Write a story based on this line : "By evening, she was running a high fever ...

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Far up in the mountains of Canada, there is an old abandoned log cabin. Once it was occupied by a young couple who wanted to distance themselves from the chaos of this modern world. Here they were miles away from the nearest town. Bob, the husband, made the occasional trip into town to buy supplies whereas Jan, his wife, spent her free time by the fire, sewing. Their life was simply idyllic. Then, one midwinter's day, Jan woke up from bed with a strange ache in her bones. Putting it down to overwork, Bob shooed her to bed and made sure she rested. Though Jan was impatient to get to her chores, Bob soothed her, "Relax, Sugar. You're overdoing things. All these chores will be here when you recover." However, Jan seemed to be getting worse instead of recovering. By evening, she was running a high fever and in greater pain. In spite of his best efforts, Bob could not manage to ease her suffering. And then suddenly, she started to lapse into unconsciousness. It was then obvious that she was seriously ill. What could Bob do? He had no experience in treating the sick and Jan was getting worse by the minute. He knew that there was an old doctor in town but he lived three miles away, downhill. Pot-bellied and obese, there was no way the doctor could make it up to their cabin. Something had to be done quickly! Bob racked his brains but to no avail. The only thing left to do was to go to the doctor. In Jan's condition, she could never walk that far in the waist-deep snow. Bob would have to carry her! Bob searched his mind for a way to move poor, sick Jan. Then, he remembered. He had once made a sledge so that they could ride together over the mountain. They never got around to using it though, because the whole mountain was thickly covered with rocks and trees. He had never found a safe way down, not even once. "Well," he thought, "looks like I'm going to have to try it anyhow," as he dug out the sledge from the storeroom. "Jan may die unless I get her to the doctor, and life means nothing to me without her." With this thought in mind, Bob gently tucked Jan into the sledge, got in the front, and with a short prayer for safety, pushed off. How they got through that ride alive, Bob has never figured out. As trees loomed up in front of him and just as quickly whizzed by his side, close enough to touch, he felt relieved that Jan was not awake to experience the ride. It was all he could do not to scream as collision seemed imminent, time and again, with only inches to spare. At last, bursting from the mountainside, the town came into view. Barely slowing down, they sped through the icy streets, only losing speed as they neared the doctor's house. The sledge, battered through the journey, collapsed in the left ski as it came to a halt, spilling out its occupants. Bob picked up his Jan and made his way into the doctor's house.

After what seemed to be a long winter, Jan recovered fully from her illness but Bob never recovered from his fright. They moved into the little town so as to be near help in times of crisis, and have lived there ever since. idyllic rack one's brains batter simple and carefree strain to find a solution to damage as by heavy wear

Write a story using this sentence as your first line : "It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens."
It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens. Ken and his friends were playing their regular football game along the banks of the river near their small village. In the midst of the game, Ken's attention was drawn to a tourist boat passing by. Actually, tourist boats were quite common in their area. It was also common for some of the tourists to take potshots at the birds and squirrels along the way. This is why Ken's friends were not really surprised to hear a few small explosions from the boat. They ignored the sounds and went on with their game. However, they were startled when they suddenly heard loud cries for help coming from the boat. They could see that the crew were running about, panic-stricken. Some people were shouting to them. "Their engine must have blown up! Look, there's smoke and the boat's out of control. It's going towards the rapids," Ken pointed out to his friends. Ken's village was located at the point at which the tourist boats turned around and headed back upstream. Three kilometers downstream were the rapids, which spelt trouble for the boats. "It's heading straight for the rapids! They're in trouble! The boat will be smashed against the rocks!" Ken exclaimed. "Let's get help!" The boys sprinted back to the village for help. Along the way, they met the village headman. Stumbling over his words in his haste, Ken explained the emergency to the headman. The headman was a man of quick action. Without wasting any time, he yelled out to some men to help him carry his powerful outboard motor to the jetty. With the motor tied firmly onto bamboo poles, they rushed hurriedly down to the jetty. Their haste was indeed necessary for, by the time the men had reached the jetty, they saw that the

boat was dangerously close to the rapids. There was not a moment to lose! With quick hands, the headman attached the outboard motor to his sampan and then sped off to the rescue. Upon reaching the tourist boat with bare minutes to spare, the headman realized his mistake. How could so many tourists be packed into this small sampan? The headman was filled with despair. Then he saw the rope that had been used to tie down the outboard motor to the bamboo poles. It had been flung into the sampan in his haste. Quickly, he grabbed the rope and flung it to the boatmen on the tourist boat. "I'll tow you back!" he shouted. After the boatmen had tied the rope firmly to their boat, the headman made a swift U-turn and then, putting the engine on full power, he steered his sampan upstream. The rope gave a jerk and then, to everyone's relief and joy, the tourist boat moved forward, obediently following the small sampan. Loud cheers burst out from the tourist boat and the observers on the shore. Thanks to the headman's courage, the cooperation from the villagers, and the quick action of the boys, the tourists were saved from certain death in the rapids. take potshot sprint stumble a shot which is fired carelessly or with little preparation to run as fast as you can over a short distance to act or speak falteringly

Describe an incident when a moment of forgetfulness got you into trouble.
The morning sun shone persistently on my still-shut eyelids. Annoyed, I rolled on to the right side of my mattress. Wondering about the time, I stretched out my arm to grasp the little, round alarm clock on my bedside table. I forced open my eyes, focused them on the numbers ... and screeched! Leaping out of my bed, I swung open the wardrobe door. Throwing my school uniform on the bed, I dashed to the bathroom. Halfway, I spun around and grabbed my school bag, deciding not to brush my teeth. Soon, I had shoved my feet into my shoes and pounced onto my bicycle. My parents stood motionless, staring at me as I whizzed past. As my bicycle raced on, I noticed a group of schoolgirls looking my way with great interest. Well, well! Obviously, I was still attractive even with uncombed hair. My heart was pounding furiously in my chest as I whirred past a few cars on the road. The drivers seemed to stare with disbelief that one could pedal so swiftly. In no time, I reached the school gate, which was just

about to be closed. Without bothering to explain myself to the priggish duo on guard duty, I hopped off my bike and dashed off. After locking my precious iron steed at the shed, I sprinted to the school hall. As I burst into the hall, I braked to change direction and made a beeline for the back of my class. Screeching to a halt, I took my place behind my classmates. In the whole gathering of students, I seemed to be the centre of attraction. It did not matter much to me at the moment for I was used to being looked at. However, to say the least, I was a little surprised when everyone stopped staring blankly at me and started to giggle. Suddenly, the whole hall was filled with roars and bellows of laughter. Smiling at my audience, I decided to take a bow. Then, I noticed that the bottom half of my trousers were the wrong color. My line of vision moved upwards, revealing that the rest of my pants were also the wrong color, and so was my shirt. At first, even my powerful brain could not figure it out. "Daniel! Why on earth are you in pajamas?" my friend blurted out amidst the hollers of laughter. The feeling of sheer horror swept through my entire frame. My mouth was stuck open in an "0" shape for a few long seconds. My mind was filled only with shock as darkness mercifully started to engulf me. Once again. I awoke with lights playing on my eyelids. At first I had little memory of what had happened, but one look at the group of people peering down at me brought the whole incident back to mind. The young boys were all clad in white uniforms and grinning quite lunatically at me. In. the high corner of the room, I saw a red crescent. Then the horrible little squirts started to call out for their seniors. Outside, I heard freshgales of laughter. The brats were chortling. I was still clad in pajamas. Not knowing what else to do, I feigned unconsciousness again ... in no time make a beeline for gales of laughter in a relatively short time to straight to a forceful outburst

Imagine a world where nobody gets sick or old. Write a story based in this fictitious world
It's my birthday today. I have lost count of how many birthdays have passed, but I still keep my tradition. I climb to the top of the nearby hill, bringing a handful of dirt with me. I press it into the ground. Then, I sit down to prepare my mind for my next annual rite: reminding myself of

who I am and why I am living. I made this hill, actually, and I'm still building it up. I started on my tenth birthday. Now, the hill is large enough for me to ski down each winter. In a world where people stay young forever, persistence pays. Persistence was what led Dr Syue Cano to discover the secret of eternal youth. At the age of eighty-four, he identified the gene that causes humans to age and the specific radiation that destroys it. No one will know whether he detonated his "Youth" bomb for the sake of his own immortality or for the sake of the other human beings in the world. However, his defective heart could not withstand the impact of the blast. He died the instant the bomb exploded. Mankind will always be grateful for the discovery to which Dr Cano dedicated his life. However, he left the world with one problem: the earth's limited natural resources. Even with plant growth accelerated by scientific wizardry, food and oxygen were becoming inadequate for the world population, which only kept booming. Some subtractions were necessary for the survival of the human species. The only solution was to remove some of the people by unnatural means, that is, to execute them. Thus, this was why all crimes were made punishable by execution: murder, theft, adultery, slander, hoarding of food... the list is very long. This was the only way to maintain the valance of nature. That's where I come in. I am an Executioner. I work alone, never considering the risk. People say I have a death wish. Perhaps I do. Certainly, yesterday's job was no waltz in the park. Rob Tao was suspected of stealing and hoarding food. My job was to check this out. As always, I was to be detective, judge, jury and executioner. I had enough stealth technology to break into Tao's compound undetected. To get into the house was also a cinch. My vibra-blade cut through the wall like it was butter. In the house, my Arometer detected food, lots of it. I went down corridor after corridor, following the bleeps of light on my Arometer. The signals went wild outside one closed door. There was a lot of human activity inside, judging by my HUO sensors. I primed a grenade and opened the door just a crack -- enough to see whom I would be executing. Then I deprimed the grenade. Sitting there were thousands of children. Rob Tao stood amongst them, holding a huge pot of steaming mush. He smiled at me, seeminglyunperturbed. "You're feeding all these children?" I asked, flabbergasted. "Yes," he replied quietly. "How do you get so much food? I'm sure you steal it," I said.

I imagine his Fort Cortina coming up the driveway. From that day onwards. I arrived there. I was the one who would read aloud. as I stand perched on the peak of Mount Kina. behind his steel-rimmed glasses are soft. My father has always been my source of encouragement. My father. breathing deeply after a good run. His broad shoulders and rather serious demeanor give him an air of authority. the engine purring to a stop. Thus. can't remember what I'm living for. At first. has thinning hair swept back from his forehead. Sitting here now. he instilled in me a sense of God's presence in this world. Yet. As I grew into boyhood. my bookish ways and disinterest in outdoor games made me overweight. I was introduced to the fascinating realm of books. my father would point out the spelling of words. I had no excuse for letting him get away withhis crime. huffing and puffing. However. usually by telling them something they were not expecting Describe your relationship with your father Every evening. I was a most reluctant jogger. just 50 yards away. From that day onwards. Yet. he instructed me to read the words for myself. so as not to stir me from my concentration. my father will be pausing outside my door. Going to execute me?" Still that gentle smile. he started to take me on jogs. I became quite a bookworm. One day.. on his lap. he would take a book from our small home library and read aloud to me every night. I was picking up the hooks and reading them on my own. these days. I don't understand why I just walked out." . He has a slim and athletic body. my father stood observing me as I was running to a field. I remember his words. I know he will feel pleased as he watches me studying. When I was very young. I know that in a few moments. It was not my decision to make. the familiar sound of my father's car reaches my ears.. cinch unperturbed flabbergasted something easy to accomplish free from emotional agitation or nervous tension to shock someone. as he was reading."Yes. as I am doing my schoolwork in my room. on my hill. Then one day. He would read stories and parables from the Bible. "A healthy body breeds a healthy mind. kind eyes. with his gentle correction every now and then. Soon after that. I can't remember what I'm killing for. I do. Secure and loved. at 53 years. looking in quietly. I remember how. I found that I was able to do so. clumsy and rather unfit. Worriedly. he told me that he would not like to see his son grow up into an unhealthy man. To our shared delight.

when I was about to give up on a task. and the world around you will smile. "I can't believe I actually did that!" There was this incident about five years back. In any kind of trouble. he advised me." Well. his advice always comes to mind and this spurs me on to persevere. Lifting my bowed head. I was able to smile in spite of my problems. Absolutely humiliated. he put an arm around my shoulders and gently asked me what was troubling me. whenever I feel dauntedby a task. I was at a piano recital. looking out for me all the way. When I was sick. He would surely be there. I realize that every step of the way. I can be sure that my father will be there. he would know just the right things to say. and I was able to succeed. to no avail.My father has a store of wise sayings which may seem common to some but always strike the correct note with me.. Actually. and I was shaking with nerves. At another time. there was this skating incident which occurred only a year ago.. Why? Because he loves me. Since then. However. I tried holding my breath. Nothing could get me out there to face the amused audience. he consoled me. I sat at the piano and started playing. Yet. I dashed off the stage. I have certainly had my share of ridiculous accidents. his words gave me the strength to try again. My fingers were needed on the piano keys so I could not reach tip to rub my nose. "I'm a green-faced alien from Pluto. My father had bought me . Then he said. he would rush me to the doctor. Then. demeanor daunt The way in which a person behaves to make someone feel slightly frightened or worried about their ability to achieve something to encourage an activity spur on Describe some of the minor accidents that you have experienced Accidents are part and parcel of life itself and to say that you have never had a silly accident in your life would be like saying. it deserves to be done well. Once. but they have certainly made me more aware of my limitations. After listening. remembering those times. Finally. the dreaded moment arrived. I felt a tickle in my nose. I would just have to give him a call. sloppy sneeze that blasted my music sheets right off the piano. sometimes. I am only a few years away from adulthood and know that many more challenges lie ahead of me." Somehow." Somehow. through my childhood and adolescence. I poured out my heart's discontent. When I was sick at heart. I exploded in a huge. Halfway through the first movement. my father has been there for me whenever I needed him. it was my debut. "If a job deserves to be done. when I was really depressed. I think. Not all of them have changed my life. "Smile. Looking back.

I found myself staring the gate right in its metal grille.. my mother had left me a plate of fried rice to be reheated for my lunch. laughing and yelling out threats. . we had all sorts of games and competitions. At that very second. Finally managing to get upright. or so I thought. Boom! It was "Egg yolk keeps falling on my head". However. turned the dial to "high" and pressed the lever to start the oven. There was a loud Crash! Boom! and Bang! Fortunately. groundnuts. Actually. the egg exploded. contempt. part and parcel to no avail grimace to be a necessary feature of a particular experience of no use A sharp contortion of the face expressive of pain. or disgust Describe an occasion when you were caught in a rainstorm. I was. She stood in shock for a moment before charging after me. Another accident occurred right in the safety of my home. we had decided on the picnic at the beach. This year. I watched my dish of food turn graceful circles in the oven. My legs had no sense of direction. I think. there you have them. still considered a user with "L" (Learner) plates as far as this oven was concerned. am I clumsy or just low in luck? A little of both. Then. like a drowning chicken trying to fly out of the water. There was no lunch for me that day either. my hair. Gleefully.my first pair of in-line skates. Carefully. with my left leg heading north and my right heading south-east. My clothes. Standing up. On that fateful day. the whole kitchen was covered with egg-yolk and rice that the force of the explosion threw. for the first time in years. some of the grimace-inspiring details of my life. I was waving my arms around. thanks to my protective pads. After eating. I opened the oven to take out my warmed-up food. not knowing what was ahead. On the plate were the usual accompaniments to the coconutflavored rice: vegetables. in the kitchen. actually. I confidently put them on and fastened them. "Argh!" screamed my friend as the water balloon hit her full in the face. I lost all control of my bodily movements. they were my first pair of skates. of course. warming up food was not complicated . My mother had just bought a microwave oven. It started smoothly. I shoved off. Well. After a few rounds. We were at our annual class party and having the time of our lives. So. chillied prawns and a whole hard-boiled egg. Well. all that was injured was my selfconfidence. I had never skated before.. I placed the plate of food in the microwave oven. I could not remember when I had last enjoyed myself so much.

I mentally kicked myself for getting into this situation. to be at one with nature." the cuckoo clock on the wall of my office called five times. I gave up. I was supposed to walk the short distance to my aunt's house after the party.. Lightning streaked across the sky. I started heading back. As I gazed. the shirt was an old favorite of mine and I was so wet from the water balloons that a little more water would not make a difference. The beach was now deserted. the waves threw themselves on them. all good things must come to an end. lighting up the whole scene for a split second each time. I reached it at last and darted in. Finally. I scanned the area for a place of refuge. I remembered that I had left a T-shirt on the beach. The sky was dark. I stood transfixed. It was beautiful.. However. as with a fixed stare or by arousing terror or awe Describe the sights and sounds at the end of a long day. . sending up sprays of sea water high into the air. scary and magnificent at the same time. captivated by the power and violence of the storm. "Cuckoo! Cuckoo!. Wondering when the rain would stop. I looked around for my T-shirt but it was nowhere to be found. where jagged boulders stood in the sea. About halfway there. Then. my feelings of dejection turned into awe. I stared out at it. we started preparing to leave. As I shook out my hair. Gust after gust of howling wind blew through the trees. reveling in the stinging rain and chilling wind. suddenly. the heavens burst and torrents of rain came pouring down. and as it neared evening.However. I ran out and stood in the middle of the storm. Finally spotting a tiny shack at a distance. On the left. Holding my backpack over my head in an effort to ward off the relentless blows of the rain. thrilling to the sounds of the thunder and the crashing waves. I felt I had to be part of it. I debated whether or not to return for it as I could see dark clouds heading my way. however. dejectedly. drenched to the bone and shivering from head to toe. The black clouds hung low. with powerful waves crashing onto the shore. drizzle ward off transfix rain in very small light drops try to prevent to render motionless. and relishing the magnificence of nature. time and again. I dashed for it. with a loud crash of thunder. after minutes of fruitless search. The sea was turbulent. with thick thunderclouds and it had begun to drizzle.

stunning me for a few seconds. I shoved my way out. No way! They were all definitely occupied. after a little fumbling for my keys. turned on the television and collapsed on the couch. The burning rays of the sun stoked up the oven which our bus had now become. I entered my apartment. Then I continued towards the bus stop. I groaned aloud when I saw the hordes of people gathered there and regretted leaving my car at home. Andrew was yelling at Mac for throwing a paper plane at him. Then. Every time it was the same anxious craning to read the bus number above the heads of the crowd. I was crushed on all sides. I pushed my chair back. With a grunt. forced by the pushing crowd into the packed bus. buses and motorcycles around us kept up a constant honking. undoubtedly about clothes or make-up. Buses came and left. Finally. As I stepped out through the glass doors of the air-conditioned building. With a sigh of utmost relief. I became nauseous and thought many times about getting off. I straightened my stiff back and neck. heaved myself up. Sigh! I had no choice but to join the crowd. and had my toes trod on several times. "Time to pack up!". the new clerk."Yes!" I shouted in my head. I finally arrived at my stop. I grabbed hold of a strap and tried to stand firmly Every time the bus lurched forward. we would all sway backwards. Jay and Rayne were chatting up Sarah. I was ready to perish amidst the petrol fumes and the stink of stale sweat when I finally managed to squeeze my right foot onto a bus step. "All in . I dragged my body up the flights of stairs to my second-floor flat. only to stop with a sudden jolt. I couldn't wait to get home. Then. The bus hurtled on. careening madly round corners. Then. Cars. I searched for a seat. the result of hours of hunching over documents and surveyed the whole noise-polluted room. heading out the door. probably trying to get her to go for a drink. and Cynthia was doing the waltz in her three-inch heels. I did not even bother to try the elevator as I knew I would be competing with a crowd of thirty or more residents. up I went. Mandy and Lily were chatting animatedly. was just in front of my flat. thankfully. I dropped my briefcase and handbag on the floor. there was the rushing and jostling as I tried to force my puny frame through the masses of burly men and women. we got caught in a massive traffic jam. humid air slammed me full in the face. started stuffing things into my briefcase and my huge handbag. a blast of hot. my strict upbringing forcing me to mutter a few insincere "Excuse-me's". Inch by inch we moved and one and a half hours later. I was too tired to walk home. I reached my door and. Feeling woozy and yet hyped up. which. Yet.

the great and tiny inhabitants of these forests? Nowhere. Man destroys this balance when he flattens the forests to the ground. people forget that they are also cutting down our supply of oxygen. reprocess it and.a day's work. the food chain will be disrupted. the rivers will become shallower. the earth is left vulnerable to soil erosion. As a result. As creatures dependent on the food chain. Yet. There will be a greenhouse effect on earth. Animals and plants live in symbiotic relationships in the balance of nature. produce the life-sustaining oxygen. Trees absorb the carbon dioxide breathed out by living creatures. While cutting down a tree to add yet another piece of luxurious furniture to Man's already opulent lifestyle. If this goes on. Where do they go then. The once beautiful and spectacular forests are reduced to barren landscapes. Another point to note is that forests are home to hundreds of species of flora and fauna. the excessive carbon dioxide will also effect a change in the micro-climate and raise the region's temperature. the flowing water will not only wash away the topsoil but will deposit it in the rivers. The heavy tropical rains will carry away the rich topsoil. warm air and radiation will be trapped under the earth's atmosphere. man is ultimately destroying his own sources of food through the destruction of rain forests. Slowly but steadily. a shocking fact will hit us full force. When forests are a distant memory. in the end. What I am talking about is the lack of oxygen. Secondly. floods will become frequent in the area. Mankind will be thrown into a state of unimaginable suffering and agony. for the advancement of man. Great floods will hit the lower-lying areas. and the land without its topsoil will no longer be fertile. Thousands of people will suffer in these floods. Consequently. perish typed up fumble to die artificially stimulated or high excited search blindly and uncertainly The problem of deforestation. Thousands and thousands of acres of lush rain forests are cleared each year to make way for development. the lush vegetation will give way to wasteland. and gazed with unseeing eyes at the television. Then. where will this oxygen come from? Will we process it in factories? Will a time come when man will be fighting for the very air he breathes? Furthermore. This is for the sake of development. my girl!" I told myself. the ice in the polar caps will melt. raising the sea level. . They die. Without trees. as the earth's temperature rises. what happens when trees are felled? Firstly.

By preserving our forests. They stay up late into the night to finish correcting their students' work and to prepare effective lessons for their students. wouldn't the school be a much better place to spend our adolescence if we did not have to cope with teachers who vent their foul moods on us? We should not have to walk on eggshells because our teacher has had a bad day. they will get the attention of the people in power. Some teachers will even devote Saturday mornings to conducting extracurricular activities. affluent put in motion What changes would you like to see in your school ? If you were to see the number of suggestion slips stuffed into my school's Suggestion Box. many weaknesses that need seeing to. Another aspect of the school that needs changing is the set of school rules. In fact. Members of this beautiful planet must be united. if only all teachers were like this! Furthermore. you would be shocked. I am emphasizing this point because some teachers do not seem to feel the slightest obligation to do their job well nor the slightest feeling of guilt when their students fail in the examinations. We can also help by planting trees. Now. Firstly. This is why we ought to preserve our forests. Of course. teachers are sometimes found sipping coffee or even having a snack in the school canteen when they are supposed to be in class teaching. some of the suggestions are rubbish but I do agree with many of them. and most importantly. teachers in all schools should realize that they are responsible for their students' future. should keep the balance of nature. With the support of ordinary citizens like you and me. in my school. Granted. there are teachers who are truly committed to their job and do deliver the goods. A change in our environment will trigger offanother change which will trigger off yet another. Teachers should not shirk their responsibilities towards their students. Some are so irrational .As you can see. This is why we. This is especially true for children from lessaffluent homes who cannot afford to supplement the school's teaching with extra tuition. it is a vicious cycle. This is why environmentalist groups are pressurizing governments to reduce the felling of trees and the clearing of forests and to be serious about replanting forests. we are preserving ourselves. lush opulent trigger off abundant rich. There are many ways in which my school could be improved. luxurious. such as the Scouts movement.

Good morals have to be internalized. indicating that all the external parts of the plane are in order and functioning well. These days. memorizing facts for examinations. the rule on short hair for boys. Our school hours take up a large portion of our day. I run a routine check on all the aircraft's dials and gauges as well as the weapon systems through the heads-up display. you should be treated like one. Pushing . I return the gesture to indicate that all internal systems are working well and that I will be taking off. Let us spend these hours usefully. Another area that needs reform is the school curriculum. So.or petty! Take. punishments for serious acts of indiscipline should be made more effective. Our school years take up a large proportion of our lives. to extort money from them. one of the best supersonic planes ever invented. Furthermore. I strongly feel that these vandals should be made to pay for what they have destroyed. One major problem is the subject called "Moral Education". students may get away with only a warning or a "booking" for offences such as breaking the school's tables. "Moral Education" should either be taken off the school curriculum after primary school or changed to emphasize practical application rather than "head knowledge". or threaten to do so. chairs and even doors. fun-filled atmosphere. What is the rationale behind this? Do the people in authority believe that everyone with long hair will turn out to be a thug or a villain? Well. in a secure. look at Hitler: he had very short hair and he almost caused the extinction of the entire Jewish race! On the other hand. I feel that criminal action should be taken against students who beat people up. affluent walk on eggshells extort having a lot of money being careful not to offend someone or do anything wrong to obtain something by force or threat What occupation do you see yourself in after you have completed your schooling ? What are you going to do to achieve this ambition ? I climb into the cockpit and sit myself down on the metal seat of the F-16 "Falcon". You just cannot learn good morals the way you learn any other academic subject. I flick the start button and feel the soft vibration begin. The sergeant gives me the thumbs-up sign from the far run way. even if they have to be harsher. for example. This is the time that we are molded. caring. Help us to grow into worthy citizens of our nation. If you behave like a criminal. intellectually and morally. I hear the hum of pure power.

I never stint on my study times. I play games regularly. Among them are academic excellence. So. In school. And after that. I pray with all my heart that it will become a reality and not remain just another of my boyish fantasies.. Biggles was my hero above all other heroes. My hard work has paid off and I have been topping the class in these subjects. Next year. I have always curtailed my hours of television-viewing. I watch my diet. It was a momentous experience for me! Soaring freely in the sky. quick reflexes and the ability to stay cool under pressure. There is not much longer to wait.. . Thus. My dream began when I was about seven years old. I make sure I sit a good four meters away from the screen. which is essential for healthy eyes. I was especially fascinated with accounts of air battles. He must be able to withstand the high and low g's when piloting a jet at high speed. I shall enlist in the US Air Force. The results will not be out for months but I feel confident that I have done well. as a pilot must have a good understanding of physics and mathematics. run ten kilometers a day and work out in the gym at least three times a week. into adolescence and up till now. In addition. I made sure I qualified for the science stream in High School. The thought of scudding through the sky with the ability to defy gravity with a multi-million dollar piece of machinery and patriotic fervor excited my soul. taxi scud within one's grasp to move slowly on the ground to move quickly and without stopping in a straight line the ability to achieve . I have just sat for the O levels. When I do watch television. I have always been conscious of the need to preserve the perfect eyesight that God has blessed me with. I have never been the kind of person to leave things to chance: I am constantly aware of the need to work towards my goals. Thus. eating food rich in vitamin A. One day. I began to read books on aviation and air adventures. high above the rest of civilization. As I grew older. My dream is almost within my grasp. The requirements for fighter pilot candidates are many and difficult to fulfill. It is crucial for a fighter pilot to be fighting fit. I have always aspired to be a fighter pilot.the throttle to three quarters. throughout my childhood years. I have always been careful to read only in well-lit areas. Well. perfect eyesight. I feel the acceleration of the plane taxiing off the runway and into the air . my ambition narrowed from just wanting to fly a plane to becoming a fighter pilot. I plan to do my A levels. my uncle took me for a ride in his private plane. I have always made time for exercise. I knew that I would never want to do anything as much as I wanted to fly. a fit body.

I agree. "Standing here today on this breezy morning as the third speaker for the proposition.were the eldest children in their families. spineless. lawyers. "Mr. They are only disadvantageous if you are unable to see the long-term benefits. Now. I shall present my own points. He will often be left in charge of the younger ones. again. One of the advantages of being an eldest child is that he is used to being respected and obeyed by his siblings. Without strict and loving discipline. having straightened out a few delusions of the opposition. the second member of the opposition claimed that the youngest child will be treated more leniently than the others. "Ladies and gentlemen. these momentarily trying circumstances will shape the child and prepare him for the challenges that lie ahead. He may have to give in to his siblings because `they are too young to understand'. he will be overly dependent on others. pampered and mollycoddled but what will this pampered child grow into? It is a maxim that too much or too little is no good: Once a pampered child grows up. he develops tolerance and understanding of other people's weaknesses. Would you like to be this spineless adult? I leave you to decide. . proposing or opposing this motion. and members of the floor: Good day to all. "For instance. "The eldest child. Chairman. misguided members of the opposition. a beloved child might end up being the black sheep of the family. Thus. This is because they know he is wiser and more experienced. the opposition contends that it is an advantage to be spoilt in this way. the child might think that his misbehavior is perfectly acceptable. is this an advantage? By being treated too leniently. the eldest child will shoulder more responsibilities. "Write a debate speech. Now. in other words. "Undeniably. having to cope with his siblings' antics.It is better to be the eldest child than the youngest one in the family. According to a survey conducted by the Home Ministry.corporate leaders. he has to try harder to maintain discipline and a high standard of behavior. How can this be? "The opposition has also pointed out that the youngest child is usually more pampered. Ever heard of the expression "Spare the rod and spoil the child"? It is true. You see. is this good? It is indeed enjoyable to be fussed over. honorable judges. I wish to continue where my team-mates left off to correct the misleading information presented by the opposition. an average of 3 out of 5 successful people -. will also develop patience. "All these points were described as 'disadvantages' by the opposition. But. Thus. This self-esteem will motivate him to succeed in every aspect of life. The eldest child is also cast as a role model for the younger ones. politicians -. This is a good feeling and it creates high self-esteem.

there you have it. which centers on the word 'privileges'. students face the daunting task of preparing for examinations every single year. this attitude will be carried with them into adult life. The weaker students often end up the victims in this race -. Government examinations are also said to be the necessary yardstick for measuring the capability of each person for further education or employment. to the point that they hardly care if they pass or fail. some talents and forms of ingenuity go undetected in examinations. the eldest child is the heir to the throne. "So. In monarchies. Thank you. He was a school dropout and yet he became one of England's greatest statesmen. you are wrong. And now I hand over to my opponents. and work completed methodically and with minimum fuss. Yet. therefore he deserves a larger share of the property. The distinction is even sharper in poor families where the eldest child may be the only one whom the family can afford to educate or feed properly. . They become more and more discouraged as they understand less and less of the lessons. are examinations an accurate yardstick? A person's true abilities may not be shown by written examinations. as in the case of Prince Charles. the eldest child will inherit the greater share of the wealth. So much time and emotion is poured into preparing for examinations. If you think that the eldest child is only privileged if he belongs to a wealthy family. to give the sensible ones amongst them a chance to start defecting over to our side. In most cases. Sadly. for example. a national savior in World War II. Advocates of the system contend that annual examinations are a good way of training children for the stress of life after school . According to Chinese custom. Another problem related to our system of examinations is that teachers become too "examorientated". They race through the syllabus so that they can cover everything in it in time for the examinations regardless of whether their students have understood the material. From primary school to the end of their tertiary education. Clear arguments to demolish the opposition to this motion."On to my next point. Take Winston Churchill." mollycoddle antics sensible to give too much care or protection amusing.where deadlines and sales quotas need to be met.they are left far behind the rest of the class. silly or strange behavior having an awareness or understanding of a situation Should our school examination system be abolished ? Give reasons for your stand. the eldest son carries on the family name. Clearly.

This job is looked down upon and considered one of the lowest. So. dirty and smelly. our Education Minister brought up the subject of school toilets. Firstly. Cleaning them will be most unpleasant. or doing our homework. regardless of the low status it accords him. However. It is true that there are many clubs and societies in the school. We rush from one tuition class to another and we spend most of our time studying for tests and examinations. study. . One of the reasons the Education Minister gave for his proposal was that cleaning toilets will teach students humility and respect for others. the students will be able to understand the humility of the school workers when they have to clear up other people's messes in the toilets. parents and the students themselves should always be reminded that the results of examinations are not equal to the sum of the net worth of the individual. while I realize that it will be impossible to do away with all examinations. In conclusion. All through the school semester. which student in his right mind would be happy about having to clean a toilet? Most school toilets are dark. study. many students just do not have the time to make full use of these extracurricular activities. employers. our emphasis on examinations is indirectly producing people who are only trained to study and reproduce facts rather than wellrounded individuals. there are countless reasons for me to be apprehensive about this proposal for making toilet cleaning part of the school curriculum. On the other hand. Firstly. instead of basing entry qualifications on one examination. "They will also be able to respect the cleaners because he is able to do the necessary job. students should also be evaluated through the cumulative marks of tests and assignments. Furthermore educationists. They have to study. For example. Another advantage of this proposal is that the students will try to keep the toilets cleaner as their friends will be the ones forced to clean up any mess they create." Do you agree ? About two months ago. we only have one thought in mind: to excel in the examinations. The public reaction to this issue was so strong that people have been flooding the mass media with opinions for and against his suggestion. He suggested that cleaning these toilets should be part of the school curriculum. speaking as one. I confess that I often wonder whether it is worth it.What about the "swots"? Well. advocate ingenuity well-rounded person supporting an idea or cause publicly someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something involving or having experience in a wide range of ideas or activities "Cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. Is this really living? A related point is that some students are so occupied with their studies that they do not develop their potential in other fields. I feel that they should be given less importance within the school system.

One other possibility that cannot be excluded is that students may be so turned off at the thought of toilet cleaning that they may decide to skip school on the days that it is their turn to learn this skill. enjoyable atmosphere. Of course. "The second speaker for the proposition said that advertisements cause people to keep buying low-quality goods. "Mr. However. Now. I feel that people generally are not so naive. we would try a much advertised product only because it was something new. few of the usual purchases that we buy are heavily advertised on television or anywhere else for that matter. the tricks haven't worked. I feel that the Ministry of Education should really ponder on this issue carefully. I do not agree at all that cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. my most worthy opponents and everyone else present here today. Thus. in a wholly girls' or boys' school it would not be so humiliating. Take the Cherry Coke advertisements. Imagine them expressing their playful nature in the toilets. have they? Actually. Some egoistic guy will create havoc in retaliation! Then. However. there is the consideration that most students are playful. apprehensive merriment ponder feeling anxious about something that you are going to do having enjoyable time together to think carefully about something. if it were a co-ed school. So. especially for a noticeable length of time Write a debate speech in support of advertisements. It is important that young people actually like to come to school. honorable judges. Its advertising mode probably fits all the descriptions made by the proposition team member. School is supposed to be a place where young people can imbibe knowledge and good values in a pleasant. the teachers of other subjects may find it hard to complete the syllabus. Even the members of the proposition team have been able to note the various tricks and so-called brain washing maneuver. For example. Good afternoon. the male ego would certainly suffer a lot of pain. Chairman. I would like to express my disagreement with one of the points expressed by the proposition team.Furthermore. Actually. Before I begin on my main points. More ill-behaved ones may even purposely push each other into the toilet bowls. the students may slip and fall in theirmerriment. anyway. where the inmates are forced to do humiliating chores. jobs like toilet cleaning make one think of prison camps. how many of us were so influenced by these advertisements that he or she has started . Other than the fact that excessive water is sure to be splashed all over the place. do you choose the most highly advertised tissue paper or toilet paper? At most. Imagine girls laughing and teasing a guy who is forced to clean toilets. due to the rise in absenteeism. a spell of cleaning toilets will certainly be a blow to their ego. In conclusion. Frankly.

"Fourthly. This company was able to grow due to advertisements. One man started a small and humble cottage industry of jeans-making. many people find just the product required to take care of their particular problem. this industry grew into an international company known by both the young and old. they will not have the confidence to try to produce it. doctors can find out about the latest medications. through reading the advertisements in newspapers or magazines. creating job opportunities for millions of people. Because of its increasing popularity through advertising. computer owners can find the best software. With the increase in sales. Thank you. without advertisements. she saw the advertisement for a lizard spray that can paralyze lizards temporarily. or even monthly? "Now for my first point. one would have to phone just about every shop in town! Nowadays. "Thirdly. See how advertisements have been such a blessing! "I rest my case. especially to avoid hitting things . End of lizard problem. one day. Why. advertisements of the latest technology and inventions are also beneficial for the consumers. Then. industries can also greatly contribute to the expansion of a company from regional to international status. This may sound capitalistic. If the companies are not able to inform the public about their new products. another point is that it is only with proper circulation of the products made possible by advertising that the companies are able to mass-produce their products. From a cottage industry. the Philippines and other third world countries. Imagine all the bother one must go through to find out the product one needs amongst the rapidly expanding array of products and inventions available. The name of this brand of jeans is none other than Levi's. but we must remember the importance of these factories to the nation. How could my dear grandma have found out about such a strange but useful product without advertisements? Jokes aside. consumers can purchase these goods at reasonable prices. the company can afford to give better pay to the workers and offer more jobs. "Now. Here is another real-life case. Let me give a real example." humble weave not proud to go or make a path by moving quickly and changing direction often. we can just flip open a newspaper or even the Yellow Pages. millions of consumers benefit because of advertisements. It is undeniable that advertisements play a crucial role in increasing a company's sales. for it means they can find the right kind of product for themselves easily and quickly. not only in America but also in Levi's factories in Indonesia. Mass production is more economical and allows the producers to lower the price of these goods! As a result. As you can see.to drink the beverage weekly. Estate managers can find out about the right fertilizer or pesticide. I would like to state the benefits of advertisements from the economic side. My grandmother used to have too many lizards crawling around her house and she is paranoid about them. Advertisements can help companies to introduce their latest products to the market. this industry gradually weaved its way into the market until it started to prosper.

People have thus come to the conclusion that it is the woman's duty to mind the home and it shall be her role forever. "There was a very good reason for this in ancient times. the women have been doing it for centuries. women can and do think as sensibly and intelligently as men. that is. And that's what really counts. let's give the women the chance to work at those jobs that they've always wanted. moose. lawyers and scientists. who will stay at home to take care of the children? Usually in cases where the mother works. You see. I will be relieved of the stress of running in the rat race. looking at the current state of the world. "Some people doubt that a man can manage a household. more and more women now qualify as doctors. "Thus. or dinosaurs. famines and nuclear weapons. who knows. So. The men should be given the duty to mind the house occasionally. then. This is not healthy. I could even play golf every morning while the kids are at school. And. Bringing home the bacon in modern times needs intelligence and sensible thinking. perhaps the country would be run better. men can give the affection and care that the children need. characterized by people competing with each other for power and money . What's so bad about that? So. You see. bullied. Eking out a living then consisted mainly of running around with a club or spear. now that we're approaching the year 2000. So. as fathers.paranoid feeling extremely anxious Write a speech for an elocution contest entitled " Should men be househusbands ?" "I would like to share my thoughts with you on a subject that has always been close to my heart. or should I say. while we men opt for more 'relaxed' lifestyles. the children are left in daycare centers. "Personally. what often happens is that the wife has to quit her job. as we all know. what with wars. And. However. I feel that man has always dominated. there has been a vast change. as a member of the male sex I feel guilty. Is this fair? Not really. especially when the wife has better qualifications. the fairer sex. After all. Children need parental care. whether men should be house-husbands. "Actually. Women have long been downtrodden and forced to mind the house. And. perhaps we men should just stay at home to mind the house and let the women run the world!" downtrodden bring home the bacon the rat race badly and unfairly treated to earn money for a family to live on a way of life in modern society. hunting deer. men are perfectly capable of performing domestic chores and minding children. if my wife insists on being the breadwinner.

So. even when the matter is not of great importance." Do you agree ? No man is an island. I feel that friends. Apart from the question of maintaining credibility. Therefore. it would be a very bad idea to tell her just how unattractive she was. even the closest of friends. who actually had no real knowledge of the matter. should be discussed with friends. As the saying goes. I have a friend who often tells little untruths. telling the truth may be worse than saying nothing. there are times when telling a friend too much can also lead to problems. One must use his discretion in such situations. It is clear. People have been saved from suicide just by having a friend to listen to their troubles. Everyone depends on his friends to a certain extent. the friendship will not be salvageable. just to impress others. shared joy is double the joy and shared sorrow is half the sorrow. I just never know whether he is telling the truth or one more of his little lies. that some things need to be said to our friends without any twisting of the truth. Sharing one's problems and despairs with a friend will bring forth the encouragement and advice we need to hear. The friend."Friends should never hide anything from each other. while some others should be hidden. we are bound to make mistakes. one must then be prepared to . sharing one's problems and joys with a friend can also be helpful as we deal with the problems of daily living. In conclusion. An all-toocommon example of such a time is when one hears rumors. So then. of course. passed all her thoughts and ideas to another friend and so on and so forth. If an ugly girl with an inferiority complex were to ask you if she was unattractive. You see. of course. much caution must be applied when dealing with our friends. about them. then. even if you have strong opinions. stressing on her good qualities. need not tell each other everything they know or feel. Some matters. The final result can be a mangled product which could really hurt the parties involved. However. Sometimes simply having an ear to hear our heart's cries and knowing that someone understands us will make us feel better. In cases where lies have been told to hurt you or other parties on purpose. Sharing the good times can brighten up a friend's day if he feels down. sometimes he tells halftruths to get out of trouble. Telling the whole truth in this case would destroy her remaining shreds of confidence. he exaggerates circumstances a little. The thing to do about rumors is not to spread them. Sometimes. Personally. of course. especially in our speech. all people have been in constant chatter with one another. If the lie caused you great damage. Who would want a treacherous person for a friend? Yet. must we always tell our friends the whole truth and nothing but the truth or is it sometimes simply none of their business? One thing is clear: finding out that your friend has lied to you always hurts. little lies can lead to the spoiling of relationships. he makes up stories just to entertain his friends. Gossip can start simply because someone thought a rumor was true and shared all her thoughts on the rumor with a friend. I just do not feel comfortable with him. Relationships are important to man. Ever since man formed a system of verbal communication. Another noteworthy fact is that sometimes. the friendship will never be the same. We have to balance our love for truth with the practicalities of the situation. so much that people may shape their entire lifestyles simply to find favor with their clique or circle of friends. sometimes. Not being perfect.

How true is this description of your life as a youth ? "The Golden Age of Youth"? Who coined up that expression? I am certainly not experiencing "golden" days in my life as a youth. that my parents are my Supreme Commanders. Parents. You cannot buy anything.Freedom. I am deprived of the vital human right that caused the American Civil War . it is undeniable that without money. I'd consider myself "Kentucky Fried". Thus. This is especially true for people in their youth. I have to jump. socially. clique treacherous noteworthy a small group of people who spend their time together extremely dangerous deserving attention because important or interesting "The Golden Age of Youth". "No Independent Income". society and the government love to gauge us scholastically. this is a problem for me. This means.make up with our friends. our kiddy IQ test results and such other traps for vainglory. physically. Well. If I were a piece of chicken. Secondly. we lack the time and money to maintain . I have to rely on my parents financially. apologizing for our verbal blunders and forgiving them for theirs. teachers. being young automatically means that I have limited knowledge and no job skills. go anywhere or do anything. In such a situation. Practically speaking. our parents have been comparing our test results with those of the children of their friends'. that's what friendship is really about -. This means. Obviously. life as a youth is tough! Firstly. I have to rely on them for transport. Unable to buy a house. which means that no one will employ me for any worthwhile job. pressurecooked and well-fried. our parents have been comparing the ages at which we first started talking or walking. In fact. that is. because. tenderized. not because I was "spicy" or "original" but because I have been chopped into pieces. since we were born. people will always be measuring you by your achievements. school examinations become so important that many of us will study hours on end to perform well in them. Then. as was earlier explained. When they tell me to jump. as long as you are not too old or too ill to walk. theoretically. Now. youth is the worst time to get romantically attached. Unable to function without cash. Actually the pressure on us to perform well at all times is great. Unable to buy a car.accepting people for what they are. imperfections and all. morally and in whatever means they can think of. I have to rely on them for accommodation. Since we started schooling. who happen to be equally goalorientated parents. there is the question of romance. many of my friends' complaints seem to attest that their experiences of youth roughly match up with mine. The pressure from our family gets stronger the older we grow. you become severely limited in your options. clearly and simply. Furthermore.

youth is a traumatic time. of course. To be honest. I am no different. That is why I often meditate on the qualities I would seek in my future wife. Some men have the stereotyped "dumb blonde" image of a perfect woman. Perhaps we should call it the "Iron Pyrite (Fool's Gold) Age of Youth". the idea of "The Golden Age of Youth" must have been an illusion dreamt up by fools. However. I would also prefer to have a wife who is intelligent. Who better to enjoy sports with than my wife? This will draw us even closer together. which leads to heartache and causes us to perform badly in our examinations. unwarranted pride in one's accomplishments or qualities An emotional wound or shock that creates substantial. Yet. I think that the government should have chosen a better time to set all the major examinations than at this time. my ideal mate will be someone who participates in the games and sports I like or at least. be a true friend whom I can have fun with and want to spend my leisure activities with. the first thing I notice when I meet a girl is whether she is pretty or not. In my opinion. for example. Of course. but few people go round seeking ugly mates. Often. More importantly. after all. Many factors make the difference between marital bliss and having "an old ball-and-chain" but the most important factor is probably whom we choose to marry. be willing to learn them. an . during our youth. Furthermore. a husband and wife should be intellectually matched so that they can understand each other. Long lashes and sparkling eyes do not cause someone to "fall in love at first sight". So. we are at our peak. There was. on end vainglory traumatic Continuously. Sports and games and other recreational activities are fun and foster closer ties. we are at our most attractive.a special boy-girl relationship. It is definitely not "golden". don't you? So. our hormones are swinging about wildly as we mature sexually. quarrels between husband and wife concern other family members. I know my life will be enriched by having an intellectually stimulating partner to share my thoughts with. A wife should. without interruption Boastful. Your wife may be perfect but her parents may be irritating beyond comprehension. this causes us to be more prone to getting involved in romantic relationships. lasting damage to the psychological development of a person What qualities would you look for in a future wife or husband ? Along the road from cradle to grave many of us get married. Unfortunately. physically. and to offer fresh insights to old situations. This in itself can cause more emotional disturbance than all the other events of our lives combined.

she cooked and ate his pet dog for dinner! So. Commitment is very important on her part. If a girl isn't prepared to be faithful to you but she marries you anyway. too.incident in City Center where one man's mother-in-law came to stay. She answered every unreasonable demand of mine with unfailing patience. I was a spoiled brat. One day. So. I'll be in for a tough time! Furthermore. Well. When I was very young. Most of all. I realize that I have listed a whole string of qualifications for my future wife. If you are dead tired after a long. I fretted a lot and constantly demanded my mother's attention. "The best laid plans of mice and men can fail". as the proverb goes. I'll love her. stay with me!" was my constant whine. During the day. In fact. I will really consider her The Ideal Wife. fall in love and get married. and. Not surprisingly. My mother would put everything aside to comfort me. caring kind of woman is the only one with whom I would make any commitments for marriage. I will meet a girl one day. I was miserable. perhaps. More than likely. with a girl like that. I remember the look in her eyes. So I would say. for your best friend. a sympathetic. I had to spend most of my life away from school and in bed. if I can find all these qualities in one woman. hushing me as I fretted about the pains in my joints. chances are she's going to run away and leave you one day. that might just be enough. of deep concern for her sick child. I remember her low voice. through the years. At odd hours of the night. or just some company. I always say that one's future in-laws should always be checked carefully before one makes decisions about marriage. I would demand that my favorite delicacies be served to me and that my favorite stories be read to me. That was how I knew my . However. My world was very small then. And even though she might not be perfect. bliss meditate foster perfect happiness to think seriously about something for a long time to encourage the development or growth of ideas or feelings Write a composition entitled: How I know my mother loves me. frustrating day at work. I was a sickly child. everyone else will be trying to win her hand. There was just me and Mummy. chances are. "Mummy. Not once was that demand refused. Not once did my mother groan or grumble. I would ask for a hot drink or a cookie. too. a loving wife who comforts you and listens to your problems can really make a difference. My world consisted of the feel of her cool palms soothing my brow and her floral scent as she leaned over me to tuck in my blanket.

which is eleven o'clock. Now that I am on the threshold of adulthood.m. I didn't say a word. It was almost 1 a. Thus. To make matters worse. in case one of those hands should find its mark on my face. Set free from the prison of the sickbed. her arms waving wildly. Miraculously. She criticizes my choice of friends and tries to enforce rules and regulations to curb my activities. I stayed out way. I had been unable to call home to inform my mother that I would be delayed. However many Asians would reject this criterion. This is how I know my mother loves me now. Then I saw something familiar about the look in her eyes. I revel in the fun that the world has to offer. I have outgrown my childhood ailments. at least in the Western world. she stood in my room. . fret spoiled brat to be anxious or worried A spoiled brat is a child whose parents or other educators systematically fail to teach socially acceptable behavior and discipline. I looked up at her face to try to gauge if her scolding would be continuing much longer. It was the same look of concern that she had always had when I was so sick. My relationship with my mother has suffered from my wild pursuit of fun. I was tired. I saw in her eyes all the fears that she had suffered that night as she waited for her daughter to return safely. when I reached my house. my world has grown to include many exciting friends. sweat was pouring down her temples. way past my "curfew" hour. Her face was red. still ranting at me for my disobedience and "wild behavior". I was ordered straight to bed. My friends made a quick exit as she ranted at me. I knew that I was in for it! My mother flung open the door the minute she heard my friend's car pull in. As I got into bed.mother loved me then. The contemplative religions assert that success is only measurable in terms of religious advancement and of the acquisition of the virtues. I just wanted to sleep. Two nights ago. There were no phones where we were "hanging out". certain to encounter trouble or punishment in for it How do you measure success in life? Reaching the top of the tree in one's chosen occupation or profession is the usual standard by which success in life is measured. success would be in inverse ratio to material advancement.

Most of the world accepts the definition of material advancement. A satisfying yet balanced way of life makes for the former and a religion or at least a philosophy for the latter. though unlikely. However success is not strictly related to the externals of power. The western concept of success is not always satisfying and some people. Most people have to work hard to to achieve success. A successful life depends crucially on good personal relationships both within and outside the family. though these are often its attributes. It is often made at the disadvantage of others. its objectives being affluence and perhaps power over others. Perhaps the fundamental way to achieve success is first to be sure of what you want to do with life and then to be sure that you are capable of doing it. Many of these careers will not confer much success in theworldly sense but they will lead to the success of happiness and fulfillment. If a man or woman can achieve this then he or she truly has the right to be called successful. Other anxieties may be created when a large number of people become dependent on a financial empire. The children of successful capitalists or career workaholics sometimes reject everything the father or parents stand for. One's wife and children are inevitably neglected and unhappy. prominence and affluence. To ensure the well-being and happiness of others forms a large part of success. and it may damage a business man's relationships both with his peers and with his subordinates. What then are its features? First. Money confers power which may corrupt. reject it in favor of the simple life. mental and spiritual peace. Unhappily money making can become an obsession. Some people are strongly motivated to a profession or to politics or to social campaigning from early days. so success to them might lie merely in the preservation of the family business or estate and perhaps its enhancement for the benefit of the next generation. It is more to do with happiness and fulfillment. absence of strain is at least as important. both being the most important means of self-expression. Success thus means failure. Some are born into positions which already confer affluence and power. at the height of their affluence and power. contemplative confer deep in thought to give . others have to find their own role in life by trial and error. These pressures and anxieties often have a detrimental effect on health and on family life. It is of course possible. The difference between the lifestyle available to a millionaire and that available to a billionaire is marginal. Money also creates anxiety since it usually has to be put at risk if more is to be made. and some very wealthy people become very mean. The body should not be neglected. that worldly success can be combined with a sensitive and therefore successful approach to the problems outlined above. physical wellbeing is usually the result of good food and exercise. This happens for a variety of reasons. Beyond a certain point the acquisition of money proves unsatisfactory.

That particular invasion by the British was justified. and lead only to further repressive measures. infiltration is much easier. in succession to the League of Nations exists to maintain international peace and security. The Falklands.worldly relating to the ordinary life In what circumstances is the invasion of one country by another justified? Invasion is never justified if there is a possibility of resolving disputes by diplomatic means. bordering on the USSR was claimed to constitute a threat through instability. So to invade or not to invade involves a crucial balancing of factors. The naked aggression of Hitler in Europe was totally unjustified. particularly since Argentina regarded the 'Malvenas' as their historic property. how cynical they are is a matter of opinion. cynical believing that people are only interested in themselves and are not sincere . particularly since. were an obvious choice. are inevitable. Future troubles. Sometimes. and no doubt extensive economic aid from one of the great powers. as in Afghanistan. in fact. The U. However. That invasion was not justified. so the British armed forces had to throw the Argentines out. so the Second Front invasion of Europe by the allies in 1944 can be amply justified. Nobody forgets Vietnam. and that of the Falkland Islands by Argentina. the desire to annex territory which rightly belongs to a country but which has either become independent or has become the dependency of another. as in the case of Afghanistan. massive war equipment. do the majority of the people want such a take-over? A case in point is the invasion of the Falklands by Argentina. A physical take-over can sometimes be achieved without shedding a drop of blood. Motives for invasion vary.N. or can provide a peace-keeping force drawn from member nations. The ground for military invasion is usually prepared by other means. close at hand and regarded as an easy number. drawn up by the San Francisco Conference in 1945. or not to become encircled. the islanders wanted to remain British. theostensible reason was to establish a stable government in a country which. However. Its Security Council can urge members to take economic or military sanctions. An actual invasion becomes a mere formality when a government accepts perhaps thousands of military advisers.. The guiding principle governing the justice of invasion is surely this. realistically it becomes another matter to retaliate when the major powers become involved. or to food. Recent examples include the invasion of Iraq by Iran. or to gain strategic territory. or to gain access to minerals such as oil. There is national pride. invasions do occur. since the two world-power centers remain NATO and the Warsaw Pact association. What is certain is that after such a takeover a large section of the population will remain discontented. the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. There is the instinct to expand. the Argentines were refusing to negotiate. which country was at the time suffering internal troubles and needed a famous victory abroad. Nobody wants to risk a full scale war for the sake of a principle. or even two extremist parties each claiming the government. Its powers however amount to little more than those of the old League. If there is instability and national discontent. This having been said.

In case of serious trouble. and before then. and trying to buy publicity or political advantage with threats and the taking of hostages. Since the Irish Free State came into existence in 1922. to those who would like to bring the whole of Ireland. it retains that general respect today. and more recently the riots in Liverpool. through the Secretary of State for Ireland. To man essential services during a general strike. and often. also responsible to the Home Secretary. mostly in London. political violence. Opinions vary from those who advocate a 'troops out' policy. This often consists of a group of extremists from one foreign country attacking the embassy of another.annex ostensible to take possession of a country by force claiming to be one thing when it is really something else Describe the system for maintaining law and order in your country. water works. To deal with these we now use a quiet little . Today the police are controlled by the Home Secretary. behind the police force stands that section of the British Army which is home-based. who are constantly called into para-military action. It has. ambulance drivers and fire brigades. back into British hands. and in that country the Royal Ulster Constabulary. Sir Robert Peel. and the Metropolitan Police Force by a commissioner. including railways. British people accept the need on occasion for this military back-up. leaving Ireland to get on with a civil war. Ireland has always caused more headaches than the rest of Britain put together. when the ramifications of crime cover a large area. The county police forces of the rest of Britain are controlled by chief constables responsible to the Home Secretary. and despite a vocal left-wing and liberal minority. Birmingham and London attributed to a mixture of ethnic discrimination and unemployment. an armed force. Very quickly the new force obtained a national respect which it had never previously enjoyed. Apart from straightforward crime.. A less frequent role has been to quell riots and this is unpopular with the army since soldiers do not like inflicting injury or even death on fellow citizens. been called on in various roles during domestic emergencies. buses. or a strike of one or more of the essential services. Can you suggest any improvements? One hundred and fifty years ago a Conservative British Prime Minister. who is also responsible for that other troubled part of Britain. but prefer it not to be used. power-stations. joint operational headquarters are set up. with reluctance. the situation is further complicated today by crime in a new guise i. Examples are riots in pre-war London stirred up by the National Socialist movement. their work being aided by data banks in a nationwide computer system.e. during the First World War Southern Ireland has tended to side with the enemies of Britain. Northern Ireland. and the modern mobility of criminals there is more co-operation between these separate forces than before. This replaced the old system of town and village constables in their local peace-keeping role under the beadle. Because of crime increase. forcibly. needs the presence of armed and equipped British troops. founded the modern police force.

in the home. maintaining law and keeping order on the streets by presence rather than violence.section of the armed forces known as the SAS just as we use a new section of the police force to quell street rioting. Do we have to accept that the world must become more violent. kept off drugs and alcohol. but recognize that the police are at a disadvantage otherwise. Above all children and young people should be less exposed to television and film violence. This control of water works from sea to river as well as from river to sea. homes and animal and human life. looting and arson. The traditional police force has only been armed with a whistle and a short truncheon. a new respect for law and order. human consumption. if dammed. Firearm availability must be more strictly controlled. and more on foot. The cosmetic changes include less policing by vehicles. inundating large areas often destroying crops. The fundamental changes needed go deeper. Over the intervening centuries the practice has evolved for three main purposes. such as a police officer. has responsibility as part of their job quell the beat Discuss the benefits of and the problems caused by the artificial damming of rivers. . So far these have not often been needed. and do no good. other reasons for damming a river. and industrial use. They merely erode police morale. An example is the recently constructed Thames barrier below Woolwich on the River Thames in England. The object is to protect the low-lying parts of London when a certain combination of wind and tide raises the water level by as much as thirty feet. or work for a diminishing crime rate and a more peaceful and law-abiding community? If the latter. Mountain passes. more community policemen back on 'the beat' and knowing their area and people. beadle a minor parish official whose duties include ushering and preserving order to stop by using force an area for which someone. There are. there will need to be fundamental as well as cosmetic changes in our national life. Following heavy storms in mountainous areas more water than a river can carry will flow down to the plain. Another will be to restore confidence in the policeman's fairness and integrity in areas where interested parties have sought to erode this confidence. and being known by them. give the opportunity not only to control the flow of flood water at its peak but also to retain large quantities for controlled use in dry weather. Local authority police committees to monitor police activities are in the hands of anti-law and order elements. Since rainfall is never sufficiently uniform to provide a reliable water-source from normal river flow. a life-sentence must mean what it says. the reservoir has always been a great boon. Since the motion to restore the death penalty was defeated in Parliament. spanning as it does lengthy periods of drought. irrigation. and probably much earlier. Some of us deplore the tendency to issue firearms. of course. meeting violence with violence. The damming of rivers to form reservoirs was common practice in Roman times. known as the SPG. and taught. This consists of solid pillars across the river with massive steel plates between each pillar which can be raised or lowered mechanically.

This is particularly true in countries lying in temporate zones. farms and houses. There have also been cases of the collapse of dams due to inadequate strength and imperfect design. A reservoir is also a great attraction to water-loving birds and often becomes an interesting staging-post for migrations. Drought means disease. dehydration and death to animals and humans alike. Where such rivers can be dammed they can be given a constant depth for purposes of navigation. Some rivers in their natural state arc not navigable by large vessels. who have to resettle elsewhere. Many rivers flow through more than one country. boon something that is very helpful and improves the quality of life . nor the environmentalists. appreciate this.sons of drought. The USSR has been in dispute with Turkey over this matter as has Egypt with the Sudan. Matters are different in underdeveloped countries which are hot. as well as causing loss of life. Creating an artificial lake inevitably changes the character of a large area. and for other aquatic sports. and most are used by sailing clubs. People have to move. where attempts were made to involve Prince Charles and Princess Diana in the dispute. or run dry in sea. flora and fauna. as in a recent case in Australia. the power station. but even this is not preventing large tracts of North East Africa from reverting to desert. driving flocks and herds from waterhole to waterhole. of course. dry and barren. Reservoir water is also used today in vast quantities in nuclear power stations for cooling and other purposes and is similarly returned to the river or to the sea. A second drawback may be political. The destruction of the Mohne See dam in the Second World War brought the industry of the Ruhr to a virtual standstill. Damming a river can also cause problems. with its trees. and the control of their floodwater for irrigation purposes essential. inconveniently. hunger. Some stocked with trout. A great area of land. has to be inundated. Water is channeled through conduits and used as mechanical power for the turbines. It is then returned to the river. despoiled. provide good fishing. in the opinion of some. The damming of major rivers such as the Nile is crucial to life itself. natural scenery. or scratching a mere subsistence from the soil. that lying higher up the river having the whip-hand. being built below the level of the dam. Neither the residents.A further use of the dam is to produce hydroelectric power. Perhaps of least importance is the social value of a reservoir. The problem is more acute when the countryside about to be spoilt is environmentally unique. and this benefits a country's communication system. A dam built for one country's benefit may be much to the detriment of another. In these areas populations are often nomadic. Dams are vulnerable to air attack in wartime. Farmland is destroyed. where water shortage can be a nuisance but is rarely a disaster. More often than not a dam may be central in a multi-purpose scheme including most of the functions outlined above.

It also enters metallurgic processes as flux. sodium hydroxide. and in the manufacture of glaze and porcelain enamel. a compound used to assist the fusing of metals. or gradually. so presumably does not `miss' sight. touch. especially when used to preserve food very small pieces of stone or sand Discuss the relative importance to man and animals of the five senses of sight. It is also used for water-softening by means of removing calcium and magnesium compounds from tap water. It is different for a person who goes blind because suddenly. it is used for clearing roads of snow and ice. known as 'salt-licks'. is known as common salt.flora and fauna despoil The flora and fauna of a place are its plants and animals to make a place less attractive especially by taking things away from it by force Why is common salt so important? In its mineral form sodium chloride. Salt is extensively used in the chemical industry. reading and watching television. NaCl. and this provided in the form of solid blocks. and small quantities of other chemicals are added to it to keep it freeflowing when in contact with the atmosphere. It is also used in the curing and preserving of hides and in the form of brine for refrigeration purposes. enjoyment of all forms of visual beauty. hearing. Salt is also crucial to the food industry. Some of these deprivations can be partially . of hydrochloric acid. used when iodine is lacking in diet. Salt and potassium are combined to produce iodised salt. Salt lowers the melting point of water. so in combination with grit. For domestic use it is fined down to what is known as table-salt. It is used in meat-packing sausage-making and fish-curing both for seasoning and as a preservative. so much is lost. sodium bicorbonate. driving a car. hide brine grit the strong thick skin of an animal which is used for making leather water with salt in it. taste and smell. personal independence to a large degree. It is important because it is essential to the health of human beings and of animals. Livestock as well as humans need salt. It is also used in soap-making. of chlorine etc. in the manufacture of baking soda. Its absence causes goitre. of caustic soda. the swelling of the thyroid gland. Opinions vary particularly between sight and hearing. It is difficult to grade the senses in relative importance to mankind. A person blind from birth has no concept of vision.

as with humans. combined with smell. Smell or scent is of crucial importance to many animals. Touch. since survival may depend on it. sand. The obvious drawback to deafness lies in loss of communication. but they are all relatively dispensable. the two latter being important in the enjoyment of food. smell. Touch and taste are also of less importance to animals than to humans. Pure science is the investigation of natural phenomena for the purpose of understanding.overcome. which are tested experimentally. hearing. and there are many modern aids for the visually handicapped. while taste and smell can detect lethal gases and poisonous substances. For the same reason hearing is of nearly the same importance. depends largely on hearing. traffic-sense. is dug out of the ground for use as building material abrasion quarry Discuss with examples the relationship between pure and applied science. Many animals have very limited vision. From the human point of view most people would grade the importance of the senses in the order given in the question. given help and their own determination. though. simply because vision is relatively unimportant. these two senses. The loss of sight tends to train a more acute hearing. taste and smell are all sources of pleasure. braille A system of writing and printing for blind or visually impaired people the process of rubbing away the surface of something a large artificial hole in the ground where stone. This is not necessarily so in the animal world. they can live a relatively full life. In the modern world deafness can also be dangerous. however be dangerous. Their absence can. Observation leads to the formation of theories. Thus it becomes far more highly developed than in humans. sight. People will always help the blind in practical ways. The hearing range of animals is much wider than that of humans. Dogs can hear supersonic sounds and react to them at great distances. who rely on it to detect enemies and to find quarry. the loss of nerve endings can lead to severe domestic burns and abrasions. The social disadvantage of deafness is that of the impatience of others. but it seems to be. Musical appreciation and music making are also open to the blind. touch and taste in that order. Nobody can ask an animal to grade the importance of the senses. though today there are some marvelous machines which allow the sufferer to learn speech through varied frequencies of vibration. The traditional method of lip-reading supplements this. particularly in children. If the theory seems to explain to all the phenomena it is classified as a principle and added to the store of . ranging from braille and books on tape to all kinds of domestic appliances designed for the sightless. have a protective role in warning them off obnoxious and poisonous organic and inorganic substances. etc. since. Many blind people would grade vision as less important than hearing. so that conversation and teaching can be carried out. Deafness is not at once obvious and so may be mistaken for stupidity.

so does technology or method. Figures were constructed to provide proofs. Thus. The Egyptians. Pythaggoeras and his successors provided the first systematic method of understanding the natural world. Applied science is known today as technology. anthropology. The second upsurge of pure science began with Galileo and his predecessor. enable the advance of pure science. Lister. during which pure science has made greater advances than ever before. who synthesized many theories into an intelligible whole. Another example of many is the modern computer. upsurge handmaid laborious a sudden and usually large increase in something female servant needing a lot of time and effort . surgery. although theory produced the telescope and the microscope as optical research instruments. The logical approach of Renee Descartes was of great importance. While this remains the servant of the brain which invented it. Astronomy and Mathematics were brought together for the purposes of navigation. The names of Pasteur. The fact that we can now see into the far universe and into the construction of matter has had a profound effect on the theories concerning both. Francis Bacon sought to produce a system to replace that of Aristotle. though less interested in strict accuracy. was developed (Dalton). relativity and quantum mathematics. Thales and his school. made their contribution. Since method depends on knowledge.C. and the new theories of light. who gave the world its first true understanding of the universe. as did the Arabians and Indians in the field of arithmetical notation. This in turn eliminates the laborious mechanical aspects of investigation and gives the researcher the tools for making rapid new discoveries. though the greatest advances were made by Sir Isaac Newton. no improvements in method can increase knowledge. it is also true that the advanced machines made possible by higher technology. Darwin and Harvey come to mind. (Einstein). atomic theory with all its consequences. Although applied science will always remain the handmaid of pure science. 17th Century. As pure scientific knowledge advances. Copernicus. Later advances took place in the field of biology. The historian of pure science can trace its advance from the records of the earliest recorded cultures to the 20th century. 6th to 7th Centuries B.existing scientific knowledge. though they can facilitate the increase of knowledge. bacteriology. especially in the field of Mathematics and geometry. electronics transformed both. one of its uses is to make a multitude of instantaneous calculations. which is concerned with techniques. In the present century.

During the past twenty or so years much has changed in the taste of film goers. combined with the instinct to escape from a deprived environment. There will be even more space for rubbish and repeats. unless a film such as 'Gandhi' with wide general appeal is put on. outing when a group of people go on a short journey. However the government is trying to prevent the sale of such cassettes for use in home television sets. One 'clean' though juvenile taste which is fairly new is for space fiction films. or indeed any television. Today there are less than twenty films showing in the West End of London. 'The Return of the Jedi' is currently showing in London's West End. 'Star Wars' and 'E. usually for pleasure or education of bad quality to arrange something atrocious set out Consider the influence of Pop star and their music . of situation comedies. though more recently such productions have moved into the 'video nasty' area. Another point in its favor is that the quality of television is deteriorating and seems likely to become atrocious when cable television is introduced. is alive on both sides of the Atlantic. Deliberate attempts to entertain the teenager have produced many films with the accent on explicit sex and violence. In the West the film has not been the major entertainment medium for over twenty years. and their stars are almost national heroes. though small. Film stars in the old sense no longer exist. of films built round 'stand-up' comics such as Arthur Askey. For one thing the cinema of today is the virtual monopoly of young people.T.What are the most popular types of film in your country and why? Answers to this question will vary widely according to the country concerned.' are recent examples of overwhelmingly successful productions. For example romantic feature films seem to receive great popular support in India. and when a good film is made there is still a following. There is no doubt that current popular taste rejects films which set out to be amusing. No longer do families make a weekly outing to the cinema. They now form part of the television menu as repeats. Today most cinemas have long since become Bingo halls. However the film industry. and an excellent film can still make a lot of money. In the 30s any provincial town could offer more than this. The great days of Hollywood ended with the last war. have gone forever. This may be due to the lack of good. Almost every home contains a television set and much of what is left of the British film industry is concerned with film-making for this medium. The days of 'Doctor in the House'.

The music began with 'skiffle'. Those selling over a million records entered the golden disc bracket. jazz and the tuneful lyricists such as Crosby. the teenagers. loneliness. There is no doubt that the pop scene was orchestrated and manipulated by cynical adults. and. 'doing one' own thing'. morality. suddenly replacing dance music. yachts. whether they really had talent or not. The focus became the star rather than the group. the adulation proved irresistable. since they had high wages and few outgoings. The world knows about the end of Presley. everybody tried. but then the 13-19 year group became a new class. although Carnaby Street is no longer the centre. the denim jeans. Rolls-Royce motor cars. litter. In Liverpool a group of four fresh-faced tidy young men with neat hair. The establishment. the fame. discard the society which produced them and ignore its social sanctions. and while there is still money in it for the few it is no longer possible today to buy an electric . and at that time of full employment in the USA and the UK. aided by two groups of cynical adults. by which is meant regular hours. but this quickly changed to rock n roll. Perhaps the biggest money was made by pop concert and festival promoters. Parental discipline. The money.Pop music began in 1960. getting into this ensured rich rewards. the group with the spare money. calflove. It has taken massive youth unemployment in England to destroy the pop market. hard work. They succeeded. the money-makers and the drug pushers. Prior to 1960 young people were either adolescents or young adults. Successful single makers cut LPs. And because a few made it. insanitary camp conditions and drug abuse. began to produce original themes which reflected the innermost feelings of teenagers. was condemned as square. 'Beatlemania' swept Britain and many other countries. But the sinister initial letters of 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' suggested the drug scene. become totally independent. world-wide travel spread before the eyes of young hopefuls. Thus they became the market for the pop industry. The problem has abated because of careful police monitoring. a sense of responsibility. This was theheyday of the top twenty. From time to time these festivals have caused trouble because of noise. school rules and wartime restrictions had hitherto kept this age group in place. The Beatles made millions. insecurity. the misunderstanding of the adult world and a few curiously alien themes. and T shirt uniform has persisted. They were the fashionable group. the electric guitar. The real money was made in the industry associated with the stars. For many years Carnaby Street set teenage clothing fashions. a worthwhile job and. Left-wing activists provided a third group. the drummer. Sinatra and their imitators. some of whom were villains. However the deepest effect of the pop scene on affluent young society was upon teenage attitudes to life. in 1960 their instinct was to break loose. but millions more for their promoters. the vocalist. with Elvis Presley as its afficionado. and his titles such as 'Rock around the clock' reaching international heights of popularity among teenagers. who has now become a cult figure. The pop cult grew in the late 60's and early 70's into a major industry. in general. Now. large country houses.

thus enriching much of the known world. such as the Moabite Stone and the Siloan Tunnel inscriptions. who established colonies in Cyprus. if self-interested motives. Moreover they invented an alphabet which gave rise to both the Greek and Roman alphabets. centered in the Lebanon. and of course the need for territorial expansion. and accelerated the decolonization process of the European empires. the Canaanites. especially that of Great Britain. and with it the acclaim and the overnight fortunes. and with the build-up of nuclear arsenals this poses in 1984 an even greater threat than that of Adolf Hitler in 1939. Today the euphoria has largely gone. Its occasion has been the development of military and naval power and in recent times air power. for example. The seaboard of Libya. An agricultural community with a growing . The aggressive instinct. To consider the great empires of the world we need to look back 4000 years. heightened the social consciences of the Western states. and through those later empires to the alphabets of most of the European states. The course of history itself has always had something to say about aggression. The earliest empires were necessarily limited geographically. Carthage in North Africa. in some shape or form. unless one counts the partial deafness which results from long hours in a discotheque. has always been the motivation behind empire-building. The Phoenecian Empire provides a good example. Self-interest needs definition. pop stars never had the slightest influence in the real world. Musically. for obvious reasons. Their inscriptions. Malta. heyday adulation insanitary the most successful or popular period of someone very great admiration or praise for someone So unclean as to be a likely cause of disease What. though in the old days they made more money than the virtuosi. Sicily and Spain. They visited the Scillies and Cornwall and circumnavigated Africa. have the great empires of the world achieved? Self-interest. Perhaps the twenty years or so of pop fever provided a safely valve for the young who were none the worse for it providing they kept out of drugs and crime. Yet their real interest was in trade. as in the case of Germany under Adolf Hitler. headed by the USSR and the USA respectively. and they exported cedar to Egypt. Its effects are interpreted variously. brought the democratic institutions of Western Europe into focus and laid the foundations of the European Community. the desire for enrichment by trade. produced a hardy race of seafarers. The war also broke down social barriers. Hitler's failure. who sought to create an Aryan empire by the invasion of surrounding sovereign states. furniture. provided invaluable points of reference in Jewish Biblical history. purple cloth and jewelry all over the Middle East. if anything.guitar and make your fortune in a month. Yet it also began the polarization of East and West. all are natural.

population needs more land. and. All this is true. traders and law-givers. metal work and pottery enriched other countries. 'asset stripping' wherever they went.. Their positive contribution to the lives of vassal states covered the whole political. and even the very least of the overseas possessions were encouraged to develop their own governments. The West is concerned to trade rather than to exploit. and the heightened concept of sovereignty of states both large and small. as post war history has shown. at the height of Empire. which was the original forerunner of the modern democratic process of the free world today. but whose powers were limited by the essentially Greek concept of democracy. wall painting. No empire lasts forever. to lend money rather than exact it. legal and cultural spectrum. were governed by tyrants. instant communication. town-planning. it is right that this should be so. interested mainly in exacting taxes. The Greeks acquired most of the Mediterranean world. Yet the worldwide process overtook the gradual process of emancipation and. in which aggression is outlawed and mutual respect and co-operation fostered for the common good. Government had long since devolved to the great dominions. usually using unfair methods or force to give power devolve . oil and scent. on their vassal states. a name meaning 'kings'. The French and Portuguese concepts of empire were. because of modern travel. is incalculable. following them. of course. with disastrous results in many cases. and architecture has never since been equaled. had acquired the whole of the known world including territories as far apart as Britain and the West African coast line. architecture. doomed to failure in the modern world. The city states of Greece. wood. and their political contribution to the Mediterranean sea-board and even to France and Egypt. Their trade in wine. and civic building. basically because those countries tried to keep the concept of colonization as an extension of the home country. the Romans. if only as a by-product. The post-war wind of change brought about an irony in the case of the British Empire. Following the Phoenicians.C. Their sculpture. colonization. circumnavigate rapacious to move around showing a strong desire to take things for yourself. yet our modern dislike of the empire-concept must not blind us to the immense enrichment conferred. The dissolution of even the British Empire is now virtually complete. Their poetry and drama have remained supreme. They also enriched the known world in the spheres of art. The Greeks were adventurers. in the period 750 to 600 B. ultimately ruled by the central government. hence. oppressive and rapacious. Many people see the only hope for the future in a one-world concept. law. In a world where. The extent and duration of the Roman Empire were of course much greater. Roman law provided the foundation of much modern law. We are used to thinking of the Romans as cruel.

then Stalingrad held that destination. the federal capital since 1800 was laid out by Pierre L'Enfant. rubber. Santiago. with facilities for trade. Conversely. some capitals became established because of foreign colonization. Petersburg. a French engineer officer. which is on the coast. and nowadays perhaps from nuclear weapons. Thirdly it must be near a good water supply such as a large river. Fifthly it must be defensible against enemies. but from 1421 it again became Peking.What factors determine the location of a country's capital? Illustrate with examples. have easy access to the Eastern seaboard. if not millennia ago. Caracus. very much in mind. Bogota. when St. whence inland products were exported. Later the seat of government moved to Nanking. inland from Chesapeake Bay on the East Coast. Buenos Aires. though built above flood level. excluding the period 1709 to 1918. Most. an area of fertile land capable of supporting a growing population. Washington.S. both inland and overseas. Secondly the area must lend itself to the spread of housing. though not all of these. not only communicates with the centre of the country but also provides deep water moorings for seagoing vessels. Most large cities and capitals were originally walled. who designed the city specifically as the center of government in 1790. To these could be added Johore Bahru. copra and pineapples. Before the arrival of modern communications and transport. as might be expected. and the erection of public buildings.A. Many capital cities were founded centuries. is a case in point. from the air. George Town. Guyana. From the 14th century to the present day Moscow was the centre. so it is often not possible to do more than deduce the reasons for the choice of their locations. South America contains a host of examples. rivers provide the only means of communication. Venezuela. though possible attack from long range artillery. From 1928 to 1949 the capital was again Nanking and again reverted. London consisted of British settlements in preRoman times in a very defensible position which is now the city. The Thames. any large settlement required a location which satisfied certain requirements. He located it on the Potomac River. capital city locations were chosen at or near river-mouths for these reasons. Argentina. later Leningrad. though the origins of older ones are lost in tradition and folklore. Peking was the capital of China from the 10th Century. Both Peking and Nanking which lies south of it. Lima near the Peruvian coast. Capitals must have been located with these basic requirements in mind. More often than not. has rendered all capitals equally vulnerable. Chile which is inland but has easy access to Valparaiso. There are at least three examples of changes of capital city. reasons are geographical. both for trade and for political purposes. Colombia. tin. the inner square mile. The growth of Cairo at the base of the Nile delta provides an example. In a country covered by impenetrablerain forests and mountain ranges. The reason for the original . Firstly. the time of the Liao Dynasty. The same thing happened in Soviet Russia. Fourthly it must be well away from the earthquake belts and volcanoes. made for political reasons. The U. England's largest river. Another factor rendering the seaboard popular was that of convenience to those countries which sought to colonize overseas.

it was built defensively. The choice of St Petersburg was more political because although it is strategic for the Gulf of Finland and for Lake Ladoga. though the reasons for this change are unclear. as the capital. Originally an island off the mid-west coast of India it is now joined to the mainland by means of reclaimed land. In this essay the problems of England are considered. road and air transport have long been established. Its great harbor and westward facing position made it the obvious choice by the Moguls in the 13th century. for a variety of reasons but basically because England's constantly growing road network has shifted both passenger and goods transport away from the railways. One hears that Nigeria is even now considering dropping Lagos as the capital in favor of a new town inland. because it was felt that this would bring life to the interior. Apart from geographical considerations. obstacles to the establishment of physical communications. not only of Egypt. it was the center of intersecting trade routes. if any. but today of the Arab world. even the transport services of Western Europe and other western countries. who were followed by the Portuguese and in 1662 by the British. The Germans never succeeded in entering it in the Second World War during four years of siege. All services are capable of improvement. it was sheltered by a range of hills. Also it is very defensible. The fact however was that St Petersburg was the center for all revolutionary activity between 1815 and 1914. it satisfied all geographical conditions. where rail. Many of the foregoing factors also apply to the building up of Bombay. Since then the system has deteriorated out of all recognition. In consequence almost all small lines have been closed down. moorings the ropes or chains which keep a boat from moving away from a particular place impossible to see through or go through the surrounding of a place by an armed force in order to defeat those defending it impenetrable siege Consider how the transport system in your country might he improved. where often mountain ranges and dense afforestation have to be overcome. trade certainly affected the growth of Cairo from its early beginnings in 641 A. and until 1945 there existed a network which gave easy access from even the smallest village to all the main centers. Railways began to spread over England from about 1800. Brazil dropped Rio de Janiero as its capital and moved inland to the newly-planned city of Brasilia. It has become the trading and distributive center for North Africa and the Near East. it nevertheless has a terrible climate and is icebound for much of the year.D.choice of Moscow was that it was the gateway to the West. and where there are few. It is a more basic problem for the emergent countries. Speed has improved with the adoption of the diesel motor but the experimental high-speed trains . In 1960. and basically what is left is the inter-city network and London's commuter service from the home counties.

backed by the environmentalists. owned nowadays by over half of the population will also be able to move about more freely. internal air travel is of importance primarily to business people and nowadays all major cities have their own airports. container-type lorry. The London outer circle M 25. The 'age of the train' ended in 1954. to restore the waterways. that organization. The task of promoting comfort. London will eventually have five. by Jimmy Savile. High wage demands. and this is unlikely to happen. about traffic jams. will remove heavy through traffic from the streets of London. which of course operates a world-wide network. This involves both bank-clearing and the enforcement of anti-pollution laws. is efficient. Since there is ample private competition for British Airways. In turn this involves the provision of suitable roads. Moreover British Rail makes massive annual losses. speed and reliability is not easy. Part of the problem has been a steady shift of population originally from country to town. not only as a means of commercial transport but also for tourism. These drawbacks can and must be overcome by the provision of by-pass and further M roads. About half the population probably accepts that competitiveness is the only real way forward. as in the days of the rail system comfortable. economic and cared-for. economic cost. Small vehicles and private cars. Goods transport has largely moved over to the heavy. The present government is merely selling off minor assets. about the danger of pollution. There is a valuable move. especially in small villages. He is wrong. The Thatcher Government sees this as bad housekeeping despite the fact that most European rail systems are already heavily subsidized. Many of the transport problems in England. As in most other western countries after the war the system became nationalized. Only a reversion to private ownership. though progress is being made on all fronts. and now the reverse. afforestation Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting on nonforested . lack of money for capital expenditure. and the general indifference of nationally unreliable. safety. have stemmed from bad government theory and bad industrial relations in the past. The Socialist doctrine affirms that as a national service British Rail should not expect to make a profit or break even and should be subsidized by the tax payer. Rivers and canals must not be overlooked. and parking problems which at present bedevil all large towns and cities will be alleviated. and generally unpopular. The environmental lobby rightly complains about the damage done by these vehicles. though not all. The inefficiency is on the ground. The River Thames now contains a wide variety of fish whereas for over a century it contained none. and the road building program is severely limited by finance. and about the loss of agricultural land where M roads are built. when completed.have proved a fiasco. Unfortunately it is little used for commercial purposes. In a small country like England. although we are constantly told that this is the age of the train. as indeed do most other European countries. It can take longer to reach Heath Row and pass through customs and baggage formalities than it takes to fly to Paris of Dusseldorf. but is being tackled. such as railway hotels and in some cases catering on railway platforms and in dining cars.

Since it proved so expensive US Project Mohole was abandoned in 1967. the work of the Upper Manke Committee. Since only 30% of the earth's surface is above sea level end only 10% habitable. e. It is necessary to drill for minerals.g. After the first war the attitude was more co-operative. producing a systematic study of the earth end the environment. Offshore oil end gas rigs now proliferate. Before the First World War the international attitude towards exploration was competitive. and most of it surveyed by explorers on foot. a stop was eventually put on this method. In the 19th century startling results were achieved by wealthy and gifted amateurs. as in the case of space exploration today. in the middle ages it was realized that the earth is a globe. the USA. However. its underground radioactive end magnetic values etc. This organization co-ordinates results end supplies a limited amount of cash. attention has naturally been diverted to underground end undersea exploration for human reasons. The process has more recently been completed by the use of the aircraft and the helicopter. Exploration in the commonly accepted sense began with people like the sea-faring Columbus when. end a drill of 35. its role being assumed by UNESCO after the Second World War. the scientific aspect provides most interest. It held a crucial role for centuries in colonization and trade expansion. The solid earth was examined scientifically by means of a series of deep probes. and USSR constantly trying to surpass each others achievements. for fuel end for water in order to plan new facilities. 1957. Attention is now concentrated on underground and undersea exploration and in recent years on space exploration. A stop was put on territorial claims in Antarctica. They are based on drilling into the earth's crust where it is known to be most shallow in order to find out its physical properties. Seismic methods are used for the discovery of oil end gas deposits and today there are airborne devices for detecting minerals such as oil end gas. pioneered this venture. In the process of drilling more is discovered about an area's liability to earthquakes. Sound echoing devices now enable scientists to map the ocean bed . However quite early in this century virtually the whole of the earth's surface had been mapped in outline. These operate by detecting slight changes in the earth's magnetic field. much underwater work is a matter of scientific surveying. There is also a scanning infra-red sensor of greet use in geo-chemical exploration.land fiasco stem from something planned that goes wrong and is a complete failure to originate or develop as the result of something 'Scientists are the explorers of today. not flat.' Discuss. Undersea exploration is of equal. in which 70 nations participated. This work culminated in the International Geophysical Year. if not greater importance since its results have led to immense discoveries. The USA. but since deep drilling is increasingly expensive. An international council of scientific unions was set up. Although modern exploration is largely pragmatic.000 feet was aimed at. All observations are naturally indirect.

of course. however superficial. Deep-see drilling produces core samples which provide useful information. but human nature being what it is. culminate proliferate glamour to reach the highest point to increase greatly and suddenly in number the special excitement and attractiveness of a person. which in turn depends on the acquisition of culture. still pockets of privilege everywhere in which the rich can take advantage of the knowledge. magnetic fields. Today the work is co-ordinated by a consortium of oceanographic institutes. Many well-known schools in the West still lay a powerful emphasis on the classical languages as the best means of teaching the young to think properly. Today one school of thought would define education as the means of living a civilized life. There are also lunar end inter-planetary programs which further extend human knowledge. modern European languages being merely an optional extra. place or activity What Scientific knowledge should an educated person have? The answer depends on one's definition of education. If the purpose of education is to succeed in life as well as to enjoy it. Many are in orbit for purely scientific reasons. The problem with the first paragraph is that society does not consist of wealthydilettantes. outward-bound ventures in relatively unknown areas of the earth's surface will always persist. is essential. Has modern exploration lost glamour and the old dependence on self-reliance? Partly. the opportunity to gain specialized education in order to succeed is . They measure natural phenomena in space. If space exploration is to be included then obviously science plays the dominate role in all ventures. There are. in both East and West. but today most countries are essentially meritocracies. that of China dating back to 165 B. solar end cosmic radiation. skill and hard work of others. some knowledge of science. The manned projects must partly depend on the scientific know-how of the space explorer himself. end there is no single definition. Culture implies a knowledge of the graceful and artistic things of life. when civil service examinations were instituted. They assist in technical observation of stars and lead to an understanding of the evolution of the solar system. In the widest sense even the most primitive societies begin to prepare children for living from birth as a necessity for survival So do animals and birds. Nowadays in the free world.accurately end to discover far more about the seabed under the polar icecaps. Some knowledge of science is essential to us all because the march of scientific discovery largely dictates modern living both personal and social.C. The earth is now surrounded by hundreds of orbited satellites which provide various kinds of information. from weather reports to international communications. Formal education is based on literacy. and in Europe at any rate depends on no more than a knowledge of Greek and Latin.

modern education. Among these may be included nuclear and chemical warfare. and on the specialized knowledge required for the use of the modern weapons of sea. steel-workers and ship-builders are the dinosaurs of 1984. In Europe the emphasis has already shifted away from the heavy engineering and artisan industries. We need to know basic arithmetic if we are to deal with money. 'Ars pro arte' is no longer a valid concept. even family economics. Coalminers. and some of the frightening developments in genetic engineering. because job opportunities are increasingly dependent on subjects such as electronics and computer science. if you are a politician can you even understand many of the issues dealt with in government without a degree of specialized knowledge in those fields. dilettante a person who is or seems to be interested in a subject. Modern martial arts certainly have not destroyed the need for personal bravery in the soldier but effective military action today depends more on the technology which a country can buy. We live in a scientific world. land and air. necessary accomplishments for those above peasant status. The basis of any increase in a country's gross national product is trade. The truth seems to be that science has its own momentum. Today the emphasis has shifted from pure to applied science. In a world which daily grows less remote and more interdependent due to satellite communications. for this is surely one of the aims of educations ? So far there are few signs that it will. but whose understanding of it is not very deep . Everything depends on its use or misuse. for the majority. It might be argued that men like Archimedes. Yet modern interest lies less in discovering new laws than in the development of the old ones. boys and girls should receive instruction in them all and be encouraged to specialize in one of these subjects. banking. It is man's servant. Science is neutral. Isaac Newton and Einstein were among the most educated people who ever lived. Children must be shielded from dangerous drugs. Neither. We cannot be safe in a modern home without a basic understanding of electricity. Will science finally eliminate the divisive elements in human nature by encouraging understanding and co-operation. You cannot begin to work in this field without at least a reasonable knowledge of the goods you are promoting. not its master. However the topic question implies much more than this. The frontiers which they established are still being pushed back. We need to know a little chemistry and biology if we are to remain healthy and fit. and the most that can be said is that the educated person should at least know what is going on in the world.regarded as a basic human right. implies specialization in an established field. Today the marketing of sophisticated goods abroad is a main growth industry. It neither explains nor contradicts religion. A knowledge of science is necessary if humanity is to be in a position to resist some of its worse results. The growth industries of today depend completely on scientific specialization. Early Chinese education included the martial arts. especially for the young person today. jet travel and the ubiquitous computer.

or a custom may drop out of fashion but then come back for no obvious reason. followed by post-war full employment. a phrase. It certainly covers forms of speech. The word also applies to customs. started the fashion ball rolling. They prefer two or three different outfits to one. Mass-produced fashion clothes and shoes are therefore not made to last. admired or regarded as exclusive i.ubiquitous contradict seem to be in all places to state the opposite of What do you understand by 'fashion' and why does fashion change? The word 'fashion' is generally used to mean style in clothing. Thus the shop-girl can wear the same style in clothes and shoes as Princess Diana. variations in suits and shoes remaining fairly minor. The same garment today is only exclusive in its label. although the hat has. personal manners and standards of moral behavior. and. in the course of a year. 'style' meaning what is popularly accepted. Returning to women's fashions. Men's fashions have always remained relatively static. though a few models are sold to the rich as one-offs. for most occasions. Sometimes a form of dress. lies in subtle changes in ideas and . which reflected their casual attitudes. not available to the majority either because they lack the taste or the money to follow it. A fourth reason for change is that women like change for its own sake. During the war clothes for both sexes were rationed anyway. However. sometimes abruptly. However fashion applies to many other things than dress and hair-styles e. In the West post-war clothing fashions have been the subject of change because of the higher standard of living enjoyed in most European countries.g. on a coupon system. They become 'disposables. use of words and accents within a language. house. behavior and morality. In pre-war days high fashion was the monopoly of the wealthy or well-to-do woman. A third reason for the constant changes lies in 'haute couture' as big business. This austerity. Take England as an example.e.' Another reason for changes in customs. the reason for change is usually apparent. for no apparent reason. for women as well as men. building and the general design of most consumer-goods ranging from cars to kitchen appliances. At one time a new and exclusively styled garment from a couturier in Paris was sold only to the rich. The real business lies in the sale of the model to the massproducing firms which bring new styles to the big stores in the High Street. The tee-shirt and denim jeans became almost statutory for the young of both sexes. manners and morals. If a woman works to a tight budget she will have to buy clothes and shoes for warmth and durability rather than appearance. women too. However the freedoms of the 1960's moved young men into a much more informal style of dress. become the symbol of the elderly men. All these things change from time to time. Recently there has been slight return to formal dress.

stand when they enter a room or give up their seats in a railway carriage. but parents are pressurized into buying computers. The half a dozen big producers go in for highly competitive advertising. In that decade local accents became more fashionable. partly because of travel and partly because of a shift in political interest. advertising and political pressure groups. some of it aimed at children. The term 'kitchen-sink drama' sums up the process. prepare themselves for modern living. due partly to the prominence given to popgroups. is now accepted as fashionable in some quarters. The old adage remains true in principle because advertising not only sells goods but also creates the demand for new lines. Novels have also undergone fundamental changes in fashion. Some men no longer open doors for women. Tatler and Spectator in England. English.B. and the development of advertising in the West dates back at least three centuries. Other changes in fashion occur because of the power of propaganda. her social and industrial progress in Victorian and Edwardian days and her colonial power up to 1939. The Butch appearance of some western women reflects feminism. because wherever you create a demand you must be able to . one-off ostracism sum up something that happens or is made or done only once to prevent people from taking part in the activities of a group to quickly form an opinion about someone or something Discuss the various methods of advertising and their effectiveness. The lobby has considerable backing from the medical profession. They can play games. coinciding roughly with the publication of early journals such as The London Gazette. spoken in an 'Oxbridge' accent was used exclusively by newsreaders and public speakers until the 60s. So advertising began on a local basis. so far from causing ostracism. Changes in accent and expression have greatly affected both the theatre and the television play. It pays to advertise. electronics or industrial espionage. the sop to their consciences being that they can use the computer for family accounts. especially if they came from Liverpool. Many women regard this once accepted behavior as male chauvinism. The home computer is a modern example. educate themselves. banking. For men or women to live together in a homosexual relationship. never-the-less. Equally they could do their family accounts once a month on the back of an old envelope. subject matter is also very different today.C. her old wartime achievements. as does the lookalike garb affected by some couples. the circulation of which was largely limited to London and one or two large provincial cities. All this can be done with books and paper. Today best-selling novels are usually spythrillers or books which deal with contemporary subjects such as aircraft. The term 'fashion' applies also to the written and the spoken word. The anti-smoking lobby has largely succeeded in keeping all public places smoke-free. Of course they can. otherwise it would not exist.outlooks. such as the 'Beatles' or from the Midlands or the North. others result from a new and sometimes sentimental review of England's past glories. Advertising sells goods and services. B.

successful. good sales result. if only never to buy it. truthful and legal. 'Apeing the celebrity' is another line of attack. on walls. rail communication and transport. the Rolls Royce is merely described as the best car in the world. However there are countless ways of disobeying the spirit if not the letter of the law. by an appeal to a range of human instincts. in railway stations and the underground. If a stunt-man goes through the hoops to bring his beautiful girl-friend the brand of her choice he will take the easier way of buying them in the supermarket and she may begin to fantasize about the bringer. massproduction. taxis and container lorries. flood through the letter-boxes. sometimes the creation of that motivation. on streamers trailing behind light aircraft. advertising local firms. or a great actress a particular shampoo. The effectiveness of advertising depends on the assessment of the consumer's motivation in buying. ads must be morally decent. Some commercial radio channels still carry advertising. Everybody knows that a small group of products are the best in their fields. Where there is poverty in a potential market the only effective appeal is based on cheapness. affluent Jones next door buy certain brand names. In contrast sexy lingerie ads are self-defeating. boring economical neighbors must do likewise.meet it. Most countries today have a statutory body which seeks to deep advertising up to a certain basic standards. Because those bright. From this will be seen that overkill is one drawback to the effectiveness of modern advertising. The hard sell becomes counter-productive. implying that the others don't. Advertising is therefore big business. reliability and effectiveness in a product. outside the Eastern bloc. fills the waste paper baskets. Handbills. and the freighter for overseas markets. The advertising of foodstuffs has been improved by 'sold by' and statements of contents. based in the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. promotional experts. . For as long as most people can remember advertising has been seen wherever the public go. A country house with a hundred acres of land is offered as a 'modest gentleman's residence. and a direct or indirect appeal to that motivation. and the world's capitals. They bore women and men don't usually buy lingerie. Yet sex can sell chocolates. from static balloons. especially intelligent people. and film producers and technicians. on trains. Yet the fact that it continues argues that this kind of advertising is financially justified. but in either case people keep the brand name in mind. especially color printing. graphic artists. In a mixed or affluent community the field is wide open. buses and business vehicles. the development of printing. repel others. Such firms employ some of the best ideas people. shop fronts and hoardings. The soft sell works best when appealing to the very rich. Subliminal advertising has rightly been banned. the failed. People get fed-up if they are over-pressurized. Another successful line with a shampoo is that it works. The appeal to snobbery still works. addressed to computerized lists of likely buyers. and usually price is not mentioned. With the advent of color-television. Junk mail. if a famous heavy-weight uses a particular deodorant. so advertising merely keeps them in the public eye. Comic ads amuse some. the commercial break has assumed primary importance. Most Western advertising works in a competitive market where the variety of brands is matched by the consumer's power of choice. So various factors combined to create national and international advertising. offer scope to advertising firms with their highly specially areas of expertise.

are the government's responsibility. then all these. and of course levies on consumer durables and perishables among other areas. a favorable balance of trade with. If a country follows the socialist line. all countries have labor-intensive annual commitments where the main services are nationally funded or subsidized. education. Any government's financial leeway consists of revenue less unavoidable expenditure. In terms both of nuclear and conventional arms. such as value added tax or purchase tax. and that it encourages free enterprise. although such changes are usually marginal. it will need to achieve the following. high interest rates if overseas money is to be attracted but if possible without prejudice to exports. but that a reasonable level of defense has to be kept for the sake ofparity with potentially hostile neighbors. For the purposes of this essay. profits made on resource exploitation. the civil service. the police and customs forces. with consequent economies. Similarly. self-help and a business-like efficiency. and that it means to hold its own in the modern world. All have the potential for rationalization. including housing and a comprehensive social security system. In a democracy. Assuming that the country is politically independent. Could that slice be reduced in size. economic development and the full exploitation of natural resources. a strong currency. and both can he regulated within certain limits. The total net income can be raised or lowered at the will of government. the reduction or abolition of inflation implying some kind of wages policy in both public and private sectors. together with legislative control over the power of the trades unions. business. and many others. If not. the current unfreezing of relations between East and West is partly based on internal pressures for economies in favor of more positive priorities. roads.sop something unimportant or of little value which is offered to stop complaints or unhappiness a substance that you put on your body to prevent or hide unpleasant smells to do a lot of difficult things before you are allowed to have or do something you want deodorant go through the hoops What priorities would you set for government expenditure and why? These priorities will vary enormously according to the circumstances and the state of development of the country concerned. the health service. a large slice of the national cake is already accounted for in terms of defense salaries and equipment. Income normally comes from direct and indirect taxation. Basic policy must therefore be considered. let us assume that the country concerned is democratic. perhaps privatization. To do so. Given such an ideal and promising situation. as many as possible of these services will be hived off to the private sector. wild changes may lead to the overthrow of . railways and airlines. Taxation covers personal income. consequently. we can now look at the national cake.

because this will guarantee greatly increased revenue. Every writer owes much to his or her background and to the national climate of opinion.government. any great increase in borrowing erodes stability. So a budget is reached. the exploitation of natural resources. which he hopes will ultimately become non-contributory. the callousness of the rich and the . For example. health. Also. after setting aside funds to service and reduce national debts. the glaring differences in living standards between aristocrat and peasant. The sooner natural resources are developed the better. He selects the following short-term priorities. And since his hopes for a larger national cake in the future depend on resource exploitation. health and education. Roads. and to the improvement of the national education service. railways. It will then be for the cabinet to press claims for the various departments represented. roads and railways. $1 billion must be allocated to that purpose. Any chancellor will regard his expendable surplus as a cake to be divided into slices. the inequity of the law. to be shared from primary to university level. such changes have to be made with a strict eye to inflation. The important thing about the writing of history is that it should not only be factual but that it should include all the facts. there is much truth in it. and the establishment of centers for research and development. science and technology. Equal sums are allocated to the establishment of a subsidized health service. The long-term needs include the modernization of the Armed Forces equipment. The press and the public may well have set their own priorities. the exploitation of natural resources. sports and the arts will simply be maintained at the old levels. which cancels outimprovements. it would be wrong to write about the French Revolution without dealing with what led up to it. and the opposition will certainly have done so. He allocates $330 million. The chancellor has a usable surplus of $2 billion. Thirdly. Do you support this view? This sounds a very sweeping statement. sport and the arts. The bias is not always deliberate. housing. and out of the longterm needs. allowing for inflation. Let us take an imaginary country which fulfils all the above conditions. Pressure groups will have drawn attention to social defects. Nevertheless. education. until agreement or compromise has been reached. It has been decided that the country's outstanding short-term needs lie in the categories of housing. At the risk of becoming unpopular the chancellor will have to balance these conflicting claims. parity hive off cancel out equality set apart from a group neutralize the effect All history books are biased. A labor-intensive re-housing program will help to bring down unemployment.

greed and looting.rational philosophy of human equality and human rights spelled out by Voltaire and JeanJacques Rousseau. The one-world view also tends to be selective in the presentation of facts. art. from the national point of view. condemning the murders which lead to the overthrow of a stable government. One writer dealing with a popular revolution will castigate a mob for violence. This stance favors aggression by the oppressed and is invariably censorious about colonialism. The technique is to suppress all the truth of the past and rewrite only the material which fits in with government policy. The problem of this kind of writing is dullness. leaving the reader to draw personal conclusions. While it is true that the old-fashioned historian concentrated on power bases. while objectively-written history books are withdrawn from schools and libraries. dealing with the same revolution. eliminating those which conflict with it's overall moral outlook. others tend to adopt the one-world stance. Nobody. For example there is no mention of social and material progress or of the Pax Britannica in certain modern accounts of British colonialism. Otherwise the account would read simply as a record of brutal and indiscriminate violence on the part of the Paris mob. and argue that the ugly features of revolution are necessary if full democratic control of government is to pass into the hands of the people. castigate debased travesty to criticize severely corrupt something which fails to represent the values and qualities that it is intended to represent Should one aim of education be the development of talent in such fields as music. is totally without a political stance. writing only about violence against the class struggle and against the trades union movement. This happens when an oppressive government decides to brainwash its people into continued subservience. perhaps excessively. If some historians tend to write. some modern historians see history simply in terms of the upward struggle of the poor. although vague about the consequences of total nonaggression in all circumstances. where personal opinion or interpretation is rigorously excluded. either writer or reader. drama? . which is basically left-wing. the writing of history in some countries has been debased out of all recognition. It is also pacifist insofar as the established powers are concerned. Suchtravesties are forcibly imposed on schools. objectively presented. monarchs and political leaders. Another. More recently. Much the same applies to domestic history. however objectively. The best of historical writing therefore includes all the facts. will put all the blame on the government for its autocratic and heartless attitude to the people.

or many new things. whatever that ability may be. What is material success if there is nothing to engage the artistic side of our nature in our spare time? Perhaps the greatest concept of education originates in the European cultural renaissance in Italy. the pressure from educational theorists today is to concentrate teaching on preparation for employment. and dates back to the late Middle Ages. that one aim of education should be to develop latent ability. However. still has its place. Artistic pursuits have now become international and offer brilliant careers to gifted young people of every country. and modern education has spawned a brood of these non-subjects. the use of computers and other office machinery.It is only a tiny minority who are born without a talent in one direction or another. latent proficiency spawn Present or potential but not evident or active skilled and experienced to cause something new. banking. Modern job opportunities lie in the fields of the service industries. We live in a real world. Even these people are usually employable. These essential subjects include English. social and environmental studies. it is a short step to useful employment.e. technology and the manufacture of sophisticated products. Every country has its own artistic heritage. so that a pool of labor can be formed which can move easily into specialized training. It is clear that those with this kind of talent should be encouraged. engineering. while others are 'soft options'. It is the development of the whole person. and general handwork. art and drama must all have their place in the curriculum. also. since these languages possess technical vocabularies and also equip young people to travel overseas in the course of their work. Yet this is not merely a matter of conservation. or another international language. The arts are usually bracketed under the general heading 'liberal studies'. philosophy. Given proficiency in some or all of there. in general. There will always he young people more interested in the arts than in the sciences. Parents. they include history. languages and literature. research and development and computers. Governments urge concentration on certain subjects. So even attention to sports training is justifiable. and it would be tragic if that heritage were lost through neglect. So music. Yet the reverse of this coin is the necessary enrichment of the culture of all countries in successive generations. even if this is not a prime place. In any real sense they are totally unproductive. It is small wonder that both governments and parents discourage some of them nowadays. Some require exact knowledge and serious study. the sciences. to grow or start suddenl . It seems logical. a 'healthy body in a healthy mind'. politics and economics. i. insurance and stockbroking. The other favored subjects arc mathematics. feel that the priority for their children is to become equipped to earn a good living. Perhaps the modern version of 'mens sana in corpore sano'. Governments see these occupations as essential to national wealth creation. and therefore crucial to the general improvement of the national standard of living.

so much so that he or she can be ultra-selective in following personal taste. Again. John LeCarre being a very able exponent. For this writer. The Englishman laughs at the James Herriott stories. So are we looking for people's reactions to a great sweep of national events. and some. To read is more positive than to watch television. because he has spent much of his working life in Hollywood. and most people enjoy looking through these windows. and more latterly by people like Blatty. There are. Edgar Allan Poe's short stories set the horror trend. and a whole group of modern novels . however. the sort we find in Pasternak's Dr Zhivago. whether past or present. notably Dennis Wheatley. with it's comments on the Russian system. after a hard day in the office. It is perhaps true to say that a good library is one of the finest assets a community can possess. among many others. There is a whole world of this kind of fiction. such as Georges Simenon. just as the Australian reader would see nothing funny in an English novel which I think hilarious. The real trend. Most people enjoy a good thriller. we need to read something out of this world. or are we looking for an encapsulated set of personal relationships? Perhaps. the spectrum of spy mysteries. the KGB and the CIA.What types of fiction do you enjoy reading and why? The reading of fiction is escapism. He was followed by a host of others. This argues that humor has to be related to a known background. Robert Graves' novels I. based on the machinations of MI6. The outward-bound adventure thriller. and partly because the quality of radio programs is so uneven. However. It may be this quality which distinguishes great from mediocre fiction. Claudius andClaudius the god reveal the Imperial Roman Empire. from time to time. we enjoy both. represented by Alistair MacLean and Hammond Innes. Reading opens windows on the world. who wrote the terrifying novel The Exorcist. to the delight of both. just as his Goodbye to all thatreveals the horrors of the First World War. whereas Jane Austen's Persuasion being a study of the mannered relationships of early 18th century English country gentry merely gives the Napoleonic Wars a mention. This is the popular Agatha Christie genre. because the visual nature of TV limits the imagination. the Atlantic Ocean is a great divide as far as humor is concerned. followed by dozens of other writers. What about Mr. paperbacks are usually available. because the acts of violence are no more than pegs on which to hang intellectual solutions. In The moon's a balloon and Go slowly. partly because the listener has no choice in the programs. a gifted raconteur like David Niven sells equally well on both sides of the pond. horror stories. and has absorbed both backgrounds. tastes vary. Failing a library. is for the good whodunnit. some highly gifted. come back quickly. three genres which in the 20th century have had a great following. Reading also excels radio listening. Violence is never dwelt on for its own sake. Clarke's space fiction? Or perhaps it is something light and amusing. but not in any bad sense. The American would be puzzled. because the adventures of this veterinary surgeon relate exclusively to provincial English characters. Tolstoy's War and Peace reveal the Napoleonic struggle. Our choice of fiction also depends on mood. There is a world of fiction available to occupy the reader's spare time. he pins down the foibles of both nations. Perhaps.

and also to educate people in public hygiene. in a period when finding an actual cure was medically impossible. it came from rat fleas. have now disappeared from the Western world as a result. or where certain diseases are endemic. However without strict public health regulations. and were often denied the literary status conferred on them by subsequent generations. The means is to vaccinate with enough of the virus concerned to achieve immunity to the actual disease. hotels and banks. they are still read for pleasure. and using mosquito nets in the wet season. Should he or she contract a disease. The most important preventive measure against disease is inoculation. The prevention procedures was to destroy the rats. The main priority may be prevention. Other ministries will therefore be involved. which infected humans. a cure. tetanus. immunity from poliomyelitis. In certain tropical countries. nutrition and health education. then prevention is too late. some fatal. malaria will persist. The old theory was that the plague was caused by the stench of rotting refuse. although the mosquito can be destroyed by spraying. avoiding standing water. encapsulate raconteur foible to express or show the most important facts about something someone who tells amusing or interesting stories a strange habit or characteristic that is seen as harmless and unimportant Which is the more important.based on carefully-researched subjects such as airports. especially in London. and one should not forget that they were the popular literature of their day. However. and this in turn will depend on the priorities obtaining in that country. In any country he will need to decide on the allocation of his budget. Up to the 17th century England was ravaged by a series of bubonic plagues which killed off people by the thousand. e. it is sometimes thought . In fact. the anopheles mosquito. has long been known. a minister of health may take a different view. Suppression and prevention will ultimately lead to a natural cure. Certain diseases. In the case of childish and non-fatal complaints. The effects of it can be suppressed by drugs and its source. these are public works. This is particularly true in countries where people become the victims of epidemics. Meanwhile a course of drugs will build up the body's resistance. malaria is endemic. The plague was eradicated by preventive methods. This short essay does not mention the Classics. In the long run there is little doubt that the prevention of disease is of higher priority than finding cures. typhoid fever and some forms of influenza can now be achieved by injection. hopefully. which in turn meant providing London with proper drainage. The only thing left is. yellow fever.g. This will require expenditure in fields other than medicine. to cure disease or to prevent it ? The answer depends on the standpoint of the individual. However. perhaps because the student may associate them too closely with examinations. Discovery of the cause of any disease is crucial.

What is disease? It is the invasion of the body by outside agents. and at times. thisscourge. to avoid lung cancer. All of them can be lived with if drug suppressants are used. reasonable exercise. The prevention of' its spread is essential. though its means of spread has become clear. now give new hope to many sufferers. A greatly feared recent illness is AIDS. heart. In no case is there a cure for the condition. because where a child's bodily health is generally good a natural immunity results. It can also result from changes in the body and from physical malfunctioning. When a disease has been caught. boiling achieves a general level of safety. warmth in cold climates. Its cure remains uncertain. Other preventative measures include eliminating the cause of disease from the environment. These examples and others can be cited to prove the topic-statement either way. since there are no medical treatments. However much of the latter remains empirical while the actual causes of serious diseases remain unknown. fungi. In adults. measures to prevent the inhalation of coal dust in the mining industry. and the rejection of asbestos from the building trade. jaundice and hepatitis are far more dangerous. viruses. Prevention by abstention is all-important. Changes in diet and the invasion of microorganisms can also contribute. scourge A source of widespread dreadful affliction and devastation . This applies less to infectious and contagious disease than to contraction by individuals. the balance may he on the side of prevention. of which the origin is at present unknown. though not always. or from failure to adapt to environmental change. although nowadays haematology saves many lives. There are treatments. In general. Unfortunately it seems that as fast as one disease is eliminated another seems to take its place. measures to control it include the use of modern drugs. Cure by skilled surgery may be the only option. may be classified as disease. surgery. e. e. which is becoming endemic in certain parts of Africa. toxins or radiation. but the facts illustrate the patchy nature of medical advances. though not always. There are preventive measures. lung and kidney surgery. bacteria. and favorable housing and working conditions.g. Neither are there any preventative measures. It can be contained by prophylaxis and avoided altogether by avoiding sexual promiscuity. is incurable. Dramatic advances in bodily organ replacement.g. but so far no cure.best to accept them. Certain addictions. This necessitates a balanced diet. including drug addiction. but if one has to generalize for the long term. Meanwhile there is no means of preventing or curing either the common cold or the various kinds of rheumatic and arthritic complaints. such as not smoking. although the stated connection between smoking tobacco and lung cancer is opinion and propaganda rather than demonstrable fact. people have a built-in immunity to these invasions. X-ray therapy in the case of cancer. Where the quality of water is suspect. So far. The strengthening of bodily defenses against disease is of strategic importance. good sleep. The same may be said about cancer.

at wit and topical comment in newspaper cartoons. drama or literature. the British Broadcasting Corporation defined the object of sound. whether music. it all depends what you mean by entertain. of whatever kind. at farce on the stage. we do laugh at comic songs. Although funded from the license fee. this demand is for entertainment which makes few if any intellectual demands. and later. opera. is to entertain? As Professor Joad used to say. Britain may have the best answer. In all fairness.to amuse. to occupy pleasurably. the Corporation remains independent of Government. Yet it is a strange co-incidence that without heavy subsidies from the state or some business source. painting. and the result of that remains to be seen. Of course. and why not? The dictionary gives a wide definition of entertain -. religion included. Of course serious writing. the media are free to respond democratically to public demand. Other countries may have different objectives.sexual promiscuity empirical indulging in casual and indiscriminate sexual relations verifiable Do you agree that the primary purpose of the Arts. or to make us think about some social problem. music and painting are seen as vehicles of getting across some message or other. intellectual Art in general could not exist. allowing standards to find their own level on the basis of public popularity. and the ITV from dropping its standards to suit the lowest tastes. soap operas and panel games monopolizing the prime viewing times. as in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. Their purpose is to . Where there is an attempt to give pleasure rather than to instruct. inform and educate. and so yes is the logical answer to the question. they comprise political and social comment. If the word means make one laugh. Othersrelinquish all control and place the media in the hands of advertising sponsors. Should preference be given to popularity ? Should people be given what they want. While they keep their independence. in that order. and there has been no reason to change that order of priorities. Many seem to think that the theatre exists to make political points. People obtain pleasure from many things. television broadcasting as being to entertain. and programs concerning the Arts in general. then there is obviously more to the Arts than that. At the same time it has to compete with the Independent Television Authority for support. serious music. or what somebody else thinks is good for them ? We return to the purpose of the Arts. and at the likes of P G Wodehouse and Mark Twain in novels. documentaries. it has to be said that Channel 2 is almost entirely given over to serious viewing. This saves the BBC from becoming too stuffy. should be free to deal with serious subjects. So we suffer a spate of situation comedies. More intellectual programs arerelegated to the early or late time slots. or to express the prejudices of the author. The intelligentsia would answer no. in any country. Cable television will bring wider choice. Some regard the media as a tool of government. In its early days. the public is far more likely to be prepared to pay to support the Arts. ballet. In Britain.

the new approach may be superior to the old. In the case of Britain. The old approach was to concentrate on power centers. The schoolboy felt a sense of pride. and bring a more sophisticated outlook to their study. but it is far from being the complete picture. learn history in more depth. Providing the new methods do not lead to the inculcationof political stances. No doubt all this has made people think. the fact that in Britain the Arts have to be supported by government handouts via the Arts Council speaks for itself. more than they once did. and to the loss of the factual framework which has to be learnt the hard way. These at once cut across national insularity.occupy leisure time pleasurably. Subject matter has broadened. indeed in some countries it has been merged with the story of progress in ideology. Most people prefer representational painting. colonies end protectorates. the paying public will always vote with its feet. he might have thought one day we shall rule the world . personal to the artist. Traditional and conventional themes have been abandoned. This of course is legitimate history. but most people like a recognizable and memorable tune. Another factor running counter to old-fashioned pride in country is based in the post Second World War international agreement about basic human rights. The theatre preaches sociology and politics. The popularity test has been in question for a long time. must be literary. Most people buy a book because it is a good read. perhaps discuss. political figures. the wind of change led to the independence of ex- . and military relationships with neighboring countries. Literature. armies. the stories of rulers. The problem with many exponents of the Arts is that their work has a minority appeal. So much music has become tuneless. The teaching of history has changed in recent years. and themes now cover the whole spectrum of life. at least among highbrows. Most people enjoy drama which has a beginning. sociology and industrial development. and may or may not be a true source of pride. a middle and an end. Yet. farce a humorous play or film where the characters become involved in unlikely situations to give up something such as a responsibility or claim to put someone or something into a lower or less important rank or position relinquish relegate How far should the teaching of history aim to foster pride in one's country and its past? In the 1930s a British schoolboy would turn his geographical globe and find that a third of the land surface was colored pink. Whatever the intellectuals may think is good for us. and dissonant. Musical appreciation depends on personal taste. Schoolchildren grow up. This indicated the Empire. Painting and sculpture take some abstract form. if the Arts are to survive. dominions. Entertainment in the widest sense remains the primary objective of the Arts.

Arising out of this. alongside the progress to both national and personal independence. Some countries still behave aggressively through their secret services and their arms dealers. total freedom to emigrate and settle at will. these include individuality in dress. sports and games. music. in part or whole. The right kind of national pride is at least a partial guarantee of freedom and a counter-measure against aggression. Finally. family solidarity. or of the good qualities of that society. even social improvement. Its extreme adherents visualize total disarmament. Sometimes apartheid was built into the system. love of children. These may well include kindness. and eventually the international standardization of privilege and opportunity. However patriotic. What are these reasons ? The history of all countries traces the emergence of their peoples from the despotism of kings. Most countries have a history of industrial and nowadays technological development. right or wrong is seriously suspect. this part of history is no longer condoned. Militarism and unprovoked aggression towards neighbors comes first. and environmental development and improvement. Students can also take pride in the development of the rule of law and the strengthening of personal freedoms within the law. Pride may also be taken in the development of the democratic process. give and take. the discarding of legitimate national pride unilaterally is impractical and unrealistic. the abolition of class barriers and the enhancement of personal opportunity. Neither should history teaching neglect improvements in living standards. Whereas the concept of my country. cultural and leisure services. Neither should the student be ashamed of the personal protection afforded by the society into which he or she was born. care for the elderly. community consciousness and hospitality to strangers. came a history of colonization by conquest. followed by commercial exploitation. kindness to animals. Most empirebuilding countries were cynical in their dealings with vassal states. to all countries. humor. respect for neighbor. countries take legitimate pride in their own special characteristics. In some instances local people were deported as slaves to be used for commercial gain. and it can he done without prejudice to the fostering of love of country for the right reasons. on the part of both East end West. flexibility. barons and petty chiefs. and the rule of just law. Gradually the oneworld concept grew up. the theatre. In more recent times there have been cases of empire-building by subversion rather than by military conquest.colonies and the distancing of the dominions from the influence of Whitehall. Although tempered by religious mission and the establishment of peace end stability. and this has given rise to trades unionism which at its best seeks fairness and protection for the worker. Rule was despotic. whether military or subversive. reductions in working hours and the provision of health. generosity. They apply. and in which e country can take no legitimate pride. especially in Europe. inculcation to fix beliefs or ideas in someone's mind. the history teacher should not be ashamed to impart this information. There are some things which the teaching of history used to obscure. Poverty and lack of opportunity were ignored. especially by repeating them often interested only in your own country or group and not willing to accept different or foreign ideas insularity .

some types of deer and the Arabian oryx are examples. The concept of confining them in cages became suspect. i. visual or actual. This inhibits exercise. Seeing and touching animals means much more to a child than any number of good books or pictures. so the whole concept may be wrong. The koala bear. The first is conservation. India and elsewhere. the setting up of families and clans. Sometimes it is unsuccessful. These arguments do not of course apply to bird sanctuaries. lack of hygiene or incorrect feeding. many species are endangered or becoming extinct. tigers and elephants thus have room to move freely and to set up their own social structures.e. Children have a chance to touch. Gradually however unrest has grown about the morality of keeping animals. however. and are never confined. understanding and enjoyment. and from the text-book. The counter to this argument is that animals dislike being domesticated for any reason. and worse. However it is conceded that given large enough cages or confined areas with sufficient animals these defects can be largely overcome. It has to be said that zoos are constantly improving their facilities and bringing them . The fact is that only 5% of endangered species are to be found in zoos. cages must be small. this is totally impracticable overseas. groom and ride on animals in a modern zoo. where the birds are encouraged to frequent natural but protected habitats. Some zoos specialize in activity centers which generate love of animals. There are four points in favor of zoos. Realistically. and a visit to the zoo has always been a treat. This process is expensive and time-consuming. though not on grounds of ill-treatment. and difficult enough in the country concerned. UK. prevents the putting together of enough animals to allow for natural social behavior. Zoology is best learnt in the classroom. The main argument against is that available money should be put into the saving of natural habitats. and that in the strict sense the zoo does not further education. Due to over shooting and deforestation in Africa. More than fifty years ago a wildlife park was established at Whipsnade in Bedfordshire. reptiles and birds in captivity. The major-attraction types of animals such as lions. They are accepted as useful and entertaining amenities which were also educational. and since the Second World War in the grounds of large houses such as Longleat. Children love seeing animals. and arguments against them all. Attempts to mate these in captivity have been successful. Another counter-argument is that for close contact. Sometimes animals bred in captivity cannot adapt to the wild. and either die or fall prey to predators. They are fenced off from the public except in safari parks where people can see them at close quarters from rover type vehicles.vassal A person who held land from a feudal lord and received protection in return for homage and allegiance Are you for or against zoos? Until recently the case for zoos was never questioned. in the laboratory. Point two is that zoos are educational. with the result that their natural habitats have been re-stocked.

The old defects will be overcome.into line with the animal's natural surroundings as far as possible. education about their kinship and social life in natural colonies. plus personal contact. the continued development of zoos seems to be a valid policy. or to slow down a process or the growth of something An exhibition of pictures or objects viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass inhibit peepshow . UK. The veterinary branch learns how best to keep animals and treat them when sick. Children have been mentioned. Nothing was known about the social habits of the rhinoceros until specimens were brought into captivity and observed in suitable surroundings. This again is not considered a valid argument by the opponents. Some agree. The future may lie in this direction. scripts and tapes available in a modern zoo attract the adult also. The fourth argument for zoos is that they not only allow for research but also finance it. such as the woolly monkey sanctuary at Looe. The polar bear house in London Zoo is currently being remodeled in this way. In the case of the London Zoo the answer is that they have an Institute of Zoology. also lectures. others ask why animals should be made a peepshow. Animal nutrition is studied. statistics for analysis. Surroundings will be made larger and more natural. This provides conservation. and money becomes available for research as well as improvement. What kind of research ? people ask. There is also a strong case for the specialized zoo or sanctuary. and should be kept. What of the future ? Despite all arguments to the contrary. This produces comparative surveys. Animal behavior is studied. If the wishes of the public are to be considered. zoos as recreational amenities have a large following. in Cornwall. but the informative booklets. powerful vehicle designed for traveling over rough or steep ground and used especially by people who work in the countryside to prevent someone from doing something. with opportunities to touch and groom. Problems of reintroduction into the wild are studied. and data bases. Entrance takings are high. rover a strong.