Write a story based on this line : "By evening, she was running a high fever ...

Far up in the mountains of Canada, there is an old abandoned log cabin. Once it was occupied by a young couple who wanted to distance themselves from the chaos of this modern world. Here they were miles away from the nearest town. Bob, the husband, made the occasional trip into town to buy supplies whereas Jan, his wife, spent her free time by the fire, sewing. Their life was simply idyllic. Then, one midwinter's day, Jan woke up from bed with a strange ache in her bones. Putting it down to overwork, Bob shooed her to bed and made sure she rested. Though Jan was impatient to get to her chores, Bob soothed her, "Relax, Sugar. You're overdoing things. All these chores will be here when you recover." However, Jan seemed to be getting worse instead of recovering. By evening, she was running a high fever and in greater pain. In spite of his best efforts, Bob could not manage to ease her suffering. And then suddenly, she started to lapse into unconsciousness. It was then obvious that she was seriously ill. What could Bob do? He had no experience in treating the sick and Jan was getting worse by the minute. He knew that there was an old doctor in town but he lived three miles away, downhill. Pot-bellied and obese, there was no way the doctor could make it up to their cabin. Something had to be done quickly! Bob racked his brains but to no avail. The only thing left to do was to go to the doctor. In Jan's condition, she could never walk that far in the waist-deep snow. Bob would have to carry her! Bob searched his mind for a way to move poor, sick Jan. Then, he remembered. He had once made a sledge so that they could ride together over the mountain. They never got around to using it though, because the whole mountain was thickly covered with rocks and trees. He had never found a safe way down, not even once. "Well," he thought, "looks like I'm going to have to try it anyhow," as he dug out the sledge from the storeroom. "Jan may die unless I get her to the doctor, and life means nothing to me without her." With this thought in mind, Bob gently tucked Jan into the sledge, got in the front, and with a short prayer for safety, pushed off. How they got through that ride alive, Bob has never figured out. As trees loomed up in front of him and just as quickly whizzed by his side, close enough to touch, he felt relieved that Jan was not awake to experience the ride. It was all he could do not to scream as collision seemed imminent, time and again, with only inches to spare. At last, bursting from the mountainside, the town came into view. Barely slowing down, they sped through the icy streets, only losing speed as they neared the doctor's house. The sledge, battered through the journey, collapsed in the left ski as it came to a halt, spilling out its occupants. Bob picked up his Jan and made his way into the doctor's house.

After what seemed to be a long winter, Jan recovered fully from her illness but Bob never recovered from his fright. They moved into the little town so as to be near help in times of crisis, and have lived there ever since. idyllic rack one's brains batter simple and carefree strain to find a solution to damage as by heavy wear

Write a story using this sentence as your first line : "It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens."
It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens. Ken and his friends were playing their regular football game along the banks of the river near their small village. In the midst of the game, Ken's attention was drawn to a tourist boat passing by. Actually, tourist boats were quite common in their area. It was also common for some of the tourists to take potshots at the birds and squirrels along the way. This is why Ken's friends were not really surprised to hear a few small explosions from the boat. They ignored the sounds and went on with their game. However, they were startled when they suddenly heard loud cries for help coming from the boat. They could see that the crew were running about, panic-stricken. Some people were shouting to them. "Their engine must have blown up! Look, there's smoke and the boat's out of control. It's going towards the rapids," Ken pointed out to his friends. Ken's village was located at the point at which the tourist boats turned around and headed back upstream. Three kilometers downstream were the rapids, which spelt trouble for the boats. "It's heading straight for the rapids! They're in trouble! The boat will be smashed against the rocks!" Ken exclaimed. "Let's get help!" The boys sprinted back to the village for help. Along the way, they met the village headman. Stumbling over his words in his haste, Ken explained the emergency to the headman. The headman was a man of quick action. Without wasting any time, he yelled out to some men to help him carry his powerful outboard motor to the jetty. With the motor tied firmly onto bamboo poles, they rushed hurriedly down to the jetty. Their haste was indeed necessary for, by the time the men had reached the jetty, they saw that the

boat was dangerously close to the rapids. There was not a moment to lose! With quick hands, the headman attached the outboard motor to his sampan and then sped off to the rescue. Upon reaching the tourist boat with bare minutes to spare, the headman realized his mistake. How could so many tourists be packed into this small sampan? The headman was filled with despair. Then he saw the rope that had been used to tie down the outboard motor to the bamboo poles. It had been flung into the sampan in his haste. Quickly, he grabbed the rope and flung it to the boatmen on the tourist boat. "I'll tow you back!" he shouted. After the boatmen had tied the rope firmly to their boat, the headman made a swift U-turn and then, putting the engine on full power, he steered his sampan upstream. The rope gave a jerk and then, to everyone's relief and joy, the tourist boat moved forward, obediently following the small sampan. Loud cheers burst out from the tourist boat and the observers on the shore. Thanks to the headman's courage, the cooperation from the villagers, and the quick action of the boys, the tourists were saved from certain death in the rapids. take potshot sprint stumble a shot which is fired carelessly or with little preparation to run as fast as you can over a short distance to act or speak falteringly

Describe an incident when a moment of forgetfulness got you into trouble.
The morning sun shone persistently on my still-shut eyelids. Annoyed, I rolled on to the right side of my mattress. Wondering about the time, I stretched out my arm to grasp the little, round alarm clock on my bedside table. I forced open my eyes, focused them on the numbers ... and screeched! Leaping out of my bed, I swung open the wardrobe door. Throwing my school uniform on the bed, I dashed to the bathroom. Halfway, I spun around and grabbed my school bag, deciding not to brush my teeth. Soon, I had shoved my feet into my shoes and pounced onto my bicycle. My parents stood motionless, staring at me as I whizzed past. As my bicycle raced on, I noticed a group of schoolgirls looking my way with great interest. Well, well! Obviously, I was still attractive even with uncombed hair. My heart was pounding furiously in my chest as I whirred past a few cars on the road. The drivers seemed to stare with disbelief that one could pedal so swiftly. In no time, I reached the school gate, which was just

about to be closed. Without bothering to explain myself to the priggish duo on guard duty, I hopped off my bike and dashed off. After locking my precious iron steed at the shed, I sprinted to the school hall. As I burst into the hall, I braked to change direction and made a beeline for the back of my class. Screeching to a halt, I took my place behind my classmates. In the whole gathering of students, I seemed to be the centre of attraction. It did not matter much to me at the moment for I was used to being looked at. However, to say the least, I was a little surprised when everyone stopped staring blankly at me and started to giggle. Suddenly, the whole hall was filled with roars and bellows of laughter. Smiling at my audience, I decided to take a bow. Then, I noticed that the bottom half of my trousers were the wrong color. My line of vision moved upwards, revealing that the rest of my pants were also the wrong color, and so was my shirt. At first, even my powerful brain could not figure it out. "Daniel! Why on earth are you in pajamas?" my friend blurted out amidst the hollers of laughter. The feeling of sheer horror swept through my entire frame. My mouth was stuck open in an "0" shape for a few long seconds. My mind was filled only with shock as darkness mercifully started to engulf me. Once again. I awoke with lights playing on my eyelids. At first I had little memory of what had happened, but one look at the group of people peering down at me brought the whole incident back to mind. The young boys were all clad in white uniforms and grinning quite lunatically at me. In. the high corner of the room, I saw a red crescent. Then the horrible little squirts started to call out for their seniors. Outside, I heard freshgales of laughter. The brats were chortling. I was still clad in pajamas. Not knowing what else to do, I feigned unconsciousness again ... in no time make a beeline for gales of laughter in a relatively short time to straight to a forceful outburst

Imagine a world where nobody gets sick or old. Write a story based in this fictitious world
It's my birthday today. I have lost count of how many birthdays have passed, but I still keep my tradition. I climb to the top of the nearby hill, bringing a handful of dirt with me. I press it into the ground. Then, I sit down to prepare my mind for my next annual rite: reminding myself of

who I am and why I am living. I made this hill, actually, and I'm still building it up. I started on my tenth birthday. Now, the hill is large enough for me to ski down each winter. In a world where people stay young forever, persistence pays. Persistence was what led Dr Syue Cano to discover the secret of eternal youth. At the age of eighty-four, he identified the gene that causes humans to age and the specific radiation that destroys it. No one will know whether he detonated his "Youth" bomb for the sake of his own immortality or for the sake of the other human beings in the world. However, his defective heart could not withstand the impact of the blast. He died the instant the bomb exploded. Mankind will always be grateful for the discovery to which Dr Cano dedicated his life. However, he left the world with one problem: the earth's limited natural resources. Even with plant growth accelerated by scientific wizardry, food and oxygen were becoming inadequate for the world population, which only kept booming. Some subtractions were necessary for the survival of the human species. The only solution was to remove some of the people by unnatural means, that is, to execute them. Thus, this was why all crimes were made punishable by execution: murder, theft, adultery, slander, hoarding of food... the list is very long. This was the only way to maintain the valance of nature. That's where I come in. I am an Executioner. I work alone, never considering the risk. People say I have a death wish. Perhaps I do. Certainly, yesterday's job was no waltz in the park. Rob Tao was suspected of stealing and hoarding food. My job was to check this out. As always, I was to be detective, judge, jury and executioner. I had enough stealth technology to break into Tao's compound undetected. To get into the house was also a cinch. My vibra-blade cut through the wall like it was butter. In the house, my Arometer detected food, lots of it. I went down corridor after corridor, following the bleeps of light on my Arometer. The signals went wild outside one closed door. There was a lot of human activity inside, judging by my HUO sensors. I primed a grenade and opened the door just a crack -- enough to see whom I would be executing. Then I deprimed the grenade. Sitting there were thousands of children. Rob Tao stood amongst them, holding a huge pot of steaming mush. He smiled at me, seeminglyunperturbed. "You're feeding all these children?" I asked, flabbergasted. "Yes," he replied quietly. "How do you get so much food? I'm sure you steal it," I said.

on his lap." . I don't understand why I just walked out. he instilled in me a sense of God's presence in this world. Sitting here now. My father. To our shared delight. kind eyes. I had no excuse for letting him get away withhis crime. usually by telling them something they were not expecting Describe your relationship with your father Every evening. When I was very young."Yes. Worriedly. these days. as I stand perched on the peak of Mount Kina. the familiar sound of my father's car reaches my ears. behind his steel-rimmed glasses are soft. I know that in a few moments. At first. From that day onwards. at 53 years. clumsy and rather unfit.. my bookish ways and disinterest in outdoor games made me overweight. I was a most reluctant jogger. I found that I was able to do so. He has a slim and athletic body. One day.. my father stood observing me as I was running to a field. with his gentle correction every now and then. I was introduced to the fascinating realm of books. It was not my decision to make. looking in quietly. I remember his words. has thinning hair swept back from his forehead. the engine purring to a stop. However. His broad shoulders and rather serious demeanor give him an air of authority. on my hill. my father would point out the spelling of words. he would take a book from our small home library and read aloud to me every night. Yet. Then one day. I became quite a bookworm. From that day onwards. I remember how. Going to execute me?" Still that gentle smile. I imagine his Fort Cortina coming up the driveway. can't remember what I'm living for. As I grew into boyhood. he instructed me to read the words for myself. huffing and puffing. I arrived there. Thus. just 50 yards away. My father has always been my source of encouragement. breathing deeply after a good run. Yet. he told me that he would not like to see his son grow up into an unhealthy man. "A healthy body breeds a healthy mind. I can't remember what I'm killing for. Secure and loved. I do. he started to take me on jogs. I was picking up the hooks and reading them on my own. so as not to stir me from my concentration. He would read stories and parables from the Bible. my father will be pausing outside my door. as he was reading. as I am doing my schoolwork in my room. I was the one who would read aloud. Soon after that. cinch unperturbed flabbergasted something easy to accomplish free from emotional agitation or nervous tension to shock someone. I know he will feel pleased as he watches me studying.

and I was shaking with nerves.. Lifting my bowed head. my father has been there for me whenever I needed him. when I was about to give up on a task. he consoled me. he put an arm around my shoulders and gently asked me what was troubling me. "I'm a green-faced alien from Pluto. "If a job deserves to be done. Actually. he would rush me to the doctor. demeanor daunt The way in which a person behaves to make someone feel slightly frightened or worried about their ability to achieve something to encourage an activity spur on Describe some of the minor accidents that you have experienced Accidents are part and parcel of life itself and to say that you have never had a silly accident in your life would be like saying.. After listening. but they have certainly made me more aware of my limitations. He would surely be there. When I was sick at heart. I poured out my heart's discontent. I felt a tickle in my nose. I exploded in a huge. it was my debut. Nothing could get me out there to face the amused audience. sloppy sneeze that blasted my music sheets right off the piano. to no avail. Looking back. I think. remembering those times. I was able to smile in spite of my problems. Then. it deserves to be done well.My father has a store of wise sayings which may seem common to some but always strike the correct note with me. looking out for me all the way." Well. Not all of them have changed my life. I sat at the piano and started playing. Since then. Absolutely humiliated. "I can't believe I actually did that!" There was this incident about five years back. I realize that every step of the way. Then he said. he advised me. his words gave me the strength to try again. Yet. his advice always comes to mind and this spurs me on to persevere. I have certainly had my share of ridiculous accidents. when I was really depressed. My fingers were needed on the piano keys so I could not reach tip to rub my nose. the dreaded moment arrived. he would know just the right things to say. At another time. Halfway through the first movement." Somehow. I tried holding my breath. and the world around you will smile. and I was able to succeed. through my childhood and adolescence. Once. Why? Because he loves me. When I was sick." Somehow. I dashed off the stage. I was at a piano recital. My father had bought me . In any kind of trouble. "Smile. sometimes. whenever I feel dauntedby a task. I am only a few years away from adulthood and know that many more challenges lie ahead of me. there was this skating incident which occurred only a year ago. I would just have to give him a call. I can be sure that my father will be there. Finally. However.

My clothes. I shoved off. all that was injured was my selfconfidence. I was waving my arms around. contempt. So. thanks to my protective pads. I was. My legs had no sense of direction. Well. There was a loud Crash! Boom! and Bang! Fortunately. I had never skated before. It started smoothly. not knowing what was ahead. We were at our annual class party and having the time of our lives. After eating. of course. . groundnuts. we had all sorts of games and competitions. like a drowning chicken trying to fly out of the water. My mother had just bought a microwave oven. actually. I lost all control of my bodily movements. I opened the oven to take out my warmed-up food. with my left leg heading north and my right heading south-east. warming up food was not complicated . I think.. I could not remember when I had last enjoyed myself so much. my hair. still considered a user with "L" (Learner) plates as far as this oven was concerned. they were my first pair of skates. I placed the plate of food in the microwave oven..my first pair of in-line skates. Carefully. for the first time in years. there you have them. or so I thought. we had decided on the picnic at the beach. On that fateful day. On the plate were the usual accompaniments to the coconutflavored rice: vegetables. Well. Standing up. However. After a few rounds. I confidently put them on and fastened them. turned the dial to "high" and pressed the lever to start the oven. the egg exploded. She stood in shock for a moment before charging after me. Then. Finally managing to get upright. Another accident occurred right in the safety of my home. I found myself staring the gate right in its metal grille. or disgust Describe an occasion when you were caught in a rainstorm. There was no lunch for me that day either. the whole kitchen was covered with egg-yolk and rice that the force of the explosion threw. Actually. At that very second. Boom! It was "Egg yolk keeps falling on my head". some of the grimace-inspiring details of my life. This year. am I clumsy or just low in luck? A little of both. part and parcel to no avail grimace to be a necessary feature of a particular experience of no use A sharp contortion of the face expressive of pain. chillied prawns and a whole hard-boiled egg. my mother had left me a plate of fried rice to be reheated for my lunch. laughing and yelling out threats. "Argh!" screamed my friend as the water balloon hit her full in the face. in the kitchen. I watched my dish of food turn graceful circles in the oven. Gleefully.

I looked around for my T-shirt but it was nowhere to be found. drizzle ward off transfix rain in very small light drops try to prevent to render motionless.. I was supposed to walk the short distance to my aunt's house after the party. thrilling to the sounds of the thunder and the crashing waves. I gave up. The sea was turbulent. time and again. I felt I had to be part of it. I mentally kicked myself for getting into this situation. with thick thunderclouds and it had begun to drizzle. As I gazed.However. where jagged boulders stood in the sea. I ran out and stood in the middle of the storm. suddenly. dejectedly. as with a fixed stare or by arousing terror or awe Describe the sights and sounds at the end of a long day. with powerful waves crashing onto the shore. after minutes of fruitless search.. Gust after gust of howling wind blew through the trees. It was beautiful. we started preparing to leave. lighting up the whole scene for a split second each time. the heavens burst and torrents of rain came pouring down. I dashed for it. all good things must come to an end. I stared out at it. I reached it at last and darted in. However. with a loud crash of thunder. I debated whether or not to return for it as I could see dark clouds heading my way. Finally spotting a tiny shack at a distance. The sky was dark. sending up sprays of sea water high into the air. however. On the left. Then. Wondering when the rain would stop. Lightning streaked across the sky. . As I shook out my hair." the cuckoo clock on the wall of my office called five times. I remembered that I had left a T-shirt on the beach. Finally. the shirt was an old favorite of mine and I was so wet from the water balloons that a little more water would not make a difference. I scanned the area for a place of refuge. The beach was now deserted. About halfway there. The black clouds hung low. and as it neared evening. I started heading back. to be at one with nature. Holding my backpack over my head in an effort to ward off the relentless blows of the rain. drenched to the bone and shivering from head to toe. captivated by the power and violence of the storm. the waves threw themselves on them. scary and magnificent at the same time. my feelings of dejection turned into awe. reveling in the stinging rain and chilling wind. "Cuckoo! Cuckoo!. and relishing the magnificence of nature. I stood transfixed.

only to stop with a sudden jolt. up I went. Buses came and left. which. my strict upbringing forcing me to mutter a few insincere "Excuse-me's". I grabbed hold of a strap and tried to stand firmly Every time the bus lurched forward. started stuffing things into my briefcase and my huge handbag. No way! They were all definitely occupied. undoubtedly about clothes or make-up. I pushed my chair back. Inch by inch we moved and one and a half hours later. buses and motorcycles around us kept up a constant honking. Jay and Rayne were chatting up Sarah. and had my toes trod on several times. probably trying to get her to go for a drink. I dragged my body up the flights of stairs to my second-floor flat. Then I continued towards the bus stop. I was too tired to walk home. there was the rushing and jostling as I tried to force my puny frame through the masses of burly men and women. I entered my apartment. thankfully. after a little fumbling for my keys. heading out the door. I was ready to perish amidst the petrol fumes and the stink of stale sweat when I finally managed to squeeze my right foot onto a bus step. Andrew was yelling at Mac for throwing a paper plane at him. Then. The burning rays of the sun stoked up the oven which our bus had now become. Sigh! I had no choice but to join the crowd. Finally. The bus hurtled on. and Cynthia was doing the waltz in her three-inch heels. Then. Then. As I stepped out through the glass doors of the air-conditioned building. the new clerk. I groaned aloud when I saw the hordes of people gathered there and regretted leaving my car at home. we got caught in a massive traffic jam. we would all sway backwards. I did not even bother to try the elevator as I knew I would be competing with a crowd of thirty or more residents. I straightened my stiff back and neck. I shoved my way out. stunning me for a few seconds. With a sigh of utmost relief. the result of hours of hunching over documents and surveyed the whole noise-polluted room. I searched for a seat. Every time it was the same anxious craning to read the bus number above the heads of the crowd. humid air slammed me full in the face. forced by the pushing crowd into the packed bus. heaved myself up. I became nauseous and thought many times about getting off. I finally arrived at my stop. Mandy and Lily were chatting animatedly. I couldn't wait to get home. a blast of hot. With a grunt. Feeling woozy and yet hyped up. I reached my door and. careening madly round corners. turned on the television and collapsed on the couch. I was crushed on all sides. Yet. Cars."Yes!" I shouted in my head. I dropped my briefcase and handbag on the floor. "Time to pack up!". was just in front of my flat. "All in .

This is for the sake of development. The once beautiful and spectacular forests are reduced to barren landscapes. where will this oxygen come from? Will we process it in factories? Will a time come when man will be fighting for the very air he breathes? Furthermore. Thousands and thousands of acres of lush rain forests are cleared each year to make way for development. what happens when trees are felled? Firstly. There will be a greenhouse effect on earth. Then. Secondly. the great and tiny inhabitants of these forests? Nowhere. While cutting down a tree to add yet another piece of luxurious furniture to Man's already opulent lifestyle. As creatures dependent on the food chain. and gazed with unseeing eyes at the television. the food chain will be disrupted. in the end. the ice in the polar caps will melt. Another point to note is that forests are home to hundreds of species of flora and fauna. As a result. a shocking fact will hit us full force. the excessive carbon dioxide will also effect a change in the micro-climate and raise the region's temperature. Trees absorb the carbon dioxide breathed out by living creatures. as the earth's temperature rises. Without trees. Thousands of people will suffer in these floods. What I am talking about is the lack of oxygen. Man destroys this balance when he flattens the forests to the ground. The heavy tropical rains will carry away the rich topsoil. my girl!" I told myself. perish typed up fumble to die artificially stimulated or high excited search blindly and uncertainly The problem of deforestation. They die. warm air and radiation will be trapped under the earth's atmosphere. the rivers will become shallower. the flowing water will not only wash away the topsoil but will deposit it in the rivers. the earth is left vulnerable to soil erosion. the lush vegetation will give way to wasteland. for the advancement of man. people forget that they are also cutting down our supply of oxygen. Yet. Where do they go then.a day's work. floods will become frequent in the area. produce the life-sustaining oxygen. Consequently. man is ultimately destroying his own sources of food through the destruction of rain forests. When forests are a distant memory. . If this goes on. Animals and plants live in symbiotic relationships in the balance of nature. Slowly but steadily. Mankind will be thrown into a state of unimaginable suffering and agony. and the land without its topsoil will no longer be fertile. Great floods will hit the lower-lying areas. reprocess it and. raising the sea level.

some of the suggestions are rubbish but I do agree with many of them. This is especially true for children from lessaffluent homes who cannot afford to supplement the school's teaching with extra tuition. They stay up late into the night to finish correcting their students' work and to prepare effective lessons for their students. In fact. if only all teachers were like this! Furthermore. teachers in all schools should realize that they are responsible for their students' future. With the support of ordinary citizens like you and me.As you can see. there are teachers who are truly committed to their job and do deliver the goods. and most importantly. Some are so irrational . I am emphasizing this point because some teachers do not seem to feel the slightest obligation to do their job well nor the slightest feeling of guilt when their students fail in the examinations. This is why we ought to preserve our forests. wouldn't the school be a much better place to spend our adolescence if we did not have to cope with teachers who vent their foul moods on us? We should not have to walk on eggshells because our teacher has had a bad day. Another aspect of the school that needs changing is the set of school rules. in my school. There are many ways in which my school could be improved. Teachers should not shirk their responsibilities towards their students. A change in our environment will trigger offanother change which will trigger off yet another. many weaknesses that need seeing to. This is why we. such as the Scouts movement. Now. Members of this beautiful planet must be united. Granted. We can also help by planting trees. we are preserving ourselves. Firstly. affluent put in motion What changes would you like to see in your school ? If you were to see the number of suggestion slips stuffed into my school's Suggestion Box. This is why environmentalist groups are pressurizing governments to reduce the felling of trees and the clearing of forests and to be serious about replanting forests. luxurious. Some teachers will even devote Saturday mornings to conducting extracurricular activities. you would be shocked. By preserving our forests. it is a vicious cycle. they will get the attention of the people in power. should keep the balance of nature. teachers are sometimes found sipping coffee or even having a snack in the school canteen when they are supposed to be in class teaching. Of course. lush opulent trigger off abundant rich.

What is the rationale behind this? Do the people in authority believe that everyone with long hair will turn out to be a thug or a villain? Well. I feel that criminal action should be taken against students who beat people up. I flick the start button and feel the soft vibration begin. punishments for serious acts of indiscipline should be made more effective. You just cannot learn good morals the way you learn any other academic subject. These days. caring.or petty! Take. This is the time that we are molded. to extort money from them. even if they have to be harsher. intellectually and morally. for example. I return the gesture to indicate that all internal systems are working well and that I will be taking off. I strongly feel that these vandals should be made to pay for what they have destroyed. indicating that all the external parts of the plane are in order and functioning well. One major problem is the subject called "Moral Education". "Moral Education" should either be taken off the school curriculum after primary school or changed to emphasize practical application rather than "head knowledge". Another area that needs reform is the school curriculum. or threaten to do so. one of the best supersonic planes ever invented. If you behave like a criminal. Let us spend these hours usefully. I hear the hum of pure power. the rule on short hair for boys. The sergeant gives me the thumbs-up sign from the far run way. fun-filled atmosphere. Pushing . Good morals have to be internalized. chairs and even doors. in a secure. Help us to grow into worthy citizens of our nation. Furthermore. Our school hours take up a large portion of our day. So. look at Hitler: he had very short hair and he almost caused the extinction of the entire Jewish race! On the other hand. I run a routine check on all the aircraft's dials and gauges as well as the weapon systems through the heads-up display. students may get away with only a warning or a "booking" for offences such as breaking the school's tables. Our school years take up a large proportion of our lives. affluent walk on eggshells extort having a lot of money being careful not to offend someone or do anything wrong to obtain something by force or threat What occupation do you see yourself in after you have completed your schooling ? What are you going to do to achieve this ambition ? I climb into the cockpit and sit myself down on the metal seat of the F-16 "Falcon". memorizing facts for examinations. you should be treated like one.

into adolescence and up till now. eating food rich in vitamin A. Well. My hard work has paid off and I have been topping the class in these subjects. I knew that I would never want to do anything as much as I wanted to fly. I have always made time for exercise. My dream is almost within my grasp. I never stint on my study times. In school. The results will not be out for months but I feel confident that I have done well. quick reflexes and the ability to stay cool under pressure. There is not much longer to wait. . So. I have just sat for the O levels. Among them are academic excellence. Next year. I have always curtailed my hours of television-viewing. When I do watch television. I feel the acceleration of the plane taxiing off the runway and into the air . I have never been the kind of person to leave things to chance: I am constantly aware of the need to work towards my goals. high above the rest of civilization. I was especially fascinated with accounts of air battles. The thought of scudding through the sky with the ability to defy gravity with a multi-million dollar piece of machinery and patriotic fervor excited my soul. My dream began when I was about seven years old. Biggles was my hero above all other heroes.. I have always been conscious of the need to preserve the perfect eyesight that God has blessed me with. which is essential for healthy eyes. I watch my diet. I have always aspired to be a fighter pilot. I have always been careful to read only in well-lit areas.. I plan to do my A levels. The requirements for fighter pilot candidates are many and difficult to fulfill. I made sure I qualified for the science stream in High School. perfect eyesight. my ambition narrowed from just wanting to fly a plane to becoming a fighter pilot. Thus. I pray with all my heart that it will become a reality and not remain just another of my boyish fantasies. He must be able to withstand the high and low g's when piloting a jet at high speed. As I grew older. I shall enlist in the US Air Force. It is crucial for a fighter pilot to be fighting fit. I began to read books on aviation and air adventures. One day. a fit body. Thus. throughout my childhood years. I make sure I sit a good four meters away from the screen.the throttle to three quarters. taxi scud within one's grasp to move slowly on the ground to move quickly and without stopping in a straight line the ability to achieve . And after that. run ten kilometers a day and work out in the gym at least three times a week. I play games regularly. In addition. my uncle took me for a ride in his private plane. It was a momentous experience for me! Soaring freely in the sky. as a pilot must have a good understanding of physics and mathematics.

. misguided members of the opposition. a beloved child might end up being the black sheep of the family. the opposition contends that it is an advantage to be spoilt in this way. Thus. "The eldest child. and members of the floor: Good day to all. The eldest child is also cast as a role model for the younger ones. This is a good feeling and it creates high self-esteem.It is better to be the eldest child than the youngest one in the family. honorable judges. Ever heard of the expression "Spare the rod and spoil the child"? It is true. an average of 3 out of 5 successful people -. One of the advantages of being an eldest child is that he is used to being respected and obeyed by his siblings. Now. the child might think that his misbehavior is perfectly acceptable. He will often be left in charge of the younger ones. is this good? It is indeed enjoyable to be fussed over. lawyers. This is because they know he is wiser and more experienced. the second member of the opposition claimed that the youngest child will be treated more leniently than the others. "Ladies and gentlemen. these momentarily trying circumstances will shape the child and prepare him for the challenges that lie ahead. he has to try harder to maintain discipline and a high standard of behavior. They are only disadvantageous if you are unable to see the long-term benefits. is this an advantage? By being treated too leniently. "For instance. "Undeniably. But. the eldest child will shoulder more responsibilities. This self-esteem will motivate him to succeed in every aspect of life. spineless. "All these points were described as 'disadvantages' by the opposition. How can this be? "The opposition has also pointed out that the youngest child is usually more pampered.were the eldest children in their families. having straightened out a few delusions of the opposition. Now. I shall present my own points. Would you like to be this spineless adult? I leave you to decide. having to cope with his siblings' antics. again. Chairman. in other words. "Standing here today on this breezy morning as the third speaker for the proposition. Thus. proposing or opposing this motion.corporate leaders. politicians -. Without strict and loving discipline. "Mr. You see. I agree. He may have to give in to his siblings because `they are too young to understand'. he will be overly dependent on others. "Write a debate speech. According to a survey conducted by the Home Ministry. will also develop patience. pampered and mollycoddled but what will this pampered child grow into? It is a maxim that too much or too little is no good: Once a pampered child grows up. I wish to continue where my team-mates left off to correct the misleading information presented by the opposition. he develops tolerance and understanding of other people's weaknesses.

to the point that they hardly care if they pass or fail. Sadly. So much time and emotion is poured into preparing for examinations. are examinations an accurate yardstick? A person's true abilities may not be shown by written examinations. which centers on the word 'privileges'. The weaker students often end up the victims in this race -. this attitude will be carried with them into adult life. the eldest child is the heir to the throne. In monarchies. In most cases. Take Winston Churchill. and work completed methodically and with minimum fuss. According to Chinese custom. you are wrong. He was a school dropout and yet he became one of England's greatest statesmen. Thank you. Clearly. If you think that the eldest child is only privileged if he belongs to a wealthy family. Yet. the eldest son carries on the family name. the eldest child will inherit the greater share of the wealth. Advocates of the system contend that annual examinations are a good way of training children for the stress of life after school . . students face the daunting task of preparing for examinations every single year. They race through the syllabus so that they can cover everything in it in time for the examinations regardless of whether their students have understood the material. silly or strange behavior having an awareness or understanding of a situation Should our school examination system be abolished ? Give reasons for your stand. From primary school to the end of their tertiary education. The distinction is even sharper in poor families where the eldest child may be the only one whom the family can afford to educate or feed properly.where deadlines and sales quotas need to be met.they are left far behind the rest of the class. And now I hand over to my opponents. therefore he deserves a larger share of the property. to give the sensible ones amongst them a chance to start defecting over to our side. there you have it. a national savior in World War II. Another problem related to our system of examinations is that teachers become too "examorientated". Government examinations are also said to be the necessary yardstick for measuring the capability of each person for further education or employment. some talents and forms of ingenuity go undetected in examinations. as in the case of Prince Charles."On to my next point. They become more and more discouraged as they understand less and less of the lessons. "So." mollycoddle antics sensible to give too much care or protection amusing. Clear arguments to demolish the opposition to this motion. for example.

which student in his right mind would be happy about having to clean a toilet? Most school toilets are dark. I feel that they should be given less importance within the school system. regardless of the low status it accords him. Furthermore educationists. They have to study. Another advantage of this proposal is that the students will try to keep the toilets cleaner as their friends will be the ones forced to clean up any mess they create. Is this really living? A related point is that some students are so occupied with their studies that they do not develop their potential in other fields. The public reaction to this issue was so strong that people have been flooding the mass media with opinions for and against his suggestion. So. Cleaning them will be most unpleasant. . On the other hand. study. many students just do not have the time to make full use of these extracurricular activities. It is true that there are many clubs and societies in the school. our emphasis on examinations is indirectly producing people who are only trained to study and reproduce facts rather than wellrounded individuals. students should also be evaluated through the cumulative marks of tests and assignments. One of the reasons the Education Minister gave for his proposal was that cleaning toilets will teach students humility and respect for others. Firstly. All through the school semester. We rush from one tuition class to another and we spend most of our time studying for tests and examinations. For example. dirty and smelly.What about the "swots"? Well. In conclusion. there are countless reasons for me to be apprehensive about this proposal for making toilet cleaning part of the school curriculum. I confess that I often wonder whether it is worth it. parents and the students themselves should always be reminded that the results of examinations are not equal to the sum of the net worth of the individual. advocate ingenuity well-rounded person supporting an idea or cause publicly someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something involving or having experience in a wide range of ideas or activities "Cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. "They will also be able to respect the cleaners because he is able to do the necessary job. or doing our homework. while I realize that it will be impossible to do away with all examinations. employers. speaking as one. instead of basing entry qualifications on one examination. He suggested that cleaning these toilets should be part of the school curriculum. This job is looked down upon and considered one of the lowest. However. we only have one thought in mind: to excel in the examinations. our Education Minister brought up the subject of school toilets. the students will be able to understand the humility of the school workers when they have to clear up other people's messes in the toilets. Firstly. study." Do you agree ? About two months ago.

anyway. I feel that people generally are not so naive. Its advertising mode probably fits all the descriptions made by the proposition team member. Frankly. I would like to express my disagreement with one of the points expressed by the proposition team. few of the usual purchases that we buy are heavily advertised on television or anywhere else for that matter. Good afternoon. the male ego would certainly suffer a lot of pain.Furthermore. Actually. However. the teachers of other subjects may find it hard to complete the syllabus. honorable judges. the tricks haven't worked. Some egoistic guy will create havoc in retaliation! Then. due to the rise in absenteeism. I do not agree at all that cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. my most worthy opponents and everyone else present here today. do you choose the most highly advertised tissue paper or toilet paper? At most. For example. Chairman. Now. in a wholly girls' or boys' school it would not be so humiliating. Imagine them expressing their playful nature in the toilets. One other possibility that cannot be excluded is that students may be so turned off at the thought of toilet cleaning that they may decide to skip school on the days that it is their turn to learn this skill. Other than the fact that excessive water is sure to be splashed all over the place. In conclusion. Take the Cherry Coke advertisements. Even the members of the proposition team have been able to note the various tricks and so-called brain washing maneuver. "The second speaker for the proposition said that advertisements cause people to keep buying low-quality goods. Thus. a spell of cleaning toilets will certainly be a blow to their ego. if it were a co-ed school. School is supposed to be a place where young people can imbibe knowledge and good values in a pleasant. Of course. I feel that the Ministry of Education should really ponder on this issue carefully. However. So. have they? Actually. there is the consideration that most students are playful. apprehensive merriment ponder feeling anxious about something that you are going to do having enjoyable time together to think carefully about something. enjoyable atmosphere. "Mr. Before I begin on my main points. jobs like toilet cleaning make one think of prison camps. especially for a noticeable length of time Write a debate speech in support of advertisements. where the inmates are forced to do humiliating chores. how many of us were so influenced by these advertisements that he or she has started . More ill-behaved ones may even purposely push each other into the toilet bowls. Imagine girls laughing and teasing a guy who is forced to clean toilets. the students may slip and fall in theirmerriment. we would try a much advertised product only because it was something new. It is important that young people actually like to come to school.

I would like to state the benefits of advertisements from the economic side. Then. How could my dear grandma have found out about such a strange but useful product without advertisements? Jokes aside. See how advertisements have been such a blessing! "I rest my case. computer owners can find the best software. This company was able to grow due to advertisements. millions of consumers benefit because of advertisements. Imagine all the bother one must go through to find out the product one needs amongst the rapidly expanding array of products and inventions available. End of lizard problem. through reading the advertisements in newspapers or magazines. we can just flip open a newspaper or even the Yellow Pages. Because of its increasing popularity through advertising. As you can see. not only in America but also in Levi's factories in Indonesia. Advertisements can help companies to introduce their latest products to the market. the Philippines and other third world countries. one would have to phone just about every shop in town! Nowadays. Estate managers can find out about the right fertilizer or pesticide. "Now. Why. consumers can purchase these goods at reasonable prices. many people find just the product required to take care of their particular problem. or even monthly? "Now for my first point. this industry gradually weaved its way into the market until it started to prosper. doctors can find out about the latest medications. The name of this brand of jeans is none other than Levi's. they will not have the confidence to try to produce it. Let me give a real example. One man started a small and humble cottage industry of jeans-making. especially to avoid hitting things . From a cottage industry. "Thirdly. she saw the advertisement for a lizard spray that can paralyze lizards temporarily. without advertisements. This may sound capitalistic. industries can also greatly contribute to the expansion of a company from regional to international status. one day. Mass production is more economical and allows the producers to lower the price of these goods! As a result. another point is that it is only with proper circulation of the products made possible by advertising that the companies are able to mass-produce their products. Thank you.to drink the beverage weekly. Here is another real-life case. creating job opportunities for millions of people. advertisements of the latest technology and inventions are also beneficial for the consumers. If the companies are not able to inform the public about their new products. "Fourthly. My grandmother used to have too many lizards crawling around her house and she is paranoid about them. With the increase in sales. for it means they can find the right kind of product for themselves easily and quickly." humble weave not proud to go or make a path by moving quickly and changing direction often. but we must remember the importance of these factories to the nation. It is undeniable that advertisements play a crucial role in increasing a company's sales. the company can afford to give better pay to the workers and offer more jobs. this industry grew into an international company known by both the young and old.

I could even play golf every morning while the kids are at school. lawyers and scientists. "Thus. And that's what really counts. let's give the women the chance to work at those jobs that they've always wanted. more and more women now qualify as doctors. Eking out a living then consisted mainly of running around with a club or spear. then. So. while we men opt for more 'relaxed' lifestyles. men are perfectly capable of performing domestic chores and minding children. the women have been doing it for centuries. This is not healthy. or dinosaurs. moose. I feel that man has always dominated.paranoid feeling extremely anxious Write a speech for an elocution contest entitled " Should men be househusbands ?" "I would like to share my thoughts with you on a subject that has always been close to my heart. And. if my wife insists on being the breadwinner. as we all know. the fairer sex. perhaps the country would be run better. looking at the current state of the world. Children need parental care. However. perhaps we men should just stay at home to mind the house and let the women run the world!" downtrodden bring home the bacon the rat race badly and unfairly treated to earn money for a family to live on a way of life in modern society. what often happens is that the wife has to quit her job. What's so bad about that? So. men can give the affection and care that the children need. characterized by people competing with each other for power and money . that is. especially when the wife has better qualifications. "There was a very good reason for this in ancient times. After all. what with wars. "Some people doubt that a man can manage a household. hunting deer. women can and do think as sensibly and intelligently as men. Bringing home the bacon in modern times needs intelligence and sensible thinking. Is this fair? Not really. bullied. You see. People have thus come to the conclusion that it is the woman's duty to mind the home and it shall be her role forever. as a member of the male sex I feel guilty. famines and nuclear weapons. I will be relieved of the stress of running in the rat race. "Actually. or should I say. The men should be given the duty to mind the house occasionally. there has been a vast change. And. You see. the children are left in daycare centers. who will stay at home to take care of the children? Usually in cases where the mother works. whether men should be house-husbands. Women have long been downtrodden and forced to mind the house. And. now that we're approaching the year 2000. "Personally. So. as fathers. who knows.

Ever since man formed a system of verbal communication. In cases where lies have been told to hurt you or other parties on purpose. I feel that friends. need not tell each other everything they know or feel. sharing one's problems and joys with a friend can also be helpful as we deal with the problems of daily living. especially in our speech. that some things need to be said to our friends without any twisting of the truth. The friend. one must then be prepared to . In conclusion. it would be a very bad idea to tell her just how unattractive she was. all people have been in constant chatter with one another." Do you agree ? No man is an island. little lies can lead to the spoiling of relationships. Sharing one's problems and despairs with a friend will bring forth the encouragement and advice we need to hear. Some matters. stressing on her good qualities. even when the matter is not of great importance. Sometimes simply having an ear to hear our heart's cries and knowing that someone understands us will make us feel better. Everyone depends on his friends to a certain extent. People have been saved from suicide just by having a friend to listen to their troubles. he exaggerates circumstances a little. You see. If an ugly girl with an inferiority complex were to ask you if she was unattractive. Relationships are important to man. then. so much that people may shape their entire lifestyles simply to find favor with their clique or circle of friends. must we always tell our friends the whole truth and nothing but the truth or is it sometimes simply none of their business? One thing is clear: finding out that your friend has lied to you always hurts. However. It is clear. there are times when telling a friend too much can also lead to problems. while some others should be hidden. should be discussed with friends. sometimes. So then. shared joy is double the joy and shared sorrow is half the sorrow. I have a friend who often tells little untruths. he makes up stories just to entertain his friends. Therefore. even the closest of friends. If the lie caused you great damage. even if you have strong opinions. Sharing the good times can brighten up a friend's day if he feels down. about them. An all-toocommon example of such a time is when one hears rumors. of course. As the saying goes. sometimes he tells halftruths to get out of trouble."Friends should never hide anything from each other. much caution must be applied when dealing with our friends. The final result can be a mangled product which could really hurt the parties involved. Not being perfect. telling the truth may be worse than saying nothing. who actually had no real knowledge of the matter. Personally. of course. just to impress others. The thing to do about rumors is not to spread them. the friendship will not be salvageable. Gossip can start simply because someone thought a rumor was true and shared all her thoughts on the rumor with a friend. So. Sometimes. One must use his discretion in such situations. the friendship will never be the same. I just never know whether he is telling the truth or one more of his little lies. of course. I just do not feel comfortable with him. Who would want a treacherous person for a friend? Yet. Another noteworthy fact is that sometimes. we are bound to make mistakes. passed all her thoughts and ideas to another friend and so on and so forth. Telling the whole truth in this case would destroy her remaining shreds of confidence. Apart from the question of maintaining credibility. We have to balance our love for truth with the practicalities of the situation.

people will always be measuring you by your achievements. theoretically. we lack the time and money to maintain . Unable to buy a car. This means. life as a youth is tough! Firstly. our parents have been comparing the ages at which we first started talking or walking. Actually the pressure on us to perform well at all times is great. I have to rely on them for transport. When they tell me to jump. You cannot buy anything. How true is this description of your life as a youth ? "The Golden Age of Youth"? Who coined up that expression? I am certainly not experiencing "golden" days in my life as a youth. In fact. who happen to be equally goalorientated parents. I have to jump. that's what friendship is really about -.Freedom. as long as you are not too old or too ill to walk. society and the government love to gauge us scholastically. Then. go anywhere or do anything. This means. many of my friends' complaints seem to attest that their experiences of youth roughly match up with mine. being young automatically means that I have limited knowledge and no job skills. Parents. that my parents are my Supreme Commanders. Practically speaking. our kiddy IQ test results and such other traps for vainglory. because.accepting people for what they are. which means that no one will employ me for any worthwhile job. not because I was "spicy" or "original" but because I have been chopped into pieces. there is the question of romance. This is especially true for people in their youth. youth is the worst time to get romantically attached. I am deprived of the vital human right that caused the American Civil War . socially. I have to rely on my parents financially. it is undeniable that without money. teachers. imperfections and all. morally and in whatever means they can think of. tenderized. apologizing for our verbal blunders and forgiving them for theirs. Since we started schooling. Secondly. Unable to buy a house. clearly and simply. physically. as was earlier explained.make up with our friends. Well. clique treacherous noteworthy a small group of people who spend their time together extremely dangerous deserving attention because important or interesting "The Golden Age of Youth". since we were born. Furthermore. Thus. If I were a piece of chicken. Obviously. this is a problem for me. The pressure from our family gets stronger the older we grow. I'd consider myself "Kentucky Fried". you become severely limited in your options. In such a situation. Unable to function without cash. I have to rely on them for accommodation. "No Independent Income". school examinations become so important that many of us will study hours on end to perform well in them. pressurecooked and well-fried. our parents have been comparing our test results with those of the children of their friends'. Now. that is.

which leads to heartache and causes us to perform badly in our examinations. don't you? So. without interruption Boastful. In my opinion. Often. of course. lasting damage to the psychological development of a person What qualities would you look for in a future wife or husband ? Along the road from cradle to grave many of us get married. Who better to enjoy sports with than my wife? This will draw us even closer together. we are at our most attractive. More importantly. Perhaps we should call it the "Iron Pyrite (Fool's Gold) Age of Youth". Long lashes and sparkling eyes do not cause someone to "fall in love at first sight". physically. I am no different. There was. the idea of "The Golden Age of Youth" must have been an illusion dreamt up by fools. we are at our peak. Yet. Of course. That is why I often meditate on the qualities I would seek in my future wife. quarrels between husband and wife concern other family members.a special boy-girl relationship. but few people go round seeking ugly mates. this causes us to be more prone to getting involved in romantic relationships. during our youth. after all. So. Unfortunately. unwarranted pride in one's accomplishments or qualities An emotional wound or shock that creates substantial. and to offer fresh insights to old situations. our hormones are swinging about wildly as we mature sexually. A wife should. an . I know my life will be enriched by having an intellectually stimulating partner to share my thoughts with. Many factors make the difference between marital bliss and having "an old ball-and-chain" but the most important factor is probably whom we choose to marry. my ideal mate will be someone who participates in the games and sports I like or at least. the first thing I notice when I meet a girl is whether she is pretty or not. youth is a traumatic time. I would also prefer to have a wife who is intelligent. Furthermore. be a true friend whom I can have fun with and want to spend my leisure activities with. However. This in itself can cause more emotional disturbance than all the other events of our lives combined. It is definitely not "golden". a husband and wife should be intellectually matched so that they can understand each other. Sports and games and other recreational activities are fun and foster closer ties. Your wife may be perfect but her parents may be irritating beyond comprehension. To be honest. be willing to learn them. Some men have the stereotyped "dumb blonde" image of a perfect woman. on end vainglory traumatic Continuously. for example. I think that the government should have chosen a better time to set all the major examinations than at this time.

Not once was that demand refused. for your best friend. I always say that one's future in-laws should always be checked carefully before one makes decisions about marriage. I was miserable. stay with me!" was my constant whine. If you are dead tired after a long. caring kind of woman is the only one with whom I would make any commitments for marriage. too. with a girl like that. My world was very small then. Well. a sympathetic. My mother would put everything aside to comfort me. And even though she might not be perfect. fall in love and get married. At odd hours of the night. When I was very young. Most of all. everyone else will be trying to win her hand. a loving wife who comforts you and listens to your problems can really make a difference. I had to spend most of my life away from school and in bed. hushing me as I fretted about the pains in my joints. If a girl isn't prepared to be faithful to you but she marries you anyway. I would demand that my favorite delicacies be served to me and that my favorite stories be read to me. Not surprisingly. I realize that I have listed a whole string of qualifications for my future wife. Commitment is very important on her part.incident in City Center where one man's mother-in-law came to stay. too. chances are she's going to run away and leave you one day. I would ask for a hot drink or a cookie. through the years. So I would say. There was just me and Mummy. that might just be enough. I'll be in for a tough time! Furthermore. and. I remember her low voice. of deep concern for her sick child. I remember the look in her eyes. or just some company. bliss meditate foster perfect happiness to think seriously about something for a long time to encourage the development or growth of ideas or feelings Write a composition entitled: How I know my mother loves me. I fretted a lot and constantly demanded my mother's attention. "Mummy. "The best laid plans of mice and men can fail". That was how I knew my . frustrating day at work. if I can find all these qualities in one woman. I'll love her. I will meet a girl one day. she cooked and ate his pet dog for dinner! So. She answered every unreasonable demand of mine with unfailing patience. However. chances are. So. During the day. perhaps. I was a sickly child. In fact. My world consisted of the feel of her cool palms soothing my brow and her floral scent as she leaned over me to tuck in my blanket. I will really consider her The Ideal Wife. One day. Not once did my mother groan or grumble. More than likely. I was a spoiled brat. as the proverb goes.

To make matters worse. Thus. success would be in inverse ratio to material advancement. I had been unable to call home to inform my mother that I would be delayed. she stood in my room. Then I saw something familiar about the look in her eyes. My friends made a quick exit as she ranted at me. at least in the Western world. certain to encounter trouble or punishment in for it How do you measure success in life? Reaching the top of the tree in one's chosen occupation or profession is the usual standard by which success in life is measured. The contemplative religions assert that success is only measurable in terms of religious advancement and of the acquisition of the virtues. still ranting at me for my disobedience and "wild behavior".mother loved me then. fret spoiled brat to be anxious or worried A spoiled brat is a child whose parents or other educators systematically fail to teach socially acceptable behavior and discipline.m. I stayed out way. I revel in the fun that the world has to offer. It was almost 1 a. Two nights ago. I saw in her eyes all the fears that she had suffered that night as she waited for her daughter to return safely. way past my "curfew" hour. sweat was pouring down her temples. Set free from the prison of the sickbed. Miraculously. which is eleven o'clock. when I reached my house. Now that I am on the threshold of adulthood. I have outgrown my childhood ailments. My relationship with my mother has suffered from my wild pursuit of fun. I didn't say a word. her arms waving wildly. I looked up at her face to try to gauge if her scolding would be continuing much longer. It was the same look of concern that she had always had when I was so sick. However many Asians would reject this criterion. my world has grown to include many exciting friends. I knew that I was in for it! My mother flung open the door the minute she heard my friend's car pull in. Her face was red. I was tired. . There were no phones where we were "hanging out". She criticizes my choice of friends and tries to enforce rules and regulations to curb my activities. I was ordered straight to bed. As I got into bed. This is how I know my mother loves me now. in case one of those hands should find its mark on my face. I just wanted to sleep.

Most of the world accepts the definition of material advancement. Money also creates anxiety since it usually has to be put at risk if more is to be made. Beyond a certain point the acquisition of money proves unsatisfactory. prominence and affluence. This happens for a variety of reasons. These pressures and anxieties often have a detrimental effect on health and on family life. and some very wealthy people become very mean. A satisfying yet balanced way of life makes for the former and a religion or at least a philosophy for the latter. others have to find their own role in life by trial and error. If a man or woman can achieve this then he or she truly has the right to be called successful. so success to them might lie merely in the preservation of the family business or estate and perhaps its enhancement for the benefit of the next generation. both being the most important means of self-expression. Success thus means failure. It is more to do with happiness and fulfillment. though these are often its attributes. Perhaps the fundamental way to achieve success is first to be sure of what you want to do with life and then to be sure that you are capable of doing it. Unhappily money making can become an obsession. It is often made at the disadvantage of others. The body should not be neglected. though unlikely. The difference between the lifestyle available to a millionaire and that available to a billionaire is marginal. Many of these careers will not confer much success in theworldly sense but they will lead to the success of happiness and fulfillment. its objectives being affluence and perhaps power over others. However success is not strictly related to the externals of power. Most people have to work hard to to achieve success. A successful life depends crucially on good personal relationships both within and outside the family. One's wife and children are inevitably neglected and unhappy. What then are its features? First. It is of course possible. at the height of their affluence and power. To ensure the well-being and happiness of others forms a large part of success. physical wellbeing is usually the result of good food and exercise. that worldly success can be combined with a sensitive and therefore successful approach to the problems outlined above. Some people are strongly motivated to a profession or to politics or to social campaigning from early days. Some are born into positions which already confer affluence and power. mental and spiritual peace. contemplative confer deep in thought to give . The children of successful capitalists or career workaholics sometimes reject everything the father or parents stand for. The western concept of success is not always satisfying and some people. absence of strain is at least as important. and it may damage a business man's relationships both with his peers and with his subordinates. Other anxieties may be created when a large number of people become dependent on a financial empire. reject it in favor of the simple life. Money confers power which may corrupt.

That invasion was not justified. do the majority of the people want such a take-over? A case in point is the invasion of the Falklands by Argentina. or not to become encircled.N. or to gain access to minerals such as oil. Sometimes. or to gain strategic territory. Its Security Council can urge members to take economic or military sanctions. in fact. The naked aggression of Hitler in Europe was totally unjustified. However. The guiding principle governing the justice of invasion is surely this. close at hand and regarded as an easy number. infiltration is much easier. A physical take-over can sometimes be achieved without shedding a drop of blood. The U. in succession to the League of Nations exists to maintain international peace and security. drawn up by the San Francisco Conference in 1945. massive war equipment. and that of the Falkland Islands by Argentina. or to food. since the two world-power centers remain NATO and the Warsaw Pact association. Nobody forgets Vietnam. as in Afghanistan. particularly since. or even two extremist parties each claiming the government. Future troubles. cynical believing that people are only interested in themselves and are not sincere . This having been said. invasions do occur. are inevitable. The ground for military invasion is usually prepared by other means. theostensible reason was to establish a stable government in a country which. the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. bordering on the USSR was claimed to constitute a threat through instability. were an obvious choice. which country was at the time suffering internal troubles and needed a famous victory abroad. The Falklands. as in the case of Afghanistan.. the islanders wanted to remain British. so the British armed forces had to throw the Argentines out. Nobody wants to risk a full scale war for the sake of a principle. and no doubt extensive economic aid from one of the great powers. What is certain is that after such a takeover a large section of the population will remain discontented. the Argentines were refusing to negotiate. That particular invasion by the British was justified. An actual invasion becomes a mere formality when a government accepts perhaps thousands of military advisers.worldly relating to the ordinary life In what circumstances is the invasion of one country by another justified? Invasion is never justified if there is a possibility of resolving disputes by diplomatic means. So to invade or not to invade involves a crucial balancing of factors. Its powers however amount to little more than those of the old League. There is the instinct to expand. Recent examples include the invasion of Iraq by Iran. or can provide a peace-keeping force drawn from member nations. realistically it becomes another matter to retaliate when the major powers become involved. the desire to annex territory which rightly belongs to a country but which has either become independent or has become the dependency of another. Motives for invasion vary. how cynical they are is a matter of opinion. particularly since Argentina regarded the 'Malvenas' as their historic property. However. There is national pride. If there is instability and national discontent. so the Second Front invasion of Europe by the allies in 1944 can be amply justified. and lead only to further repressive measures.

This replaced the old system of town and village constables in their local peace-keeping role under the beadle. This often consists of a group of extremists from one foreign country attacking the embassy of another. In case of serious trouble. the situation is further complicated today by crime in a new guise i. political violence. Northern Ireland. including railways. or a strike of one or more of the essential services. British people accept the need on occasion for this military back-up. To man essential services during a general strike. A less frequent role has been to quell riots and this is unpopular with the army since soldiers do not like inflicting injury or even death on fellow citizens. also responsible to the Home Secretary. who are constantly called into para-military action. with reluctance.annex ostensible to take possession of a country by force claiming to be one thing when it is really something else Describe the system for maintaining law and order in your country. ambulance drivers and fire brigades. founded the modern police force. it retains that general respect today. Because of crime increase. water works. Examples are riots in pre-war London stirred up by the National Socialist movement. through the Secretary of State for Ireland. and despite a vocal left-wing and liberal minority. Can you suggest any improvements? One hundred and fifty years ago a Conservative British Prime Minister. The county police forces of the rest of Britain are controlled by chief constables responsible to the Home Secretary. and the modern mobility of criminals there is more co-operation between these separate forces than before. been called on in various roles during domestic emergencies. mostly in London. Today the police are controlled by the Home Secretary. during the First World War Southern Ireland has tended to side with the enemies of Britain. leaving Ireland to get on with a civil war. needs the presence of armed and equipped British troops. Since the Irish Free State came into existence in 1922. and more recently the riots in Liverpool. when the ramifications of crime cover a large area. their work being aided by data banks in a nationwide computer system. buses. Sir Robert Peel. Ireland has always caused more headaches than the rest of Britain put together. and trying to buy publicity or political advantage with threats and the taking of hostages. power-stations. to those who would like to bring the whole of Ireland. joint operational headquarters are set up. Apart from straightforward crime. and often. and in that country the Royal Ulster Constabulary.. an armed force. back into British hands. who is also responsible for that other troubled part of Britain. but prefer it not to be used. and the Metropolitan Police Force by a commissioner. behind the police force stands that section of the British Army which is home-based. and before then.e. To deal with these we now use a quiet little . Opinions vary from those who advocate a 'troops out' policy. forcibly. Very quickly the new force obtained a national respect which it had never previously enjoyed. Birmingham and London attributed to a mixture of ethnic discrimination and unemployment. It has.

and taught. The object is to protect the low-lying parts of London when a certain combination of wind and tide raises the water level by as much as thirty feet. The traditional police force has only been armed with a whistle and a short truncheon. kept off drugs and alcohol. Local authority police committees to monitor police activities are in the hands of anti-law and order elements. looting and arson. meeting violence with violence. There are. Following heavy storms in mountainous areas more water than a river can carry will flow down to the plain. a new respect for law and order. irrigation. Over the intervening centuries the practice has evolved for three main purposes. if dammed. other reasons for damming a river. such as a police officer. and do no good. spanning as it does lengthy periods of drought. This consists of solid pillars across the river with massive steel plates between each pillar which can be raised or lowered mechanically. human consumption. there will need to be fundamental as well as cosmetic changes in our national life. maintaining law and keeping order on the streets by presence rather than violence. They merely erode police morale. Mountain passes. more community policemen back on 'the beat' and knowing their area and people. Another will be to restore confidence in the policeman's fairness and integrity in areas where interested parties have sought to erode this confidence. The damming of rivers to form reservoirs was common practice in Roman times. So far these have not often been needed. The fundamental changes needed go deeper. but recognize that the police are at a disadvantage otherwise. Some of us deplore the tendency to issue firearms. inundating large areas often destroying crops.section of the armed forces known as the SAS just as we use a new section of the police force to quell street rioting. and industrial use. Firearm availability must be more strictly controlled. Since rainfall is never sufficiently uniform to provide a reliable water-source from normal river flow. in the home. . and more on foot. or work for a diminishing crime rate and a more peaceful and law-abiding community? If the latter. The cosmetic changes include less policing by vehicles. beadle a minor parish official whose duties include ushering and preserving order to stop by using force an area for which someone. a life-sentence must mean what it says. has responsibility as part of their job quell the beat Discuss the benefits of and the problems caused by the artificial damming of rivers. This control of water works from sea to river as well as from river to sea. homes and animal and human life. Do we have to accept that the world must become more violent. the reservoir has always been a great boon. An example is the recently constructed Thames barrier below Woolwich on the River Thames in England. Above all children and young people should be less exposed to television and film violence. give the opportunity not only to control the flow of flood water at its peak but also to retain large quantities for controlled use in dry weather. known as the SPG. of course. and being known by them. Since the motion to restore the death penalty was defeated in Parliament. and probably much earlier.

Damming a river can also cause problems. hunger. appreciate this. nor the environmentalists. A reservoir is also a great attraction to water-loving birds and often becomes an interesting staging-post for migrations. More often than not a dam may be central in a multi-purpose scheme including most of the functions outlined above. Farmland is destroyed. There have also been cases of the collapse of dams due to inadequate strength and imperfect design. boon something that is very helpful and improves the quality of life . Some stocked with trout. in the opinion of some. This is particularly true in countries lying in temporate zones. farms and houses. Drought means disease. Some rivers in their natural state arc not navigable by large vessels. the power station. and most are used by sailing clubs. of course. Water is channeled through conduits and used as mechanical power for the turbines. Creating an artificial lake inevitably changes the character of a large area. who have to resettle elsewhere. The USSR has been in dispute with Turkey over this matter as has Egypt with the Sudan. Many rivers flow through more than one country. dehydration and death to animals and humans alike. Neither the residents. A second drawback may be political. as well as causing loss of life. and the control of their floodwater for irrigation purposes essential. The damming of major rivers such as the Nile is crucial to life itself. It is then returned to the river. A great area of land. natural scenery. that lying higher up the river having the whip-hand. People have to move. The problem is more acute when the countryside about to be spoilt is environmentally unique. Where such rivers can be dammed they can be given a constant depth for purposes of navigation. Perhaps of least importance is the social value of a reservoir. despoiled. A dam built for one country's benefit may be much to the detriment of another. or run dry in sea.A further use of the dam is to produce hydroelectric power. where water shortage can be a nuisance but is rarely a disaster. Reservoir water is also used today in vast quantities in nuclear power stations for cooling and other purposes and is similarly returned to the river or to the sea. with its trees. and for other aquatic sports.sons of drought. inconveniently. being built below the level of the dam. dry and barren. as in a recent case in Australia. In these areas populations are often nomadic. flora and fauna. provide good fishing. where attempts were made to involve Prince Charles and Princess Diana in the dispute. driving flocks and herds from waterhole to waterhole. The destruction of the Mohne See dam in the Second World War brought the industry of the Ruhr to a virtual standstill. and this benefits a country's communication system. Matters are different in underdeveloped countries which are hot. but even this is not preventing large tracts of North East Africa from reverting to desert. or scratching a mere subsistence from the soil. Dams are vulnerable to air attack in wartime. has to be inundated.

so in combination with grit. of caustic soda. It is different for a person who goes blind because suddenly. of hydrochloric acid. personal independence to a large degree. used when iodine is lacking in diet. Livestock as well as humans need salt. taste and smell. reading and watching television. sodium hydroxide. Salt is extensively used in the chemical industry. it is used for clearing roads of snow and ice. of chlorine etc. It is difficult to grade the senses in relative importance to mankind. enjoyment of all forms of visual beauty. Salt and potassium are combined to produce iodised salt. hide brine grit the strong thick skin of an animal which is used for making leather water with salt in it. driving a car. It is also used in the curing and preserving of hides and in the form of brine for refrigeration purposes. and small quantities of other chemicals are added to it to keep it freeflowing when in contact with the atmosphere. It is also used for water-softening by means of removing calcium and magnesium compounds from tap water. or gradually. and this provided in the form of solid blocks. NaCl. Some of these deprivations can be partially . is known as common salt. Its absence causes goitre. hearing. especially when used to preserve food very small pieces of stone or sand Discuss the relative importance to man and animals of the five senses of sight. a compound used to assist the fusing of metals. It also enters metallurgic processes as flux. Opinions vary particularly between sight and hearing. known as 'salt-licks'. sodium bicorbonate. It is important because it is essential to the health of human beings and of animals. For domestic use it is fined down to what is known as table-salt. It is used in meat-packing sausage-making and fish-curing both for seasoning and as a preservative. A person blind from birth has no concept of vision.flora and fauna despoil The flora and fauna of a place are its plants and animals to make a place less attractive especially by taking things away from it by force Why is common salt so important? In its mineral form sodium chloride. in the manufacture of baking soda. and in the manufacture of glaze and porcelain enamel. Salt is also crucial to the food industry. the swelling of the thyroid gland. touch. so presumably does not `miss' sight. so much is lost. It is also used in soap-making. Salt lowers the melting point of water.

as with humans. simply because vision is relatively unimportant. have a protective role in warning them off obnoxious and poisonous organic and inorganic substances. Thus it becomes far more highly developed than in humans. they can live a relatively full life. while taste and smell can detect lethal gases and poisonous substances. Smell or scent is of crucial importance to many animals. who rely on it to detect enemies and to find quarry. combined with smell. The traditional method of lip-reading supplements this. Many animals have very limited vision. but they are all relatively dispensable. given help and their own determination. For the same reason hearing is of nearly the same importance. The hearing range of animals is much wider than that of humans. so that conversation and teaching can be carried out. Touch. sight. Musical appreciation and music making are also open to the blind.overcome. these two senses. the loss of nerve endings can lead to severe domestic burns and abrasions. If the theory seems to explain to all the phenomena it is classified as a principle and added to the store of . Their absence can. From the human point of view most people would grade the importance of the senses in the order given in the question. Pure science is the investigation of natural phenomena for the purpose of understanding. sand. Touch and taste are also of less importance to animals than to humans. though today there are some marvelous machines which allow the sufferer to learn speech through varied frequencies of vibration. The loss of sight tends to train a more acute hearing. the two latter being important in the enjoyment of food. The obvious drawback to deafness lies in loss of communication. but it seems to be. which are tested experimentally. is dug out of the ground for use as building material abrasion quarry Discuss with examples the relationship between pure and applied science. etc. Dogs can hear supersonic sounds and react to them at great distances. since survival may depend on it. braille A system of writing and printing for blind or visually impaired people the process of rubbing away the surface of something a large artificial hole in the ground where stone. touch and taste in that order. since. particularly in children. however be dangerous. Nobody can ask an animal to grade the importance of the senses. Many blind people would grade vision as less important than hearing. and there are many modern aids for the visually handicapped. People will always help the blind in practical ways. In the modern world deafness can also be dangerous. though. Observation leads to the formation of theories. This is not necessarily so in the animal world. ranging from braille and books on tape to all kinds of domestic appliances designed for the sightless. Deafness is not at once obvious and so may be mistaken for stupidity. taste and smell are all sources of pleasure. The social disadvantage of deafness is that of the impatience of others. hearing. smell. traffic-sense. depends largely on hearing.

Darwin and Harvey come to mind. as did the Arabians and Indians in the field of arithmetical notation.C. and the new theories of light. though the greatest advances were made by Sir Isaac Newton. Thus. The historian of pure science can trace its advance from the records of the earliest recorded cultures to the 20th century. so does technology or method. In the present century. which is concerned with techniques. though less interested in strict accuracy. Francis Bacon sought to produce a system to replace that of Aristotle. Astronomy and Mathematics were brought together for the purposes of navigation. The fact that we can now see into the far universe and into the construction of matter has had a profound effect on the theories concerning both. Lister. it is also true that the advanced machines made possible by higher technology. Later advances took place in the field of biology. Since method depends on knowledge. Copernicus. who synthesized many theories into an intelligible whole. made their contribution. enable the advance of pure science. This in turn eliminates the laborious mechanical aspects of investigation and gives the researcher the tools for making rapid new discoveries. Applied science is known today as technology. one of its uses is to make a multitude of instantaneous calculations. The logical approach of Renee Descartes was of great importance. Pythaggoeras and his successors provided the first systematic method of understanding the natural world. surgery. was developed (Dalton). atomic theory with all its consequences. The second upsurge of pure science began with Galileo and his predecessor. As pure scientific knowledge advances. The names of Pasteur. (Einstein). relativity and quantum mathematics. who gave the world its first true understanding of the universe. upsurge handmaid laborious a sudden and usually large increase in something female servant needing a lot of time and effort . anthropology. Although applied science will always remain the handmaid of pure science. Another example of many is the modern computer. Thales and his school. The Egyptians. While this remains the servant of the brain which invented it.existing scientific knowledge. especially in the field of Mathematics and geometry. 6th to 7th Centuries B. 17th Century. bacteriology. Figures were constructed to provide proofs. although theory produced the telescope and the microscope as optical research instruments. though they can facilitate the increase of knowledge. electronics transformed both. during which pure science has made greater advances than ever before. no improvements in method can increase knowledge.

outing when a group of people go on a short journey. and an excellent film can still make a lot of money. Today most cinemas have long since become Bingo halls. unless a film such as 'Gandhi' with wide general appeal is put on. Another point in its favor is that the quality of television is deteriorating and seems likely to become atrocious when cable television is introduced. combined with the instinct to escape from a deprived environment. Film stars in the old sense no longer exist. In the 30s any provincial town could offer more than this. In the West the film has not been the major entertainment medium for over twenty years. Almost every home contains a television set and much of what is left of the British film industry is concerned with film-making for this medium. No longer do families make a weekly outing to the cinema. or indeed any television. They now form part of the television menu as repeats. and when a good film is made there is still a following.T. There is no doubt that current popular taste rejects films which set out to be amusing. During the past twenty or so years much has changed in the taste of film goers. Today there are less than twenty films showing in the West End of London.What are the most popular types of film in your country and why? Answers to this question will vary widely according to the country concerned. One 'clean' though juvenile taste which is fairly new is for space fiction films.' are recent examples of overwhelmingly successful productions. For one thing the cinema of today is the virtual monopoly of young people. The great days of Hollywood ended with the last war. 'The Return of the Jedi' is currently showing in London's West End. The days of 'Doctor in the House'. and their stars are almost national heroes. There will be even more space for rubbish and repeats. have gone forever. of films built round 'stand-up' comics such as Arthur Askey. usually for pleasure or education of bad quality to arrange something atrocious set out Consider the influence of Pop star and their music . is alive on both sides of the Atlantic. 'Star Wars' and 'E. However the film industry. though more recently such productions have moved into the 'video nasty' area. though small. of situation comedies. This may be due to the lack of good. Deliberate attempts to entertain the teenager have produced many films with the accent on explicit sex and violence. For example romantic feature films seem to receive great popular support in India. However the government is trying to prevent the sale of such cassettes for use in home television sets.

and while there is still money in it for the few it is no longer possible today to buy an electric . but millions more for their promoters. in general. but then the 13-19 year group became a new class. They succeeded. but this quickly changed to rock n roll. calflove. whether they really had talent or not. suddenly replacing dance music. the vocalist. Successful single makers cut LPs. although Carnaby Street is no longer the centre. the misunderstanding of the adult world and a few curiously alien themes. This was theheyday of the top twenty. the teenagers. since they had high wages and few outgoings. the electric guitar. The focus became the star rather than the group. They were the fashionable group. Parental discipline. The world knows about the end of Presley. some of whom were villains. For many years Carnaby Street set teenage clothing fashions. was condemned as square. and. Prior to 1960 young people were either adolescents or young adults. And because a few made it. everybody tried. The real money was made in the industry associated with the stars. the group with the spare money. and at that time of full employment in the USA and the UK. the adulation proved irresistable. the drummer. From time to time these festivals have caused trouble because of noise. The problem has abated because of careful police monitoring. the money-makers and the drug pushers. Left-wing activists provided a third group.Pop music began in 1960. with Elvis Presley as its afficionado. hard work. The pop cult grew in the late 60's and early 70's into a major industry. getting into this ensured rich rewards. The music began with 'skiffle'. loneliness. in 1960 their instinct was to break loose. 'Beatlemania' swept Britain and many other countries. insecurity. and T shirt uniform has persisted. Now. who has now become a cult figure. The money. school rules and wartime restrictions had hitherto kept this age group in place. yachts. Sinatra and their imitators. large country houses. by which is meant regular hours. aided by two groups of cynical adults. The Beatles made millions. began to produce original themes which reflected the innermost feelings of teenagers. It has taken massive youth unemployment in England to destroy the pop market. But the sinister initial letters of 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' suggested the drug scene. Rolls-Royce motor cars. 'doing one' own thing'. morality. jazz and the tuneful lyricists such as Crosby. the denim jeans. insanitary camp conditions and drug abuse. a sense of responsibility. In Liverpool a group of four fresh-faced tidy young men with neat hair. Those selling over a million records entered the golden disc bracket. become totally independent. The establishment. There is no doubt that the pop scene was orchestrated and manipulated by cynical adults. and his titles such as 'Rock around the clock' reaching international heights of popularity among teenagers. litter. Perhaps the biggest money was made by pop concert and festival promoters. the fame. world-wide travel spread before the eyes of young hopefuls. However the deepest effect of the pop scene on affluent young society was upon teenage attitudes to life. Thus they became the market for the pop industry. a worthwhile job and. discard the society which produced them and ignore its social sanctions.

The earliest empires were necessarily limited geographically. in some shape or form. Their inscriptions. Carthage in North Africa. Its occasion has been the development of military and naval power and in recent times air power. Hitler's failure. An agricultural community with a growing . if anything. Sicily and Spain. pop stars never had the slightest influence in the real world. unless one counts the partial deafness which results from long hours in a discotheque. produced a hardy race of seafarers. all are natural. and with it the acclaim and the overnight fortunes. centered in the Lebanon. heyday adulation insanitary the most successful or popular period of someone very great admiration or praise for someone So unclean as to be a likely cause of disease What. and they exported cedar to Egypt. especially that of Great Britain. The seaboard of Libya. have the great empires of the world achieved? Self-interest. To consider the great empires of the world we need to look back 4000 years. The aggressive instinct. brought the democratic institutions of Western Europe into focus and laid the foundations of the European Community. for obvious reasons. The Phoenecian Empire provides a good example. thus enriching much of the known world. Self-interest needs definition. the Canaanites. Yet their real interest was in trade. if self-interested motives. who sought to create an Aryan empire by the invasion of surrounding sovereign states. provided invaluable points of reference in Jewish Biblical history. Musically. Malta. Moreover they invented an alphabet which gave rise to both the Greek and Roman alphabets. Today the euphoria has largely gone.guitar and make your fortune in a month. purple cloth and jewelry all over the Middle East. the desire for enrichment by trade. and accelerated the decolonization process of the European empires. such as the Moabite Stone and the Siloan Tunnel inscriptions. headed by the USSR and the USA respectively. and with the build-up of nuclear arsenals this poses in 1984 an even greater threat than that of Adolf Hitler in 1939. The course of history itself has always had something to say about aggression. and of course the need for territorial expansion. Perhaps the twenty years or so of pop fever provided a safely valve for the young who were none the worse for it providing they kept out of drugs and crime. furniture. though in the old days they made more money than the virtuosi. They visited the Scillies and Cornwall and circumnavigated Africa. who established colonies in Cyprus. as in the case of Germany under Adolf Hitler. The war also broke down social barriers. for example. has always been the motivation behind empire-building. Its effects are interpreted variously. heightened the social consciences of the Western states. Yet it also began the polarization of East and West. and through those later empires to the alphabets of most of the European states.

town-planning. The Greeks acquired most of the Mediterranean world. the Romans. Many people see the only hope for the future in a one-world concept. and architecture has never since been equaled. The French and Portuguese concepts of empire were. wood. Their positive contribution to the lives of vassal states covered the whole political. Following the Phoenicians. They also enriched the known world in the spheres of art. We are used to thinking of the Romans as cruel. a name meaning 'kings'. because of modern travel. Their poetry and drama have remained supreme. doomed to failure in the modern world. 'asset stripping' wherever they went. if only as a by-product.population needs more land. of course. The West is concerned to trade rather than to exploit. legal and cultural spectrum. and the heightened concept of sovereignty of states both large and small. ultimately ruled by the central government. All this is true. yet our modern dislike of the empire-concept must not blind us to the immense enrichment conferred. Roman law provided the foundation of much modern law. and their political contribution to the Mediterranean sea-board and even to France and Egypt. at the height of Empire. interested mainly in exacting taxes. it is right that this should be so. basically because those countries tried to keep the concept of colonization as an extension of the home country. and even the very least of the overseas possessions were encouraged to develop their own governments. is incalculable. hence.C. In a world where. Yet the worldwide process overtook the gradual process of emancipation and. circumnavigate rapacious to move around showing a strong desire to take things for yourself. following them. were governed by tyrants. as post war history has shown. wall painting. Government had long since devolved to the great dominions. metal work and pottery enriched other countries. traders and law-givers. and civic building. No empire lasts forever. but whose powers were limited by the essentially Greek concept of democracy. Their sculpture. Their trade in wine. law. in which aggression is outlawed and mutual respect and co-operation fostered for the common good. The city states of Greece. usually using unfair methods or force to give power devolve . colonization. had acquired the whole of the known world including territories as far apart as Britain and the West African coast line. The Greeks were adventurers. architecture. to lend money rather than exact it. oil and scent. The extent and duration of the Roman Empire were of course much greater. The post-war wind of change brought about an irony in the case of the British Empire. with disastrous results in many cases. The dissolution of even the British Empire is now virtually complete. in the period 750 to 600 B. and.. on their vassal states. which was the original forerunner of the modern democratic process of the free world today. oppressive and rapacious. instant communication.

Fifthly it must be defensible against enemies. excluding the period 1709 to 1918. both inland and overseas.What factors determine the location of a country's capital? Illustrate with examples. Fourthly it must be well away from the earthquake belts and volcanoes. England's largest river. The same thing happened in Soviet Russia. later Leningrad. Many capital cities were founded centuries. The growth of Cairo at the base of the Nile delta provides an example. very much in mind. Firstly. Most. when St. who designed the city specifically as the center of government in 1790. The reason for the original . though built above flood level.A. the inner square mile. has rendered all capitals equally vulnerable. an area of fertile land capable of supporting a growing population. Bogota. and the erection of public buildings. Most large cities and capitals were originally walled. whence inland products were exported. which is on the coast. The U. copra and pineapples. a French engineer officer. both for trade and for political purposes. not only communicates with the centre of the country but also provides deep water moorings for seagoing vessels. The Thames.S. There are at least three examples of changes of capital city. any large settlement required a location which satisfied certain requirements. Capitals must have been located with these basic requirements in mind. reasons are geographical. Before the arrival of modern communications and transport. Secondly the area must lend itself to the spread of housing. Conversely. Santiago. Lima near the Peruvian coast. then Stalingrad held that destination. if not millennia ago. though not all of these. Both Peking and Nanking which lies south of it. Guyana. as might be expected. Peking was the capital of China from the 10th Century. though the origins of older ones are lost in tradition and folklore. Thirdly it must be near a good water supply such as a large river. From 1928 to 1949 the capital was again Nanking and again reverted. some capitals became established because of foreign colonization. made for political reasons. tin. Petersburg. More often than not. the federal capital since 1800 was laid out by Pierre L'Enfant. Argentina. inland from Chesapeake Bay on the East Coast. Caracus. South America contains a host of examples. and nowadays perhaps from nuclear weapons. rubber. George Town. from the air. capital city locations were chosen at or near river-mouths for these reasons. To these could be added Johore Bahru. London consisted of British settlements in preRoman times in a very defensible position which is now the city. so it is often not possible to do more than deduce the reasons for the choice of their locations. In a country covered by impenetrablerain forests and mountain ranges. with facilities for trade. though possible attack from long range artillery. From the 14th century to the present day Moscow was the centre. the time of the Liao Dynasty. Another factor rendering the seaboard popular was that of convenience to those countries which sought to colonize overseas. rivers provide the only means of communication. Later the seat of government moved to Nanking. Venezuela. Washington. Colombia. is a case in point. Chile which is inland but has easy access to Valparaiso. He located it on the Potomac River. but from 1421 it again became Peking. Buenos Aires. have easy access to the Eastern seaboard.

it was the center of intersecting trade routes. because it was felt that this would bring life to the interior. even the transport services of Western Europe and other western countries. it nevertheless has a terrible climate and is icebound for much of the year. and where there are few. Speed has improved with the adoption of the diesel motor but the experimental high-speed trains . Many of the foregoing factors also apply to the building up of Bombay. trade certainly affected the growth of Cairo from its early beginnings in 641 A. In this essay the problems of England are considered. and basically what is left is the inter-city network and London's commuter service from the home counties. it was built defensively. It has become the trading and distributive center for North Africa and the Near East. The choice of St Petersburg was more political because although it is strategic for the Gulf of Finland and for Lake Ladoga. Brazil dropped Rio de Janiero as its capital and moved inland to the newly-planned city of Brasilia. who were followed by the Portuguese and in 1662 by the British. Apart from geographical considerations. One hears that Nigeria is even now considering dropping Lagos as the capital in favor of a new town inland. where rail. The Germans never succeeded in entering it in the Second World War during four years of siege. for a variety of reasons but basically because England's constantly growing road network has shifted both passenger and goods transport away from the railways. it satisfied all geographical conditions. The fact however was that St Petersburg was the center for all revolutionary activity between 1815 and 1914. but today of the Arab world. as the capital. Its great harbor and westward facing position made it the obvious choice by the Moguls in the 13th century. Since then the system has deteriorated out of all recognition. if any. Railways began to spread over England from about 1800. Also it is very defensible. In consequence almost all small lines have been closed down. It is a more basic problem for the emergent countries. not only of Egypt. obstacles to the establishment of physical communications. Originally an island off the mid-west coast of India it is now joined to the mainland by means of reclaimed land. where often mountain ranges and dense afforestation have to be overcome. it was sheltered by a range of hills. though the reasons for this change are unclear.choice of Moscow was that it was the gateway to the West.D. All services are capable of improvement. and until 1945 there existed a network which gave easy access from even the smallest village to all the main centers. road and air transport have long been established. moorings the ropes or chains which keep a boat from moving away from a particular place impossible to see through or go through the surrounding of a place by an armed force in order to defeat those defending it impenetrable siege Consider how the transport system in your country might he improved. In 1960.

The present government is merely selling off minor assets. such as railway hotels and in some cases catering on railway platforms and in dining cars. and this is unlikely to happen. and the road building program is severely limited by finance. The task of promoting comfort. by Jimmy Savile. have stemmed from bad government theory and bad industrial relations in the past. as in the days of the rail system comfortable. not only as a means of commercial transport but also for tourism. container-type lorry. internal air travel is of importance primarily to business people and nowadays all major cities have their own airports. Small vehicles and private cars. The London outer circle M 25. about traffic jams. though progress is being made on all fronts. and now the reverse. and parking problems which at present bedevil all large towns and cities will be alleviated. Only a reversion to private ownership. and the general indifference of nationally unreliable. There is a valuable move. Unfortunately it is little used for commercial purposes. when completed. The environmental lobby rightly complains about the damage done by these vehicles. As in most other western countries after the war the system became nationalized. to restore the waterways. This involves both bank-clearing and the enforcement of anti-pollution laws.have proved a fiasco. economic and cared-for. about the danger of pollution. It can take longer to reach Heath Row and pass through customs and baggage formalities than it takes to fly to Paris of Dusseldorf. Part of the problem has been a steady shift of population originally from country to town. although we are constantly told that this is the age of the train. Goods transport has largely moved over to the heavy. safety. which of course operates a world-wide network. The River Thames now contains a wide variety of fish whereas for over a century it contained none. High wage demands. that organization. He is wrong. In a small country like England. and about the loss of agricultural land where M roads are built. Rivers and canals must not be overlooked. London will eventually have five. and generally unpopular. About half the population probably accepts that competitiveness is the only real way forward. owned nowadays by over half of the population will also be able to move about more freely. as indeed do most other European countries. lack of money for capital expenditure. Since there is ample private competition for British Airways. In turn this involves the provision of suitable roads. but is being tackled. speed and reliability is not easy. Moreover British Rail makes massive annual losses. especially in small villages. will remove heavy through traffic from the streets of London. The inefficiency is on the ground. Many of the transport problems in England. backed by the environmentalists. afforestation Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting on nonforested . economic cost. The 'age of the train' ended in 1954. though not all. The Socialist doctrine affirms that as a national service British Rail should not expect to make a profit or break even and should be subsidized by the tax payer. is efficient. The Thatcher Government sees this as bad housekeeping despite the fact that most European rail systems are already heavily subsidized. These drawbacks can and must be overcome by the provision of by-pass and further M roads.

Sound echoing devices now enable scientists to map the ocean bed . but since deep drilling is increasingly expensive. They are based on drilling into the earth's crust where it is known to be most shallow in order to find out its physical properties.000 feet was aimed at. as in the case of space exploration today. e. the scientific aspect provides most interest. All observations are naturally indirect.g. This organization co-ordinates results end supplies a limited amount of cash. However. if not greater importance since its results have led to immense discoveries. It is necessary to drill for minerals. its underground radioactive end magnetic values etc. end a drill of 35. These operate by detecting slight changes in the earth's magnetic field. It held a crucial role for centuries in colonization and trade expansion. Seismic methods are used for the discovery of oil end gas deposits and today there are airborne devices for detecting minerals such as oil end gas. Although modern exploration is largely pragmatic. the work of the Upper Manke Committee. Undersea exploration is of equal. pioneered this venture. An international council of scientific unions was set up. and most of it surveyed by explorers on foot. and USSR constantly trying to surpass each others achievements. in which 70 nations participated.' Discuss. producing a systematic study of the earth end the environment. Since it proved so expensive US Project Mohole was abandoned in 1967. not flat. its role being assumed by UNESCO after the Second World War. Offshore oil end gas rigs now proliferate. 1957. Since only 30% of the earth's surface is above sea level end only 10% habitable. There is also a scanning infra-red sensor of greet use in geo-chemical exploration. This work culminated in the International Geophysical Year. The USA. In the process of drilling more is discovered about an area's liability to earthquakes. much underwater work is a matter of scientific surveying. Before the First World War the international attitude towards exploration was competitive. attention has naturally been diverted to underground end undersea exploration for human reasons. a stop was eventually put on this method. Exploration in the commonly accepted sense began with people like the sea-faring Columbus when. for fuel end for water in order to plan new facilities. Attention is now concentrated on underground and undersea exploration and in recent years on space exploration.land fiasco stem from something planned that goes wrong and is a complete failure to originate or develop as the result of something 'Scientists are the explorers of today. The process has more recently been completed by the use of the aircraft and the helicopter. The solid earth was examined scientifically by means of a series of deep probes. the USA. A stop was put on territorial claims in Antarctica. in the middle ages it was realized that the earth is a globe. However quite early in this century virtually the whole of the earth's surface had been mapped in outline. In the 19th century startling results were achieved by wealthy and gifted amateurs. After the first war the attitude was more co-operative.

If space exploration is to be included then obviously science plays the dominate role in all ventures. Today the work is co-ordinated by a consortium of oceanographic institutes. place or activity What Scientific knowledge should an educated person have? The answer depends on one's definition of education. of course. Many well-known schools in the West still lay a powerful emphasis on the classical languages as the best means of teaching the young to think properly. They assist in technical observation of stars and lead to an understanding of the evolution of the solar system. Many are in orbit for purely scientific reasons. The earth is now surrounded by hundreds of orbited satellites which provide various kinds of information. when civil service examinations were instituted. and in Europe at any rate depends on no more than a knowledge of Greek and Latin. but today most countries are essentially meritocracies. solar end cosmic radiation. end there is no single definition. In the widest sense even the most primitive societies begin to prepare children for living from birth as a necessity for survival So do animals and birds. Formal education is based on literacy. still pockets of privilege everywhere in which the rich can take advantage of the knowledge. They measure natural phenomena in space.C. that of China dating back to 165 B. If the purpose of education is to succeed in life as well as to enjoy it. Today one school of thought would define education as the means of living a civilized life. Deep-see drilling produces core samples which provide useful information. but human nature being what it is. Culture implies a knowledge of the graceful and artistic things of life.accurately end to discover far more about the seabed under the polar icecaps. The problem with the first paragraph is that society does not consist of wealthydilettantes. some knowledge of science. skill and hard work of others. culminate proliferate glamour to reach the highest point to increase greatly and suddenly in number the special excitement and attractiveness of a person. outward-bound ventures in relatively unknown areas of the earth's surface will always persist. Some knowledge of science is essential to us all because the march of scientific discovery largely dictates modern living both personal and social. Nowadays in the free world. There are. from weather reports to international communications. is essential. The manned projects must partly depend on the scientific know-how of the space explorer himself. modern European languages being merely an optional extra. Has modern exploration lost glamour and the old dependence on self-reliance? Partly. in both East and West. the opportunity to gain specialized education in order to succeed is . There are also lunar end inter-planetary programs which further extend human knowledge. which in turn depends on the acquisition of culture. however superficial. magnetic fields.

Isaac Newton and Einstein were among the most educated people who ever lived. We cannot be safe in a modern home without a basic understanding of electricity. You cannot begin to work in this field without at least a reasonable knowledge of the goods you are promoting. The truth seems to be that science has its own momentum. jet travel and the ubiquitous computer. Modern martial arts certainly have not destroyed the need for personal bravery in the soldier but effective military action today depends more on the technology which a country can buy. Children must be shielded from dangerous drugs. banking. implies specialization in an established field. We need to know a little chemistry and biology if we are to remain healthy and fit. The growth industries of today depend completely on scientific specialization. The frontiers which they established are still being pushed back. for this is surely one of the aims of educations ? So far there are few signs that it will. Early Chinese education included the martial arts. for the majority. However the topic question implies much more than this. We need to know basic arithmetic if we are to deal with money. Yet modern interest lies less in discovering new laws than in the development of the old ones. and the most that can be said is that the educated person should at least know what is going on in the world. It is man's servant. especially for the young person today. Today the emphasis has shifted from pure to applied science. even family economics. A knowledge of science is necessary if humanity is to be in a position to resist some of its worse results. steel-workers and ship-builders are the dinosaurs of 1984. The basis of any increase in a country's gross national product is trade. Among these may be included nuclear and chemical warfare. dilettante a person who is or seems to be interested in a subject. It might be argued that men like Archimedes. Everything depends on its use or misuse. because job opportunities are increasingly dependent on subjects such as electronics and computer science. if you are a politician can you even understand many of the issues dealt with in government without a degree of specialized knowledge in those fields. It neither explains nor contradicts religion. Today the marketing of sophisticated goods abroad is a main growth industry. and some of the frightening developments in genetic engineering. not its master. In a world which daily grows less remote and more interdependent due to satellite communications. and on the specialized knowledge required for the use of the modern weapons of sea. 'Ars pro arte' is no longer a valid concept. but whose understanding of it is not very deep . Will science finally eliminate the divisive elements in human nature by encouraging understanding and co-operation.regarded as a basic human right. Science is neutral. modern education. boys and girls should receive instruction in them all and be encouraged to specialize in one of these subjects. We live in a scientific world. land and air. necessary accomplishments for those above peasant status. Neither. In Europe the emphasis has already shifted away from the heavy engineering and artisan industries. Coalminers.

The tee-shirt and denim jeans became almost statutory for the young of both sexes. the reason for change is usually apparent. personal manners and standards of moral behavior. At one time a new and exclusively styled garment from a couturier in Paris was sold only to the rich. manners and morals. house. Men's fashions have always remained relatively static.' Another reason for changes in customs. admired or regarded as exclusive i. However the freedoms of the 1960's moved young men into a much more informal style of dress. However fashion applies to many other things than dress and hair-styles e. sometimes abruptly. During the war clothes for both sexes were rationed anyway. women too. 'style' meaning what is popularly accepted. In pre-war days high fashion was the monopoly of the wealthy or well-to-do woman. behavior and morality. Sometimes a form of dress.e. although the hat has. In the West post-war clothing fashions have been the subject of change because of the higher standard of living enjoyed in most European countries. become the symbol of the elderly men. variations in suits and shoes remaining fairly minor. Recently there has been slight return to formal dress. for most occasions. not available to the majority either because they lack the taste or the money to follow it. They prefer two or three different outfits to one.ubiquitous contradict seem to be in all places to state the opposite of What do you understand by 'fashion' and why does fashion change? The word 'fashion' is generally used to mean style in clothing. started the fashion ball rolling. followed by post-war full employment. A third reason for the constant changes lies in 'haute couture' as big business. Take England as an example. The real business lies in the sale of the model to the massproducing firms which bring new styles to the big stores in the High Street. or a custom may drop out of fashion but then come back for no obvious reason. and. lies in subtle changes in ideas and . in the course of a year. on a coupon system. for women as well as men. though a few models are sold to the rich as one-offs. The word also applies to customs. which reflected their casual attitudes. The same garment today is only exclusive in its label. a phrase.g. All these things change from time to time. A fourth reason for change is that women like change for its own sake. It certainly covers forms of speech. Mass-produced fashion clothes and shoes are therefore not made to last. use of words and accents within a language. They become 'disposables. If a woman works to a tight budget she will have to buy clothes and shoes for warmth and durability rather than appearance. However. Returning to women's fashions. building and the general design of most consumer-goods ranging from cars to kitchen appliances. for no apparent reason. Thus the shop-girl can wear the same style in clothes and shoes as Princess Diana. This austerity.

because wherever you create a demand you must be able to . The term 'kitchen-sink drama' sums up the process. the sop to their consciences being that they can use the computer for family accounts. Of course they can. such as the 'Beatles' or from the Midlands or the North. advertising and political pressure groups. prepare themselves for modern living. So advertising began on a local basis. but parents are pressurized into buying computers. others result from a new and sometimes sentimental review of England's past glories. coinciding roughly with the publication of early journals such as The London Gazette. Novels have also undergone fundamental changes in fashion. The home computer is a modern example. The term 'fashion' applies also to the written and the spoken word. English. educate themselves. B. Many women regard this once accepted behavior as male chauvinism. electronics or industrial espionage. partly because of travel and partly because of a shift in political interest. Other changes in fashion occur because of the power of propaganda. The half a dozen big producers go in for highly competitive advertising. Some men no longer open doors for women. is now accepted as fashionable in some quarters. the circulation of which was largely limited to London and one or two large provincial cities. some of it aimed at children.B. her old wartime achievements. All this can be done with books and paper. They can play games. It pays to advertise. and the development of advertising in the West dates back at least three centuries. so far from causing ostracism. Today best-selling novels are usually spythrillers or books which deal with contemporary subjects such as aircraft.outlooks. The anti-smoking lobby has largely succeeded in keeping all public places smoke-free. The Butch appearance of some western women reflects feminism. as does the lookalike garb affected by some couples. Changes in accent and expression have greatly affected both the theatre and the television play. Advertising sells goods and services. never-the-less. Equally they could do their family accounts once a month on the back of an old envelope. The lobby has considerable backing from the medical profession. Tatler and Spectator in England. her social and industrial progress in Victorian and Edwardian days and her colonial power up to 1939. due partly to the prominence given to popgroups. stand when they enter a room or give up their seats in a railway carriage. subject matter is also very different today. banking. In that decade local accents became more fashionable. otherwise it would not exist.C. For men or women to live together in a homosexual relationship. especially if they came from Liverpool. one-off ostracism sum up something that happens or is made or done only once to prevent people from taking part in the activities of a group to quickly form an opinion about someone or something Discuss the various methods of advertising and their effectiveness. The old adage remains true in principle because advertising not only sells goods but also creates the demand for new lines. spoken in an 'Oxbridge' accent was used exclusively by newsreaders and public speakers until the 60s.

Advertising is therefore big business. However there are countless ways of disobeying the spirit if not the letter of the law. flood through the letter-boxes. repel others. The soft sell works best when appealing to the very rich. People get fed-up if they are over-pressurized. by an appeal to a range of human instincts. successful. advertising local firms. ads must be morally decent. From this will be seen that overkill is one drawback to the effectiveness of modern advertising. massproduction. good sales result. on walls. and the freighter for overseas markets. sometimes the creation of that motivation. outside the Eastern bloc. if a famous heavy-weight uses a particular deodorant. Handbills. the commercial break has assumed primary importance. from static balloons. Junk mail. especially color printing. The appeal to snobbery still works. and a direct or indirect appeal to that motivation. if only never to buy it. With the advent of color-television. shop fronts and hoardings. If a stunt-man goes through the hoops to bring his beautiful girl-friend the brand of her choice he will take the easier way of buying them in the supermarket and she may begin to fantasize about the bringer. rail communication and transport. Subliminal advertising has rightly been banned. .meet it. on trains. For as long as most people can remember advertising has been seen wherever the public go. based in the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. so advertising merely keeps them in the public eye. truthful and legal. buses and business vehicles. addressed to computerized lists of likely buyers. 'Apeing the celebrity' is another line of attack. Everybody knows that a small group of products are the best in their fields. The hard sell becomes counter-productive. especially intelligent people. Most countries today have a statutory body which seeks to deep advertising up to a certain basic standards. in railway stations and the underground. In a mixed or affluent community the field is wide open. graphic artists. reliability and effectiveness in a product. taxis and container lorries. and the world's capitals. affluent Jones next door buy certain brand names. Because those bright. The advertising of foodstuffs has been improved by 'sold by' and statements of contents. A country house with a hundred acres of land is offered as a 'modest gentleman's residence. The effectiveness of advertising depends on the assessment of the consumer's motivation in buying. They bore women and men don't usually buy lingerie. Another successful line with a shampoo is that it works. In contrast sexy lingerie ads are self-defeating. the failed. and film producers and technicians. Comic ads amuse some. Most Western advertising works in a competitive market where the variety of brands is matched by the consumer's power of choice. but in either case people keep the brand name in mind. on streamers trailing behind light aircraft. the Rolls Royce is merely described as the best car in the world. Where there is poverty in a potential market the only effective appeal is based on cheapness. the development of printing. boring economical neighbors must do likewise. Some commercial radio channels still carry advertising. offer scope to advertising firms with their highly specially areas of expertise. So various factors combined to create national and international advertising. Such firms employ some of the best ideas people. fills the waste paper baskets. promotional experts. and usually price is not mentioned. Yet the fact that it continues argues that this kind of advertising is financially justified. implying that the others don't. Yet sex can sell chocolates. or a great actress a particular shampoo.

and that it encourages free enterprise. and that it means to hold its own in the modern world. consequently. a strong currency. The total net income can be raised or lowered at the will of government. all countries have labor-intensive annual commitments where the main services are nationally funded or subsidized. including housing and a comprehensive social security system.sop something unimportant or of little value which is offered to stop complaints or unhappiness a substance that you put on your body to prevent or hide unpleasant smells to do a lot of difficult things before you are allowed to have or do something you want deodorant go through the hoops What priorities would you set for government expenditure and why? These priorities will vary enormously according to the circumstances and the state of development of the country concerned. All have the potential for rationalization. To do so. economic development and the full exploitation of natural resources. and both can he regulated within certain limits. For the purposes of this essay. In terms both of nuclear and conventional arms. a favorable balance of trade with. In a democracy. the civil service. business. such as value added tax or purchase tax. profits made on resource exploitation. but that a reasonable level of defense has to be kept for the sake ofparity with potentially hostile neighbors. the police and customs forces. If a country follows the socialist line. Income normally comes from direct and indirect taxation. we can now look at the national cake. education. and of course levies on consumer durables and perishables among other areas. Assuming that the country is politically independent. the reduction or abolition of inflation implying some kind of wages policy in both public and private sectors. self-help and a business-like efficiency. it will need to achieve the following. railways and airlines. Any government's financial leeway consists of revenue less unavoidable expenditure. Taxation covers personal income. Similarly. let us assume that the country concerned is democratic. with consequent economies. If not. although such changes are usually marginal. the current unfreezing of relations between East and West is partly based on internal pressures for economies in favor of more positive priorities. perhaps privatization. a large slice of the national cake is already accounted for in terms of defense salaries and equipment. high interest rates if overseas money is to be attracted but if possible without prejudice to exports. as many as possible of these services will be hived off to the private sector. wild changes may lead to the overthrow of . the health service. roads. Could that slice be reduced in size. together with legislative control over the power of the trades unions. are the government's responsibility. Basic policy must therefore be considered. then all these. and many others. Given such an ideal and promising situation.

allowing for inflation. Pressure groups will have drawn attention to social defects. science and technology. Every writer owes much to his or her background and to the national climate of opinion. roads and railways. Nevertheless. The bias is not always deliberate. health. education. Thirdly. The chancellor has a usable surplus of $2 billion. Equal sums are allocated to the establishment of a subsidized health service. $1 billion must be allocated to that purpose. Do you support this view? This sounds a very sweeping statement. parity hive off cancel out equality set apart from a group neutralize the effect All history books are biased. He allocates $330 million. sports and the arts will simply be maintained at the old levels. such changes have to be made with a strict eye to inflation. because this will guarantee greatly increased revenue.government. Also. He selects the following short-term priorities. It has been decided that the country's outstanding short-term needs lie in the categories of housing. the exploitation of natural resources. So a budget is reached. housing. At the risk of becoming unpopular the chancellor will have to balance these conflicting claims. until agreement or compromise has been reached. The sooner natural resources are developed the better. Any chancellor will regard his expendable surplus as a cake to be divided into slices. railways. to be shared from primary to university level. The press and the public may well have set their own priorities. For example. and out of the longterm needs. health and education. and the establishment of centers for research and development. which he hopes will ultimately become non-contributory. the callousness of the rich and the . And since his hopes for a larger national cake in the future depend on resource exploitation. the inequity of the law. after setting aside funds to service and reduce national debts. The long-term needs include the modernization of the Armed Forces equipment. The important thing about the writing of history is that it should not only be factual but that it should include all the facts. it would be wrong to write about the French Revolution without dealing with what led up to it. sport and the arts. and the opposition will certainly have done so. any great increase in borrowing erodes stability. there is much truth in it. Let us take an imaginary country which fulfils all the above conditions. It will then be for the cabinet to press claims for the various departments represented. and to the improvement of the national education service. the exploitation of natural resources. the glaring differences in living standards between aristocrat and peasant. A labor-intensive re-housing program will help to bring down unemployment. Roads. which cancels outimprovements.

Suchtravesties are forcibly imposed on schools. although vague about the consequences of total nonaggression in all circumstances. While it is true that the old-fashioned historian concentrated on power bases. The problem of this kind of writing is dullness. where personal opinion or interpretation is rigorously excluded. It is also pacifist insofar as the established powers are concerned. For example there is no mention of social and material progress or of the Pax Britannica in certain modern accounts of British colonialism. art. The technique is to suppress all the truth of the past and rewrite only the material which fits in with government policy. monarchs and political leaders. condemning the murders which lead to the overthrow of a stable government. Otherwise the account would read simply as a record of brutal and indiscriminate violence on the part of the Paris mob. from the national point of view. some modern historians see history simply in terms of the upward struggle of the poor. The best of historical writing therefore includes all the facts. while objectively-written history books are withdrawn from schools and libraries. writing only about violence against the class struggle and against the trades union movement. and argue that the ugly features of revolution are necessary if full democratic control of government is to pass into the hands of the people. others tend to adopt the one-world stance. One writer dealing with a popular revolution will castigate a mob for violence. will put all the blame on the government for its autocratic and heartless attitude to the people.rational philosophy of human equality and human rights spelled out by Voltaire and JeanJacques Rousseau. This happens when an oppressive government decides to brainwash its people into continued subservience. The one-world view also tends to be selective in the presentation of facts. More recently. the writing of history in some countries has been debased out of all recognition. castigate debased travesty to criticize severely corrupt something which fails to represent the values and qualities that it is intended to represent Should one aim of education be the development of talent in such fields as music. This stance favors aggression by the oppressed and is invariably censorious about colonialism. Another. Much the same applies to domestic history. leaving the reader to draw personal conclusions. drama? . however objectively. objectively presented. either writer or reader. If some historians tend to write. is totally without a political stance. Nobody. greed and looting. eliminating those which conflict with it's overall moral outlook. perhaps excessively. which is basically left-wing. dealing with the same revolution.

The arts are usually bracketed under the general heading 'liberal studies'. Parents. even if this is not a prime place. Perhaps the modern version of 'mens sana in corpore sano'. the use of computers and other office machinery. Yet this is not merely a matter of conservation. feel that the priority for their children is to become equipped to earn a good living. Yet the reverse of this coin is the necessary enrichment of the culture of all countries in successive generations. whatever that ability may be. a 'healthy body in a healthy mind'. technology and the manufacture of sophisticated products. and modern education has spawned a brood of these non-subjects. while others are 'soft options'. since these languages possess technical vocabularies and also equip young people to travel overseas in the course of their work. and general handwork.e. the sciences. However. politics and economics. to grow or start suddenl . and it would be tragic if that heritage were lost through neglect. Governments urge concentration on certain subjects. languages and literature. banking. There will always he young people more interested in the arts than in the sciences. So music. Given proficiency in some or all of there. So even attention to sports training is justifiable. and therefore crucial to the general improvement of the national standard of living. In any real sense they are totally unproductive. It is small wonder that both governments and parents discourage some of them nowadays. i. Governments see these occupations as essential to national wealth creation. or another international language. in general. insurance and stockbroking. or many new things. Even these people are usually employable.It is only a tiny minority who are born without a talent in one direction or another. It is clear that those with this kind of talent should be encouraged. it is a short step to useful employment. engineering. latent proficiency spawn Present or potential but not evident or active skilled and experienced to cause something new. research and development and computers. Modern job opportunities lie in the fields of the service industries. We live in a real world. These essential subjects include English. philosophy. What is material success if there is nothing to engage the artistic side of our nature in our spare time? Perhaps the greatest concept of education originates in the European cultural renaissance in Italy. they include history. Every country has its own artistic heritage. and dates back to the late Middle Ages. also. social and environmental studies. Artistic pursuits have now become international and offer brilliant careers to gifted young people of every country. Some require exact knowledge and serious study. The other favored subjects arc mathematics. It seems logical. so that a pool of labor can be formed which can move easily into specialized training. the pressure from educational theorists today is to concentrate teaching on preparation for employment. art and drama must all have their place in the curriculum. It is the development of the whole person. that one aim of education should be to develop latent ability. still has its place.

It is perhaps true to say that a good library is one of the finest assets a community can possess. and has absorbed both backgrounds. after a hard day in the office. Most people enjoy a good thriller. What about Mr. Again. Robert Graves' novels I. just as his Goodbye to all thatreveals the horrors of the First World War. To read is more positive than to watch television. This is the popular Agatha Christie genre. Reading also excels radio listening. some highly gifted. who wrote the terrifying novel The Exorcist. the spectrum of spy mysteries. paperbacks are usually available. or are we looking for an encapsulated set of personal relationships? Perhaps. come back quickly. because the visual nature of TV limits the imagination. just as the Australian reader would see nothing funny in an English novel which I think hilarious. Failing a library. Violence is never dwelt on for its own sake. because he has spent much of his working life in Hollywood. among many others. with it's comments on the Russian system. So are we looking for people's reactions to a great sweep of national events. three genres which in the 20th century have had a great following. however. because the acts of violence are no more than pegs on which to hang intellectual solutions. Claudius andClaudius the god reveal the Imperial Roman Empire. and more latterly by people like Blatty. but not in any bad sense. In The moon's a balloon and Go slowly. whether past or present. The outward-bound adventure thriller. so much so that he or she can be ultra-selective in following personal taste. notably Dennis Wheatley. based on the machinations of MI6. The American would be puzzled. Reading opens windows on the world. This argues that humor has to be related to a known background. Clarke's space fiction? Or perhaps it is something light and amusing. and some. Tolstoy's War and Peace reveal the Napoleonic struggle. such as Georges Simenon. the sort we find in Pasternak's Dr Zhivago. Perhaps. and partly because the quality of radio programs is so uneven. because the adventures of this veterinary surgeon relate exclusively to provincial English characters. the KGB and the CIA. For this writer. The real trend. a gifted raconteur like David Niven sells equally well on both sides of the pond. There are. Our choice of fiction also depends on mood. he pins down the foibles of both nations. partly because the listener has no choice in the programs. the Atlantic Ocean is a great divide as far as humor is concerned. represented by Alistair MacLean and Hammond Innes.What types of fiction do you enjoy reading and why? The reading of fiction is escapism. is for the good whodunnit. and a whole group of modern novels . Edgar Allan Poe's short stories set the horror trend. whereas Jane Austen's Persuasion being a study of the mannered relationships of early 18th century English country gentry merely gives the Napoleonic Wars a mention. However. tastes vary. He was followed by a host of others. we need to read something out of this world. The Englishman laughs at the James Herriott stories. There is a whole world of this kind of fiction. horror stories. followed by dozens of other writers. John LeCarre being a very able exponent. It may be this quality which distinguishes great from mediocre fiction. There is a world of fiction available to occupy the reader's spare time. to the delight of both. we enjoy both. and most people enjoy looking through these windows. from time to time.

to cure disease or to prevent it ? The answer depends on the standpoint of the individual. a cure. yellow fever. have now disappeared from the Western world as a result. immunity from poliomyelitis. In the long run there is little doubt that the prevention of disease is of higher priority than finding cures. and also to educate people in public hygiene. The prevention procedures was to destroy the rats. Up to the 17th century England was ravaged by a series of bubonic plagues which killed off people by the thousand. malaria will persist. hopefully. hotels and banks. This will require expenditure in fields other than medicine. Meanwhile a course of drugs will build up the body's resistance. Suppression and prevention will ultimately lead to a natural cure. and this in turn will depend on the priorities obtaining in that country. avoiding standing water. the anopheles mosquito. typhoid fever and some forms of influenza can now be achieved by injection. Discovery of the cause of any disease is crucial. Other ministries will therefore be involved.g. The old theory was that the plague was caused by the stench of rotting refuse. In the case of childish and non-fatal complaints. However. In certain tropical countries. which infected humans. and were often denied the literary status conferred on them by subsequent generations. The plague was eradicated by preventive methods. The main priority may be prevention. in a period when finding an actual cure was medically impossible. or where certain diseases are endemic. they are still read for pleasure. The most important preventive measure against disease is inoculation. This is particularly true in countries where people become the victims of epidemics. malaria is endemic. a minister of health may take a different view. The effects of it can be suppressed by drugs and its source. these are public works. which in turn meant providing London with proper drainage. nutrition and health education. has long been known. However. perhaps because the student may associate them too closely with examinations. The only thing left is.based on carefully-researched subjects such as airports. However without strict public health regulations. In any country he will need to decide on the allocation of his budget. it came from rat fleas. and one should not forget that they were the popular literature of their day. In fact. tetanus. encapsulate raconteur foible to express or show the most important facts about something someone who tells amusing or interesting stories a strange habit or characteristic that is seen as harmless and unimportant Which is the more important. Should he or she contract a disease. although the mosquito can be destroyed by spraying. some fatal. e. it is sometimes thought . This short essay does not mention the Classics. The means is to vaccinate with enough of the virus concerned to achieve immunity to the actual disease. then prevention is too late. and using mosquito nets in the wet season. especially in London. Certain diseases.

Changes in diet and the invasion of microorganisms can also contribute. Where the quality of water is suspect. e. The same may be said about cancer. may be classified as disease. although nowadays haematology saves many lives. Certain addictions. thisscourge. Unfortunately it seems that as fast as one disease is eliminated another seems to take its place. surgery. This necessitates a balanced diet. because where a child's bodily health is generally good a natural immunity results. and favorable housing and working conditions.best to accept them. but so far no cure. boiling achieves a general level of safety. though not always. to avoid lung cancer. measures to control it include the use of modern drugs. X-ray therapy in the case of cancer. jaundice and hepatitis are far more dangerous. and the rejection of asbestos from the building trade. Meanwhile there is no means of preventing or curing either the common cold or the various kinds of rheumatic and arthritic complaints. scourge A source of widespread dreadful affliction and devastation . of which the origin is at present unknown.g. So far. warmth in cold climates. although the stated connection between smoking tobacco and lung cancer is opinion and propaganda rather than demonstrable fact. Cure by skilled surgery may be the only option. When a disease has been caught. The strengthening of bodily defenses against disease is of strategic importance. This applies less to infectious and contagious disease than to contraction by individuals. people have a built-in immunity to these invasions. though not always. measures to prevent the inhalation of coal dust in the mining industry. though its means of spread has become clear. Its cure remains uncertain. heart. In general. toxins or radiation. viruses. However much of the latter remains empirical while the actual causes of serious diseases remain unknown. e. but the facts illustrate the patchy nature of medical advances. Neither are there any preventative measures. All of them can be lived with if drug suppressants are used. The prevention of' its spread is essential. but if one has to generalize for the long term. reasonable exercise. such as not smoking. bacteria. now give new hope to many sufferers. In adults. lung and kidney surgery. What is disease? It is the invasion of the body by outside agents. good sleep. and at times. or from failure to adapt to environmental change. It can also result from changes in the body and from physical malfunctioning. It can be contained by prophylaxis and avoided altogether by avoiding sexual promiscuity. including drug addiction. Other preventative measures include eliminating the cause of disease from the environment. which is becoming endemic in certain parts of Africa. since there are no medical treatments.g. the balance may he on the side of prevention. Dramatic advances in bodily organ replacement. These examples and others can be cited to prove the topic-statement either way. There are treatments. There are preventive measures. A greatly feared recent illness is AIDS. Prevention by abstention is all-important. fungi. In no case is there a cure for the condition. is incurable.

and why not? The dictionary gives a wide definition of entertain -. Britain may have the best answer. of whatever kind. Many seem to think that the theatre exists to make political points. at wit and topical comment in newspaper cartoons. it has to be said that Channel 2 is almost entirely given over to serious viewing. intellectual Art in general could not exist. serious music. or what somebody else thinks is good for them ? We return to the purpose of the Arts. the Corporation remains independent of Government. and the ITV from dropping its standards to suit the lowest tastes. The intelligentsia would answer no. in any country. at farce on the stage. Of course serious writing. Where there is an attempt to give pleasure rather than to instruct. the public is far more likely to be prepared to pay to support the Arts. Some regard the media as a tool of government. whether music. it all depends what you mean by entertain. In all fairness. we do laugh at comic songs. While they keep their independence. and programs concerning the Arts in general. and there has been no reason to change that order of priorities.sexual promiscuity empirical indulging in casual and indiscriminate sexual relations verifiable Do you agree that the primary purpose of the Arts. Their purpose is to . If the word means make one laugh.to amuse. allowing standards to find their own level on the basis of public popularity. is to entertain? As Professor Joad used to say. At the same time it has to compete with the Independent Television Authority for support. in that order. Although funded from the license fee. Yet it is a strange co-incidence that without heavy subsidies from the state or some business source. opera. then there is obviously more to the Arts than that. This saves the BBC from becoming too stuffy. ballet. the British Broadcasting Corporation defined the object of sound. or to express the prejudices of the author. and so yes is the logical answer to the question. In its early days. Should preference be given to popularity ? Should people be given what they want. religion included. or to make us think about some social problem. documentaries. painting. Othersrelinquish all control and place the media in the hands of advertising sponsors. they comprise political and social comment. and the result of that remains to be seen. Other countries may have different objectives. inform and educate. the media are free to respond democratically to public demand. and at the likes of P G Wodehouse and Mark Twain in novels. People obtain pleasure from many things. More intellectual programs arerelegated to the early or late time slots. should be free to deal with serious subjects. to occupy pleasurably. television broadcasting as being to entertain. as in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. Of course. drama or literature. this demand is for entertainment which makes few if any intellectual demands. So we suffer a spate of situation comedies. music and painting are seen as vehicles of getting across some message or other. In Britain. Cable television will bring wider choice. and later. soap operas and panel games monopolizing the prime viewing times.

if the Arts are to survive. The schoolboy felt a sense of pride. Providing the new methods do not lead to the inculcationof political stances. colonies end protectorates. and dissonant. but it is far from being the complete picture. must be literary. Entertainment in the widest sense remains the primary objective of the Arts. at least among highbrows. Schoolchildren grow up. Subject matter has broadened. These at once cut across national insularity. Yet. Most people enjoy drama which has a beginning. more than they once did. The old approach was to concentrate on power centers. and military relationships with neighboring countries. and bring a more sophisticated outlook to their study. The popularity test has been in question for a long time. Painting and sculpture take some abstract form. the wind of change led to the independence of ex- . dominions. In the case of Britain. indeed in some countries it has been merged with the story of progress in ideology. but most people like a recognizable and memorable tune. This indicated the Empire. farce a humorous play or film where the characters become involved in unlikely situations to give up something such as a responsibility or claim to put someone or something into a lower or less important rank or position relinquish relegate How far should the teaching of history aim to foster pride in one's country and its past? In the 1930s a British schoolboy would turn his geographical globe and find that a third of the land surface was colored pink. Most people prefer representational painting. and to the loss of the factual framework which has to be learnt the hard way. sociology and industrial development. perhaps discuss. Whatever the intellectuals may think is good for us. Literature. Another factor running counter to old-fashioned pride in country is based in the post Second World War international agreement about basic human rights. No doubt all this has made people think. The problem with many exponents of the Arts is that their work has a minority appeal. and themes now cover the whole spectrum of life. the fact that in Britain the Arts have to be supported by government handouts via the Arts Council speaks for itself. he might have thought one day we shall rule the world . The teaching of history has changed in recent years. the stories of rulers. Traditional and conventional themes have been abandoned. learn history in more depth. The theatre preaches sociology and politics. armies. So much music has become tuneless. political figures. a middle and an end. and may or may not be a true source of pride. the new approach may be superior to the old. Most people buy a book because it is a good read. Musical appreciation depends on personal taste. personal to the artist.occupy leisure time pleasurably. This of course is legitimate history. the paying public will always vote with its feet.

generosity. Its extreme adherents visualize total disarmament. barons and petty chiefs. and in which e country can take no legitimate pride. total freedom to emigrate and settle at will. even social improvement. community consciousness and hospitality to strangers. in part or whole. countries take legitimate pride in their own special characteristics. and the rule of just law. on the part of both East end West. Some countries still behave aggressively through their secret services and their arms dealers. these include individuality in dress. Neither should the student be ashamed of the personal protection afforded by the society into which he or she was born. inculcation to fix beliefs or ideas in someone's mind. Sometimes apartheid was built into the system. to all countries. right or wrong is seriously suspect. especially by repeating them often interested only in your own country or group and not willing to accept different or foreign ideas insularity . and it can he done without prejudice to the fostering of love of country for the right reasons. Neither should history teaching neglect improvements in living standards. What are these reasons ? The history of all countries traces the emergence of their peoples from the despotism of kings. Arising out of this. Pride may also be taken in the development of the democratic process. There are some things which the teaching of history used to obscure. music. and eventually the international standardization of privilege and opportunity. The right kind of national pride is at least a partial guarantee of freedom and a counter-measure against aggression. flexibility. the theatre. alongside the progress to both national and personal independence. respect for neighbor. give and take. Gradually the oneworld concept grew up. Whereas the concept of my country. family solidarity. kindness to animals. especially in Europe. the history teacher should not be ashamed to impart this information. the discarding of legitimate national pride unilaterally is impractical and unrealistic. Militarism and unprovoked aggression towards neighbors comes first. came a history of colonization by conquest. Most countries have a history of industrial and nowadays technological development. Rule was despotic. and this has given rise to trades unionism which at its best seeks fairness and protection for the worker. Although tempered by religious mission and the establishment of peace end stability. These may well include kindness. In more recent times there have been cases of empire-building by subversion rather than by military conquest.colonies and the distancing of the dominions from the influence of Whitehall. followed by commercial exploitation. this part of history is no longer condoned. the abolition of class barriers and the enhancement of personal opportunity. reductions in working hours and the provision of health. However patriotic. sports and games. care for the elderly. and environmental development and improvement. humor. They apply. Poverty and lack of opportunity were ignored. In some instances local people were deported as slaves to be used for commercial gain. Students can also take pride in the development of the rule of law and the strengthening of personal freedoms within the law. or of the good qualities of that society. cultural and leisure services. Finally. Most empirebuilding countries were cynical in their dealings with vassal states. love of children. whether military or subversive.

the setting up of families and clans. and either die or fall prey to predators. groom and ride on animals in a modern zoo. many species are endangered or becoming extinct. Another counter-argument is that for close contact. Due to over shooting and deforestation in Africa. and worse. tigers and elephants thus have room to move freely and to set up their own social structures. i.e. The major-attraction types of animals such as lions. UK. Sometimes animals bred in captivity cannot adapt to the wild. The first is conservation. It has to be said that zoos are constantly improving their facilities and bringing them . Point two is that zoos are educational. However it is conceded that given large enough cages or confined areas with sufficient animals these defects can be largely overcome. India and elsewhere. and since the Second World War in the grounds of large houses such as Longleat.vassal A person who held land from a feudal lord and received protection in return for homage and allegiance Are you for or against zoos? Until recently the case for zoos was never questioned. with the result that their natural habitats have been re-stocked. This process is expensive and time-consuming. and from the text-book. The koala bear. This inhibits exercise. and are never confined. and that in the strict sense the zoo does not further education. Gradually however unrest has grown about the morality of keeping animals. Children love seeing animals. Zoology is best learnt in the classroom. visual or actual. The counter to this argument is that animals dislike being domesticated for any reason. These arguments do not of course apply to bird sanctuaries. Seeing and touching animals means much more to a child than any number of good books or pictures. Children have a chance to touch. prevents the putting together of enough animals to allow for natural social behavior. in the laboratory. They are accepted as useful and entertaining amenities which were also educational. Some zoos specialize in activity centers which generate love of animals. this is totally impracticable overseas. The main argument against is that available money should be put into the saving of natural habitats. Realistically. lack of hygiene or incorrect feeding. The concept of confining them in cages became suspect. however. some types of deer and the Arabian oryx are examples. though not on grounds of ill-treatment. where the birds are encouraged to frequent natural but protected habitats. They are fenced off from the public except in safari parks where people can see them at close quarters from rover type vehicles. cages must be small. and difficult enough in the country concerned. There are four points in favor of zoos. and arguments against them all. The fact is that only 5% of endangered species are to be found in zoos. and a visit to the zoo has always been a treat. Sometimes it is unsuccessful. reptiles and birds in captivity. More than fifty years ago a wildlife park was established at Whipsnade in Bedfordshire. so the whole concept may be wrong. Attempts to mate these in captivity have been successful. understanding and enjoyment.

What of the future ? Despite all arguments to the contrary. Nothing was known about the social habits of the rhinoceros until specimens were brought into captivity and observed in suitable surroundings. with opportunities to touch and groom. scripts and tapes available in a modern zoo attract the adult also. Children have been mentioned. Some agree. The veterinary branch learns how best to keep animals and treat them when sick. statistics for analysis. Surroundings will be made larger and more natural. Problems of reintroduction into the wild are studied.into line with the animal's natural surroundings as far as possible. and should be kept. UK. This produces comparative surveys. In the case of the London Zoo the answer is that they have an Institute of Zoology. What kind of research ? people ask. This provides conservation. plus personal contact. The old defects will be overcome. or to slow down a process or the growth of something An exhibition of pictures or objects viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass inhibit peepshow . such as the woolly monkey sanctuary at Looe. also lectures. but the informative booklets. The future may lie in this direction. The fourth argument for zoos is that they not only allow for research but also finance it. If the wishes of the public are to be considered. and data bases. This again is not considered a valid argument by the opponents. in Cornwall. Entrance takings are high. others ask why animals should be made a peepshow. rover a strong. the continued development of zoos seems to be a valid policy. There is also a strong case for the specialized zoo or sanctuary. zoos as recreational amenities have a large following. powerful vehicle designed for traveling over rough or steep ground and used especially by people who work in the countryside to prevent someone from doing something. Animal behavior is studied. Animal nutrition is studied. and money becomes available for research as well as improvement. The polar bear house in London Zoo is currently being remodeled in this way. education about their kinship and social life in natural colonies.

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