c kh nng cung cp nhiu
chc nng hn so vi truyn dn im im n thun.Yu cu cho cao hn v cao
hn na bng thng c ghp vi u im ca cc mng quang nh s thng sut v
chi ph xt n cc ng cho chc nng chuyn mch v nh tuyn c hon thnh
trong min quang. Vi nhiu u im mng truyn ti OTN trong tng lai khng xa
s c ng dng trn cc ng truyn d liu ln.
OTN a ra cc u im khi so snh vi SONET/SDH nh sau:
Sa li hng thun tt hn
Thm nhiu mc gim st kt ni ni tip hn
Truyn ti thng sut cc tn hiu client
M rng quy m chuyn mch
OTN c nhc im nh sau
Yu cu phn cng mi v h thng qun l
Khuyn ngh ITU-T G.798 nh ngha tt c cc nhc im ca mng truyn ti
quang OTN tm hiu thm cc nhc im ny cc bn c th c thm khuyn
ngh trn.

5.1 Sa li hng thun


Sa li hng thun chnh l u im ca mng truyn ti quang sau ny..
Mng SDH cng s dng t m FEC . Mng SDH s dng cc byte SOH nhng
khng kim tra truyn ti thng tin FEC nn c gi l mt FEC trong bng. N ch
cp pht gii hn thng tin kim tra FEC, v gii hn cc hiu nng ca FEC.
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OTN xc nh mt s FEC an xen mt m Reed-Solomon 16 byte , n s dng


4x356 byte ca kim tra thng tin cho khung ODU . B sung s FEC nng cao
ring bit cp pht mt cch r rng v s dng mt cch rng ri .
FEC c s dng thc t trong h thng gii hn OSNR nh trong h thng gii
hn tn sc. Cng nh hiu ng phi tuyn, s suy gim ca dy dn ngun u ra ti
gii hn OSNR , nn FEC l rt cn thit. FEC c nh hng thp da vo PMD.
G.709 xc nh mt m sa li hng thun cho OTN m kt qu ln ti 6.2 dB ci
thin trong t l tn hiu trn tp m (SNR). Mt cch nhn khc l truyn dn mt tn
hiu ti mt tc li bit bit c suy hao ngun gim hn 6.2 dB khi s dng
FEC .
li m ha c cung cp bi FEC c th s dng n:
- Chiu di span ln nht c tng ln v s cc span , dn n m rng min
quang(gi nh rng s suy gim cc nh sng nh nhau v tn x trong ch phn
cc l khng thch hp cc h s gii hn ).
- S gia tng s knh DWDM trong mt h thng DWDM gii hn ngun u ra ca
b . li do suy gim ngun mi knh v gia tng s knh( Lu rng s thay i
trn hiu ng phi tuyn tnh v b gim trn mi knh ngun b chim .
-S suy gim cc tham s thnh phn ( cng nh ngun thit b khi ng, mt n tm
mt, t l mt mt, h s nhiu, kh ghp lc) i vi mt lin kt cho v chi ph
linh kin thp hn.
- Nhng iu quan trng nht l FEC l mt b kch hot cho cc mng quang thng
sut.Cc phn t mng quang thng sut tng t ODAMs v PXCs cn mt suy
hao quang hp l. Cc phn t mng quang thng sut c th chuyn qua bi ng
quang trc b ti to 3R cn thit c gii hn s dng tt hn. Vi mt ng
quang b sung FEC c th cho i qua nhiu hn cc phn t mng thng sut. Cp
pht ny pht trin t cc lin kt im-ti-im hin ti nhm thng sut mng quang
mt li vi cc tnh nng y hn.

5.1.1 M t l thuyt
T m FEC thc thi mt m Reed-Solomon RS(255,239) . Mt m RS xc lp nh
RS(n,k) vi k t s-bits khi m n l tng s cc k t mi t m, k l s cc k t
thng tin, s l kch c ca mt k t . Mt t m bao gm d liu v tnh chn l, cng
cho bit cc k t kim tra, b sung ti d liu .Cc k t kim tra l cc byte d tha

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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

ngoi s dng pht hin v sa li trong mt tn hiu m d liu gc c th phc


hi.
s = kch c k t = 8 bit
n = cc k t mi t m = 255 bytes
k = cc k t thng tin mi t m = 239 byte
Mt h thng in hnh trnh by trong hnh 2

Hnh 5. 1 S khi FEC


Phng php ny m ha ly k k t thng tin ca s bit, mi mt, v b sung k t
kim tra lm mt t m n k t. C n-k k t kim tra ca s bit, mi mt gii m
Reed-Solomon c th hiu chnh ln ti t k t bao gm cc li trong mt t m, ch
m 2t = n-k.
Hnh 5.2 sau y trnh by mt t m Reed-Solomon ring:

Hnh 5. 2 T m Reed-Solomon
Cho chun ITU khuyn ngh m RS(255,239):
2t = n-k = 255 -239 = 16
t=8
Do , b gii m c th hiu chnh bt k 8 k t trong mt t m.
M Solomon x l cc li trn mt k t gc , thnh ra mt k t bao gm tt c cc
bit li d dng thit lp v sa i nh mt k t bao gm mt li bit n. l ti
sao m Solomon l mt m mnh sa li khi ( v tr mt dy bit trong t m thu
nhn li bi b gii m )

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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

Ban u mt k t kch c s, chiu di t m ln nht (n) cho mt t m ReedSolomon l :


n = 2s -1 = 255
an xen d liu t cc t m khc nhau nng cao hiu qu ca m Solomon bi v nh
hng ca li khi c phn chia gia nhiu t m khc .Bi an xen, n m rng
tc ng ca nhiu qua nhiu k t, ti t nhiu t m . Cng nh mi t m khng
an xen c mt vi li m n c th sa c, nhm an xen ca cc t m s c
sa. N c th vi t m s c sa v mt vi t m khng sa c nu cc li d
tha c bt gp.
S an xen trn thc t hp nht sa li ngun cho tt c cc t m cha trong nhm
an xen, l nng lc ca b( thit b) an xen .Cp pht(cho php) tc cao hn
cho kh nng knh v m v hn na bo v phng bin c li r di. Cho v d,
nu 64 t m c th sa c 8 li c an xen, nhm an xen c th sa hu nh
kt hp bt k cc li k t c tng b hn 512 .N khng c vn lm nu tt c
512 li trong mt khi di, c 512 cc li mt k t , hoc bt c ch no gia . C
hai chun ITU-T G.709 v ITU-T G.975 ch r an xen nh phn khung truyn ti
nng cao hiu qu sa li
5.1.1.2 li m ha
Cc u im khi s dng FEC xc sut ca mt li d tha trong gii m d liu l
chm hn xc sut ca li nu mt thut ton FEC, ging nh Reed-Solomon l khng
c s dng. l s li m ha c bn.
Khuch i m ha khc nhau cho tng u vo SNF xc nh mt u ra BER.
u vo SNR l c xc nh nh h s Q, hoc nh Eb/N0 hay OSNR.
Khuych i m ha NET mang li hiu qu 7% tc m rng thc n FEC.
iu ct yu l tc d liu tng ln cho truyn dn c d liu v FEC .
5.1.2.1 Xc nh li m ha theo tham s Q
Cng ngh c s dng rng ri o khuych i m ha l o tham s Q ( h s cht
lng). Cng ngh ny nh gi OSNR ti b khuych i quang hoc thu nhn bng
o BER v gii hn in p ti cc mc in p m BER c th xc nh chnh xc (
thy hnh 5.4 v 5.5) .Trong thc t, tuy nhin , h s Q suy ra t o tn hiu biu d

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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

mt. N xc nh nh t l ca tn hiu nh ti nh n tng nhiu ( tn hiu in


thng thng)
Q = (1 - 0) / (0+1)
Vi 1
v 0 l cc mc tn hiu chnh ca mc 1 v mc 0
1 v 0 l lch chun tng ng

Hnh 5. 3 Gin mt
1 = gi tr chun (trung bnh) mc ON
1 = lch chun nhiu mc ON
0 = gi tr chun (trung bnh) mc OFF
0 = lch chun nhiu mc OFF
Mt h thng yu cu mt thao tc BER ca 10-15 c mt i lng o h s Q ca 18
dB bn ngoi FEC. Nu RS (255,239) FEC s dng, i lng o h s Q gim ti
11.8 dB, gim i 6.2 dB ca li m ha. Tng thm 6.2 dB vi FEC s cp pht vi
di rng hn khi BER ban u c duy tr. V vy khong truyn dn c ci thin
vi s tng ln mt cch tng i nh trong dung lng bn dn.

Hnh 5. 4 M BER vs Q cho R-S (t =8)


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5.1.2.2 Khuych i m ha c xc nh qua Eb/N0


Cc phng php o khuych i m ha vi mt khe ca BER vs Eb/N0. Eb l
nng lng bit v c th c m t nh ngun tn hiu (S) bit thi gian T b. N0 l mt
ph ngun nhiu v c th m t nh ngun nhiu (N) c chia bi bng thng
(W). V vy Eb/N0 bng SNR( bng thng/tc bit).

Hnh 5. 5 BER v Eb/N0


Hnh 5.5 trnh by cho mt u vo cho trc SNR(Eb/N0) , u ra BER ca gii m
FEC nh trn.V vy chng mun m rng h thng ti 10-13 BER sau chng cn
qua 14 dB SNR theo FEC hay ch c 8.5 dB vi FEC .
5.1.2.3 Khuych i c xc nh theo OSNR
Hnh 5.6 trnh by khuch i m ha NET FEC (NCG) ca cc s FEC. l kt
qu l thuyt v i lng o thc t t cc h thng chy th.
Khuych i m ha gim bt t l tn hiu trn nhiu ng khi s dng FEC ti mt
BER tham chiu.
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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

li m ha Net (NCG) tnh ton n thc trng rng bng thng cn thit cho s
FEC c lin kt vi gia tng nhiu trong b thu.
Cho v d xt n mt tham chiu BER ca 10-15 . SDH trong bng FEC cung cp mt
NCG ca 4dB . Chun mt NCG OTN FEC ca 6.2 dB v mt NCG FEC nng cao
ca 9.5 dB.

Hnh 5. 6 Khuych i m ha qua OSNR


Cc bin ca FEC
5.2 Gim st kt ni ni tip
Gim st SONET sinh ra khi bn mun trng thi sng mang ca sng mang
(Carriers Carrier) trnh by trong hnh 5.7, ti n yu cu gim st mt on ca
ng truyn i qua mng sng mang khc.

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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 5. 7 Gim st kt ni ni tip


y ngi khai thc mng A cn c ngi khai thc mng B mang tn hiu ca
A. Tuy nhin anh y li cn mt ng (phng php) gim st tn hiu m n
chuyn qua mng ca ngi khai thc mng B. y l Kt ni ni tip .N l lp
gia gim st ng truyn v gim st ng dn. SONET/ SDH thay i cp pht
mt kt ni ni tip n. G.709 cp pht su kt ni.
TCM1 s dng bi ngi dng gim st cht lng dch v (QoS) m chng xem
xt. TCM2 s dng bi ngi khai thc mng u tin gim st QoS u cui n u
cui. TCM3 s dng bi cc cho gim st trong min . Sau TCM4 s dng cho
gim st bo v bi ngi khai thc mng B.
Khng c mt tiu chun no khi TCM s dng bi cc nh khai thc mng
.Ngi khai thc mng c th t qui c mng ca h khng th xy ra xung t.
TCM cng h tr gim st ca cc kt ni ODUk ( G.709 w/0 FEC ) cho mt hay
nhiu ng dng mng sau y ( tham chiu ti ITU-T G.805 v ITU-T G.872) :
- Gim st kt ni ni tip quang UNI ti UNI , gim st kt ni ODUk qua mng
truyn ti cng cng ( t li vo mng cng cng u cui mng ti li ra u cui
mng )

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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

- Gim st kt ni ni tip quang NNI ti NNI ; gim st kt ni ODUk qua mng


ca ngi khai thc mng ( t li vo u cui ngi khai thc mng ti u cui )
- Gim st lp con cho tuyn tnh 1+1, 1:1, v 1:n mng con knh quang kt ni
chuyn mch bo v, xc nh li tn hiu v cc iu kin suy gim tn hiu;
- Gim st lp con cho knh quang dng chung vng bo v (SPRing) chuyn
mch bo v , xc nh li tn hiu v cc iu kin suy gim tn hiu;
- Gim st mt kt ni ni tip knh quang cho mc ch kim tra( pht hin) mt
li tn hiu hay iu kin suy gim tn hiu trong kt ni knh quang c chuyn
mch , khi u t ng khi phc cho kt ni trong lc li v cc iu kin li trong
mng
- Gim st mt kt ni ni tip knh quang cho , e.g, cho nh v li hoc kim tra
phn phi cht lng dch v .
Mt trng TCM ch nh mt kt ni gim st c m t trong khuyn ngh
G.709. S kt ni gim st theo mt vch c th thay i gia 0 v 6 . Cc kt ni
gim st c th lng nhau, chng ln ln nhau v/ hoc l phn cp. S lng nhau v
s phn tng trnh by trong hnh 5.8. Gim st cc kt ni A1-A2/B1-B2/C1-C2 v
A1-A2/B3-B4 l lng nhau, trong khi B1-B2/B3-B4 l phn cp

Hnh 5. 8 Gim st cc kt ni
Chng ln gim st cc kt ni trnh by hnh 5.9 (B1-B2 v C1-C2) cng c h
tr.

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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

Hnh 5. 9 Chng ln gim st cc kt ni ODUk

5.3 Truyn ti thng sut ca cc tn hiu client


Khuyn ngh ITU-T G.709 nh ngha OPUk cha cc tn hiu
SONET/SDH.Phng php ny c th truyn ti 4 tn hiu STM-16/OC-48 trong mt
OTU2 v khng thay i bt k mo u SONET/SDH. V vy truyn ti cc tn hiu
client nh vy trong OTN l thng sut bit ( cng nh tnh ton vn cc tn hiu client
l c duy tr).
N cng thng sut trong thi gian xc nh.Ch nh x bt ng b chuyn nh
thi u vo ( client nh x bt ng b) n u cui xa (client nh x ngc).
N cng thng sut tr . Cho v d nu bn tn hiu STM-16/OC-48 nh x vo
trong ODU1 v sau ghp knh vo trong mt ODU2, mi quan h nh thi ca
chng c bo ton cho n khi chng nh x ngc tr vo ODU1s.

5.4 M rng quy m chuyn mch


Khi SONET/SDH pht trin trong mid eighties mc ch chnh l cung cp cng
ngh truyn ti cho dch v thoi. Hai mc chuyn mch bi vy c nh ngha .
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ChngV: Mt s im ni bt ca Mng truyn ti quang

Chuyn mch bc thp hn t 1.5/2 Mbit/s trc tip h tr cho tn hiu thoi T1/E1 v
mt mc chuyn mch bc cao hn ti 50/150 Mbit/s cho k thut lu lng. Cc mc
chuyn mch ti tc bit cao hn khng th d on trc.
Qu thi gian( over time) tc ng truyn s tng khi tc chuyn mch khng
i. Khong cch gia tc ng truyn s v tc bit chuyn mch c m
rng. Ngoi ra dch v mi ti tc bit cao hn (dch v Ethernet, IP) phi h tr .
Ghp lin k v ghp o gii thiu m gii quyt phn vn dch v nh chng
cp pht nhm h tr dch v cao hn tc bit chuyn mch cc chun SONET/SDH
.
Khong cch gia tc ng truyn s hoc tc bit dch v v tc bit
chuyn mch tuy vy n vn ng vi chuyn mch ghp s dng ti mc
STS-1/VC-4.
Cho 4x10G thnh b ghp knh 40G SONET/SDH phng php ny x l 256
VC-4 vo trng hp SDH v even worse ( xu bng nhau), x l ca 768 STS-1-SP
trong trng hp SONET .Kt ny khng ch n lc trong thit b phn cng, nhng
cng trong cc n lc qun l v hot ng.
Hiu qu thit b v thit k mng v cc hot ng, chuyn mch ti tc bit cao
hn c gii thiu.
C th thi i hin ti chuyn mch photon ca bc sng l mt gii php .
Nhng vi chuyn mch photon tc bit chuyn mch gii hn tc bit ca bc
sng v nh vy to ra dch v.Mt la chn c lp cho tc d bit dch v v cng
ngh DWDM l khng th t c.
Mt ngi khai thc mng ngh lin kt IP 2.5 Gbit/s s cn mt h thng
Nx2.5G DWDM . Khi b sung 10G dch v anh ta c th nng cp vi bc sng to
thnh 10G. s l ch dn khng c hiu qu trong thit k mng.
OTN cung cp gii php vn bng nh v khng hn ch trong tc bit chuyn
mch .Nh tc ng truyn s gia tng tc bit chuyn mach mi b sung.
Ngi khai thc mng c th a ra cc tc bit khc nhau ( 2.5G, 10G,) c lp
ca tc bit theo bc sng s dng ghp knh v cc chc nng ghp knh ngc
ca OTN.

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Kt lun

KT LUN
Vi nhng u im vt tri, vi s tch hp gia cc dch v truyn thng v
cc dch v mi, tch hp mi d liu truyn ti trn cng mt khi truyn quang OTU
. Cng ngh mng truyn ti quang m ra trong tng lai mt mng truyn ti y
ha hn .Theo xu hng pht trin ca cng ngh mng vin thng trong nhng nm
ti y th cng ngh mng truyn ti quang c xem nh l gii php cng ngh ch
o xy dng cc h thng truyn ti quang ca mng NGN. C s h tng mng
truyn ti c xy dng trn c s cng ngh trn l iu kin m bo cho mc tiu
xy dng c s h tng mng hi t cung cp a dch v theo tng phn lp mng,
dung lng mng ln c th cung cp mi loi hnh kt ni t tc thp n tc
rt cao vi mi giao din kt ni, mi tin ch kt ni.. Sau mt thi gian nghin
cu v tm hiu, n gii quyt c mt s vn sau:
Trnh by mt cch tng quan v h thng , cc k thut c bn,
nguyn l hot ng ca cc phn t c bn ca mng truyn ti quang OTN.Cc
vn k thut c bn ca cng ngh mng truyn ti quang OTN t vic ng
gi cc tn hiu ti vic iu khin hot ng ca tuyn.
Xy dng cc giao din lin min n knh v a knh c bn v
kh nng tng thch gia cc nh cung cp mng trn cng mt h thng mng
v cc tham s lin quan n cc giao din ny ng dng ph hp trong thc
t
Cc u im ni bt ca cng ngh mng truyn ti OTN cho php
ng dng cng ngh ny trong cc ng truyn d liu cc ln m bo cht
lng tn hiu.
Do cng ngh mng truyn ti quang OTN l mt cng ngh mi. Bn cnh do thi
gian nghin cu v khng c iu kin tm hiu thc t nhiu nn bn n ch yu
mang tnh l thuyt cha trnh by c c th y cc c im trin khai trn
thc t. Em xin chn thnh cm n tt c cc thy, c gio trong Hc Vin Cng ngh
Bu chnh Vin thng, ngi thn bn b gip em trong thi gian qua. c bit
l c gio ThS Ng Thu Trang rt quan tm nhit tnh hng dn em hon thnh
n ny
Em xin chn thnh cm n !
Sinh vin
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Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO


Stamatios V. Kartalopoulos -Next Generation Intelligent Optical Networks
Spinger (12/2007)
2. ITU-T Rec.G.798: Characteristics of optical transport network hierarchy
equipment functional blocks (12/2006)
3. ITU-T Rec.G.709: Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network(OTN)
(3/2003)
4. ITU-T Rec. G.959.1: Optical transport network physical layer interfaces
(12/2003)
1.

5. ITU-T Rec.G872: Architecture of optical transport networks (OTN)(11/2001)


6. Guylain Barlow, Product Manager, Innocor Ltd.A G.709 Optical Transport
Network Tutorial (5/2003)
7. Tymothy P.Walker AMC-USA - Optical Transport Network Tutorial
8. Prem Kumar Anne ,Advisor: Bernhard Gbel - Optical Networking:
Standards and Design Issues - Seminar on Topics in Communications
Engineering - Master of Science in Communications Engineering - Munich
University of Technology (21/01/2005)
9. Andreas Schubert - White Paper: G.709 The Optical Transport Network
(OTN)
10. Hiroshi Ohta NTT-Japan - Optical Transport Networks & Technologies
Standardization Work Plan (2/2008)

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