Write a story based on this line : "By evening, she was running a high fever ...

Far up in the mountains of Canada, there is an old abandoned log cabin. Once it was occupied by a young couple who wanted to distance themselves from the chaos of this modern world. Here they were miles away from the nearest town. Bob, the husband, made the occasional trip into town to buy supplies whereas Jan, his wife, spent her free time by the fire, sewing. Their life was simply idyllic. Then, one midwinter's day, Jan woke up from bed with a strange ache in her bones. Putting it down to overwork, Bob shooed her to bed and made sure she rested. Though Jan was impatient to get to her chores, Bob soothed her, "Relax, Sugar. You're overdoing things. All these chores will be here when you recover." However, Jan seemed to be getting worse instead of recovering. By evening, she was running a high fever and in greater pain. In spite of his best efforts, Bob could not manage to ease her suffering. And then suddenly, she started to lapse into unconsciousness. It was then obvious that she was seriously ill. What could Bob do? He had no experience in treating the sick and Jan was getting worse by the minute. He knew that there was an old doctor in town but he lived three miles away, downhill. Pot-bellied and obese, there was no way the doctor could make it up to their cabin. Something had to be done quickly! Bob racked his brains but to no avail. The only thing left to do was to go to the doctor. In Jan's condition, she could never walk that far in the waist-deep snow. Bob would have to carry her! Bob searched his mind for a way to move poor, sick Jan. Then, he remembered. He had once made a sledge so that they could ride together over the mountain. They never got around to using it though, because the whole mountain was thickly covered with rocks and trees. He had never found a safe way down, not even once. "Well," he thought, "looks like I'm going to have to try it anyhow," as he dug out the sledge from the storeroom. "Jan may die unless I get her to the doctor, and life means nothing to me without her." With this thought in mind, Bob gently tucked Jan into the sledge, got in the front, and with a short prayer for safety, pushed off. How they got through that ride alive, Bob has never figured out. As trees loomed up in front of him and just as quickly whizzed by his side, close enough to touch, he felt relieved that Jan was not awake to experience the ride. It was all he could do not to scream as collision seemed imminent, time and again, with only inches to spare. At last, bursting from the mountainside, the town came into view. Barely slowing down, they sped through the icy streets, only losing speed as they neared the doctor's house. The sledge, battered through the journey, collapsed in the left ski as it came to a halt, spilling out its occupants. Bob picked up his Jan and made his way into the doctor's house.

After what seemed to be a long winter, Jan recovered fully from her illness but Bob never recovered from his fright. They moved into the little town so as to be near help in times of crisis, and have lived there ever since. idyllic rack one's brains batter simple and carefree strain to find a solution to damage as by heavy wear

Write a story using this sentence as your first line : "It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens."
It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens. Ken and his friends were playing their regular football game along the banks of the river near their small village. In the midst of the game, Ken's attention was drawn to a tourist boat passing by. Actually, tourist boats were quite common in their area. It was also common for some of the tourists to take potshots at the birds and squirrels along the way. This is why Ken's friends were not really surprised to hear a few small explosions from the boat. They ignored the sounds and went on with their game. However, they were startled when they suddenly heard loud cries for help coming from the boat. They could see that the crew were running about, panic-stricken. Some people were shouting to them. "Their engine must have blown up! Look, there's smoke and the boat's out of control. It's going towards the rapids," Ken pointed out to his friends. Ken's village was located at the point at which the tourist boats turned around and headed back upstream. Three kilometers downstream were the rapids, which spelt trouble for the boats. "It's heading straight for the rapids! They're in trouble! The boat will be smashed against the rocks!" Ken exclaimed. "Let's get help!" The boys sprinted back to the village for help. Along the way, they met the village headman. Stumbling over his words in his haste, Ken explained the emergency to the headman. The headman was a man of quick action. Without wasting any time, he yelled out to some men to help him carry his powerful outboard motor to the jetty. With the motor tied firmly onto bamboo poles, they rushed hurriedly down to the jetty. Their haste was indeed necessary for, by the time the men had reached the jetty, they saw that the

boat was dangerously close to the rapids. There was not a moment to lose! With quick hands, the headman attached the outboard motor to his sampan and then sped off to the rescue. Upon reaching the tourist boat with bare minutes to spare, the headman realized his mistake. How could so many tourists be packed into this small sampan? The headman was filled with despair. Then he saw the rope that had been used to tie down the outboard motor to the bamboo poles. It had been flung into the sampan in his haste. Quickly, he grabbed the rope and flung it to the boatmen on the tourist boat. "I'll tow you back!" he shouted. After the boatmen had tied the rope firmly to their boat, the headman made a swift U-turn and then, putting the engine on full power, he steered his sampan upstream. The rope gave a jerk and then, to everyone's relief and joy, the tourist boat moved forward, obediently following the small sampan. Loud cheers burst out from the tourist boat and the observers on the shore. Thanks to the headman's courage, the cooperation from the villagers, and the quick action of the boys, the tourists were saved from certain death in the rapids. take potshot sprint stumble a shot which is fired carelessly or with little preparation to run as fast as you can over a short distance to act or speak falteringly

Describe an incident when a moment of forgetfulness got you into trouble.
The morning sun shone persistently on my still-shut eyelids. Annoyed, I rolled on to the right side of my mattress. Wondering about the time, I stretched out my arm to grasp the little, round alarm clock on my bedside table. I forced open my eyes, focused them on the numbers ... and screeched! Leaping out of my bed, I swung open the wardrobe door. Throwing my school uniform on the bed, I dashed to the bathroom. Halfway, I spun around and grabbed my school bag, deciding not to brush my teeth. Soon, I had shoved my feet into my shoes and pounced onto my bicycle. My parents stood motionless, staring at me as I whizzed past. As my bicycle raced on, I noticed a group of schoolgirls looking my way with great interest. Well, well! Obviously, I was still attractive even with uncombed hair. My heart was pounding furiously in my chest as I whirred past a few cars on the road. The drivers seemed to stare with disbelief that one could pedal so swiftly. In no time, I reached the school gate, which was just

about to be closed. Without bothering to explain myself to the priggish duo on guard duty, I hopped off my bike and dashed off. After locking my precious iron steed at the shed, I sprinted to the school hall. As I burst into the hall, I braked to change direction and made a beeline for the back of my class. Screeching to a halt, I took my place behind my classmates. In the whole gathering of students, I seemed to be the centre of attraction. It did not matter much to me at the moment for I was used to being looked at. However, to say the least, I was a little surprised when everyone stopped staring blankly at me and started to giggle. Suddenly, the whole hall was filled with roars and bellows of laughter. Smiling at my audience, I decided to take a bow. Then, I noticed that the bottom half of my trousers were the wrong color. My line of vision moved upwards, revealing that the rest of my pants were also the wrong color, and so was my shirt. At first, even my powerful brain could not figure it out. "Daniel! Why on earth are you in pajamas?" my friend blurted out amidst the hollers of laughter. The feeling of sheer horror swept through my entire frame. My mouth was stuck open in an "0" shape for a few long seconds. My mind was filled only with shock as darkness mercifully started to engulf me. Once again. I awoke with lights playing on my eyelids. At first I had little memory of what had happened, but one look at the group of people peering down at me brought the whole incident back to mind. The young boys were all clad in white uniforms and grinning quite lunatically at me. In. the high corner of the room, I saw a red crescent. Then the horrible little squirts started to call out for their seniors. Outside, I heard freshgales of laughter. The brats were chortling. I was still clad in pajamas. Not knowing what else to do, I feigned unconsciousness again ... in no time make a beeline for gales of laughter in a relatively short time to straight to a forceful outburst

Imagine a world where nobody gets sick or old. Write a story based in this fictitious world
It's my birthday today. I have lost count of how many birthdays have passed, but I still keep my tradition. I climb to the top of the nearby hill, bringing a handful of dirt with me. I press it into the ground. Then, I sit down to prepare my mind for my next annual rite: reminding myself of

who I am and why I am living. I made this hill, actually, and I'm still building it up. I started on my tenth birthday. Now, the hill is large enough for me to ski down each winter. In a world where people stay young forever, persistence pays. Persistence was what led Dr Syue Cano to discover the secret of eternal youth. At the age of eighty-four, he identified the gene that causes humans to age and the specific radiation that destroys it. No one will know whether he detonated his "Youth" bomb for the sake of his own immortality or for the sake of the other human beings in the world. However, his defective heart could not withstand the impact of the blast. He died the instant the bomb exploded. Mankind will always be grateful for the discovery to which Dr Cano dedicated his life. However, he left the world with one problem: the earth's limited natural resources. Even with plant growth accelerated by scientific wizardry, food and oxygen were becoming inadequate for the world population, which only kept booming. Some subtractions were necessary for the survival of the human species. The only solution was to remove some of the people by unnatural means, that is, to execute them. Thus, this was why all crimes were made punishable by execution: murder, theft, adultery, slander, hoarding of food... the list is very long. This was the only way to maintain the valance of nature. That's where I come in. I am an Executioner. I work alone, never considering the risk. People say I have a death wish. Perhaps I do. Certainly, yesterday's job was no waltz in the park. Rob Tao was suspected of stealing and hoarding food. My job was to check this out. As always, I was to be detective, judge, jury and executioner. I had enough stealth technology to break into Tao's compound undetected. To get into the house was also a cinch. My vibra-blade cut through the wall like it was butter. In the house, my Arometer detected food, lots of it. I went down corridor after corridor, following the bleeps of light on my Arometer. The signals went wild outside one closed door. There was a lot of human activity inside, judging by my HUO sensors. I primed a grenade and opened the door just a crack -- enough to see whom I would be executing. Then I deprimed the grenade. Sitting there were thousands of children. Rob Tao stood amongst them, holding a huge pot of steaming mush. He smiled at me, seeminglyunperturbed. "You're feeding all these children?" I asked, flabbergasted. "Yes," he replied quietly. "How do you get so much food? I'm sure you steal it," I said.

I can't remember what I'm killing for. He would read stories and parables from the Bible. has thinning hair swept back from his forehead. Then one day. usually by telling them something they were not expecting Describe your relationship with your father Every evening. can't remember what I'm living for. I don't understand why I just walked out. with his gentle correction every now and then. my bookish ways and disinterest in outdoor games made me overweight. One day. he started to take me on jogs. my father stood observing me as I was running to a field. I became quite a bookworm. I know he will feel pleased as he watches me studying. At first. he told me that he would not like to see his son grow up into an unhealthy man. I had no excuse for letting him get away withhis crime. He has a slim and athletic body. Secure and loved."Yes. I arrived there. My father has always been my source of encouragement. so as not to stir me from my concentration. I was a most reluctant jogger. However. My father. on my hill. as he was reading. I remember how. As I grew into boyhood. kind eyes. huffing and puffing. I found that I was able to do so. cinch unperturbed flabbergasted something easy to accomplish free from emotional agitation or nervous tension to shock someone. I know that in a few moments. he instilled in me a sense of God's presence in this world. When I was very young. Worriedly. From that day onwards. as I stand perched on the peak of Mount Kina. I remember his words. on his lap. at 53 years. I was picking up the hooks and reading them on my own. Yet." . Yet. my father would point out the spelling of words. Thus. behind his steel-rimmed glasses are soft. To our shared delight. Soon after that. I was introduced to the fascinating realm of books.. my father will be pausing outside my door. I imagine his Fort Cortina coming up the driveway. clumsy and rather unfit.. "A healthy body breeds a healthy mind. Going to execute me?" Still that gentle smile. Sitting here now. these days. he would take a book from our small home library and read aloud to me every night. just 50 yards away. I was the one who would read aloud. the familiar sound of my father's car reaches my ears. as I am doing my schoolwork in my room. the engine purring to a stop. It was not my decision to make. looking in quietly. he instructed me to read the words for myself. I do. His broad shoulders and rather serious demeanor give him an air of authority. From that day onwards. breathing deeply after a good run.

He would surely be there. it was my debut. the dreaded moment arrived. to no avail. In any kind of trouble." Somehow. he advised me.. Looking back. my father has been there for me whenever I needed him. he would know just the right things to say. I am only a few years away from adulthood and know that many more challenges lie ahead of me. "I'm a green-faced alien from Pluto. demeanor daunt The way in which a person behaves to make someone feel slightly frightened or worried about their ability to achieve something to encourage an activity spur on Describe some of the minor accidents that you have experienced Accidents are part and parcel of life itself and to say that you have never had a silly accident in your life would be like saying. when I was about to give up on a task. I exploded in a huge. whenever I feel dauntedby a task. However. I tried holding my breath. When I was sick. and I was shaking with nerves. he would rush me to the doctor. when I was really depressed. Yet. My fingers were needed on the piano keys so I could not reach tip to rub my nose. and the world around you will smile. "I can't believe I actually did that!" There was this incident about five years back. but they have certainly made me more aware of my limitations. Not all of them have changed my life. I would just have to give him a call. My father had bought me . Finally. looking out for me all the way. sometimes. I have certainly had my share of ridiculous accidents. his words gave me the strength to try again. Since then. I can be sure that my father will be there. and I was able to succeed. I poured out my heart's discontent. Then he said. Why? Because he loves me. After listening. sloppy sneeze that blasted my music sheets right off the piano. his advice always comes to mind and this spurs me on to persevere. Then. Absolutely humiliated. I realize that every step of the way. I was at a piano recital. "If a job deserves to be done. it deserves to be done well. there was this skating incident which occurred only a year ago. he consoled me. Halfway through the first movement. I was able to smile in spite of my problems. When I was sick at heart. I sat at the piano and started playing.My father has a store of wise sayings which may seem common to some but always strike the correct note with me. I felt a tickle in my nose." Somehow. I dashed off the stage. remembering those times. Actually. I think. Once. through my childhood and adolescence. At another time." Well. Lifting my bowed head.. he put an arm around my shoulders and gently asked me what was troubling me. "Smile. Nothing could get me out there to face the amused audience.

they were my first pair of skates. or disgust Describe an occasion when you were caught in a rainstorm. Finally managing to get upright. I had never skated before. still considered a user with "L" (Learner) plates as far as this oven was concerned. However. or so I thought. Gleefully. am I clumsy or just low in luck? A little of both.my first pair of in-line skates. At that very second. I watched my dish of food turn graceful circles in the oven. actually. There was a loud Crash! Boom! and Bang! Fortunately. Another accident occurred right in the safety of my home. Actually. the egg exploded. "Argh!" screamed my friend as the water balloon hit her full in the face. I confidently put them on and fastened them.. After a few rounds. turned the dial to "high" and pressed the lever to start the oven. my mother had left me a plate of fried rice to be reheated for my lunch. for the first time in years. contempt. We were at our annual class party and having the time of our lives. Well. all that was injured was my selfconfidence. part and parcel to no avail grimace to be a necessary feature of a particular experience of no use A sharp contortion of the face expressive of pain. my hair.. I opened the oven to take out my warmed-up food. chillied prawns and a whole hard-boiled egg. This year. some of the grimace-inspiring details of my life. warming up food was not complicated . On that fateful day. Then. So. There was no lunch for me that day either. I could not remember when I had last enjoyed myself so much. Carefully. I shoved off. I was waving my arms around. I found myself staring the gate right in its metal grille. the whole kitchen was covered with egg-yolk and rice that the force of the explosion threw. Well. in the kitchen. . Boom! It was "Egg yolk keeps falling on my head". laughing and yelling out threats. not knowing what was ahead. I placed the plate of food in the microwave oven. My legs had no sense of direction. It started smoothly. of course. there you have them. we had decided on the picnic at the beach. we had all sorts of games and competitions. I was. My clothes. I think. After eating. with my left leg heading north and my right heading south-east. My mother had just bought a microwave oven. groundnuts. On the plate were the usual accompaniments to the coconutflavored rice: vegetables. I lost all control of my bodily movements. Standing up. She stood in shock for a moment before charging after me. like a drowning chicken trying to fly out of the water. thanks to my protective pads.

time and again. dejectedly. where jagged boulders stood in the sea. captivated by the power and violence of the storm. Holding my backpack over my head in an effort to ward off the relentless blows of the rain. As I gazed. the waves threw themselves on them. I felt I had to be part of it. The black clouds hung low. scary and magnificent at the same time. however. I dashed for it. The sea was turbulent. and as it neared evening. drizzle ward off transfix rain in very small light drops try to prevent to render motionless. I mentally kicked myself for getting into this situation. . to be at one with nature. reveling in the stinging rain and chilling wind. I reached it at last and darted in. About halfway there. The sky was dark. I ran out and stood in the middle of the storm. I gave up. I looked around for my T-shirt but it was nowhere to be found. I debated whether or not to return for it as I could see dark clouds heading my way. I stood transfixed. the heavens burst and torrents of rain came pouring down. with powerful waves crashing onto the shore. I remembered that I had left a T-shirt on the beach. drenched to the bone and shivering from head to toe. sending up sprays of sea water high into the air.. suddenly. As I shook out my hair. It was beautiful. Lightning streaked across the sky. I started heading back. On the left. with a loud crash of thunder.However." the cuckoo clock on the wall of my office called five times. we started preparing to leave. Wondering when the rain would stop. after minutes of fruitless search. I scanned the area for a place of refuge. the shirt was an old favorite of mine and I was so wet from the water balloons that a little more water would not make a difference. Then. lighting up the whole scene for a split second each time. However. The beach was now deserted. Finally. I was supposed to walk the short distance to my aunt's house after the party. "Cuckoo! Cuckoo!. and relishing the magnificence of nature. thrilling to the sounds of the thunder and the crashing waves. Finally spotting a tiny shack at a distance. my feelings of dejection turned into awe. I stared out at it. Gust after gust of howling wind blew through the trees. all good things must come to an end.. with thick thunderclouds and it had begun to drizzle. as with a fixed stare or by arousing terror or awe Describe the sights and sounds at the end of a long day.

I did not even bother to try the elevator as I knew I would be competing with a crowd of thirty or more residents. Yet. I dropped my briefcase and handbag on the floor. we got caught in a massive traffic jam. heaved myself up. No way! They were all definitely occupied. the new clerk. As I stepped out through the glass doors of the air-conditioned building. probably trying to get her to go for a drink. Every time it was the same anxious craning to read the bus number above the heads of the crowd. The bus hurtled on. I groaned aloud when I saw the hordes of people gathered there and regretted leaving my car at home. I was crushed on all sides. we would all sway backwards. I straightened my stiff back and neck. I grabbed hold of a strap and tried to stand firmly Every time the bus lurched forward. only to stop with a sudden jolt. I reached my door and. With a sigh of utmost relief. I became nauseous and thought many times about getting off. I was too tired to walk home. after a little fumbling for my keys. Then. buses and motorcycles around us kept up a constant honking. I entered my apartment. Buses came and left. up I went. "All in . I was ready to perish amidst the petrol fumes and the stink of stale sweat when I finally managed to squeeze my right foot onto a bus step. I shoved my way out. Mandy and Lily were chatting animatedly."Yes!" I shouted in my head. "Time to pack up!". Cars. forced by the pushing crowd into the packed bus. I dragged my body up the flights of stairs to my second-floor flat. there was the rushing and jostling as I tried to force my puny frame through the masses of burly men and women. started stuffing things into my briefcase and my huge handbag. undoubtedly about clothes or make-up. Inch by inch we moved and one and a half hours later. Then I continued towards the bus stop. Then. turned on the television and collapsed on the couch. and Cynthia was doing the waltz in her three-inch heels. Andrew was yelling at Mac for throwing a paper plane at him. stunning me for a few seconds. Then. Finally. heading out the door. a blast of hot. I finally arrived at my stop. Feeling woozy and yet hyped up. I searched for a seat. thankfully. was just in front of my flat. The burning rays of the sun stoked up the oven which our bus had now become. Sigh! I had no choice but to join the crowd. Jay and Rayne were chatting up Sarah. my strict upbringing forcing me to mutter a few insincere "Excuse-me's". I pushed my chair back. which. careening madly round corners. and had my toes trod on several times. humid air slammed me full in the face. the result of hours of hunching over documents and surveyed the whole noise-polluted room. I couldn't wait to get home. With a grunt.

people forget that they are also cutting down our supply of oxygen. warm air and radiation will be trapped under the earth's atmosphere. As a result. While cutting down a tree to add yet another piece of luxurious furniture to Man's already opulent lifestyle. what happens when trees are felled? Firstly. man is ultimately destroying his own sources of food through the destruction of rain forests.a day's work. When forests are a distant memory. produce the life-sustaining oxygen. Thousands of people will suffer in these floods. The heavy tropical rains will carry away the rich topsoil. There will be a greenhouse effect on earth. the lush vegetation will give way to wasteland. floods will become frequent in the area. Consequently. the rivers will become shallower. my girl!" I told myself. Yet. as the earth's temperature rises. As creatures dependent on the food chain. Great floods will hit the lower-lying areas. Secondly. reprocess it and. Mankind will be thrown into a state of unimaginable suffering and agony. for the advancement of man. in the end. the excessive carbon dioxide will also effect a change in the micro-climate and raise the region's temperature. Thousands and thousands of acres of lush rain forests are cleared each year to make way for development. the flowing water will not only wash away the topsoil but will deposit it in the rivers. where will this oxygen come from? Will we process it in factories? Will a time come when man will be fighting for the very air he breathes? Furthermore. Trees absorb the carbon dioxide breathed out by living creatures. perish typed up fumble to die artificially stimulated or high excited search blindly and uncertainly The problem of deforestation. Without trees. the ice in the polar caps will melt. This is for the sake of development. the food chain will be disrupted. Man destroys this balance when he flattens the forests to the ground. If this goes on. raising the sea level. the great and tiny inhabitants of these forests? Nowhere. They die. The once beautiful and spectacular forests are reduced to barren landscapes. Another point to note is that forests are home to hundreds of species of flora and fauna. Slowly but steadily. Where do they go then. Animals and plants live in symbiotic relationships in the balance of nature. a shocking fact will hit us full force. the earth is left vulnerable to soil erosion. . Then. and the land without its topsoil will no longer be fertile. and gazed with unseeing eyes at the television. What I am talking about is the lack of oxygen.

teachers are sometimes found sipping coffee or even having a snack in the school canteen when they are supposed to be in class teaching. A change in our environment will trigger offanother change which will trigger off yet another. There are many ways in which my school could be improved. and most importantly. many weaknesses that need seeing to. This is why we ought to preserve our forests. Now. In fact. you would be shocked. teachers in all schools should realize that they are responsible for their students' future. Some are so irrational . With the support of ordinary citizens like you and me. By preserving our forests.As you can see. if only all teachers were like this! Furthermore. wouldn't the school be a much better place to spend our adolescence if we did not have to cope with teachers who vent their foul moods on us? We should not have to walk on eggshells because our teacher has had a bad day. This is why we. it is a vicious cycle. such as the Scouts movement. They stay up late into the night to finish correcting their students' work and to prepare effective lessons for their students. in my school. Of course. Teachers should not shirk their responsibilities towards their students. should keep the balance of nature. lush opulent trigger off abundant rich. we are preserving ourselves. Some teachers will even devote Saturday mornings to conducting extracurricular activities. I am emphasizing this point because some teachers do not seem to feel the slightest obligation to do their job well nor the slightest feeling of guilt when their students fail in the examinations. some of the suggestions are rubbish but I do agree with many of them. they will get the attention of the people in power. there are teachers who are truly committed to their job and do deliver the goods. Members of this beautiful planet must be united. Granted. Another aspect of the school that needs changing is the set of school rules. We can also help by planting trees. affluent put in motion What changes would you like to see in your school ? If you were to see the number of suggestion slips stuffed into my school's Suggestion Box. luxurious. This is why environmentalist groups are pressurizing governments to reduce the felling of trees and the clearing of forests and to be serious about replanting forests. This is especially true for children from lessaffluent homes who cannot afford to supplement the school's teaching with extra tuition. Firstly.

I strongly feel that these vandals should be made to pay for what they have destroyed. Our school years take up a large proportion of our lives. to extort money from them. You just cannot learn good morals the way you learn any other academic subject. Furthermore. So. intellectually and morally. for example. Help us to grow into worthy citizens of our nation. caring. I flick the start button and feel the soft vibration begin. These days. What is the rationale behind this? Do the people in authority believe that everyone with long hair will turn out to be a thug or a villain? Well. chairs and even doors. Let us spend these hours usefully.or petty! Take. indicating that all the external parts of the plane are in order and functioning well. students may get away with only a warning or a "booking" for offences such as breaking the school's tables. Good morals have to be internalized. memorizing facts for examinations. I run a routine check on all the aircraft's dials and gauges as well as the weapon systems through the heads-up display. This is the time that we are molded. The sergeant gives me the thumbs-up sign from the far run way. One major problem is the subject called "Moral Education". fun-filled atmosphere. Pushing . or threaten to do so. "Moral Education" should either be taken off the school curriculum after primary school or changed to emphasize practical application rather than "head knowledge". the rule on short hair for boys. I return the gesture to indicate that all internal systems are working well and that I will be taking off. punishments for serious acts of indiscipline should be made more effective. affluent walk on eggshells extort having a lot of money being careful not to offend someone or do anything wrong to obtain something by force or threat What occupation do you see yourself in after you have completed your schooling ? What are you going to do to achieve this ambition ? I climb into the cockpit and sit myself down on the metal seat of the F-16 "Falcon". even if they have to be harsher. one of the best supersonic planes ever invented. in a secure. If you behave like a criminal. Our school hours take up a large portion of our day. Another area that needs reform is the school curriculum. I hear the hum of pure power. I feel that criminal action should be taken against students who beat people up. you should be treated like one. look at Hitler: he had very short hair and he almost caused the extinction of the entire Jewish race! On the other hand.

Biggles was my hero above all other heroes. throughout my childhood years. In addition. I began to read books on aviation and air adventures. I have always made time for exercise. I shall enlist in the US Air Force. my uncle took me for a ride in his private plane. taxi scud within one's grasp to move slowly on the ground to move quickly and without stopping in a straight line the ability to achieve . I feel the acceleration of the plane taxiing off the runway and into the air . Thus. The results will not be out for months but I feel confident that I have done well. I have always aspired to be a fighter pilot. My dream began when I was about seven years old. Among them are academic excellence. He must be able to withstand the high and low g's when piloting a jet at high speed. Well. which is essential for healthy eyes. I pray with all my heart that it will become a reality and not remain just another of my boyish fantasies. In school. Thus. as a pilot must have a good understanding of physics and mathematics. It is crucial for a fighter pilot to be fighting fit. I never stint on my study times. run ten kilometers a day and work out in the gym at least three times a week. I have always curtailed my hours of television-viewing. The thought of scudding through the sky with the ability to defy gravity with a multi-million dollar piece of machinery and patriotic fervor excited my soul.. One day. I play games regularly. I make sure I sit a good four meters away from the screen. I plan to do my A levels. When I do watch television. into adolescence and up till now. I have always been conscious of the need to preserve the perfect eyesight that God has blessed me with. My dream is almost within my grasp. It was a momentous experience for me! Soaring freely in the sky. I knew that I would never want to do anything as much as I wanted to fly. . eating food rich in vitamin A. And after that. As I grew older. quick reflexes and the ability to stay cool under pressure. Next year.the throttle to three quarters. I watch my diet. There is not much longer to wait. My hard work has paid off and I have been topping the class in these subjects. I have always been careful to read only in well-lit areas. I have just sat for the O levels. perfect eyesight. I was especially fascinated with accounts of air battles. my ambition narrowed from just wanting to fly a plane to becoming a fighter pilot. high above the rest of civilization. I made sure I qualified for the science stream in High School. I have never been the kind of person to leave things to chance: I am constantly aware of the need to work towards my goals.. a fit body. The requirements for fighter pilot candidates are many and difficult to fulfill. So.

the eldest child will shoulder more responsibilities. Thus.corporate leaders. Now. Would you like to be this spineless adult? I leave you to decide. "Ladies and gentlemen. You see. an average of 3 out of 5 successful people -. misguided members of the opposition. The eldest child is also cast as a role model for the younger ones. and members of the floor: Good day to all. these momentarily trying circumstances will shape the child and prepare him for the challenges that lie ahead. He will often be left in charge of the younger ones. spineless. a beloved child might end up being the black sheep of the family. How can this be? "The opposition has also pointed out that the youngest child is usually more pampered. lawyers. . he develops tolerance and understanding of other people's weaknesses. is this good? It is indeed enjoyable to be fussed over. the second member of the opposition claimed that the youngest child will be treated more leniently than the others. having to cope with his siblings' antics.It is better to be the eldest child than the youngest one in the family. "Mr. Thus. pampered and mollycoddled but what will this pampered child grow into? It is a maxim that too much or too little is no good: Once a pampered child grows up. is this an advantage? By being treated too leniently. again. According to a survey conducted by the Home Ministry. But. Chairman. I agree. This self-esteem will motivate him to succeed in every aspect of life. "The eldest child. One of the advantages of being an eldest child is that he is used to being respected and obeyed by his siblings. He may have to give in to his siblings because `they are too young to understand'. in other words. "For instance. I shall present my own points. "Write a debate speech. politicians -. will also develop patience. "All these points were described as 'disadvantages' by the opposition. I wish to continue where my team-mates left off to correct the misleading information presented by the opposition. Now. This is a good feeling and it creates high self-esteem. "Undeniably. having straightened out a few delusions of the opposition. the opposition contends that it is an advantage to be spoilt in this way. Ever heard of the expression "Spare the rod and spoil the child"? It is true. This is because they know he is wiser and more experienced.were the eldest children in their families. the child might think that his misbehavior is perfectly acceptable. They are only disadvantageous if you are unable to see the long-term benefits. honorable judges. he has to try harder to maintain discipline and a high standard of behavior. proposing or opposing this motion. Without strict and loving discipline. "Standing here today on this breezy morning as the third speaker for the proposition. he will be overly dependent on others.

"So. And now I hand over to my opponents. From primary school to the end of their tertiary education. as in the case of Prince Charles. silly or strange behavior having an awareness or understanding of a situation Should our school examination system be abolished ? Give reasons for your stand. to the point that they hardly care if they pass or fail.where deadlines and sales quotas need to be met. the eldest child is the heir to the throne. Advocates of the system contend that annual examinations are a good way of training children for the stress of life after school . this attitude will be carried with them into adult life."On to my next point. to give the sensible ones amongst them a chance to start defecting over to our side. He was a school dropout and yet he became one of England's greatest statesmen. In most cases. Yet. Clearly. therefore he deserves a larger share of the property. According to Chinese custom. are examinations an accurate yardstick? A person's true abilities may not be shown by written examinations. Clear arguments to demolish the opposition to this motion. and work completed methodically and with minimum fuss." mollycoddle antics sensible to give too much care or protection amusing. So much time and emotion is poured into preparing for examinations. Government examinations are also said to be the necessary yardstick for measuring the capability of each person for further education or employment. If you think that the eldest child is only privileged if he belongs to a wealthy family. Thank you. a national savior in World War II. Sadly. . Take Winston Churchill. the eldest child will inherit the greater share of the wealth. the eldest son carries on the family name. students face the daunting task of preparing for examinations every single year. for example. some talents and forms of ingenuity go undetected in examinations. which centers on the word 'privileges'. there you have it. In monarchies. They race through the syllabus so that they can cover everything in it in time for the examinations regardless of whether their students have understood the material. The distinction is even sharper in poor families where the eldest child may be the only one whom the family can afford to educate or feed properly. you are wrong. The weaker students often end up the victims in this race -. Another problem related to our system of examinations is that teachers become too "examorientated".they are left far behind the rest of the class. They become more and more discouraged as they understand less and less of the lessons.

All through the school semester. parents and the students themselves should always be reminded that the results of examinations are not equal to the sum of the net worth of the individual." Do you agree ? About two months ago. students should also be evaluated through the cumulative marks of tests and assignments. study. many students just do not have the time to make full use of these extracurricular activities. This job is looked down upon and considered one of the lowest. regardless of the low status it accords him. there are countless reasons for me to be apprehensive about this proposal for making toilet cleaning part of the school curriculum. advocate ingenuity well-rounded person supporting an idea or cause publicly someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something involving or having experience in a wide range of ideas or activities "Cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. instead of basing entry qualifications on one examination. while I realize that it will be impossible to do away with all examinations. He suggested that cleaning these toilets should be part of the school curriculum. our Education Minister brought up the subject of school toilets. the students will be able to understand the humility of the school workers when they have to clear up other people's messes in the toilets. However. Firstly. Is this really living? A related point is that some students are so occupied with their studies that they do not develop their potential in other fields. we only have one thought in mind: to excel in the examinations. I confess that I often wonder whether it is worth it. On the other hand. speaking as one. or doing our homework. It is true that there are many clubs and societies in the school. We rush from one tuition class to another and we spend most of our time studying for tests and examinations. They have to study. For example. One of the reasons the Education Minister gave for his proposal was that cleaning toilets will teach students humility and respect for others. dirty and smelly. our emphasis on examinations is indirectly producing people who are only trained to study and reproduce facts rather than wellrounded individuals. The public reaction to this issue was so strong that people have been flooding the mass media with opinions for and against his suggestion. employers. which student in his right mind would be happy about having to clean a toilet? Most school toilets are dark. . "They will also be able to respect the cleaners because he is able to do the necessary job. Cleaning them will be most unpleasant. In conclusion. I feel that they should be given less importance within the school system. Firstly. So. study.What about the "swots"? Well. Another advantage of this proposal is that the students will try to keep the toilets cleaner as their friends will be the ones forced to clean up any mess they create. Furthermore educationists.

Chairman. I feel that people generally are not so naive. we would try a much advertised product only because it was something new. Take the Cherry Coke advertisements. how many of us were so influenced by these advertisements that he or she has started . Imagine them expressing their playful nature in the toilets. especially for a noticeable length of time Write a debate speech in support of advertisements. the male ego would certainly suffer a lot of pain. "The second speaker for the proposition said that advertisements cause people to keep buying low-quality goods. the students may slip and fall in theirmerriment. few of the usual purchases that we buy are heavily advertised on television or anywhere else for that matter. honorable judges. Frankly. I do not agree at all that cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. Its advertising mode probably fits all the descriptions made by the proposition team member. due to the rise in absenteeism. Some egoistic guy will create havoc in retaliation! Then. where the inmates are forced to do humiliating chores. Thus. my most worthy opponents and everyone else present here today. So. Other than the fact that excessive water is sure to be splashed all over the place. However. have they? Actually. However. Even the members of the proposition team have been able to note the various tricks and so-called brain washing maneuver. Before I begin on my main points. Of course. apprehensive merriment ponder feeling anxious about something that you are going to do having enjoyable time together to think carefully about something. More ill-behaved ones may even purposely push each other into the toilet bowls. One other possibility that cannot be excluded is that students may be so turned off at the thought of toilet cleaning that they may decide to skip school on the days that it is their turn to learn this skill. the tricks haven't worked. Good afternoon. Now. It is important that young people actually like to come to school. enjoyable atmosphere.Furthermore. In conclusion. there is the consideration that most students are playful. do you choose the most highly advertised tissue paper or toilet paper? At most. "Mr. I would like to express my disagreement with one of the points expressed by the proposition team. if it were a co-ed school. I feel that the Ministry of Education should really ponder on this issue carefully. School is supposed to be a place where young people can imbibe knowledge and good values in a pleasant. For example. jobs like toilet cleaning make one think of prison camps. anyway. Actually. the teachers of other subjects may find it hard to complete the syllabus. in a wholly girls' or boys' school it would not be so humiliating. Imagine girls laughing and teasing a guy who is forced to clean toilets. a spell of cleaning toilets will certainly be a blow to their ego.

they will not have the confidence to try to produce it. we can just flip open a newspaper or even the Yellow Pages. Estate managers can find out about the right fertilizer or pesticide. Then. doctors can find out about the latest medications. This may sound capitalistic. Advertisements can help companies to introduce their latest products to the market. one day. for it means they can find the right kind of product for themselves easily and quickly. the company can afford to give better pay to the workers and offer more jobs. Why. Imagine all the bother one must go through to find out the product one needs amongst the rapidly expanding array of products and inventions available. "Thirdly. without advertisements. Here is another real-life case. If the companies are not able to inform the public about their new products. industries can also greatly contribute to the expansion of a company from regional to international status. or even monthly? "Now for my first point. Mass production is more economical and allows the producers to lower the price of these goods! As a result. From a cottage industry. millions of consumers benefit because of advertisements. Thank you. The name of this brand of jeans is none other than Levi's. this industry grew into an international company known by both the young and old. she saw the advertisement for a lizard spray that can paralyze lizards temporarily. not only in America but also in Levi's factories in Indonesia. advertisements of the latest technology and inventions are also beneficial for the consumers. My grandmother used to have too many lizards crawling around her house and she is paranoid about them. especially to avoid hitting things . another point is that it is only with proper circulation of the products made possible by advertising that the companies are able to mass-produce their products. consumers can purchase these goods at reasonable prices. creating job opportunities for millions of people." humble weave not proud to go or make a path by moving quickly and changing direction often. As you can see. See how advertisements have been such a blessing! "I rest my case. Let me give a real example. This company was able to grow due to advertisements. the Philippines and other third world countries. one would have to phone just about every shop in town! Nowadays. End of lizard problem. With the increase in sales. through reading the advertisements in newspapers or magazines. "Now. "Fourthly. computer owners can find the best software.to drink the beverage weekly. Because of its increasing popularity through advertising. this industry gradually weaved its way into the market until it started to prosper. It is undeniable that advertisements play a crucial role in increasing a company's sales. but we must remember the importance of these factories to the nation. One man started a small and humble cottage industry of jeans-making. I would like to state the benefits of advertisements from the economic side. many people find just the product required to take care of their particular problem. How could my dear grandma have found out about such a strange but useful product without advertisements? Jokes aside.

And. Children need parental care. bullied. I feel that man has always dominated. So. there has been a vast change. who knows. And. as a member of the male sex I feel guilty. I will be relieved of the stress of running in the rat race. Is this fair? Not really. now that we're approaching the year 2000. Bringing home the bacon in modern times needs intelligence and sensible thinking. the children are left in daycare centers. as fathers. "Some people doubt that a man can manage a household. "Personally. or dinosaurs. perhaps we men should just stay at home to mind the house and let the women run the world!" downtrodden bring home the bacon the rat race badly and unfairly treated to earn money for a family to live on a way of life in modern society. The men should be given the duty to mind the house occasionally. You see. as we all know. while we men opt for more 'relaxed' lifestyles. who will stay at home to take care of the children? Usually in cases where the mother works. then. And. the fairer sex. However. or should I say. the women have been doing it for centuries. more and more women now qualify as doctors. famines and nuclear weapons. moose. What's so bad about that? So. I could even play golf every morning while the kids are at school. People have thus come to the conclusion that it is the woman's duty to mind the home and it shall be her role forever. what often happens is that the wife has to quit her job. looking at the current state of the world. perhaps the country would be run better. lawyers and scientists. "There was a very good reason for this in ancient times. women can and do think as sensibly and intelligently as men.paranoid feeling extremely anxious Write a speech for an elocution contest entitled " Should men be househusbands ?" "I would like to share my thoughts with you on a subject that has always been close to my heart. Women have long been downtrodden and forced to mind the house. men can give the affection and care that the children need. hunting deer. men are perfectly capable of performing domestic chores and minding children. You see. "Actually. After all. "Thus. whether men should be house-husbands. especially when the wife has better qualifications. if my wife insists on being the breadwinner. So. what with wars. let's give the women the chance to work at those jobs that they've always wanted. that is. And that's what really counts. This is not healthy. characterized by people competing with each other for power and money . Eking out a living then consisted mainly of running around with a club or spear.

Who would want a treacherous person for a friend? Yet. I feel that friends. I just do not feel comfortable with him. People have been saved from suicide just by having a friend to listen to their troubles. An all-toocommon example of such a time is when one hears rumors. who actually had no real knowledge of the matter. sharing one's problems and joys with a friend can also be helpful as we deal with the problems of daily living. Telling the whole truth in this case would destroy her remaining shreds of confidence. You see. We have to balance our love for truth with the practicalities of the situation. he makes up stories just to entertain his friends. little lies can lead to the spoiling of relationships. so much that people may shape their entire lifestyles simply to find favor with their clique or circle of friends. Not being perfect. about them. he exaggerates circumstances a little. the friendship will never be the same. of course. Therefore. The friend. It is clear. Some matters. just to impress others. Relationships are important to man. Another noteworthy fact is that sometimes. I have a friend who often tells little untruths. So. telling the truth may be worse than saying nothing. In cases where lies have been told to hurt you or other parties on purpose. Sharing the good times can brighten up a friend's day if he feels down. even if you have strong opinions. there are times when telling a friend too much can also lead to problems. I just never know whether he is telling the truth or one more of his little lies. passed all her thoughts and ideas to another friend and so on and so forth. one must then be prepared to . especially in our speech. need not tell each other everything they know or feel. Apart from the question of maintaining credibility. So then. Sometimes. Gossip can start simply because someone thought a rumor was true and shared all her thoughts on the rumor with a friend. As the saying goes. The final result can be a mangled product which could really hurt the parties involved. Everyone depends on his friends to a certain extent. the friendship will not be salvageable. while some others should be hidden. In conclusion. much caution must be applied when dealing with our friends. of course. we are bound to make mistakes. Personally. Sometimes simply having an ear to hear our heart's cries and knowing that someone understands us will make us feel better. of course. sometimes he tells halftruths to get out of trouble. then. If an ugly girl with an inferiority complex were to ask you if she was unattractive. even when the matter is not of great importance. all people have been in constant chatter with one another. If the lie caused you great damage. Sharing one's problems and despairs with a friend will bring forth the encouragement and advice we need to hear."Friends should never hide anything from each other. sometimes. shared joy is double the joy and shared sorrow is half the sorrow. that some things need to be said to our friends without any twisting of the truth." Do you agree ? No man is an island. Ever since man formed a system of verbal communication. should be discussed with friends. The thing to do about rumors is not to spread them. must we always tell our friends the whole truth and nothing but the truth or is it sometimes simply none of their business? One thing is clear: finding out that your friend has lied to you always hurts. One must use his discretion in such situations. it would be a very bad idea to tell her just how unattractive she was. However. even the closest of friends. stressing on her good qualities.

Thus. clique treacherous noteworthy a small group of people who spend their time together extremely dangerous deserving attention because important or interesting "The Golden Age of Youth". Actually the pressure on us to perform well at all times is great. Practically speaking. Now. Then. society and the government love to gauge us scholastically. Obviously. You cannot buy anything. "No Independent Income". This means. socially. physically. In fact. Secondly. I am deprived of the vital human right that caused the American Civil War . I have to rely on them for accommodation.accepting people for what they are. that's what friendship is really about -. not because I was "spicy" or "original" but because I have been chopped into pieces. go anywhere or do anything. This means. as long as you are not too old or too ill to walk. clearly and simply. since we were born. pressurecooked and well-fried. who happen to be equally goalorientated parents. How true is this description of your life as a youth ? "The Golden Age of Youth"? Who coined up that expression? I am certainly not experiencing "golden" days in my life as a youth. Furthermore. teachers. Unable to buy a house. apologizing for our verbal blunders and forgiving them for theirs. imperfections and all. I have to rely on them for transport. you become severely limited in your options. This is especially true for people in their youth. that my parents are my Supreme Commanders. Unable to function without cash. Unable to buy a car. If I were a piece of chicken. I have to jump. we lack the time and money to maintain . because.Freedom. as was earlier explained. many of my friends' complaints seem to attest that their experiences of youth roughly match up with mine. being young automatically means that I have limited knowledge and no job skills. morally and in whatever means they can think of. tenderized. The pressure from our family gets stronger the older we grow. life as a youth is tough! Firstly. Well. theoretically. youth is the worst time to get romantically attached. that is. our parents have been comparing the ages at which we first started talking or walking. our kiddy IQ test results and such other traps for vainglory. this is a problem for me. our parents have been comparing our test results with those of the children of their friends'. I have to rely on my parents financially. it is undeniable that without money. there is the question of romance. Since we started schooling. Parents. people will always be measuring you by your achievements.make up with our friends. school examinations become so important that many of us will study hours on end to perform well in them. In such a situation. When they tell me to jump. which means that no one will employ me for any worthwhile job. I'd consider myself "Kentucky Fried".

don't you? So. There was. Long lashes and sparkling eyes do not cause someone to "fall in love at first sight". Perhaps we should call it the "Iron Pyrite (Fool's Gold) Age of Youth".a special boy-girl relationship. Furthermore. which leads to heartache and causes us to perform badly in our examinations. of course. However. the idea of "The Golden Age of Youth" must have been an illusion dreamt up by fools. the first thing I notice when I meet a girl is whether she is pretty or not. I am no different. our hormones are swinging about wildly as we mature sexually. I know my life will be enriched by having an intellectually stimulating partner to share my thoughts with. It is definitely not "golden". this causes us to be more prone to getting involved in romantic relationships. This in itself can cause more emotional disturbance than all the other events of our lives combined. a husband and wife should be intellectually matched so that they can understand each other. during our youth. but few people go round seeking ugly mates. Your wife may be perfect but her parents may be irritating beyond comprehension. I would also prefer to have a wife who is intelligent. we are at our most attractive. and to offer fresh insights to old situations. Unfortunately. Often. So. That is why I often meditate on the qualities I would seek in my future wife. after all. we are at our peak. In my opinion. on end vainglory traumatic Continuously. lasting damage to the psychological development of a person What qualities would you look for in a future wife or husband ? Along the road from cradle to grave many of us get married. quarrels between husband and wife concern other family members. Of course. To be honest. be a true friend whom I can have fun with and want to spend my leisure activities with. Some men have the stereotyped "dumb blonde" image of a perfect woman. an . Sports and games and other recreational activities are fun and foster closer ties. my ideal mate will be someone who participates in the games and sports I like or at least. A wife should. be willing to learn them. More importantly. Many factors make the difference between marital bliss and having "an old ball-and-chain" but the most important factor is probably whom we choose to marry. I think that the government should have chosen a better time to set all the major examinations than at this time. for example. physically. youth is a traumatic time. without interruption Boastful. Yet. unwarranted pride in one's accomplishments or qualities An emotional wound or shock that creates substantial. Who better to enjoy sports with than my wife? This will draw us even closer together.

Not once did my mother groan or grumble. and.incident in City Center where one man's mother-in-law came to stay. And even though she might not be perfect. I had to spend most of my life away from school and in bed. for your best friend. perhaps. through the years. everyone else will be trying to win her hand. I was a sickly child. I would ask for a hot drink or a cookie. Commitment is very important on her part. My mother would put everything aside to comfort me. chances are. So. At odd hours of the night. that might just be enough. However. I realize that I have listed a whole string of qualifications for my future wife. My world consisted of the feel of her cool palms soothing my brow and her floral scent as she leaned over me to tuck in my blanket. I was miserable. she cooked and ate his pet dog for dinner! So. if I can find all these qualities in one woman. I will really consider her The Ideal Wife. If a girl isn't prepared to be faithful to you but she marries you anyway. Most of all. of deep concern for her sick child. a sympathetic. I always say that one's future in-laws should always be checked carefully before one makes decisions about marriage. I remember the look in her eyes. or just some company. "Mummy. In fact. chances are she's going to run away and leave you one day. as the proverb goes. I remember her low voice. One day. I will meet a girl one day. So I would say. Well. She answered every unreasonable demand of mine with unfailing patience. During the day. "The best laid plans of mice and men can fail". stay with me!" was my constant whine. frustrating day at work. bliss meditate foster perfect happiness to think seriously about something for a long time to encourage the development or growth of ideas or feelings Write a composition entitled: How I know my mother loves me. fall in love and get married. I was a spoiled brat. When I was very young. My world was very small then. There was just me and Mummy. too. I'll love her. I would demand that my favorite delicacies be served to me and that my favorite stories be read to me. caring kind of woman is the only one with whom I would make any commitments for marriage. with a girl like that. Not once was that demand refused. More than likely. too. hushing me as I fretted about the pains in my joints. Not surprisingly. That was how I knew my . a loving wife who comforts you and listens to your problems can really make a difference. I fretted a lot and constantly demanded my mother's attention. I'll be in for a tough time! Furthermore. If you are dead tired after a long.

way past my "curfew" hour. fret spoiled brat to be anxious or worried A spoiled brat is a child whose parents or other educators systematically fail to teach socially acceptable behavior and discipline. I have outgrown my childhood ailments. certain to encounter trouble or punishment in for it How do you measure success in life? Reaching the top of the tree in one's chosen occupation or profession is the usual standard by which success in life is measured. The contemplative religions assert that success is only measurable in terms of religious advancement and of the acquisition of the virtues. I had been unable to call home to inform my mother that I would be delayed. Then I saw something familiar about the look in her eyes. Her face was red. I revel in the fun that the world has to offer. at least in the Western world. I knew that I was in for it! My mother flung open the door the minute she heard my friend's car pull in. my world has grown to include many exciting friends. Set free from the prison of the sickbed. There were no phones where we were "hanging out".mother loved me then. I stayed out way. sweat was pouring down her temples. This is how I know my mother loves me now. . I was ordered straight to bed. However many Asians would reject this criterion.m. I saw in her eyes all the fears that she had suffered that night as she waited for her daughter to return safely. As I got into bed. My relationship with my mother has suffered from my wild pursuit of fun. I looked up at her face to try to gauge if her scolding would be continuing much longer. Two nights ago. I just wanted to sleep. My friends made a quick exit as she ranted at me. when I reached my house. I didn't say a word. She criticizes my choice of friends and tries to enforce rules and regulations to curb my activities. she stood in my room. To make matters worse. her arms waving wildly. Miraculously. It was the same look of concern that she had always had when I was so sick. still ranting at me for my disobedience and "wild behavior". in case one of those hands should find its mark on my face. Thus. It was almost 1 a. Now that I am on the threshold of adulthood. success would be in inverse ratio to material advancement. I was tired. which is eleven o'clock.

reject it in favor of the simple life. The difference between the lifestyle available to a millionaire and that available to a billionaire is marginal. though unlikely. prominence and affluence. If a man or woman can achieve this then he or she truly has the right to be called successful. at the height of their affluence and power. Some are born into positions which already confer affluence and power. This happens for a variety of reasons. It is more to do with happiness and fulfillment. Money also creates anxiety since it usually has to be put at risk if more is to be made. so success to them might lie merely in the preservation of the family business or estate and perhaps its enhancement for the benefit of the next generation. Other anxieties may be created when a large number of people become dependent on a financial empire. Success thus means failure. Most people have to work hard to to achieve success. However success is not strictly related to the externals of power. The children of successful capitalists or career workaholics sometimes reject everything the father or parents stand for. These pressures and anxieties often have a detrimental effect on health and on family life. and some very wealthy people become very mean. Money confers power which may corrupt. It is of course possible. Perhaps the fundamental way to achieve success is first to be sure of what you want to do with life and then to be sure that you are capable of doing it. A successful life depends crucially on good personal relationships both within and outside the family. others have to find their own role in life by trial and error. and it may damage a business man's relationships both with his peers and with his subordinates. contemplative confer deep in thought to give . though these are often its attributes. To ensure the well-being and happiness of others forms a large part of success. One's wife and children are inevitably neglected and unhappy. Unhappily money making can become an obsession. physical wellbeing is usually the result of good food and exercise. The body should not be neglected. The western concept of success is not always satisfying and some people. mental and spiritual peace. both being the most important means of self-expression. that worldly success can be combined with a sensitive and therefore successful approach to the problems outlined above. its objectives being affluence and perhaps power over others. Some people are strongly motivated to a profession or to politics or to social campaigning from early days. What then are its features? First. Beyond a certain point the acquisition of money proves unsatisfactory. Many of these careers will not confer much success in theworldly sense but they will lead to the success of happiness and fulfillment. It is often made at the disadvantage of others. absence of strain is at least as important. A satisfying yet balanced way of life makes for the former and a religion or at least a philosophy for the latter.Most of the world accepts the definition of material advancement.

There is the instinct to expand. particularly since. That invasion was not justified. The guiding principle governing the justice of invasion is surely this. particularly since Argentina regarded the 'Malvenas' as their historic property. What is certain is that after such a takeover a large section of the population will remain discontented. as in the case of Afghanistan. That particular invasion by the British was justified.. in fact. realistically it becomes another matter to retaliate when the major powers become involved. However. since the two world-power centers remain NATO and the Warsaw Pact association. close at hand and regarded as an easy number. in succession to the League of Nations exists to maintain international peace and security. This having been said. However. theostensible reason was to establish a stable government in a country which. The ground for military invasion is usually prepared by other means. or to gain access to minerals such as oil. were an obvious choice. the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. or to food. or can provide a peace-keeping force drawn from member nations. The Falklands. The U. drawn up by the San Francisco Conference in 1945.N. Nobody wants to risk a full scale war for the sake of a principle. as in Afghanistan. the islanders wanted to remain British. cynical believing that people are only interested in themselves and are not sincere . A physical take-over can sometimes be achieved without shedding a drop of blood. how cynical they are is a matter of opinion. and no doubt extensive economic aid from one of the great powers. If there is instability and national discontent. infiltration is much easier. do the majority of the people want such a take-over? A case in point is the invasion of the Falklands by Argentina. so the British armed forces had to throw the Argentines out. Sometimes. and lead only to further repressive measures. So to invade or not to invade involves a crucial balancing of factors. are inevitable. Its powers however amount to little more than those of the old League. massive war equipment. the Argentines were refusing to negotiate. or to gain strategic territory. and that of the Falkland Islands by Argentina. invasions do occur. bordering on the USSR was claimed to constitute a threat through instability. the desire to annex territory which rightly belongs to a country but which has either become independent or has become the dependency of another. or even two extremist parties each claiming the government. or not to become encircled.worldly relating to the ordinary life In what circumstances is the invasion of one country by another justified? Invasion is never justified if there is a possibility of resolving disputes by diplomatic means. Nobody forgets Vietnam. There is national pride. Future troubles. Motives for invasion vary. An actual invasion becomes a mere formality when a government accepts perhaps thousands of military advisers. The naked aggression of Hitler in Europe was totally unjustified. so the Second Front invasion of Europe by the allies in 1944 can be amply justified. which country was at the time suffering internal troubles and needed a famous victory abroad. Its Security Council can urge members to take economic or military sanctions. Recent examples include the invasion of Iraq by Iran.

during the First World War Southern Ireland has tended to side with the enemies of Britain. This replaced the old system of town and village constables in their local peace-keeping role under the beadle. with reluctance. also responsible to the Home Secretary. and before then. but prefer it not to be used. leaving Ireland to get on with a civil war. political violence. or a strike of one or more of the essential services. back into British hands. joint operational headquarters are set up. mostly in London. water works. to those who would like to bring the whole of Ireland. Opinions vary from those who advocate a 'troops out' policy. it retains that general respect today.annex ostensible to take possession of a country by force claiming to be one thing when it is really something else Describe the system for maintaining law and order in your country. Today the police are controlled by the Home Secretary. and despite a vocal left-wing and liberal minority. Examples are riots in pre-war London stirred up by the National Socialist movement. and trying to buy publicity or political advantage with threats and the taking of hostages. British people accept the need on occasion for this military back-up. including railways. Birmingham and London attributed to a mixture of ethnic discrimination and unemployment. who is also responsible for that other troubled part of Britain. Sir Robert Peel. Ireland has always caused more headaches than the rest of Britain put together. and the modern mobility of criminals there is more co-operation between these separate forces than before. ambulance drivers and fire brigades. Since the Irish Free State came into existence in 1922. and more recently the riots in Liverpool. behind the police force stands that section of the British Army which is home-based. In case of serious trouble. through the Secretary of State for Ireland. buses. who are constantly called into para-military action. and often. when the ramifications of crime cover a large area. an armed force. To man essential services during a general strike. and in that country the Royal Ulster Constabulary. and the Metropolitan Police Force by a commissioner. been called on in various roles during domestic emergencies.. Because of crime increase. Very quickly the new force obtained a national respect which it had never previously enjoyed. their work being aided by data banks in a nationwide computer system.e. Northern Ireland. needs the presence of armed and equipped British troops. Can you suggest any improvements? One hundred and fifty years ago a Conservative British Prime Minister. It has. the situation is further complicated today by crime in a new guise i. forcibly. To deal with these we now use a quiet little . This often consists of a group of extremists from one foreign country attacking the embassy of another. Apart from straightforward crime. The county police forces of the rest of Britain are controlled by chief constables responsible to the Home Secretary. A less frequent role has been to quell riots and this is unpopular with the army since soldiers do not like inflicting injury or even death on fellow citizens. power-stations. founded the modern police force.

and probably much earlier. and taught. The fundamental changes needed go deeper. The traditional police force has only been armed with a whistle and a short truncheon. This consists of solid pillars across the river with massive steel plates between each pillar which can be raised or lowered mechanically. there will need to be fundamental as well as cosmetic changes in our national life. An example is the recently constructed Thames barrier below Woolwich on the River Thames in England. beadle a minor parish official whose duties include ushering and preserving order to stop by using force an area for which someone. Another will be to restore confidence in the policeman's fairness and integrity in areas where interested parties have sought to erode this confidence. human consumption. or work for a diminishing crime rate and a more peaceful and law-abiding community? If the latter. kept off drugs and alcohol. spanning as it does lengthy periods of drought. other reasons for damming a river. There are. Following heavy storms in mountainous areas more water than a river can carry will flow down to the plain. Above all children and young people should be less exposed to television and film violence. the reservoir has always been a great boon. has responsibility as part of their job quell the beat Discuss the benefits of and the problems caused by the artificial damming of rivers. known as the SPG. irrigation. of course. looting and arson. and being known by them. Since the motion to restore the death penalty was defeated in Parliament. a life-sentence must mean what it says. So far these have not often been needed. The cosmetic changes include less policing by vehicles. They merely erode police morale. meeting violence with violence. Local authority police committees to monitor police activities are in the hands of anti-law and order elements. such as a police officer. Since rainfall is never sufficiently uniform to provide a reliable water-source from normal river flow. in the home. inundating large areas often destroying crops. This control of water works from sea to river as well as from river to sea. Some of us deplore the tendency to issue firearms. The damming of rivers to form reservoirs was common practice in Roman times. and do no good. and industrial use. The object is to protect the low-lying parts of London when a certain combination of wind and tide raises the water level by as much as thirty feet. . if dammed. Mountain passes.section of the armed forces known as the SAS just as we use a new section of the police force to quell street rioting. a new respect for law and order. homes and animal and human life. Firearm availability must be more strictly controlled. but recognize that the police are at a disadvantage otherwise. more community policemen back on 'the beat' and knowing their area and people. give the opportunity not only to control the flow of flood water at its peak but also to retain large quantities for controlled use in dry weather. Do we have to accept that the world must become more violent. maintaining law and keeping order on the streets by presence rather than violence. and more on foot. Over the intervening centuries the practice has evolved for three main purposes.

Matters are different in underdeveloped countries which are hot. There have also been cases of the collapse of dams due to inadequate strength and imperfect design. where water shortage can be a nuisance but is rarely a disaster. Where such rivers can be dammed they can be given a constant depth for purposes of navigation. Water is channeled through conduits and used as mechanical power for the turbines. People have to move. and the control of their floodwater for irrigation purposes essential. the power station. In these areas populations are often nomadic. natural scenery. with its trees. inconveniently. appreciate this. This is particularly true in countries lying in temporate zones. provide good fishing. farms and houses. Some rivers in their natural state arc not navigable by large vessels. or scratching a mere subsistence from the soil. has to be inundated. boon something that is very helpful and improves the quality of life . The USSR has been in dispute with Turkey over this matter as has Egypt with the Sudan. A dam built for one country's benefit may be much to the detriment of another. dry and barren. in the opinion of some. Farmland is destroyed. Reservoir water is also used today in vast quantities in nuclear power stations for cooling and other purposes and is similarly returned to the river or to the sea. being built below the level of the dam. dehydration and death to animals and humans alike. The problem is more acute when the countryside about to be spoilt is environmentally unique. of course. flora and fauna. as in a recent case in Australia. despoiled. driving flocks and herds from waterhole to waterhole. and this benefits a country's communication system. but even this is not preventing large tracts of North East Africa from reverting to desert. A great area of land. Creating an artificial lake inevitably changes the character of a large area. that lying higher up the river having the whip-hand. and for other aquatic sports. A reservoir is also a great attraction to water-loving birds and often becomes an interesting staging-post for migrations. More often than not a dam may be central in a multi-purpose scheme including most of the functions outlined above. A second drawback may be political. The destruction of the Mohne See dam in the Second World War brought the industry of the Ruhr to a virtual standstill. The damming of major rivers such as the Nile is crucial to life itself. as well as causing loss of life. It is then returned to the river. and most are used by sailing clubs.A further use of the dam is to produce hydroelectric power. hunger. Many rivers flow through more than one country. Neither the residents. Some stocked with trout. or run dry in sea. Drought means disease. who have to resettle elsewhere. Damming a river can also cause problems. Dams are vulnerable to air attack in wartime.sons of drought. nor the environmentalists. where attempts were made to involve Prince Charles and Princess Diana in the dispute. Perhaps of least importance is the social value of a reservoir.

used when iodine is lacking in diet. Salt and potassium are combined to produce iodised salt. NaCl. It is difficult to grade the senses in relative importance to mankind. of caustic soda. It is also used in soap-making. touch. Some of these deprivations can be partially . It is important because it is essential to the health of human beings and of animals. it is used for clearing roads of snow and ice. It is also used for water-softening by means of removing calcium and magnesium compounds from tap water. driving a car. enjoyment of all forms of visual beauty. It also enters metallurgic processes as flux. a compound used to assist the fusing of metals. of hydrochloric acid. It is different for a person who goes blind because suddenly. and in the manufacture of glaze and porcelain enamel. hearing. and small quantities of other chemicals are added to it to keep it freeflowing when in contact with the atmosphere. especially when used to preserve food very small pieces of stone or sand Discuss the relative importance to man and animals of the five senses of sight. Opinions vary particularly between sight and hearing. and this provided in the form of solid blocks. A person blind from birth has no concept of vision. It is used in meat-packing sausage-making and fish-curing both for seasoning and as a preservative. reading and watching television. sodium hydroxide. or gradually. so in combination with grit. of chlorine etc. taste and smell. For domestic use it is fined down to what is known as table-salt. is known as common salt. known as 'salt-licks'. Its absence causes goitre. the swelling of the thyroid gland. hide brine grit the strong thick skin of an animal which is used for making leather water with salt in it. so much is lost. Salt lowers the melting point of water. It is also used in the curing and preserving of hides and in the form of brine for refrigeration purposes. personal independence to a large degree. in the manufacture of baking soda.flora and fauna despoil The flora and fauna of a place are its plants and animals to make a place less attractive especially by taking things away from it by force Why is common salt so important? In its mineral form sodium chloride. Salt is extensively used in the chemical industry. sodium bicorbonate. Salt is also crucial to the food industry. so presumably does not `miss' sight. Livestock as well as humans need salt.

Touch. sand. as with humans. The loss of sight tends to train a more acute hearing. taste and smell are all sources of pleasure. From the human point of view most people would grade the importance of the senses in the order given in the question. The traditional method of lip-reading supplements this. Many animals have very limited vision. Dogs can hear supersonic sounds and react to them at great distances. For the same reason hearing is of nearly the same importance. since. The obvious drawback to deafness lies in loss of communication. while taste and smell can detect lethal gases and poisonous substances. smell. Pure science is the investigation of natural phenomena for the purpose of understanding. and there are many modern aids for the visually handicapped. though. they can live a relatively full life. Observation leads to the formation of theories. but they are all relatively dispensable. Thus it becomes far more highly developed than in humans. but it seems to be.overcome. Touch and taste are also of less importance to animals than to humans. particularly in children. touch and taste in that order. have a protective role in warning them off obnoxious and poisonous organic and inorganic substances. combined with smell. ranging from braille and books on tape to all kinds of domestic appliances designed for the sightless. Their absence can. however be dangerous. Deafness is not at once obvious and so may be mistaken for stupidity. Nobody can ask an animal to grade the importance of the senses. traffic-sense. simply because vision is relatively unimportant. though today there are some marvelous machines which allow the sufferer to learn speech through varied frequencies of vibration. is dug out of the ground for use as building material abrasion quarry Discuss with examples the relationship between pure and applied science. Smell or scent is of crucial importance to many animals. given help and their own determination. The social disadvantage of deafness is that of the impatience of others. The hearing range of animals is much wider than that of humans. etc. hearing. the two latter being important in the enjoyment of food. If the theory seems to explain to all the phenomena it is classified as a principle and added to the store of . so that conversation and teaching can be carried out. sight. since survival may depend on it. braille A system of writing and printing for blind or visually impaired people the process of rubbing away the surface of something a large artificial hole in the ground where stone. who rely on it to detect enemies and to find quarry. Many blind people would grade vision as less important than hearing. the loss of nerve endings can lead to severe domestic burns and abrasions. This is not necessarily so in the animal world. depends largely on hearing. these two senses. People will always help the blind in practical ways. Musical appreciation and music making are also open to the blind. which are tested experimentally. In the modern world deafness can also be dangerous.

though they can facilitate the increase of knowledge. The names of Pasteur. surgery. so does technology or method. 17th Century. relativity and quantum mathematics. though less interested in strict accuracy. The Egyptians. although theory produced the telescope and the microscope as optical research instruments. Pythaggoeras and his successors provided the first systematic method of understanding the natural world. Darwin and Harvey come to mind. As pure scientific knowledge advances. In the present century. though the greatest advances were made by Sir Isaac Newton. no improvements in method can increase knowledge. was developed (Dalton). The historian of pure science can trace its advance from the records of the earliest recorded cultures to the 20th century. enable the advance of pure science. made their contribution. The fact that we can now see into the far universe and into the construction of matter has had a profound effect on the theories concerning both. it is also true that the advanced machines made possible by higher technology. Since method depends on knowledge. who gave the world its first true understanding of the universe. Although applied science will always remain the handmaid of pure science. during which pure science has made greater advances than ever before. electronics transformed both. Astronomy and Mathematics were brought together for the purposes of navigation.existing scientific knowledge. Figures were constructed to provide proofs. Lister. who synthesized many theories into an intelligible whole. as did the Arabians and Indians in the field of arithmetical notation. The logical approach of Renee Descartes was of great importance. Thales and his school. While this remains the servant of the brain which invented it. Later advances took place in the field of biology. bacteriology. Copernicus. one of its uses is to make a multitude of instantaneous calculations. Thus. 6th to 7th Centuries B. and the new theories of light. upsurge handmaid laborious a sudden and usually large increase in something female servant needing a lot of time and effort . (Einstein). especially in the field of Mathematics and geometry. Applied science is known today as technology. Francis Bacon sought to produce a system to replace that of Aristotle. which is concerned with techniques. Another example of many is the modern computer. This in turn eliminates the laborious mechanical aspects of investigation and gives the researcher the tools for making rapid new discoveries. anthropology. The second upsurge of pure science began with Galileo and his predecessor.C. atomic theory with all its consequences.

There is no doubt that current popular taste rejects films which set out to be amusing. For example romantic feature films seem to receive great popular support in India. The days of 'Doctor in the House'. though small. and when a good film is made there is still a following. 'Star Wars' and 'E. Today there are less than twenty films showing in the West End of London. have gone forever. outing when a group of people go on a short journey.What are the most popular types of film in your country and why? Answers to this question will vary widely according to the country concerned. Another point in its favor is that the quality of television is deteriorating and seems likely to become atrocious when cable television is introduced. is alive on both sides of the Atlantic. They now form part of the television menu as repeats. of situation comedies. of films built round 'stand-up' comics such as Arthur Askey. In the 30s any provincial town could offer more than this. combined with the instinct to escape from a deprived environment. There will be even more space for rubbish and repeats.' are recent examples of overwhelmingly successful productions. Film stars in the old sense no longer exist. No longer do families make a weekly outing to the cinema. The great days of Hollywood ended with the last war. Almost every home contains a television set and much of what is left of the British film industry is concerned with film-making for this medium. and an excellent film can still make a lot of money. For one thing the cinema of today is the virtual monopoly of young people. One 'clean' though juvenile taste which is fairly new is for space fiction films. However the government is trying to prevent the sale of such cassettes for use in home television sets. usually for pleasure or education of bad quality to arrange something atrocious set out Consider the influence of Pop star and their music . though more recently such productions have moved into the 'video nasty' area. During the past twenty or so years much has changed in the taste of film goers. In the West the film has not been the major entertainment medium for over twenty years. This may be due to the lack of good. 'The Return of the Jedi' is currently showing in London's West End. However the film industry. Today most cinemas have long since become Bingo halls.T. unless a film such as 'Gandhi' with wide general appeal is put on. and their stars are almost national heroes. Deliberate attempts to entertain the teenager have produced many films with the accent on explicit sex and violence. or indeed any television.

They were the fashionable group. aided by two groups of cynical adults. yachts. world-wide travel spread before the eyes of young hopefuls. The world knows about the end of Presley. This was theheyday of the top twenty. was condemned as square. The Beatles made millions. and while there is still money in it for the few it is no longer possible today to buy an electric . However the deepest effect of the pop scene on affluent young society was upon teenage attitudes to life. For many years Carnaby Street set teenage clothing fashions. the fame. They succeeded. The problem has abated because of careful police monitoring. And because a few made it. In Liverpool a group of four fresh-faced tidy young men with neat hair. litter. But the sinister initial letters of 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' suggested the drug scene. Parental discipline. getting into this ensured rich rewards. Successful single makers cut LPs. discard the society which produced them and ignore its social sanctions. large country houses. The pop cult grew in the late 60's and early 70's into a major industry. since they had high wages and few outgoings. morality. become totally independent. who has now become a cult figure. and T shirt uniform has persisted. insecurity. 'Beatlemania' swept Britain and many other countries. but then the 13-19 year group became a new class. Rolls-Royce motor cars. suddenly replacing dance music. the drummer. The real money was made in the industry associated with the stars. whether they really had talent or not. Left-wing activists provided a third group. the vocalist. calflove. It has taken massive youth unemployment in England to destroy the pop market. jazz and the tuneful lyricists such as Crosby. began to produce original themes which reflected the innermost feelings of teenagers. by which is meant regular hours. The establishment. everybody tried. There is no doubt that the pop scene was orchestrated and manipulated by cynical adults.Pop music began in 1960. some of whom were villains. The money. and. Those selling over a million records entered the golden disc bracket. the electric guitar. Sinatra and their imitators. school rules and wartime restrictions had hitherto kept this age group in place. but this quickly changed to rock n roll. the teenagers. Perhaps the biggest money was made by pop concert and festival promoters. with Elvis Presley as its afficionado. in general. the group with the spare money. and at that time of full employment in the USA and the UK. a worthwhile job and. the denim jeans. The music began with 'skiffle'. in 1960 their instinct was to break loose. the adulation proved irresistable. the money-makers and the drug pushers. insanitary camp conditions and drug abuse. a sense of responsibility. Prior to 1960 young people were either adolescents or young adults. loneliness. hard work. although Carnaby Street is no longer the centre. Thus they became the market for the pop industry. and his titles such as 'Rock around the clock' reaching international heights of popularity among teenagers. Now. The focus became the star rather than the group. From time to time these festivals have caused trouble because of noise. but millions more for their promoters. the misunderstanding of the adult world and a few curiously alien themes. 'doing one' own thing'.

They visited the Scillies and Cornwall and circumnavigated Africa. all are natural. who sought to create an Aryan empire by the invasion of surrounding sovereign states. headed by the USSR and the USA respectively. heyday adulation insanitary the most successful or popular period of someone very great admiration or praise for someone So unclean as to be a likely cause of disease What. and through those later empires to the alphabets of most of the European states. produced a hardy race of seafarers. Its effects are interpreted variously. Musically. The seaboard of Libya. The war also broke down social barriers. who established colonies in Cyprus. and they exported cedar to Egypt. have the great empires of the world achieved? Self-interest. and accelerated the decolonization process of the European empires. Their inscriptions. Its occasion has been the development of military and naval power and in recent times air power. To consider the great empires of the world we need to look back 4000 years. The earliest empires were necessarily limited geographically. and with the build-up of nuclear arsenals this poses in 1984 an even greater threat than that of Adolf Hitler in 1939. especially that of Great Britain. the desire for enrichment by trade. for obvious reasons. and with it the acclaim and the overnight fortunes. Perhaps the twenty years or so of pop fever provided a safely valve for the young who were none the worse for it providing they kept out of drugs and crime. The aggressive instinct. The Phoenecian Empire provides a good example. Self-interest needs definition. has always been the motivation behind empire-building. An agricultural community with a growing . for example. in some shape or form. if self-interested motives. as in the case of Germany under Adolf Hitler. pop stars never had the slightest influence in the real world. the Canaanites. Hitler's failure. Yet it also began the polarization of East and West. purple cloth and jewelry all over the Middle East. thus enriching much of the known world. though in the old days they made more money than the virtuosi. centered in the Lebanon. Carthage in North Africa. The course of history itself has always had something to say about aggression. Yet their real interest was in trade. such as the Moabite Stone and the Siloan Tunnel inscriptions. and of course the need for territorial expansion. if anything.guitar and make your fortune in a month. Malta. brought the democratic institutions of Western Europe into focus and laid the foundations of the European Community. Sicily and Spain. Today the euphoria has largely gone. Moreover they invented an alphabet which gave rise to both the Greek and Roman alphabets. provided invaluable points of reference in Jewish Biblical history. furniture. unless one counts the partial deafness which results from long hours in a discotheque. heightened the social consciences of the Western states.

'asset stripping' wherever they went. Following the Phoenicians. wall painting. Their trade in wine. oppressive and rapacious. colonization. and even the very least of the overseas possessions were encouraged to develop their own governments. Many people see the only hope for the future in a one-world concept. a name meaning 'kings'. architecture. The post-war wind of change brought about an irony in the case of the British Empire. and their political contribution to the Mediterranean sea-board and even to France and Egypt. had acquired the whole of the known world including territories as far apart as Britain and the West African coast line. Yet the worldwide process overtook the gradual process of emancipation and. yet our modern dislike of the empire-concept must not blind us to the immense enrichment conferred. basically because those countries tried to keep the concept of colonization as an extension of the home country. wood. The extent and duration of the Roman Empire were of course much greater. is incalculable. in which aggression is outlawed and mutual respect and co-operation fostered for the common good. the Romans. were governed by tyrants. No empire lasts forever. usually using unfair methods or force to give power devolve . The French and Portuguese concepts of empire were. with disastrous results in many cases. it is right that this should be so. We are used to thinking of the Romans as cruel. and architecture has never since been equaled. at the height of Empire. if only as a by-product. interested mainly in exacting taxes. doomed to failure in the modern world. and. law. on their vassal states. Government had long since devolved to the great dominions. ultimately ruled by the central government. as post war history has shown. of course. In a world where. The Greeks acquired most of the Mediterranean world. Their sculpture. All this is true.population needs more land. Their positive contribution to the lives of vassal states covered the whole political. The West is concerned to trade rather than to exploit. Roman law provided the foundation of much modern law. Their poetry and drama have remained supreme. town-planning. but whose powers were limited by the essentially Greek concept of democracy. in the period 750 to 600 B. legal and cultural spectrum. and the heightened concept of sovereignty of states both large and small. because of modern travel. traders and law-givers. metal work and pottery enriched other countries. The Greeks were adventurers. and civic building. The dissolution of even the British Empire is now virtually complete. which was the original forerunner of the modern democratic process of the free world today.C. The city states of Greece. following them. circumnavigate rapacious to move around showing a strong desire to take things for yourself. oil and scent. hence. to lend money rather than exact it. instant communication.. They also enriched the known world in the spheres of art.

The reason for the original . Thirdly it must be near a good water supply such as a large river. From the 14th century to the present day Moscow was the centre. very much in mind. Secondly the area must lend itself to the spread of housing. Buenos Aires. To these could be added Johore Bahru. There are at least three examples of changes of capital city. From 1928 to 1949 the capital was again Nanking and again reverted. though the origins of older ones are lost in tradition and folklore. not only communicates with the centre of the country but also provides deep water moorings for seagoing vessels. Chile which is inland but has easy access to Valparaiso. Colombia. Most large cities and capitals were originally walled. some capitals became established because of foreign colonization. Both Peking and Nanking which lies south of it. an area of fertile land capable of supporting a growing population. George Town. He located it on the Potomac River. Venezuela. Conversely. and the erection of public buildings. Caracus. though possible attack from long range artillery. The growth of Cairo at the base of the Nile delta provides an example. England's largest river. with facilities for trade. tin.A. Bogota. the inner square mile. when St. Peking was the capital of China from the 10th Century. More often than not. Later the seat of government moved to Nanking. Another factor rendering the seaboard popular was that of convenience to those countries which sought to colonize overseas. Washington.What factors determine the location of a country's capital? Illustrate with examples. Guyana. Lima near the Peruvian coast. from the air. later Leningrad. copra and pineapples. and nowadays perhaps from nuclear weapons.S. Fourthly it must be well away from the earthquake belts and volcanoes. London consisted of British settlements in preRoman times in a very defensible position which is now the city. inland from Chesapeake Bay on the East Coast. Argentina. South America contains a host of examples. is a case in point. have easy access to the Eastern seaboard. rubber. both inland and overseas. a French engineer officer. Many capital cities were founded centuries. Petersburg. Firstly. but from 1421 it again became Peking. reasons are geographical. Santiago. which is on the coast. the federal capital since 1800 was laid out by Pierre L'Enfant. who designed the city specifically as the center of government in 1790. The U. any large settlement required a location which satisfied certain requirements. has rendered all capitals equally vulnerable. capital city locations were chosen at or near river-mouths for these reasons. rivers provide the only means of communication. In a country covered by impenetrablerain forests and mountain ranges. then Stalingrad held that destination. excluding the period 1709 to 1918. The same thing happened in Soviet Russia. The Thames. as might be expected. if not millennia ago. though not all of these. the time of the Liao Dynasty. so it is often not possible to do more than deduce the reasons for the choice of their locations. both for trade and for political purposes. whence inland products were exported. Most. though built above flood level. Capitals must have been located with these basic requirements in mind. Before the arrival of modern communications and transport. made for political reasons. Fifthly it must be defensible against enemies.

Many of the foregoing factors also apply to the building up of Bombay. where often mountain ranges and dense afforestation have to be overcome. In 1960.choice of Moscow was that it was the gateway to the West. it nevertheless has a terrible climate and is icebound for much of the year. if any. though the reasons for this change are unclear. it was the center of intersecting trade routes. for a variety of reasons but basically because England's constantly growing road network has shifted both passenger and goods transport away from the railways. Apart from geographical considerations. It is a more basic problem for the emergent countries. and basically what is left is the inter-city network and London's commuter service from the home counties. All services are capable of improvement. it was built defensively. Originally an island off the mid-west coast of India it is now joined to the mainland by means of reclaimed land. It has become the trading and distributive center for North Africa and the Near East. it satisfied all geographical conditions. but today of the Arab world. where rail. trade certainly affected the growth of Cairo from its early beginnings in 641 A. and until 1945 there existed a network which gave easy access from even the smallest village to all the main centers. Since then the system has deteriorated out of all recognition. In consequence almost all small lines have been closed down. The fact however was that St Petersburg was the center for all revolutionary activity between 1815 and 1914. Brazil dropped Rio de Janiero as its capital and moved inland to the newly-planned city of Brasilia. not only of Egypt. moorings the ropes or chains which keep a boat from moving away from a particular place impossible to see through or go through the surrounding of a place by an armed force in order to defeat those defending it impenetrable siege Consider how the transport system in your country might he improved. obstacles to the establishment of physical communications. Railways began to spread over England from about 1800. The Germans never succeeded in entering it in the Second World War during four years of siege.D. The choice of St Petersburg was more political because although it is strategic for the Gulf of Finland and for Lake Ladoga. Its great harbor and westward facing position made it the obvious choice by the Moguls in the 13th century. One hears that Nigeria is even now considering dropping Lagos as the capital in favor of a new town inland. In this essay the problems of England are considered. and where there are few. Also it is very defensible. as the capital. because it was felt that this would bring life to the interior. who were followed by the Portuguese and in 1662 by the British. Speed has improved with the adoption of the diesel motor but the experimental high-speed trains . even the transport services of Western Europe and other western countries. road and air transport have long been established. it was sheltered by a range of hills.

The environmental lobby rightly complains about the damage done by these vehicles. economic cost. Goods transport has largely moved over to the heavy. that organization. The task of promoting comfort. owned nowadays by over half of the population will also be able to move about more freely. Only a reversion to private ownership. which of course operates a world-wide network. and about the loss of agricultural land where M roads are built. and now the reverse. This involves both bank-clearing and the enforcement of anti-pollution laws. These drawbacks can and must be overcome by the provision of by-pass and further M roads. will remove heavy through traffic from the streets of London. The River Thames now contains a wide variety of fish whereas for over a century it contained none. when completed. about the danger of pollution. It can take longer to reach Heath Row and pass through customs and baggage formalities than it takes to fly to Paris of Dusseldorf. Rivers and canals must not be overlooked. and the road building program is severely limited by finance. afforestation Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting on nonforested . The inefficiency is on the ground. safety. as indeed do most other European countries. There is a valuable move. London will eventually have five. container-type lorry. about traffic jams. especially in small villages. The Thatcher Government sees this as bad housekeeping despite the fact that most European rail systems are already heavily subsidized. and this is unlikely to happen. He is wrong. In a small country like England. although we are constantly told that this is the age of the train. As in most other western countries after the war the system became nationalized. High wage demands. Small vehicles and private cars. The 'age of the train' ended in 1954. speed and reliability is not easy. but is being tackled. The Socialist doctrine affirms that as a national service British Rail should not expect to make a profit or break even and should be subsidized by the tax payer. Many of the transport problems in England. Unfortunately it is little used for commercial purposes. About half the population probably accepts that competitiveness is the only real way forward. The London outer circle M 25. such as railway hotels and in some cases catering on railway platforms and in dining cars. though not all. to restore the waterways. Since there is ample private competition for British Airways. The present government is merely selling off minor assets. and the general indifference of nationally unreliable. by Jimmy Savile. economic and cared-for. lack of money for capital expenditure. as in the days of the rail system comfortable. In turn this involves the provision of suitable roads. Part of the problem has been a steady shift of population originally from country to town. internal air travel is of importance primarily to business people and nowadays all major cities have their own airports. and generally unpopular.have proved a fiasco. have stemmed from bad government theory and bad industrial relations in the past. and parking problems which at present bedevil all large towns and cities will be alleviated. is efficient. backed by the environmentalists. not only as a means of commercial transport but also for tourism. though progress is being made on all fronts. Moreover British Rail makes massive annual losses.

These operate by detecting slight changes in the earth's magnetic field. the work of the Upper Manke Committee. Exploration in the commonly accepted sense began with people like the sea-faring Columbus when. Offshore oil end gas rigs now proliferate. This organization co-ordinates results end supplies a limited amount of cash. Attention is now concentrated on underground and undersea exploration and in recent years on space exploration. the USA. They are based on drilling into the earth's crust where it is known to be most shallow in order to find out its physical properties. producing a systematic study of the earth end the environment. Sound echoing devices now enable scientists to map the ocean bed . A stop was put on territorial claims in Antarctica. However. as in the case of space exploration today.land fiasco stem from something planned that goes wrong and is a complete failure to originate or develop as the result of something 'Scientists are the explorers of today. The solid earth was examined scientifically by means of a series of deep probes. in the middle ages it was realized that the earth is a globe. It held a crucial role for centuries in colonization and trade expansion. There is also a scanning infra-red sensor of greet use in geo-chemical exploration. An international council of scientific unions was set up.g. After the first war the attitude was more co-operative. its underground radioactive end magnetic values etc. much underwater work is a matter of scientific surveying. The USA. pioneered this venture. e. Since only 30% of the earth's surface is above sea level end only 10% habitable. a stop was eventually put on this method. for fuel end for water in order to plan new facilities. Since it proved so expensive US Project Mohole was abandoned in 1967. In the 19th century startling results were achieved by wealthy and gifted amateurs. Although modern exploration is largely pragmatic. but since deep drilling is increasingly expensive. and USSR constantly trying to surpass each others achievements. However quite early in this century virtually the whole of the earth's surface had been mapped in outline. the scientific aspect provides most interest. in which 70 nations participated. and most of it surveyed by explorers on foot. Seismic methods are used for the discovery of oil end gas deposits and today there are airborne devices for detecting minerals such as oil end gas. not flat. Undersea exploration is of equal.000 feet was aimed at. In the process of drilling more is discovered about an area's liability to earthquakes. This work culminated in the International Geophysical Year. attention has naturally been diverted to underground end undersea exploration for human reasons.' Discuss. 1957. The process has more recently been completed by the use of the aircraft and the helicopter. All observations are naturally indirect. It is necessary to drill for minerals. if not greater importance since its results have led to immense discoveries. Before the First World War the international attitude towards exploration was competitive. its role being assumed by UNESCO after the Second World War. end a drill of 35.

in both East and West. but today most countries are essentially meritocracies. The problem with the first paragraph is that society does not consist of wealthydilettantes. There are also lunar end inter-planetary programs which further extend human knowledge. some knowledge of science. The manned projects must partly depend on the scientific know-how of the space explorer himself. still pockets of privilege everywhere in which the rich can take advantage of the knowledge. Many well-known schools in the West still lay a powerful emphasis on the classical languages as the best means of teaching the young to think properly. The earth is now surrounded by hundreds of orbited satellites which provide various kinds of information. Nowadays in the free world. from weather reports to international communications. There are. solar end cosmic radiation. Deep-see drilling produces core samples which provide useful information. In the widest sense even the most primitive societies begin to prepare children for living from birth as a necessity for survival So do animals and birds. Has modern exploration lost glamour and the old dependence on self-reliance? Partly.C. place or activity What Scientific knowledge should an educated person have? The answer depends on one's definition of education. but human nature being what it is. magnetic fields. when civil service examinations were instituted. modern European languages being merely an optional extra. They assist in technical observation of stars and lead to an understanding of the evolution of the solar system. Today one school of thought would define education as the means of living a civilized life. If the purpose of education is to succeed in life as well as to enjoy it. which in turn depends on the acquisition of culture. that of China dating back to 165 B. They measure natural phenomena in space. culminate proliferate glamour to reach the highest point to increase greatly and suddenly in number the special excitement and attractiveness of a person. Formal education is based on literacy. however superficial. Culture implies a knowledge of the graceful and artistic things of life. If space exploration is to be included then obviously science plays the dominate role in all ventures. of course. and in Europe at any rate depends on no more than a knowledge of Greek and Latin. Some knowledge of science is essential to us all because the march of scientific discovery largely dictates modern living both personal and social. end there is no single definition. Today the work is co-ordinated by a consortium of oceanographic institutes.accurately end to discover far more about the seabed under the polar icecaps. is essential. Many are in orbit for purely scientific reasons. the opportunity to gain specialized education in order to succeed is . skill and hard work of others. outward-bound ventures in relatively unknown areas of the earth's surface will always persist.

Early Chinese education included the martial arts. It might be argued that men like Archimedes. for the majority. if you are a politician can you even understand many of the issues dealt with in government without a degree of specialized knowledge in those fields. Yet modern interest lies less in discovering new laws than in the development of the old ones.regarded as a basic human right. A knowledge of science is necessary if humanity is to be in a position to resist some of its worse results. Will science finally eliminate the divisive elements in human nature by encouraging understanding and co-operation. Everything depends on its use or misuse. However the topic question implies much more than this. We need to know a little chemistry and biology if we are to remain healthy and fit. The growth industries of today depend completely on scientific specialization. Coalminers. We live in a scientific world. Science is neutral. and on the specialized knowledge required for the use of the modern weapons of sea. not its master. Today the emphasis has shifted from pure to applied science. Children must be shielded from dangerous drugs. banking. Today the marketing of sophisticated goods abroad is a main growth industry. for this is surely one of the aims of educations ? So far there are few signs that it will. but whose understanding of it is not very deep . In Europe the emphasis has already shifted away from the heavy engineering and artisan industries. Among these may be included nuclear and chemical warfare. It neither explains nor contradicts religion. boys and girls should receive instruction in them all and be encouraged to specialize in one of these subjects. even family economics. It is man's servant. Modern martial arts certainly have not destroyed the need for personal bravery in the soldier but effective military action today depends more on the technology which a country can buy. You cannot begin to work in this field without at least a reasonable knowledge of the goods you are promoting. Isaac Newton and Einstein were among the most educated people who ever lived. The frontiers which they established are still being pushed back. The basis of any increase in a country's gross national product is trade. Neither. implies specialization in an established field. We cannot be safe in a modern home without a basic understanding of electricity. because job opportunities are increasingly dependent on subjects such as electronics and computer science. modern education. We need to know basic arithmetic if we are to deal with money. land and air. steel-workers and ship-builders are the dinosaurs of 1984. dilettante a person who is or seems to be interested in a subject. 'Ars pro arte' is no longer a valid concept. jet travel and the ubiquitous computer. In a world which daily grows less remote and more interdependent due to satellite communications. especially for the young person today. The truth seems to be that science has its own momentum. and some of the frightening developments in genetic engineering. necessary accomplishments for those above peasant status. and the most that can be said is that the educated person should at least know what is going on in the world.

Take England as an example.e. The word also applies to customs. started the fashion ball rolling. use of words and accents within a language. or a custom may drop out of fashion but then come back for no obvious reason. on a coupon system. which reflected their casual attitudes. variations in suits and shoes remaining fairly minor. house. not available to the majority either because they lack the taste or the money to follow it. for no apparent reason. The real business lies in the sale of the model to the massproducing firms which bring new styles to the big stores in the High Street. In pre-war days high fashion was the monopoly of the wealthy or well-to-do woman.ubiquitous contradict seem to be in all places to state the opposite of What do you understand by 'fashion' and why does fashion change? The word 'fashion' is generally used to mean style in clothing. The tee-shirt and denim jeans became almost statutory for the young of both sexes. In the West post-war clothing fashions have been the subject of change because of the higher standard of living enjoyed in most European countries. though a few models are sold to the rich as one-offs. At one time a new and exclusively styled garment from a couturier in Paris was sold only to the rich. 'style' meaning what is popularly accepted. They become 'disposables. followed by post-war full employment. Mass-produced fashion clothes and shoes are therefore not made to last. in the course of a year. However the freedoms of the 1960's moved young men into a much more informal style of dress. It certainly covers forms of speech. A third reason for the constant changes lies in 'haute couture' as big business. admired or regarded as exclusive i. for most occasions. and. This austerity. become the symbol of the elderly men. women too. Returning to women's fashions.g. A fourth reason for change is that women like change for its own sake. manners and morals. If a woman works to a tight budget she will have to buy clothes and shoes for warmth and durability rather than appearance. However.' Another reason for changes in customs. Recently there has been slight return to formal dress. a phrase. During the war clothes for both sexes were rationed anyway. They prefer two or three different outfits to one. All these things change from time to time. The same garment today is only exclusive in its label. sometimes abruptly. building and the general design of most consumer-goods ranging from cars to kitchen appliances. personal manners and standards of moral behavior. However fashion applies to many other things than dress and hair-styles e. the reason for change is usually apparent. Men's fashions have always remained relatively static. lies in subtle changes in ideas and . for women as well as men. although the hat has. behavior and morality. Thus the shop-girl can wear the same style in clothes and shoes as Princess Diana. Sometimes a form of dress.

partly because of travel and partly because of a shift in political interest. coinciding roughly with the publication of early journals such as The London Gazette. but parents are pressurized into buying computers.B. and the development of advertising in the West dates back at least three centuries. Other changes in fashion occur because of the power of propaganda. advertising and political pressure groups. In that decade local accents became more fashionable. Today best-selling novels are usually spythrillers or books which deal with contemporary subjects such as aircraft. They can play games. The half a dozen big producers go in for highly competitive advertising. All this can be done with books and paper. Changes in accent and expression have greatly affected both the theatre and the television play. Of course they can. Novels have also undergone fundamental changes in fashion. such as the 'Beatles' or from the Midlands or the North. some of it aimed at children.C. others result from a new and sometimes sentimental review of England's past glories. educate themselves. electronics or industrial espionage. because wherever you create a demand you must be able to . prepare themselves for modern living. So advertising began on a local basis. The lobby has considerable backing from the medical profession. Equally they could do their family accounts once a month on the back of an old envelope. subject matter is also very different today. The anti-smoking lobby has largely succeeded in keeping all public places smoke-free. the sop to their consciences being that they can use the computer for family accounts. Advertising sells goods and services. her social and industrial progress in Victorian and Edwardian days and her colonial power up to 1939. Many women regard this once accepted behavior as male chauvinism. as does the lookalike garb affected by some couples. especially if they came from Liverpool. stand when they enter a room or give up their seats in a railway carriage. The term 'kitchen-sink drama' sums up the process. The home computer is a modern example. is now accepted as fashionable in some quarters. Tatler and Spectator in England. It pays to advertise. The old adage remains true in principle because advertising not only sells goods but also creates the demand for new lines. her old wartime achievements. the circulation of which was largely limited to London and one or two large provincial cities. B. never-the-less. The term 'fashion' applies also to the written and the spoken word.outlooks. English. otherwise it would not exist. Some men no longer open doors for women. so far from causing ostracism. one-off ostracism sum up something that happens or is made or done only once to prevent people from taking part in the activities of a group to quickly form an opinion about someone or something Discuss the various methods of advertising and their effectiveness. For men or women to live together in a homosexual relationship. banking. spoken in an 'Oxbridge' accent was used exclusively by newsreaders and public speakers until the 60s. The Butch appearance of some western women reflects feminism. due partly to the prominence given to popgroups.

flood through the letter-boxes. Most Western advertising works in a competitive market where the variety of brands is matched by the consumer's power of choice. taxis and container lorries. In a mixed or affluent community the field is wide open. Yet the fact that it continues argues that this kind of advertising is financially justified. on trains. if a famous heavy-weight uses a particular deodorant. In contrast sexy lingerie ads are self-defeating. by an appeal to a range of human instincts. graphic artists. The advertising of foodstuffs has been improved by 'sold by' and statements of contents. reliability and effectiveness in a product. sometimes the creation of that motivation. The soft sell works best when appealing to the very rich. If a stunt-man goes through the hoops to bring his beautiful girl-friend the brand of her choice he will take the easier way of buying them in the supermarket and she may begin to fantasize about the bringer. Subliminal advertising has rightly been banned. implying that the others don't. Advertising is therefore big business. based in the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. and usually price is not mentioned. For as long as most people can remember advertising has been seen wherever the public go. People get fed-up if they are over-pressurized. massproduction. on streamers trailing behind light aircraft. advertising local firms. promotional experts. truthful and legal. in railway stations and the underground. affluent Jones next door buy certain brand names.meet it. So various factors combined to create national and international advertising. good sales result. especially intelligent people. Comic ads amuse some. the development of printing. Some commercial radio channels still carry advertising. successful. from static balloons. offer scope to advertising firms with their highly specially areas of expertise. The hard sell becomes counter-productive. the Rolls Royce is merely described as the best car in the world. on walls. rail communication and transport. ads must be morally decent. and the freighter for overseas markets. repel others. fills the waste paper baskets. Most countries today have a statutory body which seeks to deep advertising up to a certain basic standards. addressed to computerized lists of likely buyers. However there are countless ways of disobeying the spirit if not the letter of the law. but in either case people keep the brand name in mind. so advertising merely keeps them in the public eye. outside the Eastern bloc. Another successful line with a shampoo is that it works. They bore women and men don't usually buy lingerie. The appeal to snobbery still works. boring economical neighbors must do likewise. Such firms employ some of the best ideas people. and film producers and technicians. the commercial break has assumed primary importance. Handbills. The effectiveness of advertising depends on the assessment of the consumer's motivation in buying. A country house with a hundred acres of land is offered as a 'modest gentleman's residence. Everybody knows that a small group of products are the best in their fields. especially color printing. Yet sex can sell chocolates. the failed. With the advent of color-television. and a direct or indirect appeal to that motivation. Where there is poverty in a potential market the only effective appeal is based on cheapness. shop fronts and hoardings. buses and business vehicles. if only never to buy it. Junk mail. 'Apeing the celebrity' is another line of attack. or a great actress a particular shampoo. Because those bright. From this will be seen that overkill is one drawback to the effectiveness of modern advertising. and the world's capitals. .

the police and customs forces. then all these. consequently. In a democracy. For the purposes of this essay. as many as possible of these services will be hived off to the private sector. let us assume that the country concerned is democratic. All have the potential for rationalization. the civil service. and of course levies on consumer durables and perishables among other areas. and many others. a favorable balance of trade with.sop something unimportant or of little value which is offered to stop complaints or unhappiness a substance that you put on your body to prevent or hide unpleasant smells to do a lot of difficult things before you are allowed to have or do something you want deodorant go through the hoops What priorities would you set for government expenditure and why? These priorities will vary enormously according to the circumstances and the state of development of the country concerned. and that it means to hold its own in the modern world. a large slice of the national cake is already accounted for in terms of defense salaries and equipment. education. and that it encourages free enterprise. although such changes are usually marginal. and both can he regulated within certain limits. the current unfreezing of relations between East and West is partly based on internal pressures for economies in favor of more positive priorities. perhaps privatization. it will need to achieve the following. high interest rates if overseas money is to be attracted but if possible without prejudice to exports. Any government's financial leeway consists of revenue less unavoidable expenditure. the reduction or abolition of inflation implying some kind of wages policy in both public and private sectors. Income normally comes from direct and indirect taxation. but that a reasonable level of defense has to be kept for the sake ofparity with potentially hostile neighbors. If a country follows the socialist line. are the government's responsibility. the health service. The total net income can be raised or lowered at the will of government. Could that slice be reduced in size. profits made on resource exploitation. all countries have labor-intensive annual commitments where the main services are nationally funded or subsidized. To do so. Given such an ideal and promising situation. self-help and a business-like efficiency. Basic policy must therefore be considered. Assuming that the country is politically independent. such as value added tax or purchase tax. business. a strong currency. railways and airlines. including housing and a comprehensive social security system. economic development and the full exploitation of natural resources. with consequent economies. we can now look at the national cake. roads. Similarly. Taxation covers personal income. together with legislative control over the power of the trades unions. In terms both of nuclear and conventional arms. If not. wild changes may lead to the overthrow of .

science and technology. until agreement or compromise has been reached. The press and the public may well have set their own priorities. Let us take an imaginary country which fulfils all the above conditions. because this will guarantee greatly increased revenue. For example. and the opposition will certainly have done so. housing. Nevertheless. allowing for inflation. the callousness of the rich and the . health and education. The important thing about the writing of history is that it should not only be factual but that it should include all the facts. Equal sums are allocated to the establishment of a subsidized health service. He allocates $330 million. roads and railways. there is much truth in it. railways. Also. So a budget is reached. parity hive off cancel out equality set apart from a group neutralize the effect All history books are biased. A labor-intensive re-housing program will help to bring down unemployment. which he hopes will ultimately become non-contributory. and out of the longterm needs. which cancels outimprovements. Any chancellor will regard his expendable surplus as a cake to be divided into slices. and the establishment of centers for research and development. it would be wrong to write about the French Revolution without dealing with what led up to it. the inequity of the law. The bias is not always deliberate. health. sport and the arts. any great increase in borrowing erodes stability. $1 billion must be allocated to that purpose. the exploitation of natural resources. to be shared from primary to university level. Every writer owes much to his or her background and to the national climate of opinion. sports and the arts will simply be maintained at the old levels. the glaring differences in living standards between aristocrat and peasant. It has been decided that the country's outstanding short-term needs lie in the categories of housing. Thirdly. Do you support this view? This sounds a very sweeping statement. The sooner natural resources are developed the better. such changes have to be made with a strict eye to inflation. At the risk of becoming unpopular the chancellor will have to balance these conflicting claims. And since his hopes for a larger national cake in the future depend on resource exploitation. He selects the following short-term priorities. and to the improvement of the national education service. after setting aside funds to service and reduce national debts. The chancellor has a usable surplus of $2 billion. Roads. The long-term needs include the modernization of the Armed Forces equipment.government. It will then be for the cabinet to press claims for the various departments represented. the exploitation of natural resources. education. Pressure groups will have drawn attention to social defects.

It is also pacifist insofar as the established powers are concerned. art. which is basically left-wing. This happens when an oppressive government decides to brainwash its people into continued subservience. castigate debased travesty to criticize severely corrupt something which fails to represent the values and qualities that it is intended to represent Should one aim of education be the development of talent in such fields as music. Otherwise the account would read simply as a record of brutal and indiscriminate violence on the part of the Paris mob. drama? . perhaps excessively. dealing with the same revolution. eliminating those which conflict with it's overall moral outlook. while objectively-written history books are withdrawn from schools and libraries. leaving the reader to draw personal conclusions. from the national point of view. greed and looting. is totally without a political stance. Nobody. Another. Much the same applies to domestic history. More recently. The one-world view also tends to be selective in the presentation of facts. The technique is to suppress all the truth of the past and rewrite only the material which fits in with government policy. however objectively. If some historians tend to write. Suchtravesties are forcibly imposed on schools. condemning the murders which lead to the overthrow of a stable government. although vague about the consequences of total nonaggression in all circumstances. The best of historical writing therefore includes all the facts. the writing of history in some countries has been debased out of all recognition. For example there is no mention of social and material progress or of the Pax Britannica in certain modern accounts of British colonialism. some modern historians see history simply in terms of the upward struggle of the poor. and argue that the ugly features of revolution are necessary if full democratic control of government is to pass into the hands of the people. will put all the blame on the government for its autocratic and heartless attitude to the people. This stance favors aggression by the oppressed and is invariably censorious about colonialism. monarchs and political leaders. The problem of this kind of writing is dullness. writing only about violence against the class struggle and against the trades union movement.rational philosophy of human equality and human rights spelled out by Voltaire and JeanJacques Rousseau. others tend to adopt the one-world stance. While it is true that the old-fashioned historian concentrated on power bases. where personal opinion or interpretation is rigorously excluded. One writer dealing with a popular revolution will castigate a mob for violence. objectively presented. either writer or reader.

and therefore crucial to the general improvement of the national standard of living. It is clear that those with this kind of talent should be encouraged. Artistic pursuits have now become international and offer brilliant careers to gifted young people of every country. Every country has its own artistic heritage. and general handwork. that one aim of education should be to develop latent ability. latent proficiency spawn Present or potential but not evident or active skilled and experienced to cause something new.It is only a tiny minority who are born without a talent in one direction or another. Perhaps the modern version of 'mens sana in corpore sano'. research and development and computers. art and drama must all have their place in the curriculum. Given proficiency in some or all of there. Yet the reverse of this coin is the necessary enrichment of the culture of all countries in successive generations. it is a short step to useful employment. Some require exact knowledge and serious study. banking. So music. languages and literature. We live in a real world. in general. the sciences. In any real sense they are totally unproductive. whatever that ability may be. and modern education has spawned a brood of these non-subjects. even if this is not a prime place. Yet this is not merely a matter of conservation. or many new things. Governments urge concentration on certain subjects. i. Parents.e. social and environmental studies. and it would be tragic if that heritage were lost through neglect. So even attention to sports training is justifiable. It is small wonder that both governments and parents discourage some of them nowadays. Modern job opportunities lie in the fields of the service industries. It seems logical. Even these people are usually employable. The arts are usually bracketed under the general heading 'liberal studies'. politics and economics. philosophy. while others are 'soft options'. or another international language. a 'healthy body in a healthy mind'. since these languages possess technical vocabularies and also equip young people to travel overseas in the course of their work. However. There will always he young people more interested in the arts than in the sciences. also. Governments see these occupations as essential to national wealth creation. the pressure from educational theorists today is to concentrate teaching on preparation for employment. engineering. so that a pool of labor can be formed which can move easily into specialized training. The other favored subjects arc mathematics. and dates back to the late Middle Ages. These essential subjects include English. It is the development of the whole person. technology and the manufacture of sophisticated products. the use of computers and other office machinery. What is material success if there is nothing to engage the artistic side of our nature in our spare time? Perhaps the greatest concept of education originates in the European cultural renaissance in Italy. insurance and stockbroking. feel that the priority for their children is to become equipped to earn a good living. they include history. to grow or start suddenl . still has its place.

come back quickly. tastes vary. with it's comments on the Russian system. who wrote the terrifying novel The Exorcist. we enjoy both. so much so that he or she can be ultra-selective in following personal taste. The outward-bound adventure thriller. such as Georges Simenon. because he has spent much of his working life in Hollywood. In The moon's a balloon and Go slowly. and some. What about Mr. There is a world of fiction available to occupy the reader's spare time. however. It is perhaps true to say that a good library is one of the finest assets a community can possess. Violence is never dwelt on for its own sake. The Englishman laughs at the James Herriott stories. we need to read something out of this world. Robert Graves' novels I. John LeCarre being a very able exponent. notably Dennis Wheatley. He was followed by a host of others. or are we looking for an encapsulated set of personal relationships? Perhaps. and has absorbed both backgrounds. whether past or present. Perhaps. Edgar Allan Poe's short stories set the horror trend. There is a whole world of this kind of fiction. This argues that humor has to be related to a known background. For this writer. Reading opens windows on the world. because the visual nature of TV limits the imagination. he pins down the foibles of both nations. Our choice of fiction also depends on mood. and a whole group of modern novels . among many others. It may be this quality which distinguishes great from mediocre fiction. horror stories. Reading also excels radio listening. the spectrum of spy mysteries. after a hard day in the office. To read is more positive than to watch television. just as the Australian reader would see nothing funny in an English novel which I think hilarious. based on the machinations of MI6. the sort we find in Pasternak's Dr Zhivago. from time to time. some highly gifted. followed by dozens of other writers. This is the popular Agatha Christie genre. Again. There are. to the delight of both.What types of fiction do you enjoy reading and why? The reading of fiction is escapism. However. three genres which in the 20th century have had a great following. and partly because the quality of radio programs is so uneven. the Atlantic Ocean is a great divide as far as humor is concerned. Clarke's space fiction? Or perhaps it is something light and amusing. but not in any bad sense. partly because the listener has no choice in the programs. is for the good whodunnit. because the acts of violence are no more than pegs on which to hang intellectual solutions. So are we looking for people's reactions to a great sweep of national events. The American would be puzzled. a gifted raconteur like David Niven sells equally well on both sides of the pond. the KGB and the CIA. and more latterly by people like Blatty. Claudius andClaudius the god reveal the Imperial Roman Empire. and most people enjoy looking through these windows. The real trend. represented by Alistair MacLean and Hammond Innes. Failing a library. paperbacks are usually available. Tolstoy's War and Peace reveal the Napoleonic struggle. just as his Goodbye to all thatreveals the horrors of the First World War. Most people enjoy a good thriller. because the adventures of this veterinary surgeon relate exclusively to provincial English characters. whereas Jane Austen's Persuasion being a study of the mannered relationships of early 18th century English country gentry merely gives the Napoleonic Wars a mention.

a minister of health may take a different view. and using mosquito nets in the wet season. e. In any country he will need to decide on the allocation of his budget. Discovery of the cause of any disease is crucial. tetanus. In certain tropical countries. to cure disease or to prevent it ? The answer depends on the standpoint of the individual. However. However without strict public health regulations. and this in turn will depend on the priorities obtaining in that country. The main priority may be prevention. and one should not forget that they were the popular literature of their day. The means is to vaccinate with enough of the virus concerned to achieve immunity to the actual disease. and were often denied the literary status conferred on them by subsequent generations. the anopheles mosquito. The effects of it can be suppressed by drugs and its source.g. The most important preventive measure against disease is inoculation. it came from rat fleas. Should he or she contract a disease.based on carefully-researched subjects such as airports. In the long run there is little doubt that the prevention of disease is of higher priority than finding cures. these are public works. The prevention procedures was to destroy the rats. although the mosquito can be destroyed by spraying. malaria is endemic. they are still read for pleasure. nutrition and health education. This short essay does not mention the Classics. and also to educate people in public hygiene. malaria will persist. Other ministries will therefore be involved. in a period when finding an actual cure was medically impossible. This will require expenditure in fields other than medicine. The only thing left is. perhaps because the student may associate them too closely with examinations. Meanwhile a course of drugs will build up the body's resistance. avoiding standing water. which infected humans. hotels and banks. typhoid fever and some forms of influenza can now be achieved by injection. immunity from poliomyelitis. Suppression and prevention will ultimately lead to a natural cure. or where certain diseases are endemic. which in turn meant providing London with proper drainage. it is sometimes thought . then prevention is too late. This is particularly true in countries where people become the victims of epidemics. However. Certain diseases. yellow fever. especially in London. In fact. encapsulate raconteur foible to express or show the most important facts about something someone who tells amusing or interesting stories a strange habit or characteristic that is seen as harmless and unimportant Which is the more important. a cure. hopefully. The old theory was that the plague was caused by the stench of rotting refuse. The plague was eradicated by preventive methods. some fatal. Up to the 17th century England was ravaged by a series of bubonic plagues which killed off people by the thousand. In the case of childish and non-fatal complaints. have now disappeared from the Western world as a result. has long been known.

e. but so far no cure. Changes in diet and the invasion of microorganisms can also contribute. The strengthening of bodily defenses against disease is of strategic importance. since there are no medical treatments. Neither are there any preventative measures. though not always. lung and kidney surgery. heart. There are preventive measures. In adults.best to accept them. including drug addiction. e. because where a child's bodily health is generally good a natural immunity results. and at times. or from failure to adapt to environmental change. Meanwhile there is no means of preventing or curing either the common cold or the various kinds of rheumatic and arthritic complaints. now give new hope to many sufferers. boiling achieves a general level of safety. The same may be said about cancer. In general. warmth in cold climates. Prevention by abstention is all-important. fungi. may be classified as disease. which is becoming endemic in certain parts of Africa.g. thisscourge. toxins or radiation. is incurable. This necessitates a balanced diet. of which the origin is at present unknown. It can also result from changes in the body and from physical malfunctioning. such as not smoking. to avoid lung cancer. and the rejection of asbestos from the building trade. but the facts illustrate the patchy nature of medical advances. though its means of spread has become clear. although the stated connection between smoking tobacco and lung cancer is opinion and propaganda rather than demonstrable fact. measures to control it include the use of modern drugs. measures to prevent the inhalation of coal dust in the mining industry. jaundice and hepatitis are far more dangerous. Where the quality of water is suspect. bacteria. Its cure remains uncertain. Dramatic advances in bodily organ replacement. All of them can be lived with if drug suppressants are used. However much of the latter remains empirical while the actual causes of serious diseases remain unknown. There are treatments. The prevention of' its spread is essential. good sleep. Other preventative measures include eliminating the cause of disease from the environment. What is disease? It is the invasion of the body by outside agents. It can be contained by prophylaxis and avoided altogether by avoiding sexual promiscuity. scourge A source of widespread dreadful affliction and devastation . So far. surgery. When a disease has been caught. but if one has to generalize for the long term. viruses. This applies less to infectious and contagious disease than to contraction by individuals. Cure by skilled surgery may be the only option. Unfortunately it seems that as fast as one disease is eliminated another seems to take its place. A greatly feared recent illness is AIDS. the balance may he on the side of prevention. and favorable housing and working conditions. people have a built-in immunity to these invasions. though not always. although nowadays haematology saves many lives.g. reasonable exercise. In no case is there a cure for the condition. These examples and others can be cited to prove the topic-statement either way. X-ray therapy in the case of cancer. Certain addictions.

Where there is an attempt to give pleasure rather than to instruct. More intellectual programs arerelegated to the early or late time slots. religion included. should be free to deal with serious subjects. So we suffer a spate of situation comedies. television broadcasting as being to entertain. in any country. or to express the prejudices of the author. The intelligentsia would answer no. soap operas and panel games monopolizing the prime viewing times. and why not? The dictionary gives a wide definition of entertain -. Othersrelinquish all control and place the media in the hands of advertising sponsors.sexual promiscuity empirical indulging in casual and indiscriminate sexual relations verifiable Do you agree that the primary purpose of the Arts. painting. Cable television will bring wider choice. or what somebody else thinks is good for them ? We return to the purpose of the Arts. ballet. and later. Yet it is a strange co-incidence that without heavy subsidies from the state or some business source. People obtain pleasure from many things. of whatever kind. to occupy pleasurably.to amuse. allowing standards to find their own level on the basis of public popularity. it all depends what you mean by entertain. Britain may have the best answer. this demand is for entertainment which makes few if any intellectual demands. While they keep their independence. drama or literature. the Corporation remains independent of Government. and at the likes of P G Wodehouse and Mark Twain in novels. Their purpose is to . or to make us think about some social problem. at wit and topical comment in newspaper cartoons. Many seem to think that the theatre exists to make political points. is to entertain? As Professor Joad used to say. Of course. then there is obviously more to the Arts than that. Other countries may have different objectives. serious music. and the result of that remains to be seen. Of course serious writing. Should preference be given to popularity ? Should people be given what they want. Some regard the media as a tool of government. This saves the BBC from becoming too stuffy. the media are free to respond democratically to public demand. in that order. music and painting are seen as vehicles of getting across some message or other. In its early days. at farce on the stage. If the word means make one laugh. we do laugh at comic songs. the British Broadcasting Corporation defined the object of sound. At the same time it has to compete with the Independent Television Authority for support. inform and educate. the public is far more likely to be prepared to pay to support the Arts. it has to be said that Channel 2 is almost entirely given over to serious viewing. and so yes is the logical answer to the question. intellectual Art in general could not exist. Although funded from the license fee. opera. and programs concerning the Arts in general. and there has been no reason to change that order of priorities. In Britain. documentaries. as in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. and the ITV from dropping its standards to suit the lowest tastes. they comprise political and social comment. In all fairness. whether music.

occupy leisure time pleasurably. more than they once did. at least among highbrows. Most people enjoy drama which has a beginning. Whatever the intellectuals may think is good for us. Literature. Entertainment in the widest sense remains the primary objective of the Arts. personal to the artist. political figures. armies. This indicated the Empire. and to the loss of the factual framework which has to be learnt the hard way. indeed in some countries it has been merged with the story of progress in ideology. So much music has become tuneless. and themes now cover the whole spectrum of life. In the case of Britain. must be literary. Musical appreciation depends on personal taste. and may or may not be a true source of pride. farce a humorous play or film where the characters become involved in unlikely situations to give up something such as a responsibility or claim to put someone or something into a lower or less important rank or position relinquish relegate How far should the teaching of history aim to foster pride in one's country and its past? In the 1930s a British schoolboy would turn his geographical globe and find that a third of the land surface was colored pink. colonies end protectorates. The theatre preaches sociology and politics. the stories of rulers. but it is far from being the complete picture. sociology and industrial development. Schoolchildren grow up. The popularity test has been in question for a long time. the paying public will always vote with its feet. and dissonant. Most people prefer representational painting. but most people like a recognizable and memorable tune. perhaps discuss. a middle and an end. These at once cut across national insularity. the new approach may be superior to the old. the wind of change led to the independence of ex- . Yet. and bring a more sophisticated outlook to their study. Traditional and conventional themes have been abandoned. Subject matter has broadened. Another factor running counter to old-fashioned pride in country is based in the post Second World War international agreement about basic human rights. dominions. he might have thought one day we shall rule the world . Painting and sculpture take some abstract form. learn history in more depth. The teaching of history has changed in recent years. if the Arts are to survive. The problem with many exponents of the Arts is that their work has a minority appeal. Providing the new methods do not lead to the inculcationof political stances. Most people buy a book because it is a good read. No doubt all this has made people think. and military relationships with neighboring countries. The old approach was to concentrate on power centers. This of course is legitimate history. the fact that in Britain the Arts have to be supported by government handouts via the Arts Council speaks for itself. The schoolboy felt a sense of pride.

In more recent times there have been cases of empire-building by subversion rather than by military conquest. right or wrong is seriously suspect. the history teacher should not be ashamed to impart this information. the discarding of legitimate national pride unilaterally is impractical and unrealistic. There are some things which the teaching of history used to obscure. sports and games. Most empirebuilding countries were cynical in their dealings with vassal states. came a history of colonization by conquest. Whereas the concept of my country. whether military or subversive. In some instances local people were deported as slaves to be used for commercial gain. barons and petty chiefs. These may well include kindness. Poverty and lack of opportunity were ignored. especially in Europe. and the rule of just law. and it can he done without prejudice to the fostering of love of country for the right reasons. Neither should history teaching neglect improvements in living standards. these include individuality in dress. cultural and leisure services. give and take. and eventually the international standardization of privilege and opportunity. flexibility. care for the elderly. love of children. especially by repeating them often interested only in your own country or group and not willing to accept different or foreign ideas insularity . on the part of both East end West. total freedom to emigrate and settle at will. Most countries have a history of industrial and nowadays technological development. However patriotic. to all countries. Some countries still behave aggressively through their secret services and their arms dealers. community consciousness and hospitality to strangers. countries take legitimate pride in their own special characteristics. Arising out of this. in part or whole. even social improvement. this part of history is no longer condoned. Sometimes apartheid was built into the system. generosity. and in which e country can take no legitimate pride. Its extreme adherents visualize total disarmament. They apply. and environmental development and improvement. kindness to animals. Students can also take pride in the development of the rule of law and the strengthening of personal freedoms within the law. reductions in working hours and the provision of health. The right kind of national pride is at least a partial guarantee of freedom and a counter-measure against aggression. Although tempered by religious mission and the establishment of peace end stability. respect for neighbor. music.colonies and the distancing of the dominions from the influence of Whitehall. Rule was despotic. inculcation to fix beliefs or ideas in someone's mind. Pride may also be taken in the development of the democratic process. the theatre. Gradually the oneworld concept grew up. humor. Finally. alongside the progress to both national and personal independence. the abolition of class barriers and the enhancement of personal opportunity. family solidarity. and this has given rise to trades unionism which at its best seeks fairness and protection for the worker. Neither should the student be ashamed of the personal protection afforded by the society into which he or she was born. followed by commercial exploitation. or of the good qualities of that society. Militarism and unprovoked aggression towards neighbors comes first. What are these reasons ? The history of all countries traces the emergence of their peoples from the despotism of kings.

this is totally impracticable overseas. Realistically. Another counter-argument is that for close contact.e. however. It has to be said that zoos are constantly improving their facilities and bringing them . Zoology is best learnt in the classroom. There are four points in favor of zoos.vassal A person who held land from a feudal lord and received protection in return for homage and allegiance Are you for or against zoos? Until recently the case for zoos was never questioned. and since the Second World War in the grounds of large houses such as Longleat. This inhibits exercise. However it is conceded that given large enough cages or confined areas with sufficient animals these defects can be largely overcome. India and elsewhere. prevents the putting together of enough animals to allow for natural social behavior. and worse. They are accepted as useful and entertaining amenities which were also educational. This process is expensive and time-consuming. They are fenced off from the public except in safari parks where people can see them at close quarters from rover type vehicles. The concept of confining them in cages became suspect. and arguments against them all. Gradually however unrest has grown about the morality of keeping animals. and are never confined. the setting up of families and clans. i. Children have a chance to touch. Due to over shooting and deforestation in Africa. and that in the strict sense the zoo does not further education. These arguments do not of course apply to bird sanctuaries. with the result that their natural habitats have been re-stocked. Children love seeing animals. The counter to this argument is that animals dislike being domesticated for any reason. and either die or fall prey to predators. and difficult enough in the country concerned. in the laboratory. some types of deer and the Arabian oryx are examples. where the birds are encouraged to frequent natural but protected habitats. More than fifty years ago a wildlife park was established at Whipsnade in Bedfordshire. groom and ride on animals in a modern zoo. Sometimes it is unsuccessful. The koala bear. Point two is that zoos are educational. Seeing and touching animals means much more to a child than any number of good books or pictures. Some zoos specialize in activity centers which generate love of animals. and a visit to the zoo has always been a treat. The first is conservation. many species are endangered or becoming extinct. and from the text-book. The main argument against is that available money should be put into the saving of natural habitats. UK. reptiles and birds in captivity. lack of hygiene or incorrect feeding. The fact is that only 5% of endangered species are to be found in zoos. visual or actual. Attempts to mate these in captivity have been successful. Sometimes animals bred in captivity cannot adapt to the wild. tigers and elephants thus have room to move freely and to set up their own social structures. so the whole concept may be wrong. understanding and enjoyment. though not on grounds of ill-treatment. cages must be small. The major-attraction types of animals such as lions.

Problems of reintroduction into the wild are studied. also lectures. zoos as recreational amenities have a large following. The future may lie in this direction. and should be kept. The polar bear house in London Zoo is currently being remodeled in this way. If the wishes of the public are to be considered. and money becomes available for research as well as improvement. and data bases. statistics for analysis. Entrance takings are high. the continued development of zoos seems to be a valid policy. UK. in Cornwall. plus personal contact. The old defects will be overcome. Surroundings will be made larger and more natural. Animal behavior is studied. This provides conservation. with opportunities to touch and groom. The fourth argument for zoos is that they not only allow for research but also finance it. In the case of the London Zoo the answer is that they have an Institute of Zoology. Some agree.into line with the animal's natural surroundings as far as possible. Animal nutrition is studied. powerful vehicle designed for traveling over rough or steep ground and used especially by people who work in the countryside to prevent someone from doing something. Children have been mentioned. This again is not considered a valid argument by the opponents. rover a strong. scripts and tapes available in a modern zoo attract the adult also. The veterinary branch learns how best to keep animals and treat them when sick. There is also a strong case for the specialized zoo or sanctuary. This produces comparative surveys. but the informative booklets. education about their kinship and social life in natural colonies. or to slow down a process or the growth of something An exhibition of pictures or objects viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass inhibit peepshow . such as the woolly monkey sanctuary at Looe. What of the future ? Despite all arguments to the contrary. What kind of research ? people ask. Nothing was known about the social habits of the rhinoceros until specimens were brought into captivity and observed in suitable surroundings. others ask why animals should be made a peepshow.