Está en la página 1de 58

Write a story based on this line : "By evening, she was running a high fever ...

"
Far up in the mountains of Canada, there is an old abandoned log cabin. Once it was occupied by a young couple who wanted to distance themselves from the chaos of this modern world. Here they were miles away from the nearest town. Bob, the husband, made the occasional trip into town to buy supplies whereas Jan, his wife, spent her free time by the fire, sewing. Their life was simply idyllic. Then, one midwinter's day, Jan woke up from bed with a strange ache in her bones. Putting it down to overwork, Bob shooed her to bed and made sure she rested. Though Jan was impatient to get to her chores, Bob soothed her, "Relax, Sugar. You're overdoing things. All these chores will be here when you recover." However, Jan seemed to be getting worse instead of recovering. By evening, she was running a high fever and in greater pain. In spite of his best efforts, Bob could not manage to ease her suffering. And then suddenly, she started to lapse into unconsciousness. It was then obvious that she was seriously ill. What could Bob do? He had no experience in treating the sick and Jan was getting worse by the minute. He knew that there was an old doctor in town but he lived three miles away, downhill. Pot-bellied and obese, there was no way the doctor could make it up to their cabin. Something had to be done quickly! Bob racked his brains but to no avail. The only thing left to do was to go to the doctor. In Jan's condition, she could never walk that far in the waist-deep snow. Bob would have to carry her! Bob searched his mind for a way to move poor, sick Jan. Then, he remembered. He had once made a sledge so that they could ride together over the mountain. They never got around to using it though, because the whole mountain was thickly covered with rocks and trees. He had never found a safe way down, not even once. "Well," he thought, "looks like I'm going to have to try it anyhow," as he dug out the sledge from the storeroom. "Jan may die unless I get her to the doctor, and life means nothing to me without her." With this thought in mind, Bob gently tucked Jan into the sledge, got in the front, and with a short prayer for safety, pushed off. How they got through that ride alive, Bob has never figured out. As trees loomed up in front of him and just as quickly whizzed by his side, close enough to touch, he felt relieved that Jan was not awake to experience the ride. It was all he could do not to scream as collision seemed imminent, time and again, with only inches to spare. At last, bursting from the mountainside, the town came into view. Barely slowing down, they sped through the icy streets, only losing speed as they neared the doctor's house. The sledge, battered through the journey, collapsed in the left ski as it came to a halt, spilling out its occupants. Bob picked up his Jan and made his way into the doctor's house.

After what seemed to be a long winter, Jan recovered fully from her illness but Bob never recovered from his fright. They moved into the little town so as to be near help in times of crisis, and have lived there ever since. idyllic rack one's brains batter simple and carefree strain to find a solution to damage as by heavy wear

Write a story using this sentence as your first line : "It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens."
It seemed like it was going to be another one of those days when nothing much happens. Ken and his friends were playing their regular football game along the banks of the river near their small village. In the midst of the game, Ken's attention was drawn to a tourist boat passing by. Actually, tourist boats were quite common in their area. It was also common for some of the tourists to take potshots at the birds and squirrels along the way. This is why Ken's friends were not really surprised to hear a few small explosions from the boat. They ignored the sounds and went on with their game. However, they were startled when they suddenly heard loud cries for help coming from the boat. They could see that the crew were running about, panic-stricken. Some people were shouting to them. "Their engine must have blown up! Look, there's smoke and the boat's out of control. It's going towards the rapids," Ken pointed out to his friends. Ken's village was located at the point at which the tourist boats turned around and headed back upstream. Three kilometers downstream were the rapids, which spelt trouble for the boats. "It's heading straight for the rapids! They're in trouble! The boat will be smashed against the rocks!" Ken exclaimed. "Let's get help!" The boys sprinted back to the village for help. Along the way, they met the village headman. Stumbling over his words in his haste, Ken explained the emergency to the headman. The headman was a man of quick action. Without wasting any time, he yelled out to some men to help him carry his powerful outboard motor to the jetty. With the motor tied firmly onto bamboo poles, they rushed hurriedly down to the jetty. Their haste was indeed necessary for, by the time the men had reached the jetty, they saw that the

boat was dangerously close to the rapids. There was not a moment to lose! With quick hands, the headman attached the outboard motor to his sampan and then sped off to the rescue. Upon reaching the tourist boat with bare minutes to spare, the headman realized his mistake. How could so many tourists be packed into this small sampan? The headman was filled with despair. Then he saw the rope that had been used to tie down the outboard motor to the bamboo poles. It had been flung into the sampan in his haste. Quickly, he grabbed the rope and flung it to the boatmen on the tourist boat. "I'll tow you back!" he shouted. After the boatmen had tied the rope firmly to their boat, the headman made a swift U-turn and then, putting the engine on full power, he steered his sampan upstream. The rope gave a jerk and then, to everyone's relief and joy, the tourist boat moved forward, obediently following the small sampan. Loud cheers burst out from the tourist boat and the observers on the shore. Thanks to the headman's courage, the cooperation from the villagers, and the quick action of the boys, the tourists were saved from certain death in the rapids. take potshot sprint stumble a shot which is fired carelessly or with little preparation to run as fast as you can over a short distance to act or speak falteringly

Describe an incident when a moment of forgetfulness got you into trouble.
The morning sun shone persistently on my still-shut eyelids. Annoyed, I rolled on to the right side of my mattress. Wondering about the time, I stretched out my arm to grasp the little, round alarm clock on my bedside table. I forced open my eyes, focused them on the numbers ... and screeched! Leaping out of my bed, I swung open the wardrobe door. Throwing my school uniform on the bed, I dashed to the bathroom. Halfway, I spun around and grabbed my school bag, deciding not to brush my teeth. Soon, I had shoved my feet into my shoes and pounced onto my bicycle. My parents stood motionless, staring at me as I whizzed past. As my bicycle raced on, I noticed a group of schoolgirls looking my way with great interest. Well, well! Obviously, I was still attractive even with uncombed hair. My heart was pounding furiously in my chest as I whirred past a few cars on the road. The drivers seemed to stare with disbelief that one could pedal so swiftly. In no time, I reached the school gate, which was just

about to be closed. Without bothering to explain myself to the priggish duo on guard duty, I hopped off my bike and dashed off. After locking my precious iron steed at the shed, I sprinted to the school hall. As I burst into the hall, I braked to change direction and made a beeline for the back of my class. Screeching to a halt, I took my place behind my classmates. In the whole gathering of students, I seemed to be the centre of attraction. It did not matter much to me at the moment for I was used to being looked at. However, to say the least, I was a little surprised when everyone stopped staring blankly at me and started to giggle. Suddenly, the whole hall was filled with roars and bellows of laughter. Smiling at my audience, I decided to take a bow. Then, I noticed that the bottom half of my trousers were the wrong color. My line of vision moved upwards, revealing that the rest of my pants were also the wrong color, and so was my shirt. At first, even my powerful brain could not figure it out. "Daniel! Why on earth are you in pajamas?" my friend blurted out amidst the hollers of laughter. The feeling of sheer horror swept through my entire frame. My mouth was stuck open in an "0" shape for a few long seconds. My mind was filled only with shock as darkness mercifully started to engulf me. Once again. I awoke with lights playing on my eyelids. At first I had little memory of what had happened, but one look at the group of people peering down at me brought the whole incident back to mind. The young boys were all clad in white uniforms and grinning quite lunatically at me. In. the high corner of the room, I saw a red crescent. Then the horrible little squirts started to call out for their seniors. Outside, I heard freshgales of laughter. The brats were chortling. I was still clad in pajamas. Not knowing what else to do, I feigned unconsciousness again ... in no time make a beeline for gales of laughter in a relatively short time to straight to a forceful outburst

Imagine a world where nobody gets sick or old. Write a story based in this fictitious world
It's my birthday today. I have lost count of how many birthdays have passed, but I still keep my tradition. I climb to the top of the nearby hill, bringing a handful of dirt with me. I press it into the ground. Then, I sit down to prepare my mind for my next annual rite: reminding myself of

who I am and why I am living. I made this hill, actually, and I'm still building it up. I started on my tenth birthday. Now, the hill is large enough for me to ski down each winter. In a world where people stay young forever, persistence pays. Persistence was what led Dr Syue Cano to discover the secret of eternal youth. At the age of eighty-four, he identified the gene that causes humans to age and the specific radiation that destroys it. No one will know whether he detonated his "Youth" bomb for the sake of his own immortality or for the sake of the other human beings in the world. However, his defective heart could not withstand the impact of the blast. He died the instant the bomb exploded. Mankind will always be grateful for the discovery to which Dr Cano dedicated his life. However, he left the world with one problem: the earth's limited natural resources. Even with plant growth accelerated by scientific wizardry, food and oxygen were becoming inadequate for the world population, which only kept booming. Some subtractions were necessary for the survival of the human species. The only solution was to remove some of the people by unnatural means, that is, to execute them. Thus, this was why all crimes were made punishable by execution: murder, theft, adultery, slander, hoarding of food... the list is very long. This was the only way to maintain the valance of nature. That's where I come in. I am an Executioner. I work alone, never considering the risk. People say I have a death wish. Perhaps I do. Certainly, yesterday's job was no waltz in the park. Rob Tao was suspected of stealing and hoarding food. My job was to check this out. As always, I was to be detective, judge, jury and executioner. I had enough stealth technology to break into Tao's compound undetected. To get into the house was also a cinch. My vibra-blade cut through the wall like it was butter. In the house, my Arometer detected food, lots of it. I went down corridor after corridor, following the bleeps of light on my Arometer. The signals went wild outside one closed door. There was a lot of human activity inside, judging by my HUO sensors. I primed a grenade and opened the door just a crack -- enough to see whom I would be executing. Then I deprimed the grenade. Sitting there were thousands of children. Rob Tao stood amongst them, holding a huge pot of steaming mush. He smiled at me, seeminglyunperturbed. "You're feeding all these children?" I asked, flabbergasted. "Yes," he replied quietly. "How do you get so much food? I'm sure you steal it," I said.

I remember how. at 53 years.. Sitting here now. he started to take me on jogs. It was not my decision to make. I found that I was able to do so. I know that in a few moments. I can't remember what I'm killing for. One day. Soon after that. the familiar sound of my father's car reaches my ears. Secure and loved. I was picking up the hooks and reading them on my own. My father has always been my source of encouragement. Yet. To our shared delight. "A healthy body breeds a healthy mind. cinch unperturbed flabbergasted something easy to accomplish free from emotional agitation or nervous tension to shock someone. My father. so as not to stir me from my concentration. I do. looking in quietly. on my hill. When I was very young. His broad shoulders and rather serious demeanor give him an air of authority." . I don't understand why I just walked out. I was the one who would read aloud. huffing and puffing. I remember his words. Yet. just 50 yards away. as I stand perched on the peak of Mount Kina. I imagine his Fort Cortina coming up the driveway. my father would point out the spelling of words. on his lap. he would take a book from our small home library and read aloud to me every night. I was introduced to the fascinating realm of books. my father will be pausing outside my door. He has a slim and athletic body. breathing deeply after a good run. as he was reading. my father stood observing me as I was running to a field. As I grew into boyhood. he told me that he would not like to see his son grow up into an unhealthy man. has thinning hair swept back from his forehead."Yes. these days. Then one day. he instilled in me a sense of God's presence in this world. kind eyes. with his gentle correction every now and then. I had no excuse for letting him get away withhis crime. I was a most reluctant jogger. behind his steel-rimmed glasses are soft. he instructed me to read the words for myself. He would read stories and parables from the Bible. Worriedly.. my bookish ways and disinterest in outdoor games made me overweight. At first. Going to execute me?" Still that gentle smile. From that day onwards. However. I arrived there. usually by telling them something they were not expecting Describe your relationship with your father Every evening. I became quite a bookworm. From that day onwards. Thus. clumsy and rather unfit. I know he will feel pleased as he watches me studying. as I am doing my schoolwork in my room. can't remember what I'm living for. the engine purring to a stop.

"Smile. and I was shaking with nerves.. Yet. Since then. Finally. Absolutely humiliated. After listening. "If a job deserves to be done. I was at a piano recital. and I was able to succeed. "I can't believe I actually did that!" There was this incident about five years back. Looking back. remembering those times. when I was about to give up on a task. he would know just the right things to say. I tried holding my breath. whenever I feel dauntedby a task. I was able to smile in spite of my problems. Then he said." Somehow. sometimes. to no avail. he advised me. I can be sure that my father will be there. his advice always comes to mind and this spurs me on to persevere. I poured out my heart's discontent. my father has been there for me whenever I needed him. but they have certainly made me more aware of my limitations." Well. "I'm a green-faced alien from Pluto." Somehow. the dreaded moment arrived. he put an arm around my shoulders and gently asked me what was troubling me. it was my debut. When I was sick. I have certainly had my share of ridiculous accidents. when I was really depressed. Lifting my bowed head. Actually. At another time. he consoled me.. I think. he would rush me to the doctor. I exploded in a huge. Then. it deserves to be done well. My father had bought me . Not all of them have changed my life. Once. and the world around you will smile. He would surely be there. I am only a few years away from adulthood and know that many more challenges lie ahead of me. I sat at the piano and started playing. looking out for me all the way. through my childhood and adolescence. Why? Because he loves me. demeanor daunt The way in which a person behaves to make someone feel slightly frightened or worried about their ability to achieve something to encourage an activity spur on Describe some of the minor accidents that you have experienced Accidents are part and parcel of life itself and to say that you have never had a silly accident in your life would be like saying. My fingers were needed on the piano keys so I could not reach tip to rub my nose. I realize that every step of the way. I dashed off the stage.My father has a store of wise sayings which may seem common to some but always strike the correct note with me. I felt a tickle in my nose. there was this skating incident which occurred only a year ago. his words gave me the strength to try again. sloppy sneeze that blasted my music sheets right off the piano. I would just have to give him a call. Nothing could get me out there to face the amused audience. However. In any kind of trouble. Halfway through the first movement. When I was sick at heart.

My legs had no sense of direction.. We were at our annual class party and having the time of our lives. After a few rounds. At that very second. groundnuts. or so I thought. Standing up. not knowing what was ahead. There was a loud Crash! Boom! and Bang! Fortunately. we had all sorts of games and competitions. I could not remember when I had last enjoyed myself so much. of course. I was. I think. I was waving my arms around. Finally managing to get upright. there you have them. My mother had just bought a microwave oven.. part and parcel to no avail grimace to be a necessary feature of a particular experience of no use A sharp contortion of the face expressive of pain. Actually. It started smoothly. turned the dial to "high" and pressed the lever to start the oven. Gleefully. they were my first pair of skates. This year. I found myself staring the gate right in its metal grille. warming up food was not complicated . Then. Another accident occurred right in the safety of my home. we had decided on the picnic at the beach. in the kitchen. my hair. Well. On that fateful day. or disgust Describe an occasion when you were caught in a rainstorm. my mother had left me a plate of fried rice to be reheated for my lunch. with my left leg heading north and my right heading south-east. the whole kitchen was covered with egg-yolk and rice that the force of the explosion threw. am I clumsy or just low in luck? A little of both. She stood in shock for a moment before charging after me. I lost all control of my bodily movements. I opened the oven to take out my warmed-up food. for the first time in years. actually. So. Well. I confidently put them on and fastened them. like a drowning chicken trying to fly out of the water. There was no lunch for me that day either. However. "Argh!" screamed my friend as the water balloon hit her full in the face. On the plate were the usual accompaniments to the coconutflavored rice: vegetables. thanks to my protective pads. I watched my dish of food turn graceful circles in the oven. My clothes. After eating. I had never skated before. . contempt. laughing and yelling out threats.my first pair of in-line skates. I placed the plate of food in the microwave oven. some of the grimace-inspiring details of my life. chillied prawns and a whole hard-boiled egg. Boom! It was "Egg yolk keeps falling on my head". Carefully. the egg exploded. I shoved off. still considered a user with "L" (Learner) plates as far as this oven was concerned. all that was injured was my selfconfidence.

However. Then. and as it neared evening. It was beautiful. The sea was turbulent. sending up sprays of sea water high into the air. The sky was dark. Gust after gust of howling wind blew through the trees. Lightning streaked across the sky. we started preparing to leave. I ran out and stood in the middle of the storm. I remembered that I had left a T-shirt on the beach. suddenly. Holding my backpack over my head in an effort to ward off the relentless blows of the rain. however. dejectedly. thrilling to the sounds of the thunder and the crashing waves. the shirt was an old favorite of mine and I was so wet from the water balloons that a little more water would not make a difference. I reached it at last and darted in. I stared out at it. The beach was now deserted. the waves threw themselves on them. As I shook out my hair. . I debated whether or not to return for it as I could see dark clouds heading my way. Finally spotting a tiny shack at a distance. I was supposed to walk the short distance to my aunt's house after the party. I looked around for my T-shirt but it was nowhere to be found. Finally.. all good things must come to an end. As I gazed. as with a fixed stare or by arousing terror or awe Describe the sights and sounds at the end of a long day. my feelings of dejection turned into awe.. I felt I had to be part of it.However. About halfway there. captivated by the power and violence of the storm. with a loud crash of thunder. with powerful waves crashing onto the shore. where jagged boulders stood in the sea. lighting up the whole scene for a split second each time. I stood transfixed. I mentally kicked myself for getting into this situation. the heavens burst and torrents of rain came pouring down. I dashed for it. Wondering when the rain would stop. time and again. I scanned the area for a place of refuge. drizzle ward off transfix rain in very small light drops try to prevent to render motionless. scary and magnificent at the same time. I gave up. reveling in the stinging rain and chilling wind. "Cuckoo! Cuckoo!. drenched to the bone and shivering from head to toe. after minutes of fruitless search. The black clouds hung low. I started heading back. to be at one with nature." the cuckoo clock on the wall of my office called five times. On the left. with thick thunderclouds and it had begun to drizzle. and relishing the magnificence of nature.

I entered my apartment. the result of hours of hunching over documents and surveyed the whole noise-polluted room. The burning rays of the sun stoked up the oven which our bus had now become. heaved myself up. undoubtedly about clothes or make-up. I pushed my chair back. Yet. up I went. was just in front of my flat. I straightened my stiff back and neck. Then I continued towards the bus stop. Sigh! I had no choice but to join the crowd. I groaned aloud when I saw the hordes of people gathered there and regretted leaving my car at home. after a little fumbling for my keys. we would all sway backwards. As I stepped out through the glass doors of the air-conditioned building."Yes!" I shouted in my head. humid air slammed me full in the face. Then. and had my toes trod on several times. I grabbed hold of a strap and tried to stand firmly Every time the bus lurched forward. I shoved my way out. Then. I dragged my body up the flights of stairs to my second-floor flat. probably trying to get her to go for a drink. stunning me for a few seconds. heading out the door. Then. forced by the pushing crowd into the packed bus. the new clerk. "All in . I dropped my briefcase and handbag on the floor. Cars. thankfully. only to stop with a sudden jolt. Mandy and Lily were chatting animatedly. I was too tired to walk home. I reached my door and. I searched for a seat. I finally arrived at my stop. Buses came and left. started stuffing things into my briefcase and my huge handbag. Finally. The bus hurtled on. I was ready to perish amidst the petrol fumes and the stink of stale sweat when I finally managed to squeeze my right foot onto a bus step. and Cynthia was doing the waltz in her three-inch heels. I became nauseous and thought many times about getting off. With a sigh of utmost relief. "Time to pack up!". a blast of hot. we got caught in a massive traffic jam. No way! They were all definitely occupied. Inch by inch we moved and one and a half hours later. I couldn't wait to get home. there was the rushing and jostling as I tried to force my puny frame through the masses of burly men and women. Jay and Rayne were chatting up Sarah. Andrew was yelling at Mac for throwing a paper plane at him. Every time it was the same anxious craning to read the bus number above the heads of the crowd. which. careening madly round corners. my strict upbringing forcing me to mutter a few insincere "Excuse-me's". buses and motorcycles around us kept up a constant honking. I was crushed on all sides. With a grunt. Feeling woozy and yet hyped up. I did not even bother to try the elevator as I knew I would be competing with a crowd of thirty or more residents. turned on the television and collapsed on the couch.

the food chain will be disrupted. There will be a greenhouse effect on earth. Animals and plants live in symbiotic relationships in the balance of nature. Without trees. As creatures dependent on the food chain. Secondly. Thousands and thousands of acres of lush rain forests are cleared each year to make way for development. people forget that they are also cutting down our supply of oxygen. the earth is left vulnerable to soil erosion. floods will become frequent in the area. man is ultimately destroying his own sources of food through the destruction of rain forests. Trees absorb the carbon dioxide breathed out by living creatures. the lush vegetation will give way to wasteland. the great and tiny inhabitants of these forests? Nowhere. Yet. They die. as the earth's temperature rises. reprocess it and. As a result. . my girl!" I told myself. produce the life-sustaining oxygen. Then. and gazed with unseeing eyes at the television. what happens when trees are felled? Firstly. the rivers will become shallower. raising the sea level. perish typed up fumble to die artificially stimulated or high excited search blindly and uncertainly The problem of deforestation.a day's work. Consequently. the flowing water will not only wash away the topsoil but will deposit it in the rivers. Mankind will be thrown into a state of unimaginable suffering and agony. Where do they go then. The once beautiful and spectacular forests are reduced to barren landscapes. Thousands of people will suffer in these floods. warm air and radiation will be trapped under the earth's atmosphere. Great floods will hit the lower-lying areas. While cutting down a tree to add yet another piece of luxurious furniture to Man's already opulent lifestyle. in the end. This is for the sake of development. Another point to note is that forests are home to hundreds of species of flora and fauna. the excessive carbon dioxide will also effect a change in the micro-climate and raise the region's temperature. the ice in the polar caps will melt. where will this oxygen come from? Will we process it in factories? Will a time come when man will be fighting for the very air he breathes? Furthermore. a shocking fact will hit us full force. and the land without its topsoil will no longer be fertile. What I am talking about is the lack of oxygen. for the advancement of man. Man destroys this balance when he flattens the forests to the ground. The heavy tropical rains will carry away the rich topsoil. When forests are a distant memory. If this goes on. Slowly but steadily.

affluent put in motion What changes would you like to see in your school ? If you were to see the number of suggestion slips stuffed into my school's Suggestion Box. This is why environmentalist groups are pressurizing governments to reduce the felling of trees and the clearing of forests and to be serious about replanting forests. I am emphasizing this point because some teachers do not seem to feel the slightest obligation to do their job well nor the slightest feeling of guilt when their students fail in the examinations. Granted. With the support of ordinary citizens like you and me. This is why we ought to preserve our forests. Some are so irrational . Another aspect of the school that needs changing is the set of school rules. By preserving our forests. teachers are sometimes found sipping coffee or even having a snack in the school canteen when they are supposed to be in class teaching. Of course. There are many ways in which my school could be improved. This is why we. they will get the attention of the people in power. we are preserving ourselves. Members of this beautiful planet must be united. Firstly. A change in our environment will trigger offanother change which will trigger off yet another. Teachers should not shirk their responsibilities towards their students. there are teachers who are truly committed to their job and do deliver the goods. some of the suggestions are rubbish but I do agree with many of them. if only all teachers were like this! Furthermore. We can also help by planting trees. many weaknesses that need seeing to. In fact. it is a vicious cycle. wouldn't the school be a much better place to spend our adolescence if we did not have to cope with teachers who vent their foul moods on us? We should not have to walk on eggshells because our teacher has had a bad day. They stay up late into the night to finish correcting their students' work and to prepare effective lessons for their students. Now. such as the Scouts movement. lush opulent trigger off abundant rich. This is especially true for children from lessaffluent homes who cannot afford to supplement the school's teaching with extra tuition. teachers in all schools should realize that they are responsible for their students' future. should keep the balance of nature. in my school. luxurious.As you can see. and most importantly. you would be shocked. Some teachers will even devote Saturday mornings to conducting extracurricular activities.

"Moral Education" should either be taken off the school curriculum after primary school or changed to emphasize practical application rather than "head knowledge". even if they have to be harsher. I flick the start button and feel the soft vibration begin. Our school years take up a large proportion of our lives. you should be treated like one. Good morals have to be internalized. students may get away with only a warning or a "booking" for offences such as breaking the school's tables.or petty! Take. Pushing . or threaten to do so. fun-filled atmosphere. one of the best supersonic planes ever invented. What is the rationale behind this? Do the people in authority believe that everyone with long hair will turn out to be a thug or a villain? Well. I return the gesture to indicate that all internal systems are working well and that I will be taking off. the rule on short hair for boys. If you behave like a criminal. Furthermore. Another area that needs reform is the school curriculum. affluent walk on eggshells extort having a lot of money being careful not to offend someone or do anything wrong to obtain something by force or threat What occupation do you see yourself in after you have completed your schooling ? What are you going to do to achieve this ambition ? I climb into the cockpit and sit myself down on the metal seat of the F-16 "Falcon". I strongly feel that these vandals should be made to pay for what they have destroyed. So. This is the time that we are molded. caring. These days. I feel that criminal action should be taken against students who beat people up. One major problem is the subject called "Moral Education". The sergeant gives me the thumbs-up sign from the far run way. for example. indicating that all the external parts of the plane are in order and functioning well. in a secure. chairs and even doors. punishments for serious acts of indiscipline should be made more effective. I run a routine check on all the aircraft's dials and gauges as well as the weapon systems through the heads-up display. Let us spend these hours usefully. intellectually and morally. You just cannot learn good morals the way you learn any other academic subject. memorizing facts for examinations. look at Hitler: he had very short hair and he almost caused the extinction of the entire Jewish race! On the other hand. to extort money from them. I hear the hum of pure power. Our school hours take up a large portion of our day. Help us to grow into worthy citizens of our nation.

I have just sat for the O levels. I began to read books on aviation and air adventures. The results will not be out for months but I feel confident that I have done well. I feel the acceleration of the plane taxiing off the runway and into the air . throughout my childhood years. The requirements for fighter pilot candidates are many and difficult to fulfill. which is essential for healthy eyes. quick reflexes and the ability to stay cool under pressure. my ambition narrowed from just wanting to fly a plane to becoming a fighter pilot. I make sure I sit a good four meters away from the screen. I was especially fascinated with accounts of air battles. I plan to do my A levels. My hard work has paid off and I have been topping the class in these subjects. And after that. He must be able to withstand the high and low g's when piloting a jet at high speed. perfect eyesight. a fit body. Among them are academic excellence. . I never stint on my study times. Thus. When I do watch television. I shall enlist in the US Air Force. I watch my diet. run ten kilometers a day and work out in the gym at least three times a week. I have always aspired to be a fighter pilot. My dream began when I was about seven years old. Thus. I knew that I would never want to do anything as much as I wanted to fly. taxi scud within one's grasp to move slowly on the ground to move quickly and without stopping in a straight line the ability to achieve . I made sure I qualified for the science stream in High School. It is crucial for a fighter pilot to be fighting fit. I have always been conscious of the need to preserve the perfect eyesight that God has blessed me with. I pray with all my heart that it will become a reality and not remain just another of my boyish fantasies. my uncle took me for a ride in his private plane. It was a momentous experience for me! Soaring freely in the sky... eating food rich in vitamin A. I have always curtailed my hours of television-viewing. In school. Next year. I have always made time for exercise. There is not much longer to wait. So. My dream is almost within my grasp.the throttle to three quarters. as a pilot must have a good understanding of physics and mathematics. I play games regularly. The thought of scudding through the sky with the ability to defy gravity with a multi-million dollar piece of machinery and patriotic fervor excited my soul. Well. One day. I have always been careful to read only in well-lit areas. I have never been the kind of person to leave things to chance: I am constantly aware of the need to work towards my goals. into adolescence and up till now. Biggles was my hero above all other heroes. In addition. As I grew older. high above the rest of civilization.

. Would you like to be this spineless adult? I leave you to decide. "For instance. misguided members of the opposition. The eldest child is also cast as a role model for the younger ones. I shall present my own points. a beloved child might end up being the black sheep of the family. will also develop patience. "Ladies and gentlemen. Now. They are only disadvantageous if you are unable to see the long-term benefits. But. he will be overly dependent on others. the opposition contends that it is an advantage to be spoilt in this way. This self-esteem will motivate him to succeed in every aspect of life. "Undeniably. an average of 3 out of 5 successful people -. and members of the floor: Good day to all. the eldest child will shoulder more responsibilities. Ever heard of the expression "Spare the rod and spoil the child"? It is true. I agree. having straightened out a few delusions of the opposition. lawyers. Thus. "The eldest child.It is better to be the eldest child than the youngest one in the family. He may have to give in to his siblings because `they are too young to understand'. he has to try harder to maintain discipline and a high standard of behavior. the second member of the opposition claimed that the youngest child will be treated more leniently than the others. honorable judges. he develops tolerance and understanding of other people's weaknesses. Without strict and loving discipline. One of the advantages of being an eldest child is that he is used to being respected and obeyed by his siblings. having to cope with his siblings' antics. is this an advantage? By being treated too leniently. proposing or opposing this motion. He will often be left in charge of the younger ones. in other words. pampered and mollycoddled but what will this pampered child grow into? It is a maxim that too much or too little is no good: Once a pampered child grows up. You see. "Mr. "Write a debate speech. "Standing here today on this breezy morning as the third speaker for the proposition. Chairman.corporate leaders. Thus. again. How can this be? "The opposition has also pointed out that the youngest child is usually more pampered. This is because they know he is wiser and more experienced. Now. these momentarily trying circumstances will shape the child and prepare him for the challenges that lie ahead. politicians -. spineless. is this good? It is indeed enjoyable to be fussed over. the child might think that his misbehavior is perfectly acceptable. I wish to continue where my team-mates left off to correct the misleading information presented by the opposition.were the eldest children in their families. This is a good feeling and it creates high self-esteem. According to a survey conducted by the Home Ministry. "All these points were described as 'disadvantages' by the opposition.

They race through the syllabus so that they can cover everything in it in time for the examinations regardless of whether their students have understood the material. According to Chinese custom. In most cases. In monarchies. there you have it. you are wrong. to give the sensible ones amongst them a chance to start defecting over to our side. Thank you. Clear arguments to demolish the opposition to this motion. The distinction is even sharper in poor families where the eldest child may be the only one whom the family can afford to educate or feed properly. the eldest child is the heir to the throne. a national savior in World War II. "So. The weaker students often end up the victims in this race -. Government examinations are also said to be the necessary yardstick for measuring the capability of each person for further education or employment. Another problem related to our system of examinations is that teachers become too "examorientated". They become more and more discouraged as they understand less and less of the lessons. the eldest son carries on the family name. and work completed methodically and with minimum fuss. He was a school dropout and yet he became one of England's greatest statesmen. Yet. some talents and forms of ingenuity go undetected in examinations. to the point that they hardly care if they pass or fail. If you think that the eldest child is only privileged if he belongs to a wealthy family. therefore he deserves a larger share of the property. as in the case of Prince Charles. Clearly.they are left far behind the rest of the class." mollycoddle antics sensible to give too much care or protection amusing. this attitude will be carried with them into adult life. the eldest child will inherit the greater share of the wealth. are examinations an accurate yardstick? A person's true abilities may not be shown by written examinations. .where deadlines and sales quotas need to be met. So much time and emotion is poured into preparing for examinations. silly or strange behavior having an awareness or understanding of a situation Should our school examination system be abolished ? Give reasons for your stand. And now I hand over to my opponents."On to my next point. Sadly. Advocates of the system contend that annual examinations are a good way of training children for the stress of life after school . From primary school to the end of their tertiary education. which centers on the word 'privileges'. students face the daunting task of preparing for examinations every single year. for example. Take Winston Churchill.

Furthermore educationists. In conclusion. On the other hand. we only have one thought in mind: to excel in the examinations. dirty and smelly. employers. Firstly. All through the school semester. We rush from one tuition class to another and we spend most of our time studying for tests and examinations. the students will be able to understand the humility of the school workers when they have to clear up other people's messes in the toilets. For example. Cleaning them will be most unpleasant. The public reaction to this issue was so strong that people have been flooding the mass media with opinions for and against his suggestion. "They will also be able to respect the cleaners because he is able to do the necessary job. while I realize that it will be impossible to do away with all examinations." Do you agree ? About two months ago. speaking as one. . He suggested that cleaning these toilets should be part of the school curriculum. They have to study. One of the reasons the Education Minister gave for his proposal was that cleaning toilets will teach students humility and respect for others. regardless of the low status it accords him. many students just do not have the time to make full use of these extracurricular activities. study. advocate ingenuity well-rounded person supporting an idea or cause publicly someone's ability to think of clever new ways of doing something involving or having experience in a wide range of ideas or activities "Cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. our Education Minister brought up the subject of school toilets. which student in his right mind would be happy about having to clean a toilet? Most school toilets are dark. Another advantage of this proposal is that the students will try to keep the toilets cleaner as their friends will be the ones forced to clean up any mess they create. or doing our homework. Is this really living? A related point is that some students are so occupied with their studies that they do not develop their potential in other fields. study. I feel that they should be given less importance within the school system.What about the "swots"? Well. However. Firstly. our emphasis on examinations is indirectly producing people who are only trained to study and reproduce facts rather than wellrounded individuals. students should also be evaluated through the cumulative marks of tests and assignments. there are countless reasons for me to be apprehensive about this proposal for making toilet cleaning part of the school curriculum. So. It is true that there are many clubs and societies in the school. instead of basing entry qualifications on one examination. I confess that I often wonder whether it is worth it. parents and the students themselves should always be reminded that the results of examinations are not equal to the sum of the net worth of the individual. This job is looked down upon and considered one of the lowest.

enjoyable atmosphere. Some egoistic guy will create havoc in retaliation! Then. In conclusion. apprehensive merriment ponder feeling anxious about something that you are going to do having enjoyable time together to think carefully about something. my most worthy opponents and everyone else present here today. Of course. More ill-behaved ones may even purposely push each other into the toilet bowls. have they? Actually. where the inmates are forced to do humiliating chores. Chairman. in a wholly girls' or boys' school it would not be so humiliating. For example. However. Imagine them expressing their playful nature in the toilets. "Mr. the students may slip and fall in theirmerriment. So. Frankly. "The second speaker for the proposition said that advertisements cause people to keep buying low-quality goods. how many of us were so influenced by these advertisements that he or she has started . the teachers of other subjects may find it hard to complete the syllabus. we would try a much advertised product only because it was something new. Other than the fact that excessive water is sure to be splashed all over the place. if it were a co-ed school. there is the consideration that most students are playful. Its advertising mode probably fits all the descriptions made by the proposition team member. due to the rise in absenteeism. Even the members of the proposition team have been able to note the various tricks and so-called brain washing maneuver. honorable judges. the male ego would certainly suffer a lot of pain. especially for a noticeable length of time Write a debate speech in support of advertisements. It is important that young people actually like to come to school. I feel that the Ministry of Education should really ponder on this issue carefully. School is supposed to be a place where young people can imbibe knowledge and good values in a pleasant. do you choose the most highly advertised tissue paper or toilet paper? At most. Now. Before I begin on my main points. Take the Cherry Coke advertisements.Furthermore. Actually. I feel that people generally are not so naive. Thus. One other possibility that cannot be excluded is that students may be so turned off at the thought of toilet cleaning that they may decide to skip school on the days that it is their turn to learn this skill. I do not agree at all that cleaning toilets should be part of the school curriculum. a spell of cleaning toilets will certainly be a blow to their ego. few of the usual purchases that we buy are heavily advertised on television or anywhere else for that matter. Imagine girls laughing and teasing a guy who is forced to clean toilets. I would like to express my disagreement with one of the points expressed by the proposition team. jobs like toilet cleaning make one think of prison camps. the tricks haven't worked. anyway. However. Good afternoon.

she saw the advertisement for a lizard spray that can paralyze lizards temporarily. not only in America but also in Levi's factories in Indonesia. without advertisements. The name of this brand of jeans is none other than Levi's. Imagine all the bother one must go through to find out the product one needs amongst the rapidly expanding array of products and inventions available. this industry grew into an international company known by both the young and old. Let me give a real example. one would have to phone just about every shop in town! Nowadays. another point is that it is only with proper circulation of the products made possible by advertising that the companies are able to mass-produce their products. How could my dear grandma have found out about such a strange but useful product without advertisements? Jokes aside. consumers can purchase these goods at reasonable prices. for it means they can find the right kind of product for themselves easily and quickly. "Now. one day. See how advertisements have been such a blessing! "I rest my case. millions of consumers benefit because of advertisements. Estate managers can find out about the right fertilizer or pesticide. the company can afford to give better pay to the workers and offer more jobs. Mass production is more economical and allows the producers to lower the price of these goods! As a result. I would like to state the benefits of advertisements from the economic side. Here is another real-life case.to drink the beverage weekly. Because of its increasing popularity through advertising. doctors can find out about the latest medications. One man started a small and humble cottage industry of jeans-making. From a cottage industry. many people find just the product required to take care of their particular problem. advertisements of the latest technology and inventions are also beneficial for the consumers. industries can also greatly contribute to the expansion of a company from regional to international status. Thank you. Then. we can just flip open a newspaper or even the Yellow Pages. End of lizard problem. "Thirdly. especially to avoid hitting things . "Fourthly. This company was able to grow due to advertisements. creating job opportunities for millions of people. Why. through reading the advertisements in newspapers or magazines. If the companies are not able to inform the public about their new products. the Philippines and other third world countries. but we must remember the importance of these factories to the nation. this industry gradually weaved its way into the market until it started to prosper. computer owners can find the best software. As you can see. or even monthly? "Now for my first point. Advertisements can help companies to introduce their latest products to the market. This may sound capitalistic. they will not have the confidence to try to produce it. My grandmother used to have too many lizards crawling around her house and she is paranoid about them. It is undeniable that advertisements play a crucial role in increasing a company's sales." humble weave not proud to go or make a path by moving quickly and changing direction often. With the increase in sales.

"Actually. the women have been doing it for centuries. especially when the wife has better qualifications. while we men opt for more 'relaxed' lifestyles. if my wife insists on being the breadwinner. "Some people doubt that a man can manage a household. or dinosaurs. Women have long been downtrodden and forced to mind the house. who will stay at home to take care of the children? Usually in cases where the mother works. perhaps the country would be run better. Bringing home the bacon in modern times needs intelligence and sensible thinking. And. And. more and more women now qualify as doctors. However. So. moose. what often happens is that the wife has to quit her job. who knows. This is not healthy. Eking out a living then consisted mainly of running around with a club or spear. or should I say. Is this fair? Not really. You see. People have thus come to the conclusion that it is the woman's duty to mind the home and it shall be her role forever. as fathers. the fairer sex. And. I could even play golf every morning while the kids are at school. Children need parental care. as a member of the male sex I feel guilty. as we all know. looking at the current state of the world. What's so bad about that? So. "Personally. men are perfectly capable of performing domestic chores and minding children. So. "There was a very good reason for this in ancient times. characterized by people competing with each other for power and money . what with wars. whether men should be house-husbands. "Thus. now that we're approaching the year 2000. let's give the women the chance to work at those jobs that they've always wanted.paranoid feeling extremely anxious Write a speech for an elocution contest entitled " Should men be househusbands ?" "I would like to share my thoughts with you on a subject that has always been close to my heart. hunting deer. The men should be given the duty to mind the house occasionally. perhaps we men should just stay at home to mind the house and let the women run the world!" downtrodden bring home the bacon the rat race badly and unfairly treated to earn money for a family to live on a way of life in modern society. that is. I feel that man has always dominated. there has been a vast change. men can give the affection and care that the children need. the children are left in daycare centers. After all. bullied. women can and do think as sensibly and intelligently as men. lawyers and scientists. You see. then. And that's what really counts. I will be relieved of the stress of running in the rat race. famines and nuclear weapons.

People have been saved from suicide just by having a friend to listen to their troubles. he makes up stories just to entertain his friends. then. Some matters. It is clear. As the saying goes. Not being perfect. The thing to do about rumors is not to spread them. Sometimes simply having an ear to hear our heart's cries and knowing that someone understands us will make us feel better. little lies can lead to the spoiling of relationships. should be discussed with friends. the friendship will not be salvageable. Therefore. need not tell each other everything they know or feel. much caution must be applied when dealing with our friends. In cases where lies have been told to hurt you or other parties on purpose. Everyone depends on his friends to a certain extent. that some things need to be said to our friends without any twisting of the truth. just to impress others. the friendship will never be the same. about them. I feel that friends. even the closest of friends. If an ugly girl with an inferiority complex were to ask you if she was unattractive. Another noteworthy fact is that sometimes. must we always tell our friends the whole truth and nothing but the truth or is it sometimes simply none of their business? One thing is clear: finding out that your friend has lied to you always hurts. shared joy is double the joy and shared sorrow is half the sorrow. even when the matter is not of great importance. I just do not feel comfortable with him. Sharing one's problems and despairs with a friend will bring forth the encouragement and advice we need to hear. Personally. In conclusion. of course. The final result can be a mangled product which could really hurt the parties involved."Friends should never hide anything from each other. telling the truth may be worse than saying nothing. If the lie caused you great damage. Gossip can start simply because someone thought a rumor was true and shared all her thoughts on the rumor with a friend. of course. sometimes. Telling the whole truth in this case would destroy her remaining shreds of confidence. all people have been in constant chatter with one another. Sharing the good times can brighten up a friend's day if he feels down. he exaggerates circumstances a little." Do you agree ? No man is an island. The friend. One must use his discretion in such situations. So. of course. so much that people may shape their entire lifestyles simply to find favor with their clique or circle of friends. An all-toocommon example of such a time is when one hears rumors. we are bound to make mistakes. one must then be prepared to . However. Who would want a treacherous person for a friend? Yet. who actually had no real knowledge of the matter. especially in our speech. even if you have strong opinions. sometimes he tells halftruths to get out of trouble. You see. sharing one's problems and joys with a friend can also be helpful as we deal with the problems of daily living. I have a friend who often tells little untruths. Apart from the question of maintaining credibility. passed all her thoughts and ideas to another friend and so on and so forth. it would be a very bad idea to tell her just how unattractive she was. there are times when telling a friend too much can also lead to problems. Sometimes. Ever since man formed a system of verbal communication. I just never know whether he is telling the truth or one more of his little lies. while some others should be hidden. So then. stressing on her good qualities. Relationships are important to man. We have to balance our love for truth with the practicalities of the situation.

Freedom. go anywhere or do anything. imperfections and all. "No Independent Income". tenderized. life as a youth is tough! Firstly. youth is the worst time to get romantically attached. I have to rely on my parents financially. If I were a piece of chicken. I have to rely on them for accommodation. which means that no one will employ me for any worthwhile job. our kiddy IQ test results and such other traps for vainglory. being young automatically means that I have limited knowledge and no job skills. Then. that's what friendship is really about -. clique treacherous noteworthy a small group of people who spend their time together extremely dangerous deserving attention because important or interesting "The Golden Age of Youth". Since we started schooling. Furthermore. The pressure from our family gets stronger the older we grow. I'd consider myself "Kentucky Fried". You cannot buy anything. Unable to function without cash.make up with our friends. school examinations become so important that many of us will study hours on end to perform well in them. Parents. many of my friends' complaints seem to attest that their experiences of youth roughly match up with mine. apologizing for our verbal blunders and forgiving them for theirs. In such a situation. morally and in whatever means they can think of. clearly and simply. In fact. as long as you are not too old or too ill to walk. I have to rely on them for transport. you become severely limited in your options. it is undeniable that without money. our parents have been comparing our test results with those of the children of their friends'.accepting people for what they are. How true is this description of your life as a youth ? "The Golden Age of Youth"? Who coined up that expression? I am certainly not experiencing "golden" days in my life as a youth. Secondly. theoretically. physically. our parents have been comparing the ages at which we first started talking or walking. people will always be measuring you by your achievements. I have to jump. I am deprived of the vital human right that caused the American Civil War . Now. not because I was "spicy" or "original" but because I have been chopped into pieces. socially. This means. because. Thus. there is the question of romance. this is a problem for me. teachers. Practically speaking. Actually the pressure on us to perform well at all times is great. that my parents are my Supreme Commanders. Unable to buy a car. society and the government love to gauge us scholastically. as was earlier explained. since we were born. This is especially true for people in their youth. Obviously. who happen to be equally goalorientated parents. that is. This means. Unable to buy a house. When they tell me to jump. Well. we lack the time and money to maintain . pressurecooked and well-fried.

quarrels between husband and wife concern other family members. However. be a true friend whom I can have fun with and want to spend my leisure activities with. which leads to heartache and causes us to perform badly in our examinations. a husband and wife should be intellectually matched so that they can understand each other. my ideal mate will be someone who participates in the games and sports I like or at least. don't you? So. of course. I would also prefer to have a wife who is intelligent. the first thing I notice when I meet a girl is whether she is pretty or not. this causes us to be more prone to getting involved in romantic relationships. This in itself can cause more emotional disturbance than all the other events of our lives combined. I know my life will be enriched by having an intellectually stimulating partner to share my thoughts with. for example. Yet. Some men have the stereotyped "dumb blonde" image of a perfect woman. Unfortunately. To be honest. youth is a traumatic time. That is why I often meditate on the qualities I would seek in my future wife. after all. Many factors make the difference between marital bliss and having "an old ball-and-chain" but the most important factor is probably whom we choose to marry. we are at our peak. Furthermore. In my opinion. on end vainglory traumatic Continuously. I think that the government should have chosen a better time to set all the major examinations than at this time. we are at our most attractive. unwarranted pride in one's accomplishments or qualities An emotional wound or shock that creates substantial. but few people go round seeking ugly mates. the idea of "The Golden Age of Youth" must have been an illusion dreamt up by fools. Long lashes and sparkling eyes do not cause someone to "fall in love at first sight". Perhaps we should call it the "Iron Pyrite (Fool's Gold) Age of Youth". Sports and games and other recreational activities are fun and foster closer ties. More importantly. A wife should. and to offer fresh insights to old situations. be willing to learn them. an . during our youth. There was. Who better to enjoy sports with than my wife? This will draw us even closer together. Your wife may be perfect but her parents may be irritating beyond comprehension. It is definitely not "golden". Of course. lasting damage to the psychological development of a person What qualities would you look for in a future wife or husband ? Along the road from cradle to grave many of us get married. our hormones are swinging about wildly as we mature sexually. Often. I am no different. physically.a special boy-girl relationship. So. without interruption Boastful.

I'll love her. I realize that I have listed a whole string of qualifications for my future wife. I would demand that my favorite delicacies be served to me and that my favorite stories be read to me. I remember the look in her eyes. I had to spend most of my life away from school and in bed. with a girl like that. everyone else will be trying to win her hand. through the years. In fact. Well. My world consisted of the feel of her cool palms soothing my brow and her floral scent as she leaned over me to tuck in my blanket.incident in City Center where one man's mother-in-law came to stay. There was just me and Mummy. So. caring kind of woman is the only one with whom I would make any commitments for marriage. a sympathetic. for your best friend. I remember her low voice. a loving wife who comforts you and listens to your problems can really make a difference. perhaps. I always say that one's future in-laws should always be checked carefully before one makes decisions about marriage. that might just be enough. Most of all. I was a spoiled brat. My world was very small then. Not surprisingly. That was how I knew my . as the proverb goes. At odd hours of the night. "The best laid plans of mice and men can fail". I fretted a lot and constantly demanded my mother's attention. My mother would put everything aside to comfort me. bliss meditate foster perfect happiness to think seriously about something for a long time to encourage the development or growth of ideas or feelings Write a composition entitled: How I know my mother loves me. However. One day. So I would say. I would ask for a hot drink or a cookie. I will really consider her The Ideal Wife. too. I was miserable. she cooked and ate his pet dog for dinner! So. chances are. During the day. I'll be in for a tough time! Furthermore. hushing me as I fretted about the pains in my joints. If a girl isn't prepared to be faithful to you but she marries you anyway. When I was very young. Not once was that demand refused. Commitment is very important on her part. "Mummy. chances are she's going to run away and leave you one day. fall in love and get married. and. stay with me!" was my constant whine. or just some company. Not once did my mother groan or grumble. I will meet a girl one day. if I can find all these qualities in one woman. If you are dead tired after a long. too. More than likely. of deep concern for her sick child. And even though she might not be perfect. I was a sickly child. She answered every unreasonable demand of mine with unfailing patience. frustrating day at work.

Miraculously. My relationship with my mother has suffered from my wild pursuit of fun. I have outgrown my childhood ailments. sweat was pouring down her temples.m. I just wanted to sleep. certain to encounter trouble or punishment in for it How do you measure success in life? Reaching the top of the tree in one's chosen occupation or profession is the usual standard by which success in life is measured. It was the same look of concern that she had always had when I was so sick. It was almost 1 a. I had been unable to call home to inform my mother that I would be delayed. I looked up at her face to try to gauge if her scolding would be continuing much longer. which is eleven o'clock. fret spoiled brat to be anxious or worried A spoiled brat is a child whose parents or other educators systematically fail to teach socially acceptable behavior and discipline. in case one of those hands should find its mark on my face. I revel in the fun that the world has to offer. still ranting at me for my disobedience and "wild behavior". My friends made a quick exit as she ranted at me. I didn't say a word. . Then I saw something familiar about the look in her eyes. As I got into bed. I was ordered straight to bed. Now that I am on the threshold of adulthood. way past my "curfew" hour. when I reached my house. There were no phones where we were "hanging out". she stood in my room. However many Asians would reject this criterion. her arms waving wildly. To make matters worse. Her face was red. This is how I know my mother loves me now. She criticizes my choice of friends and tries to enforce rules and regulations to curb my activities. Two nights ago. Thus. The contemplative religions assert that success is only measurable in terms of religious advancement and of the acquisition of the virtues. at least in the Western world. my world has grown to include many exciting friends. success would be in inverse ratio to material advancement. I stayed out way. Set free from the prison of the sickbed. I knew that I was in for it! My mother flung open the door the minute she heard my friend's car pull in. I saw in her eyes all the fears that she had suffered that night as she waited for her daughter to return safely.mother loved me then. I was tired.

Perhaps the fundamental way to achieve success is first to be sure of what you want to do with life and then to be sure that you are capable of doing it. The difference between the lifestyle available to a millionaire and that available to a billionaire is marginal. A successful life depends crucially on good personal relationships both within and outside the family. Success thus means failure. It is more to do with happiness and fulfillment. Some are born into positions which already confer affluence and power. The children of successful capitalists or career workaholics sometimes reject everything the father or parents stand for. and some very wealthy people become very mean. A satisfying yet balanced way of life makes for the former and a religion or at least a philosophy for the latter. Beyond a certain point the acquisition of money proves unsatisfactory. The body should not be neglected. Many of these careers will not confer much success in theworldly sense but they will lead to the success of happiness and fulfillment. Money also creates anxiety since it usually has to be put at risk if more is to be made. that worldly success can be combined with a sensitive and therefore successful approach to the problems outlined above. and it may damage a business man's relationships both with his peers and with his subordinates.Most of the world accepts the definition of material advancement. mental and spiritual peace. reject it in favor of the simple life. though these are often its attributes. It is often made at the disadvantage of others. at the height of their affluence and power. It is of course possible. both being the most important means of self-expression. These pressures and anxieties often have a detrimental effect on health and on family life. its objectives being affluence and perhaps power over others. others have to find their own role in life by trial and error. Other anxieties may be created when a large number of people become dependent on a financial empire. Unhappily money making can become an obsession. so success to them might lie merely in the preservation of the family business or estate and perhaps its enhancement for the benefit of the next generation. However success is not strictly related to the externals of power. This happens for a variety of reasons. though unlikely. Some people are strongly motivated to a profession or to politics or to social campaigning from early days. contemplative confer deep in thought to give . To ensure the well-being and happiness of others forms a large part of success. absence of strain is at least as important. If a man or woman can achieve this then he or she truly has the right to be called successful. physical wellbeing is usually the result of good food and exercise. Money confers power which may corrupt. What then are its features? First. prominence and affluence. The western concept of success is not always satisfying and some people. Most people have to work hard to to achieve success. One's wife and children are inevitably neglected and unhappy.

so the Second Front invasion of Europe by the allies in 1944 can be amply justified. since the two world-power centers remain NATO and the Warsaw Pact association. were an obvious choice. However. close at hand and regarded as an easy number. or even two extremist parties each claiming the government. Its Security Council can urge members to take economic or military sanctions. as in Afghanistan. how cynical they are is a matter of opinion. drawn up by the San Francisco Conference in 1945. cynical believing that people are only interested in themselves and are not sincere . and no doubt extensive economic aid from one of the great powers. infiltration is much easier. Sometimes. A physical take-over can sometimes be achieved without shedding a drop of blood. What is certain is that after such a takeover a large section of the population will remain discontented.. in succession to the League of Nations exists to maintain international peace and security. invasions do occur. do the majority of the people want such a take-over? A case in point is the invasion of the Falklands by Argentina. or to food. The ground for military invasion is usually prepared by other means. There is national pride. The naked aggression of Hitler in Europe was totally unjustified. theostensible reason was to establish a stable government in a country which. Motives for invasion vary. as in the case of Afghanistan. and that of the Falkland Islands by Argentina. However. Nobody forgets Vietnam. Nobody wants to risk a full scale war for the sake of a principle. The guiding principle governing the justice of invasion is surely this. This having been said. are inevitable. which country was at the time suffering internal troubles and needed a famous victory abroad. The U. or to gain strategic territory. in fact. or can provide a peace-keeping force drawn from member nations. So to invade or not to invade involves a crucial balancing of factors. If there is instability and national discontent. There is the instinct to expand. An actual invasion becomes a mere formality when a government accepts perhaps thousands of military advisers. the Russian invasion of Afghanistan. particularly since. or not to become encircled. The Falklands.worldly relating to the ordinary life In what circumstances is the invasion of one country by another justified? Invasion is never justified if there is a possibility of resolving disputes by diplomatic means. so the British armed forces had to throw the Argentines out. and lead only to further repressive measures.N. or to gain access to minerals such as oil. That particular invasion by the British was justified. massive war equipment. Its powers however amount to little more than those of the old League. the desire to annex territory which rightly belongs to a country but which has either become independent or has become the dependency of another. Recent examples include the invasion of Iraq by Iran. realistically it becomes another matter to retaliate when the major powers become involved. the islanders wanted to remain British. That invasion was not justified. bordering on the USSR was claimed to constitute a threat through instability. the Argentines were refusing to negotiate. particularly since Argentina regarded the 'Malvenas' as their historic property. Future troubles.

and in that country the Royal Ulster Constabulary. British people accept the need on occasion for this military back-up. when the ramifications of crime cover a large area. and often. Examples are riots in pre-war London stirred up by the National Socialist movement. and despite a vocal left-wing and liberal minority. or a strike of one or more of the essential services. during the First World War Southern Ireland has tended to side with the enemies of Britain. an armed force. Since the Irish Free State came into existence in 1922. who is also responsible for that other troubled part of Britain. and the Metropolitan Police Force by a commissioner. A less frequent role has been to quell riots and this is unpopular with the army since soldiers do not like inflicting injury or even death on fellow citizens. through the Secretary of State for Ireland. and before then. and more recently the riots in Liverpool. also responsible to the Home Secretary. water works. been called on in various roles during domestic emergencies. needs the presence of armed and equipped British troops. who are constantly called into para-military action. political violence. Can you suggest any improvements? One hundred and fifty years ago a Conservative British Prime Minister. joint operational headquarters are set up. founded the modern police force. The county police forces of the rest of Britain are controlled by chief constables responsible to the Home Secretary. It has. This replaced the old system of town and village constables in their local peace-keeping role under the beadle. Today the police are controlled by the Home Secretary. but prefer it not to be used. In case of serious trouble. their work being aided by data banks in a nationwide computer system. back into British hands.annex ostensible to take possession of a country by force claiming to be one thing when it is really something else Describe the system for maintaining law and order in your country. Opinions vary from those who advocate a 'troops out' policy. Very quickly the new force obtained a national respect which it had never previously enjoyed. it retains that general respect today. to those who would like to bring the whole of Ireland. Sir Robert Peel. Because of crime increase. forcibly. buses. Apart from straightforward crime. Ireland has always caused more headaches than the rest of Britain put together. To man essential services during a general strike. including railways. mostly in London.e. Northern Ireland. This often consists of a group of extremists from one foreign country attacking the embassy of another.. the situation is further complicated today by crime in a new guise i. ambulance drivers and fire brigades. behind the police force stands that section of the British Army which is home-based. with reluctance. and trying to buy publicity or political advantage with threats and the taking of hostages. Birmingham and London attributed to a mixture of ethnic discrimination and unemployment. leaving Ireland to get on with a civil war. power-stations. and the modern mobility of criminals there is more co-operation between these separate forces than before. To deal with these we now use a quiet little .

There are. The object is to protect the low-lying parts of London when a certain combination of wind and tide raises the water level by as much as thirty feet. looting and arson. or work for a diminishing crime rate and a more peaceful and law-abiding community? If the latter. Another will be to restore confidence in the policeman's fairness and integrity in areas where interested parties have sought to erode this confidence. has responsibility as part of their job quell the beat Discuss the benefits of and the problems caused by the artificial damming of rivers. in the home. Firearm availability must be more strictly controlled. such as a police officer. Mountain passes. meeting violence with violence. Above all children and young people should be less exposed to television and film violence. Since rainfall is never sufficiently uniform to provide a reliable water-source from normal river flow. The damming of rivers to form reservoirs was common practice in Roman times. homes and animal and human life. maintaining law and keeping order on the streets by presence rather than violence. and probably much earlier. beadle a minor parish official whose duties include ushering and preserving order to stop by using force an area for which someone. Some of us deplore the tendency to issue firearms. known as the SPG. and being known by them. Following heavy storms in mountainous areas more water than a river can carry will flow down to the plain. there will need to be fundamental as well as cosmetic changes in our national life. spanning as it does lengthy periods of drought. but recognize that the police are at a disadvantage otherwise. The traditional police force has only been armed with a whistle and a short truncheon. a new respect for law and order. if dammed. and more on foot.section of the armed forces known as the SAS just as we use a new section of the police force to quell street rioting. Over the intervening centuries the practice has evolved for three main purposes. An example is the recently constructed Thames barrier below Woolwich on the River Thames in England. other reasons for damming a river. This control of water works from sea to river as well as from river to sea. . This consists of solid pillars across the river with massive steel plates between each pillar which can be raised or lowered mechanically. of course. and industrial use. Do we have to accept that the world must become more violent. They merely erode police morale. more community policemen back on 'the beat' and knowing their area and people. The cosmetic changes include less policing by vehicles. Local authority police committees to monitor police activities are in the hands of anti-law and order elements. The fundamental changes needed go deeper. human consumption. the reservoir has always been a great boon. and taught. irrigation. give the opportunity not only to control the flow of flood water at its peak but also to retain large quantities for controlled use in dry weather. a life-sentence must mean what it says. kept off drugs and alcohol. inundating large areas often destroying crops. and do no good. So far these have not often been needed. Since the motion to restore the death penalty was defeated in Parliament.

or scratching a mere subsistence from the soil. Some rivers in their natural state arc not navigable by large vessels. The USSR has been in dispute with Turkey over this matter as has Egypt with the Sudan. A dam built for one country's benefit may be much to the detriment of another. Creating an artificial lake inevitably changes the character of a large area. where water shortage can be a nuisance but is rarely a disaster. and the control of their floodwater for irrigation purposes essential. More often than not a dam may be central in a multi-purpose scheme including most of the functions outlined above. who have to resettle elsewhere. natural scenery. The problem is more acute when the countryside about to be spoilt is environmentally unique. as well as causing loss of life. as in a recent case in Australia. In these areas populations are often nomadic. hunger. There have also been cases of the collapse of dams due to inadequate strength and imperfect design. that lying higher up the river having the whip-hand. and most are used by sailing clubs. farms and houses. This is particularly true in countries lying in temporate zones. Where such rivers can be dammed they can be given a constant depth for purposes of navigation. being built below the level of the dam. and for other aquatic sports. in the opinion of some. and this benefits a country's communication system. despoiled. The destruction of the Mohne See dam in the Second World War brought the industry of the Ruhr to a virtual standstill. dehydration and death to animals and humans alike. of course. provide good fishing. flora and fauna. appreciate this. nor the environmentalists. boon something that is very helpful and improves the quality of life . The damming of major rivers such as the Nile is crucial to life itself. has to be inundated. A second drawback may be political. but even this is not preventing large tracts of North East Africa from reverting to desert. A reservoir is also a great attraction to water-loving birds and often becomes an interesting staging-post for migrations. Neither the residents.A further use of the dam is to produce hydroelectric power. It is then returned to the river. People have to move. Water is channeled through conduits and used as mechanical power for the turbines. Farmland is destroyed. Many rivers flow through more than one country.sons of drought. inconveniently. Matters are different in underdeveloped countries which are hot. or run dry in sea. dry and barren. Some stocked with trout. A great area of land. Perhaps of least importance is the social value of a reservoir. driving flocks and herds from waterhole to waterhole. Dams are vulnerable to air attack in wartime. Drought means disease. with its trees. where attempts were made to involve Prince Charles and Princess Diana in the dispute. the power station. Damming a river can also cause problems. Reservoir water is also used today in vast quantities in nuclear power stations for cooling and other purposes and is similarly returned to the river or to the sea.

flora and fauna despoil The flora and fauna of a place are its plants and animals to make a place less attractive especially by taking things away from it by force Why is common salt so important? In its mineral form sodium chloride. so in combination with grit. is known as common salt. reading and watching television. sodium bicorbonate. taste and smell. so much is lost. used when iodine is lacking in diet. so presumably does not `miss' sight. Salt lowers the melting point of water. It is different for a person who goes blind because suddenly. the swelling of the thyroid gland. personal independence to a large degree. and in the manufacture of glaze and porcelain enamel. of chlorine etc. Livestock as well as humans need salt. of caustic soda. NaCl. touch. hide brine grit the strong thick skin of an animal which is used for making leather water with salt in it. of hydrochloric acid. It is also used for water-softening by means of removing calcium and magnesium compounds from tap water. It is used in meat-packing sausage-making and fish-curing both for seasoning and as a preservative. It is also used in soap-making. It is difficult to grade the senses in relative importance to mankind. enjoyment of all forms of visual beauty. Salt and potassium are combined to produce iodised salt. sodium hydroxide. Opinions vary particularly between sight and hearing. For domestic use it is fined down to what is known as table-salt. It is also used in the curing and preserving of hides and in the form of brine for refrigeration purposes. a compound used to assist the fusing of metals. especially when used to preserve food very small pieces of stone or sand Discuss the relative importance to man and animals of the five senses of sight. and small quantities of other chemicals are added to it to keep it freeflowing when in contact with the atmosphere. and this provided in the form of solid blocks. driving a car. Salt is also crucial to the food industry. Some of these deprivations can be partially . Salt is extensively used in the chemical industry. It is important because it is essential to the health of human beings and of animals. A person blind from birth has no concept of vision. It also enters metallurgic processes as flux. it is used for clearing roads of snow and ice. known as 'salt-licks'. in the manufacture of baking soda. Its absence causes goitre. or gradually. hearing.

which are tested experimentally. Thus it becomes far more highly developed than in humans. but it seems to be. sand. who rely on it to detect enemies and to find quarry. taste and smell are all sources of pleasure. The hearing range of animals is much wider than that of humans. have a protective role in warning them off obnoxious and poisonous organic and inorganic substances. From the human point of view most people would grade the importance of the senses in the order given in the question. as with humans.overcome. Many animals have very limited vision. Touch. they can live a relatively full life. so that conversation and teaching can be carried out. etc. Pure science is the investigation of natural phenomena for the purpose of understanding. simply because vision is relatively unimportant. Smell or scent is of crucial importance to many animals. This is not necessarily so in the animal world. traffic-sense. the two latter being important in the enjoyment of food. depends largely on hearing. Their absence can. Touch and taste are also of less importance to animals than to humans. combined with smell. For the same reason hearing is of nearly the same importance. the loss of nerve endings can lead to severe domestic burns and abrasions. Dogs can hear supersonic sounds and react to them at great distances. since survival may depend on it. The obvious drawback to deafness lies in loss of communication. however be dangerous. braille A system of writing and printing for blind or visually impaired people the process of rubbing away the surface of something a large artificial hole in the ground where stone. The loss of sight tends to train a more acute hearing. Musical appreciation and music making are also open to the blind. The social disadvantage of deafness is that of the impatience of others. The traditional method of lip-reading supplements this. sight. is dug out of the ground for use as building material abrasion quarry Discuss with examples the relationship between pure and applied science. since. smell. hearing. these two senses. ranging from braille and books on tape to all kinds of domestic appliances designed for the sightless. Many blind people would grade vision as less important than hearing. Nobody can ask an animal to grade the importance of the senses. but they are all relatively dispensable. Deafness is not at once obvious and so may be mistaken for stupidity. and there are many modern aids for the visually handicapped. though. though today there are some marvelous machines which allow the sufferer to learn speech through varied frequencies of vibration. Observation leads to the formation of theories. If the theory seems to explain to all the phenomena it is classified as a principle and added to the store of . In the modern world deafness can also be dangerous. particularly in children. given help and their own determination. People will always help the blind in practical ways. touch and taste in that order. while taste and smell can detect lethal gases and poisonous substances.

made their contribution. The historian of pure science can trace its advance from the records of the earliest recorded cultures to the 20th century. The logical approach of Renee Descartes was of great importance. Figures were constructed to provide proofs. enable the advance of pure science. Another example of many is the modern computer. Since method depends on knowledge. one of its uses is to make a multitude of instantaneous calculations.existing scientific knowledge. Thales and his school. Astronomy and Mathematics were brought together for the purposes of navigation. Applied science is known today as technology. Copernicus. The Egyptians. anthropology. The fact that we can now see into the far universe and into the construction of matter has had a profound effect on the theories concerning both. relativity and quantum mathematics. upsurge handmaid laborious a sudden and usually large increase in something female servant needing a lot of time and effort . though the greatest advances were made by Sir Isaac Newton. Pythaggoeras and his successors provided the first systematic method of understanding the natural world. 6th to 7th Centuries B. Lister. As pure scientific knowledge advances. as did the Arabians and Indians in the field of arithmetical notation. although theory produced the telescope and the microscope as optical research instruments. was developed (Dalton). electronics transformed both. In the present century. which is concerned with techniques. atomic theory with all its consequences. so does technology or method. Although applied science will always remain the handmaid of pure science. it is also true that the advanced machines made possible by higher technology. though they can facilitate the increase of knowledge. Later advances took place in the field of biology. especially in the field of Mathematics and geometry. The second upsurge of pure science began with Galileo and his predecessor. The names of Pasteur.C. This in turn eliminates the laborious mechanical aspects of investigation and gives the researcher the tools for making rapid new discoveries. no improvements in method can increase knowledge. (Einstein). bacteriology. Francis Bacon sought to produce a system to replace that of Aristotle. While this remains the servant of the brain which invented it. Thus. during which pure science has made greater advances than ever before. who synthesized many theories into an intelligible whole. who gave the world its first true understanding of the universe. surgery. and the new theories of light. 17th Century. Darwin and Harvey come to mind. though less interested in strict accuracy.

In the 30s any provincial town could offer more than this. During the past twenty or so years much has changed in the taste of film goers. usually for pleasure or education of bad quality to arrange something atrocious set out Consider the influence of Pop star and their music . The days of 'Doctor in the House'. combined with the instinct to escape from a deprived environment. Deliberate attempts to entertain the teenager have produced many films with the accent on explicit sex and violence. of films built round 'stand-up' comics such as Arthur Askey. and their stars are almost national heroes. or indeed any television. of situation comedies. No longer do families make a weekly outing to the cinema. outing when a group of people go on a short journey. For example romantic feature films seem to receive great popular support in India. is alive on both sides of the Atlantic. 'The Return of the Jedi' is currently showing in London's West End. This may be due to the lack of good. However the government is trying to prevent the sale of such cassettes for use in home television sets. 'Star Wars' and 'E. Film stars in the old sense no longer exist. There is no doubt that current popular taste rejects films which set out to be amusing. though small. One 'clean' though juvenile taste which is fairly new is for space fiction films. The great days of Hollywood ended with the last war. Today there are less than twenty films showing in the West End of London. unless a film such as 'Gandhi' with wide general appeal is put on. have gone forever. For one thing the cinema of today is the virtual monopoly of young people. and an excellent film can still make a lot of money. Another point in its favor is that the quality of television is deteriorating and seems likely to become atrocious when cable television is introduced. and when a good film is made there is still a following.' are recent examples of overwhelmingly successful productions. Almost every home contains a television set and much of what is left of the British film industry is concerned with film-making for this medium. There will be even more space for rubbish and repeats.What are the most popular types of film in your country and why? Answers to this question will vary widely according to the country concerned. In the West the film has not been the major entertainment medium for over twenty years. though more recently such productions have moved into the 'video nasty' area. However the film industry. They now form part of the television menu as repeats.T. Today most cinemas have long since become Bingo halls.

Pop music began in 1960. insecurity. a sense of responsibility. calflove. who has now become a cult figure. Rolls-Royce motor cars. The world knows about the end of Presley. discard the society which produced them and ignore its social sanctions. But the sinister initial letters of 'Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' suggested the drug scene. Left-wing activists provided a third group. some of whom were villains. insanitary camp conditions and drug abuse. They succeeded. The pop cult grew in the late 60's and early 70's into a major industry. suddenly replacing dance music. in 1960 their instinct was to break loose. In Liverpool a group of four fresh-faced tidy young men with neat hair. everybody tried. the misunderstanding of the adult world and a few curiously alien themes. the drummer. jazz and the tuneful lyricists such as Crosby. The establishment. For many years Carnaby Street set teenage clothing fashions. become totally independent. the adulation proved irresistable. It has taken massive youth unemployment in England to destroy the pop market. getting into this ensured rich rewards. and at that time of full employment in the USA and the UK. but this quickly changed to rock n roll. by which is meant regular hours. world-wide travel spread before the eyes of young hopefuls. And because a few made it. The Beatles made millions. the money-makers and the drug pushers. began to produce original themes which reflected the innermost feelings of teenagers. morality. the electric guitar. but millions more for their promoters. The money. litter. the teenagers. and. Thus they became the market for the pop industry. Those selling over a million records entered the golden disc bracket. although Carnaby Street is no longer the centre. 'Beatlemania' swept Britain and many other countries. the vocalist. Sinatra and their imitators. and T shirt uniform has persisted. a worthwhile job and. was condemned as square. with Elvis Presley as its afficionado. hard work. yachts. The music began with 'skiffle'. whether they really had talent or not. since they had high wages and few outgoings. There is no doubt that the pop scene was orchestrated and manipulated by cynical adults. However the deepest effect of the pop scene on affluent young society was upon teenage attitudes to life. Perhaps the biggest money was made by pop concert and festival promoters. Now. the denim jeans. and while there is still money in it for the few it is no longer possible today to buy an electric . From time to time these festivals have caused trouble because of noise. but then the 13-19 year group became a new class. the fame. the group with the spare money. in general. aided by two groups of cynical adults. This was theheyday of the top twenty. Successful single makers cut LPs. Prior to 1960 young people were either adolescents or young adults. They were the fashionable group. and his titles such as 'Rock around the clock' reaching international heights of popularity among teenagers. 'doing one' own thing'. Parental discipline. The focus became the star rather than the group. loneliness. The real money was made in the industry associated with the stars. The problem has abated because of careful police monitoring. large country houses. school rules and wartime restrictions had hitherto kept this age group in place.

Yet it also began the polarization of East and West.guitar and make your fortune in a month. provided invaluable points of reference in Jewish Biblical history. pop stars never had the slightest influence in the real world. The earliest empires were necessarily limited geographically. Malta. who sought to create an Aryan empire by the invasion of surrounding sovereign states. heightened the social consciences of the Western states. Today the euphoria has largely gone. have the great empires of the world achieved? Self-interest. They visited the Scillies and Cornwall and circumnavigated Africa. as in the case of Germany under Adolf Hitler. and with the build-up of nuclear arsenals this poses in 1984 an even greater threat than that of Adolf Hitler in 1939. if anything. who established colonies in Cyprus. The seaboard of Libya. such as the Moabite Stone and the Siloan Tunnel inscriptions. Perhaps the twenty years or so of pop fever provided a safely valve for the young who were none the worse for it providing they kept out of drugs and crime. all are natural. Self-interest needs definition. and of course the need for territorial expansion. and through those later empires to the alphabets of most of the European states. An agricultural community with a growing . for example. The Phoenecian Empire provides a good example. The aggressive instinct. Its effects are interpreted variously. The war also broke down social barriers. centered in the Lebanon. for obvious reasons. the desire for enrichment by trade. Hitler's failure. Carthage in North Africa. heyday adulation insanitary the most successful or popular period of someone very great admiration or praise for someone So unclean as to be a likely cause of disease What. and they exported cedar to Egypt. produced a hardy race of seafarers. The course of history itself has always had something to say about aggression. brought the democratic institutions of Western Europe into focus and laid the foundations of the European Community. Sicily and Spain. Moreover they invented an alphabet which gave rise to both the Greek and Roman alphabets. To consider the great empires of the world we need to look back 4000 years. Musically. purple cloth and jewelry all over the Middle East. Yet their real interest was in trade. has always been the motivation behind empire-building. furniture. Its occasion has been the development of military and naval power and in recent times air power. in some shape or form. headed by the USSR and the USA respectively. and accelerated the decolonization process of the European empires. if self-interested motives. the Canaanites. though in the old days they made more money than the virtuosi. and with it the acclaim and the overnight fortunes. thus enriching much of the known world. Their inscriptions. unless one counts the partial deafness which results from long hours in a discotheque. especially that of Great Britain.

We are used to thinking of the Romans as cruel. on their vassal states. because of modern travel. Many people see the only hope for the future in a one-world concept. Their positive contribution to the lives of vassal states covered the whole political. The post-war wind of change brought about an irony in the case of the British Empire. and their political contribution to the Mediterranean sea-board and even to France and Egypt. The Greeks were adventurers. They also enriched the known world in the spheres of art. of course. with disastrous results in many cases. were governed by tyrants. The city states of Greece. The French and Portuguese concepts of empire were. it is right that this should be so. Their poetry and drama have remained supreme. The dissolution of even the British Empire is now virtually complete. at the height of Empire. No empire lasts forever. which was the original forerunner of the modern democratic process of the free world today. usually using unfair methods or force to give power devolve . in which aggression is outlawed and mutual respect and co-operation fostered for the common good. Following the Phoenicians. had acquired the whole of the known world including territories as far apart as Britain and the West African coast line. a name meaning 'kings'. metal work and pottery enriched other countries. yet our modern dislike of the empire-concept must not blind us to the immense enrichment conferred. traders and law-givers. hence. Government had long since devolved to the great dominions. Yet the worldwide process overtook the gradual process of emancipation and. and. wood. 'asset stripping' wherever they went. In a world where. if only as a by-product.. wall painting. The West is concerned to trade rather than to exploit. oppressive and rapacious. and the heightened concept of sovereignty of states both large and small. and even the very least of the overseas possessions were encouraged to develop their own governments. Their sculpture. ultimately ruled by the central government. is incalculable. Their trade in wine.C. The Greeks acquired most of the Mediterranean world.population needs more land. following them. law. the Romans. architecture. interested mainly in exacting taxes. as post war history has shown. oil and scent. colonization. and architecture has never since been equaled. All this is true. but whose powers were limited by the essentially Greek concept of democracy. doomed to failure in the modern world. The extent and duration of the Roman Empire were of course much greater. town-planning. Roman law provided the foundation of much modern law. and civic building. legal and cultural spectrum. circumnavigate rapacious to move around showing a strong desire to take things for yourself. instant communication. basically because those countries tried to keep the concept of colonization as an extension of the home country. in the period 750 to 600 B. to lend money rather than exact it.

but from 1421 it again became Peking. Conversely. which is on the coast. has rendered all capitals equally vulnerable. rubber. Lima near the Peruvian coast. Most large cities and capitals were originally walled. Capitals must have been located with these basic requirements in mind. In a country covered by impenetrablerain forests and mountain ranges. London consisted of British settlements in preRoman times in a very defensible position which is now the city. then Stalingrad held that destination. He located it on the Potomac River. Petersburg. excluding the period 1709 to 1918. copra and pineapples. when St.A. an area of fertile land capable of supporting a growing population. the time of the Liao Dynasty. the federal capital since 1800 was laid out by Pierre L'Enfant. England's largest river. Buenos Aires. any large settlement required a location which satisfied certain requirements. The Thames. is a case in point. George Town. The same thing happened in Soviet Russia. From the 14th century to the present day Moscow was the centre. though possible attack from long range artillery. though built above flood level. Firstly. with facilities for trade. Fourthly it must be well away from the earthquake belts and volcanoes. some capitals became established because of foreign colonization. reasons are geographical. Argentina. Thirdly it must be near a good water supply such as a large river. The growth of Cairo at the base of the Nile delta provides an example. Many capital cities were founded centuries. and nowadays perhaps from nuclear weapons. tin. Guyana. though the origins of older ones are lost in tradition and folklore. The reason for the original . a French engineer officer. Before the arrival of modern communications and transport. the inner square mile. Washington. Peking was the capital of China from the 10th Century. from the air. Another factor rendering the seaboard popular was that of convenience to those countries which sought to colonize overseas. To these could be added Johore Bahru. capital city locations were chosen at or near river-mouths for these reasons. Secondly the area must lend itself to the spread of housing. and the erection of public buildings. rivers provide the only means of communication. Santiago. later Leningrad. Chile which is inland but has easy access to Valparaiso. have easy access to the Eastern seaboard. More often than not. Fifthly it must be defensible against enemies. as might be expected. whence inland products were exported. who designed the city specifically as the center of government in 1790. not only communicates with the centre of the country but also provides deep water moorings for seagoing vessels. Most. The U. both inland and overseas. Colombia. South America contains a host of examples. inland from Chesapeake Bay on the East Coast. so it is often not possible to do more than deduce the reasons for the choice of their locations. if not millennia ago. Venezuela. though not all of these. made for political reasons. Later the seat of government moved to Nanking. Both Peking and Nanking which lies south of it. Caracus. very much in mind.S. There are at least three examples of changes of capital city.What factors determine the location of a country's capital? Illustrate with examples. From 1928 to 1949 the capital was again Nanking and again reverted. Bogota. both for trade and for political purposes.

and until 1945 there existed a network which gave easy access from even the smallest village to all the main centers. and where there are few. if any. because it was felt that this would bring life to the interior. Apart from geographical considerations. In this essay the problems of England are considered. One hears that Nigeria is even now considering dropping Lagos as the capital in favor of a new town inland. but today of the Arab world. In consequence almost all small lines have been closed down. trade certainly affected the growth of Cairo from its early beginnings in 641 A. it was built defensively. moorings the ropes or chains which keep a boat from moving away from a particular place impossible to see through or go through the surrounding of a place by an armed force in order to defeat those defending it impenetrable siege Consider how the transport system in your country might he improved. even the transport services of Western Europe and other western countries. for a variety of reasons but basically because England's constantly growing road network has shifted both passenger and goods transport away from the railways. All services are capable of improvement. The Germans never succeeded in entering it in the Second World War during four years of siege. Also it is very defensible. Speed has improved with the adoption of the diesel motor but the experimental high-speed trains . Many of the foregoing factors also apply to the building up of Bombay. obstacles to the establishment of physical communications. road and air transport have long been established. it was the center of intersecting trade routes.D. Brazil dropped Rio de Janiero as its capital and moved inland to the newly-planned city of Brasilia. Its great harbor and westward facing position made it the obvious choice by the Moguls in the 13th century. Originally an island off the mid-west coast of India it is now joined to the mainland by means of reclaimed land. The choice of St Petersburg was more political because although it is strategic for the Gulf of Finland and for Lake Ladoga. The fact however was that St Petersburg was the center for all revolutionary activity between 1815 and 1914. though the reasons for this change are unclear. In 1960. it was sheltered by a range of hills. it satisfied all geographical conditions. It has become the trading and distributive center for North Africa and the Near East. as the capital. it nevertheless has a terrible climate and is icebound for much of the year. It is a more basic problem for the emergent countries. Railways began to spread over England from about 1800. where often mountain ranges and dense afforestation have to be overcome.choice of Moscow was that it was the gateway to the West. and basically what is left is the inter-city network and London's commuter service from the home counties. where rail. Since then the system has deteriorated out of all recognition. not only of Egypt. who were followed by the Portuguese and in 1662 by the British.

The Socialist doctrine affirms that as a national service British Rail should not expect to make a profit or break even and should be subsidized by the tax payer. Small vehicles and private cars. and parking problems which at present bedevil all large towns and cities will be alleviated. lack of money for capital expenditure. about traffic jams. to restore the waterways. and about the loss of agricultural land where M roads are built. He is wrong. There is a valuable move. Part of the problem has been a steady shift of population originally from country to town. The environmental lobby rightly complains about the damage done by these vehicles. The present government is merely selling off minor assets. especially in small villages. As in most other western countries after the war the system became nationalized. The Thatcher Government sees this as bad housekeeping despite the fact that most European rail systems are already heavily subsidized. It can take longer to reach Heath Row and pass through customs and baggage formalities than it takes to fly to Paris of Dusseldorf. internal air travel is of importance primarily to business people and nowadays all major cities have their own airports. and the general indifference of nationally unreliable. safety. which of course operates a world-wide network. afforestation Establishment of a new forest by seeding or planting on nonforested . Goods transport has largely moved over to the heavy. that organization. by Jimmy Savile. In turn this involves the provision of suitable roads. Moreover British Rail makes massive annual losses. Unfortunately it is little used for commercial purposes. when completed. These drawbacks can and must be overcome by the provision of by-pass and further M roads. and generally unpopular. owned nowadays by over half of the population will also be able to move about more freely. have stemmed from bad government theory and bad industrial relations in the past. This involves both bank-clearing and the enforcement of anti-pollution laws. High wage demands. About half the population probably accepts that competitiveness is the only real way forward. backed by the environmentalists. economic cost. The London outer circle M 25. although we are constantly told that this is the age of the train. is efficient. such as railway hotels and in some cases catering on railway platforms and in dining cars. container-type lorry. Since there is ample private competition for British Airways. In a small country like England. The River Thames now contains a wide variety of fish whereas for over a century it contained none. will remove heavy through traffic from the streets of London. The 'age of the train' ended in 1954. London will eventually have five. but is being tackled. though not all. Only a reversion to private ownership. The inefficiency is on the ground. The task of promoting comfort. as in the days of the rail system comfortable. and this is unlikely to happen. and now the reverse.have proved a fiasco. as indeed do most other European countries. economic and cared-for. about the danger of pollution. though progress is being made on all fronts. and the road building program is severely limited by finance. Many of the transport problems in England. Rivers and canals must not be overlooked. speed and reliability is not easy. not only as a means of commercial transport but also for tourism.

g. the scientific aspect provides most interest. This organization co-ordinates results end supplies a limited amount of cash. Since it proved so expensive US Project Mohole was abandoned in 1967. Seismic methods are used for the discovery of oil end gas deposits and today there are airborne devices for detecting minerals such as oil end gas. attention has naturally been diverted to underground end undersea exploration for human reasons. end a drill of 35. as in the case of space exploration today. After the first war the attitude was more co-operative. the work of the Upper Manke Committee. e. An international council of scientific unions was set up. much underwater work is a matter of scientific surveying. its role being assumed by UNESCO after the Second World War. Attention is now concentrated on underground and undersea exploration and in recent years on space exploration. In the process of drilling more is discovered about an area's liability to earthquakes.land fiasco stem from something planned that goes wrong and is a complete failure to originate or develop as the result of something 'Scientists are the explorers of today. Exploration in the commonly accepted sense began with people like the sea-faring Columbus when. They are based on drilling into the earth's crust where it is known to be most shallow in order to find out its physical properties. the USA. These operate by detecting slight changes in the earth's magnetic field. In the 19th century startling results were achieved by wealthy and gifted amateurs. This work culminated in the International Geophysical Year. and USSR constantly trying to surpass each others achievements. in the middle ages it was realized that the earth is a globe. However quite early in this century virtually the whole of the earth's surface had been mapped in outline. pioneered this venture. not flat. Although modern exploration is largely pragmatic. Undersea exploration is of equal. The USA. but since deep drilling is increasingly expensive. and most of it surveyed by explorers on foot. However. It held a crucial role for centuries in colonization and trade expansion. producing a systematic study of the earth end the environment. 1957. for fuel end for water in order to plan new facilities.' Discuss. All observations are naturally indirect. if not greater importance since its results have led to immense discoveries. The solid earth was examined scientifically by means of a series of deep probes. The process has more recently been completed by the use of the aircraft and the helicopter. in which 70 nations participated. Sound echoing devices now enable scientists to map the ocean bed . Offshore oil end gas rigs now proliferate. Before the First World War the international attitude towards exploration was competitive. There is also a scanning infra-red sensor of greet use in geo-chemical exploration. It is necessary to drill for minerals. its underground radioactive end magnetic values etc. A stop was put on territorial claims in Antarctica. Since only 30% of the earth's surface is above sea level end only 10% habitable.000 feet was aimed at. a stop was eventually put on this method.

There are also lunar end inter-planetary programs which further extend human knowledge. In the widest sense even the most primitive societies begin to prepare children for living from birth as a necessity for survival So do animals and birds. still pockets of privilege everywhere in which the rich can take advantage of the knowledge. solar end cosmic radiation. Many are in orbit for purely scientific reasons. Nowadays in the free world. from weather reports to international communications. The earth is now surrounded by hundreds of orbited satellites which provide various kinds of information. when civil service examinations were instituted. If space exploration is to be included then obviously science plays the dominate role in all ventures. of course. skill and hard work of others. Many well-known schools in the West still lay a powerful emphasis on the classical languages as the best means of teaching the young to think properly. Formal education is based on literacy. however superficial. the opportunity to gain specialized education in order to succeed is . Deep-see drilling produces core samples which provide useful information. Culture implies a knowledge of the graceful and artistic things of life. some knowledge of science. There are.C. Today the work is co-ordinated by a consortium of oceanographic institutes. end there is no single definition.accurately end to discover far more about the seabed under the polar icecaps. that of China dating back to 165 B. They assist in technical observation of stars and lead to an understanding of the evolution of the solar system. modern European languages being merely an optional extra. The problem with the first paragraph is that society does not consist of wealthydilettantes. They measure natural phenomena in space. and in Europe at any rate depends on no more than a knowledge of Greek and Latin. in both East and West. which in turn depends on the acquisition of culture. The manned projects must partly depend on the scientific know-how of the space explorer himself. If the purpose of education is to succeed in life as well as to enjoy it. culminate proliferate glamour to reach the highest point to increase greatly and suddenly in number the special excitement and attractiveness of a person. Today one school of thought would define education as the means of living a civilized life. but today most countries are essentially meritocracies. place or activity What Scientific knowledge should an educated person have? The answer depends on one's definition of education. but human nature being what it is. Some knowledge of science is essential to us all because the march of scientific discovery largely dictates modern living both personal and social. outward-bound ventures in relatively unknown areas of the earth's surface will always persist. magnetic fields. Has modern exploration lost glamour and the old dependence on self-reliance? Partly. is essential.

and the most that can be said is that the educated person should at least know what is going on in the world. You cannot begin to work in this field without at least a reasonable knowledge of the goods you are promoting. It is man's servant. and on the specialized knowledge required for the use of the modern weapons of sea. land and air. especially for the young person today. even family economics. Everything depends on its use or misuse. Among these may be included nuclear and chemical warfare.regarded as a basic human right. The growth industries of today depend completely on scientific specialization. Modern martial arts certainly have not destroyed the need for personal bravery in the soldier but effective military action today depends more on the technology which a country can buy. We need to know a little chemistry and biology if we are to remain healthy and fit. Neither. It might be argued that men like Archimedes. for this is surely one of the aims of educations ? So far there are few signs that it will. We need to know basic arithmetic if we are to deal with money. not its master. if you are a politician can you even understand many of the issues dealt with in government without a degree of specialized knowledge in those fields. jet travel and the ubiquitous computer. It neither explains nor contradicts religion. Science is neutral. 'Ars pro arte' is no longer a valid concept. Today the emphasis has shifted from pure to applied science. However the topic question implies much more than this. steel-workers and ship-builders are the dinosaurs of 1984. We cannot be safe in a modern home without a basic understanding of electricity. The basis of any increase in a country's gross national product is trade. The frontiers which they established are still being pushed back. Children must be shielded from dangerous drugs. boys and girls should receive instruction in them all and be encouraged to specialize in one of these subjects. Early Chinese education included the martial arts. Isaac Newton and Einstein were among the most educated people who ever lived. and some of the frightening developments in genetic engineering. We live in a scientific world. modern education. Coalminers. implies specialization in an established field. necessary accomplishments for those above peasant status. but whose understanding of it is not very deep . for the majority. Will science finally eliminate the divisive elements in human nature by encouraging understanding and co-operation. banking. Yet modern interest lies less in discovering new laws than in the development of the old ones. In Europe the emphasis has already shifted away from the heavy engineering and artisan industries. A knowledge of science is necessary if humanity is to be in a position to resist some of its worse results. In a world which daily grows less remote and more interdependent due to satellite communications. The truth seems to be that science has its own momentum. Today the marketing of sophisticated goods abroad is a main growth industry. because job opportunities are increasingly dependent on subjects such as electronics and computer science. dilettante a person who is or seems to be interested in a subject.

started the fashion ball rolling. The same garment today is only exclusive in its label. for no apparent reason. However fashion applies to many other things than dress and hair-styles e. They prefer two or three different outfits to one. a phrase. on a coupon system. variations in suits and shoes remaining fairly minor. or a custom may drop out of fashion but then come back for no obvious reason. The word also applies to customs. use of words and accents within a language. house. for women as well as men. Sometimes a form of dress. Men's fashions have always remained relatively static. In pre-war days high fashion was the monopoly of the wealthy or well-to-do woman. In the West post-war clothing fashions have been the subject of change because of the higher standard of living enjoyed in most European countries. although the hat has. not available to the majority either because they lack the taste or the money to follow it. Returning to women's fashions. The real business lies in the sale of the model to the massproducing firms which bring new styles to the big stores in the High Street. If a woman works to a tight budget she will have to buy clothes and shoes for warmth and durability rather than appearance. building and the general design of most consumer-goods ranging from cars to kitchen appliances. lies in subtle changes in ideas and . Recently there has been slight return to formal dress. in the course of a year. However. Take England as an example. and.' Another reason for changes in customs. though a few models are sold to the rich as one-offs. become the symbol of the elderly men.ubiquitous contradict seem to be in all places to state the opposite of What do you understand by 'fashion' and why does fashion change? The word 'fashion' is generally used to mean style in clothing. followed by post-war full employment. A third reason for the constant changes lies in 'haute couture' as big business. which reflected their casual attitudes. However the freedoms of the 1960's moved young men into a much more informal style of dress. At one time a new and exclusively styled garment from a couturier in Paris was sold only to the rich. They become 'disposables. A fourth reason for change is that women like change for its own sake. During the war clothes for both sexes were rationed anyway. All these things change from time to time. The tee-shirt and denim jeans became almost statutory for the young of both sexes. the reason for change is usually apparent. admired or regarded as exclusive i. for most occasions. sometimes abruptly. It certainly covers forms of speech.g. This austerity. Mass-produced fashion clothes and shoes are therefore not made to last. 'style' meaning what is popularly accepted. behavior and morality.e. manners and morals. Thus the shop-girl can wear the same style in clothes and shoes as Princess Diana. women too. personal manners and standards of moral behavior.

English. stand when they enter a room or give up their seats in a railway carriage. the sop to their consciences being that they can use the computer for family accounts. because wherever you create a demand you must be able to . The half a dozen big producers go in for highly competitive advertising. In that decade local accents became more fashionable. All this can be done with books and paper. Advertising sells goods and services. Some men no longer open doors for women. Novels have also undergone fundamental changes in fashion. never-the-less. Changes in accent and expression have greatly affected both the theatre and the television play. and the development of advertising in the West dates back at least three centuries. subject matter is also very different today. banking. her old wartime achievements. The old adage remains true in principle because advertising not only sells goods but also creates the demand for new lines. They can play games. The home computer is a modern example. Many women regard this once accepted behavior as male chauvinism. but parents are pressurized into buying computers. so far from causing ostracism. others result from a new and sometimes sentimental review of England's past glories. prepare themselves for modern living. her social and industrial progress in Victorian and Edwardian days and her colonial power up to 1939. The anti-smoking lobby has largely succeeded in keeping all public places smoke-free. Today best-selling novels are usually spythrillers or books which deal with contemporary subjects such as aircraft. the circulation of which was largely limited to London and one or two large provincial cities. such as the 'Beatles' or from the Midlands or the North. Other changes in fashion occur because of the power of propaganda. one-off ostracism sum up something that happens or is made or done only once to prevent people from taking part in the activities of a group to quickly form an opinion about someone or something Discuss the various methods of advertising and their effectiveness. especially if they came from Liverpool. is now accepted as fashionable in some quarters. advertising and political pressure groups. partly because of travel and partly because of a shift in political interest. electronics or industrial espionage. coinciding roughly with the publication of early journals such as The London Gazette. spoken in an 'Oxbridge' accent was used exclusively by newsreaders and public speakers until the 60s.C. due partly to the prominence given to popgroups. educate themselves. The lobby has considerable backing from the medical profession. It pays to advertise. B. So advertising began on a local basis. Equally they could do their family accounts once a month on the back of an old envelope. The Butch appearance of some western women reflects feminism.B. The term 'kitchen-sink drama' sums up the process. as does the lookalike garb affected by some couples. The term 'fashion' applies also to the written and the spoken word. Of course they can. Tatler and Spectator in England. For men or women to live together in a homosexual relationship. otherwise it would not exist. some of it aimed at children.outlooks.

flood through the letter-boxes. The effectiveness of advertising depends on the assessment of the consumer's motivation in buying. The soft sell works best when appealing to the very rich. graphic artists. based in the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries. Subliminal advertising has rightly been banned. With the advent of color-television. 'Apeing the celebrity' is another line of attack. and the freighter for overseas markets. on walls. repel others. Advertising is therefore big business. by an appeal to a range of human instincts. from static balloons. promotional experts. advertising local firms. offer scope to advertising firms with their highly specially areas of expertise. Handbills. but in either case people keep the brand name in mind. Yet the fact that it continues argues that this kind of advertising is financially justified. They bore women and men don't usually buy lingerie. Most Western advertising works in a competitive market where the variety of brands is matched by the consumer's power of choice. From this will be seen that overkill is one drawback to the effectiveness of modern advertising. rail communication and transport. the commercial break has assumed primary importance. and usually price is not mentioned. successful. in railway stations and the underground. Another successful line with a shampoo is that it works. Where there is poverty in a potential market the only effective appeal is based on cheapness. reliability and effectiveness in a product. especially intelligent people. addressed to computerized lists of likely buyers. However there are countless ways of disobeying the spirit if not the letter of the law. The hard sell becomes counter-productive. massproduction. fills the waste paper baskets. boring economical neighbors must do likewise. So various factors combined to create national and international advertising. A country house with a hundred acres of land is offered as a 'modest gentleman's residence. the failed. and the world's capitals. taxis and container lorries. on streamers trailing behind light aircraft. In contrast sexy lingerie ads are self-defeating. so advertising merely keeps them in the public eye. the development of printing. outside the Eastern bloc. Yet sex can sell chocolates. if only never to buy it. sometimes the creation of that motivation. if a famous heavy-weight uses a particular deodorant. buses and business vehicles. Everybody knows that a small group of products are the best in their fields. shop fronts and hoardings. Junk mail. People get fed-up if they are over-pressurized. the Rolls Royce is merely described as the best car in the world. good sales result. ads must be morally decent. The appeal to snobbery still works. The advertising of foodstuffs has been improved by 'sold by' and statements of contents. Because those bright. truthful and legal.meet it. In a mixed or affluent community the field is wide open. and a direct or indirect appeal to that motivation. on trains. Such firms employ some of the best ideas people. If a stunt-man goes through the hoops to bring his beautiful girl-friend the brand of her choice he will take the easier way of buying them in the supermarket and she may begin to fantasize about the bringer. especially color printing. affluent Jones next door buy certain brand names. or a great actress a particular shampoo. Some commercial radio channels still carry advertising. implying that the others don't. . Comic ads amuse some. and film producers and technicians. For as long as most people can remember advertising has been seen wherever the public go. Most countries today have a statutory body which seeks to deep advertising up to a certain basic standards.

Basic policy must therefore be considered. Given such an ideal and promising situation. profits made on resource exploitation. although such changes are usually marginal. and both can he regulated within certain limits. together with legislative control over the power of the trades unions. business. a strong currency. high interest rates if overseas money is to be attracted but if possible without prejudice to exports. and that it encourages free enterprise. wild changes may lead to the overthrow of . we can now look at the national cake. The total net income can be raised or lowered at the will of government. In terms both of nuclear and conventional arms. as many as possible of these services will be hived off to the private sector. perhaps privatization. railways and airlines. the police and customs forces. let us assume that the country concerned is democratic. Assuming that the country is politically independent. are the government's responsibility. including housing and a comprehensive social security system. All have the potential for rationalization. Income normally comes from direct and indirect taxation. For the purposes of this essay. Any government's financial leeway consists of revenue less unavoidable expenditure. but that a reasonable level of defense has to be kept for the sake ofparity with potentially hostile neighbors. the current unfreezing of relations between East and West is partly based on internal pressures for economies in favor of more positive priorities. and of course levies on consumer durables and perishables among other areas. then all these. If a country follows the socialist line. such as value added tax or purchase tax. a favorable balance of trade with. the civil service. and many others. roads. Taxation covers personal income. To do so. Could that slice be reduced in size. it will need to achieve the following. self-help and a business-like efficiency. all countries have labor-intensive annual commitments where the main services are nationally funded or subsidized. Similarly. education. consequently. If not. the health service. with consequent economies.sop something unimportant or of little value which is offered to stop complaints or unhappiness a substance that you put on your body to prevent or hide unpleasant smells to do a lot of difficult things before you are allowed to have or do something you want deodorant go through the hoops What priorities would you set for government expenditure and why? These priorities will vary enormously according to the circumstances and the state of development of the country concerned. In a democracy. economic development and the full exploitation of natural resources. a large slice of the national cake is already accounted for in terms of defense salaries and equipment. the reduction or abolition of inflation implying some kind of wages policy in both public and private sectors. and that it means to hold its own in the modern world.

Also. Pressure groups will have drawn attention to social defects. The chancellor has a usable surplus of $2 billion. Any chancellor will regard his expendable surplus as a cake to be divided into slices. the exploitation of natural resources. A labor-intensive re-housing program will help to bring down unemployment. the callousness of the rich and the . health and education. He selects the following short-term priorities.government. It has been decided that the country's outstanding short-term needs lie in the categories of housing. which cancels outimprovements. Do you support this view? This sounds a very sweeping statement. and the establishment of centers for research and development. sports and the arts will simply be maintained at the old levels. So a budget is reached. sport and the arts. Roads. Let us take an imaginary country which fulfils all the above conditions. it would be wrong to write about the French Revolution without dealing with what led up to it. The press and the public may well have set their own priorities. education. $1 billion must be allocated to that purpose. Equal sums are allocated to the establishment of a subsidized health service. Thirdly. Nevertheless. after setting aside funds to service and reduce national debts. The sooner natural resources are developed the better. The important thing about the writing of history is that it should not only be factual but that it should include all the facts. He allocates $330 million. health. railways. to be shared from primary to university level. the exploitation of natural resources. there is much truth in it. such changes have to be made with a strict eye to inflation. and to the improvement of the national education service. At the risk of becoming unpopular the chancellor will have to balance these conflicting claims. parity hive off cancel out equality set apart from a group neutralize the effect All history books are biased. roads and railways. and out of the longterm needs. the glaring differences in living standards between aristocrat and peasant. which he hopes will ultimately become non-contributory. the inequity of the law. For example. allowing for inflation. any great increase in borrowing erodes stability. The long-term needs include the modernization of the Armed Forces equipment. science and technology. The bias is not always deliberate. until agreement or compromise has been reached. It will then be for the cabinet to press claims for the various departments represented. and the opposition will certainly have done so. housing. Every writer owes much to his or her background and to the national climate of opinion. And since his hopes for a larger national cake in the future depend on resource exploitation. because this will guarantee greatly increased revenue.

which is basically left-wing. This stance favors aggression by the oppressed and is invariably censorious about colonialism. however objectively. The best of historical writing therefore includes all the facts. While it is true that the old-fashioned historian concentrated on power bases. One writer dealing with a popular revolution will castigate a mob for violence. It is also pacifist insofar as the established powers are concerned. condemning the murders which lead to the overthrow of a stable government. leaving the reader to draw personal conclusions. The problem of this kind of writing is dullness. is totally without a political stance. dealing with the same revolution. from the national point of view. perhaps excessively. Suchtravesties are forcibly imposed on schools. eliminating those which conflict with it's overall moral outlook. art. Much the same applies to domestic history. the writing of history in some countries has been debased out of all recognition. objectively presented. The one-world view also tends to be selective in the presentation of facts. where personal opinion or interpretation is rigorously excluded. The technique is to suppress all the truth of the past and rewrite only the material which fits in with government policy. some modern historians see history simply in terms of the upward struggle of the poor. monarchs and political leaders. others tend to adopt the one-world stance. either writer or reader. greed and looting. drama? . and argue that the ugly features of revolution are necessary if full democratic control of government is to pass into the hands of the people. writing only about violence against the class struggle and against the trades union movement. Otherwise the account would read simply as a record of brutal and indiscriminate violence on the part of the Paris mob. while objectively-written history books are withdrawn from schools and libraries. Nobody. If some historians tend to write. although vague about the consequences of total nonaggression in all circumstances. This happens when an oppressive government decides to brainwash its people into continued subservience. For example there is no mention of social and material progress or of the Pax Britannica in certain modern accounts of British colonialism. will put all the blame on the government for its autocratic and heartless attitude to the people.rational philosophy of human equality and human rights spelled out by Voltaire and JeanJacques Rousseau. More recently. castigate debased travesty to criticize severely corrupt something which fails to represent the values and qualities that it is intended to represent Should one aim of education be the development of talent in such fields as music. Another.

the pressure from educational theorists today is to concentrate teaching on preparation for employment. feel that the priority for their children is to become equipped to earn a good living. social and environmental studies. What is material success if there is nothing to engage the artistic side of our nature in our spare time? Perhaps the greatest concept of education originates in the European cultural renaissance in Italy. since these languages possess technical vocabularies and also equip young people to travel overseas in the course of their work. still has its place. Modern job opportunities lie in the fields of the service industries. Artistic pursuits have now become international and offer brilliant careers to gifted young people of every country. and general handwork. the use of computers and other office machinery. The other favored subjects arc mathematics. Governments urge concentration on certain subjects. and it would be tragic if that heritage were lost through neglect. Parents. These essential subjects include English. a 'healthy body in a healthy mind'.It is only a tiny minority who are born without a talent in one direction or another. research and development and computers. also. that one aim of education should be to develop latent ability. i. We live in a real world. and dates back to the late Middle Ages. whatever that ability may be. and modern education has spawned a brood of these non-subjects. so that a pool of labor can be formed which can move easily into specialized training. politics and economics. languages and literature. The arts are usually bracketed under the general heading 'liberal studies'. So music. In any real sense they are totally unproductive. or many new things. It seems logical. Yet the reverse of this coin is the necessary enrichment of the culture of all countries in successive generations. So even attention to sports training is justifiable. they include history. art and drama must all have their place in the curriculum. the sciences. It is small wonder that both governments and parents discourage some of them nowadays. or another international language. engineering. even if this is not a prime place. in general. it is a short step to useful employment. Some require exact knowledge and serious study. Yet this is not merely a matter of conservation. banking. Even these people are usually employable.e. It is clear that those with this kind of talent should be encouraged. There will always he young people more interested in the arts than in the sciences. to grow or start suddenl . while others are 'soft options'. Governments see these occupations as essential to national wealth creation. Given proficiency in some or all of there. Every country has its own artistic heritage. Perhaps the modern version of 'mens sana in corpore sano'. insurance and stockbroking. and therefore crucial to the general improvement of the national standard of living. However. latent proficiency spawn Present or potential but not evident or active skilled and experienced to cause something new. It is the development of the whole person. technology and the manufacture of sophisticated products. philosophy.

There is a world of fiction available to occupy the reader's spare time. because the adventures of this veterinary surgeon relate exclusively to provincial English characters.What types of fiction do you enjoy reading and why? The reading of fiction is escapism. who wrote the terrifying novel The Exorcist. Edgar Allan Poe's short stories set the horror trend. In The moon's a balloon and Go slowly. a gifted raconteur like David Niven sells equally well on both sides of the pond. to the delight of both. To read is more positive than to watch television. paperbacks are usually available. tastes vary. John LeCarre being a very able exponent. This is the popular Agatha Christie genre. The American would be puzzled. after a hard day in the office. and a whole group of modern novels . So are we looking for people's reactions to a great sweep of national events. Reading also excels radio listening. followed by dozens of other writers. It is perhaps true to say that a good library is one of the finest assets a community can possess. Tolstoy's War and Peace reveal the Napoleonic struggle. represented by Alistair MacLean and Hammond Innes. three genres which in the 20th century have had a great following. the KGB and the CIA. whereas Jane Austen's Persuasion being a study of the mannered relationships of early 18th century English country gentry merely gives the Napoleonic Wars a mention. based on the machinations of MI6. is for the good whodunnit. This argues that humor has to be related to a known background. from time to time. For this writer. and more latterly by people like Blatty. but not in any bad sense. he pins down the foibles of both nations. just as his Goodbye to all thatreveals the horrors of the First World War. Reading opens windows on the world. so much so that he or she can be ultra-selective in following personal taste. among many others. just as the Australian reader would see nothing funny in an English novel which I think hilarious. we need to read something out of this world. There is a whole world of this kind of fiction. because he has spent much of his working life in Hollywood. come back quickly. Clarke's space fiction? Or perhaps it is something light and amusing. however. whether past or present. with it's comments on the Russian system. He was followed by a host of others. Most people enjoy a good thriller. Failing a library. because the acts of violence are no more than pegs on which to hang intellectual solutions. The Englishman laughs at the James Herriott stories. and partly because the quality of radio programs is so uneven. What about Mr. The outward-bound adventure thriller. Violence is never dwelt on for its own sake. and most people enjoy looking through these windows. There are. Claudius andClaudius the god reveal the Imperial Roman Empire. Our choice of fiction also depends on mood. The real trend. Robert Graves' novels I. such as Georges Simenon. partly because the listener has no choice in the programs. However. horror stories. the spectrum of spy mysteries. notably Dennis Wheatley. the Atlantic Ocean is a great divide as far as humor is concerned. because the visual nature of TV limits the imagination. Perhaps. we enjoy both. the sort we find in Pasternak's Dr Zhivago. and some. some highly gifted. Again. or are we looking for an encapsulated set of personal relationships? Perhaps. It may be this quality which distinguishes great from mediocre fiction. and has absorbed both backgrounds.

in a period when finding an actual cure was medically impossible. the anopheles mosquito. they are still read for pleasure. yellow fever. However. The prevention procedures was to destroy the rats. Certain diseases. and were often denied the literary status conferred on them by subsequent generations.g. a cure. This is particularly true in countries where people become the victims of epidemics. and this in turn will depend on the priorities obtaining in that country. and using mosquito nets in the wet season. then prevention is too late. The most important preventive measure against disease is inoculation. However. In fact. Other ministries will therefore be involved. especially in London. it is sometimes thought . hopefully. although the mosquito can be destroyed by spraying. it came from rat fleas. The old theory was that the plague was caused by the stench of rotting refuse. This will require expenditure in fields other than medicine. some fatal. to cure disease or to prevent it ? The answer depends on the standpoint of the individual. has long been known. which in turn meant providing London with proper drainage. In any country he will need to decide on the allocation of his budget. The only thing left is. immunity from poliomyelitis. The effects of it can be suppressed by drugs and its source. Discovery of the cause of any disease is crucial. encapsulate raconteur foible to express or show the most important facts about something someone who tells amusing or interesting stories a strange habit or characteristic that is seen as harmless and unimportant Which is the more important. The means is to vaccinate with enough of the virus concerned to achieve immunity to the actual disease. In the long run there is little doubt that the prevention of disease is of higher priority than finding cures.based on carefully-researched subjects such as airports. The plague was eradicated by preventive methods. have now disappeared from the Western world as a result. these are public works. Suppression and prevention will ultimately lead to a natural cure. Up to the 17th century England was ravaged by a series of bubonic plagues which killed off people by the thousand. tetanus. hotels and banks. In certain tropical countries. and also to educate people in public hygiene. perhaps because the student may associate them too closely with examinations. and one should not forget that they were the popular literature of their day. The main priority may be prevention. malaria will persist. typhoid fever and some forms of influenza can now be achieved by injection. However without strict public health regulations. This short essay does not mention the Classics. avoiding standing water. which infected humans. malaria is endemic. e. a minister of health may take a different view. Should he or she contract a disease. In the case of childish and non-fatal complaints. or where certain diseases are endemic. Meanwhile a course of drugs will build up the body's resistance. nutrition and health education.

These examples and others can be cited to prove the topic-statement either way. reasonable exercise. viruses. bacteria. is incurable.g. though not always. heart. In adults. people have a built-in immunity to these invasions. Unfortunately it seems that as fast as one disease is eliminated another seems to take its place. but if one has to generalize for the long term. though not always. Prevention by abstention is all-important. It can also result from changes in the body and from physical malfunctioning.g. measures to control it include the use of modern drugs. e. X-ray therapy in the case of cancer. In no case is there a cure for the condition. However much of the latter remains empirical while the actual causes of serious diseases remain unknown. When a disease has been caught. to avoid lung cancer. may be classified as disease. now give new hope to many sufferers. which is becoming endemic in certain parts of Africa. measures to prevent the inhalation of coal dust in the mining industry. and the rejection of asbestos from the building trade. warmth in cold climates. although nowadays haematology saves many lives. Its cure remains uncertain. The prevention of' its spread is essential. Where the quality of water is suspect.best to accept them. good sleep. or from failure to adapt to environmental change. boiling achieves a general level of safety. The strengthening of bodily defenses against disease is of strategic importance. This applies less to infectious and contagious disease than to contraction by individuals. Changes in diet and the invasion of microorganisms can also contribute. but the facts illustrate the patchy nature of medical advances. such as not smoking. but so far no cure. This necessitates a balanced diet. e. and at times. since there are no medical treatments. Cure by skilled surgery may be the only option. What is disease? It is the invasion of the body by outside agents. toxins or radiation. Neither are there any preventative measures. There are treatments. fungi. It can be contained by prophylaxis and avoided altogether by avoiding sexual promiscuity. Other preventative measures include eliminating the cause of disease from the environment. There are preventive measures. though its means of spread has become clear. of which the origin is at present unknown. So far. Dramatic advances in bodily organ replacement. Meanwhile there is no means of preventing or curing either the common cold or the various kinds of rheumatic and arthritic complaints. jaundice and hepatitis are far more dangerous. scourge A source of widespread dreadful affliction and devastation . In general. surgery. A greatly feared recent illness is AIDS. because where a child's bodily health is generally good a natural immunity results. Certain addictions. including drug addiction. lung and kidney surgery. although the stated connection between smoking tobacco and lung cancer is opinion and propaganda rather than demonstrable fact. The same may be said about cancer. the balance may he on the side of prevention. All of them can be lived with if drug suppressants are used. thisscourge. and favorable housing and working conditions.

intellectual Art in general could not exist. At the same time it has to compete with the Independent Television Authority for support. ballet. it all depends what you mean by entertain. the Corporation remains independent of Government. In its early days. of whatever kind. soap operas and panel games monopolizing the prime viewing times. and why not? The dictionary gives a wide definition of entertain -. and there has been no reason to change that order of priorities. is to entertain? As Professor Joad used to say. as in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. Some regard the media as a tool of government. or to express the prejudices of the author.to amuse. Their purpose is to . and at the likes of P G Wodehouse and Mark Twain in novels. The intelligentsia would answer no. it has to be said that Channel 2 is almost entirely given over to serious viewing. Of course serious writing. This saves the BBC from becoming too stuffy. While they keep their independence. Other countries may have different objectives. serious music. Britain may have the best answer. at farce on the stage. allowing standards to find their own level on the basis of public popularity. then there is obviously more to the Arts than that.sexual promiscuity empirical indulging in casual and indiscriminate sexual relations verifiable Do you agree that the primary purpose of the Arts. and programs concerning the Arts in general. drama or literature. Where there is an attempt to give pleasure rather than to instruct. and the ITV from dropping its standards to suit the lowest tastes. opera. the British Broadcasting Corporation defined the object of sound. inform and educate. So we suffer a spate of situation comedies. in that order. If the word means make one laugh. Many seem to think that the theatre exists to make political points. the media are free to respond democratically to public demand. to occupy pleasurably. we do laugh at comic songs. Yet it is a strange co-incidence that without heavy subsidies from the state or some business source. or what somebody else thinks is good for them ? We return to the purpose of the Arts. they comprise political and social comment. at wit and topical comment in newspaper cartoons. and the result of that remains to be seen. and so yes is the logical answer to the question. painting. Although funded from the license fee. should be free to deal with serious subjects. documentaries. television broadcasting as being to entertain. the public is far more likely to be prepared to pay to support the Arts. In Britain. music and painting are seen as vehicles of getting across some message or other. religion included. Cable television will bring wider choice. Should preference be given to popularity ? Should people be given what they want. in any country. this demand is for entertainment which makes few if any intellectual demands. or to make us think about some social problem. People obtain pleasure from many things. Othersrelinquish all control and place the media in the hands of advertising sponsors. In all fairness. and later. whether music. Of course. More intellectual programs arerelegated to the early or late time slots.

farce a humorous play or film where the characters become involved in unlikely situations to give up something such as a responsibility or claim to put someone or something into a lower or less important rank or position relinquish relegate How far should the teaching of history aim to foster pride in one's country and its past? In the 1930s a British schoolboy would turn his geographical globe and find that a third of the land surface was colored pink. personal to the artist. Providing the new methods do not lead to the inculcationof political stances. armies. perhaps discuss. Most people buy a book because it is a good read. Painting and sculpture take some abstract form. and military relationships with neighboring countries. Another factor running counter to old-fashioned pride in country is based in the post Second World War international agreement about basic human rights. a middle and an end. dominions. The teaching of history has changed in recent years. Whatever the intellectuals may think is good for us. Traditional and conventional themes have been abandoned. Entertainment in the widest sense remains the primary objective of the Arts. he might have thought one day we shall rule the world . learn history in more depth. if the Arts are to survive. and to the loss of the factual framework which has to be learnt the hard way. The theatre preaches sociology and politics. and bring a more sophisticated outlook to their study. This indicated the Empire. Most people prefer representational painting. Musical appreciation depends on personal taste. The old approach was to concentrate on power centers. The problem with many exponents of the Arts is that their work has a minority appeal. at least among highbrows. sociology and industrial development. the wind of change led to the independence of ex- . The schoolboy felt a sense of pride. colonies end protectorates. So much music has become tuneless. No doubt all this has made people think. These at once cut across national insularity. The popularity test has been in question for a long time. the stories of rulers. but most people like a recognizable and memorable tune.occupy leisure time pleasurably. the new approach may be superior to the old. Yet. must be literary. political figures. Most people enjoy drama which has a beginning. and themes now cover the whole spectrum of life. and dissonant. In the case of Britain. Literature. Subject matter has broadened. more than they once did. the fact that in Britain the Arts have to be supported by government handouts via the Arts Council speaks for itself. the paying public will always vote with its feet. This of course is legitimate history. and may or may not be a true source of pride. Schoolchildren grow up. indeed in some countries it has been merged with the story of progress in ideology. but it is far from being the complete picture.

followed by commercial exploitation. Pride may also be taken in the development of the democratic process. these include individuality in dress. and the rule of just law. In some instances local people were deported as slaves to be used for commercial gain. care for the elderly. barons and petty chiefs. or of the good qualities of that society. flexibility. came a history of colonization by conquest. even social improvement. countries take legitimate pride in their own special characteristics. in part or whole. on the part of both East end West. and eventually the international standardization of privilege and opportunity. especially by repeating them often interested only in your own country or group and not willing to accept different or foreign ideas insularity . this part of history is no longer condoned. Students can also take pride in the development of the rule of law and the strengthening of personal freedoms within the law. love of children. especially in Europe. Rule was despotic. the theatre. Most empirebuilding countries were cynical in their dealings with vassal states. the history teacher should not be ashamed to impart this information. and in which e country can take no legitimate pride. Its extreme adherents visualize total disarmament. and it can he done without prejudice to the fostering of love of country for the right reasons. give and take. In more recent times there have been cases of empire-building by subversion rather than by military conquest. sports and games. Neither should the student be ashamed of the personal protection afforded by the society into which he or she was born. cultural and leisure services. music. Neither should history teaching neglect improvements in living standards. There are some things which the teaching of history used to obscure. respect for neighbor. Sometimes apartheid was built into the system. inculcation to fix beliefs or ideas in someone's mind. Although tempered by religious mission and the establishment of peace end stability. to all countries. These may well include kindness. humor. family solidarity. The right kind of national pride is at least a partial guarantee of freedom and a counter-measure against aggression. Some countries still behave aggressively through their secret services and their arms dealers. kindness to animals. Arising out of this. generosity. the discarding of legitimate national pride unilaterally is impractical and unrealistic. Finally. and this has given rise to trades unionism which at its best seeks fairness and protection for the worker. right or wrong is seriously suspect. reductions in working hours and the provision of health. What are these reasons ? The history of all countries traces the emergence of their peoples from the despotism of kings. Most countries have a history of industrial and nowadays technological development. However patriotic. Whereas the concept of my country. They apply. Militarism and unprovoked aggression towards neighbors comes first. and environmental development and improvement. whether military or subversive. alongside the progress to both national and personal independence. Gradually the oneworld concept grew up. the abolition of class barriers and the enhancement of personal opportunity. Poverty and lack of opportunity were ignored. community consciousness and hospitality to strangers.colonies and the distancing of the dominions from the influence of Whitehall. total freedom to emigrate and settle at will.

Sometimes animals bred in captivity cannot adapt to the wild. cages must be small. Zoology is best learnt in the classroom. lack of hygiene or incorrect feeding. visual or actual. The counter to this argument is that animals dislike being domesticated for any reason. and either die or fall prey to predators. The main argument against is that available money should be put into the saving of natural habitats. The major-attraction types of animals such as lions. Some zoos specialize in activity centers which generate love of animals. Children love seeing animals.vassal A person who held land from a feudal lord and received protection in return for homage and allegiance Are you for or against zoos? Until recently the case for zoos was never questioned. However it is conceded that given large enough cages or confined areas with sufficient animals these defects can be largely overcome. Another counter-argument is that for close contact. The fact is that only 5% of endangered species are to be found in zoos. and that in the strict sense the zoo does not further education. where the birds are encouraged to frequent natural but protected habitats. More than fifty years ago a wildlife park was established at Whipsnade in Bedfordshire. prevents the putting together of enough animals to allow for natural social behavior. UK. Seeing and touching animals means much more to a child than any number of good books or pictures. i. and since the Second World War in the grounds of large houses such as Longleat. This process is expensive and time-consuming. the setting up of families and clans. reptiles and birds in captivity. There are four points in favor of zoos. understanding and enjoyment. many species are endangered or becoming extinct. Gradually however unrest has grown about the morality of keeping animals. so the whole concept may be wrong. this is totally impracticable overseas. some types of deer and the Arabian oryx are examples. It has to be said that zoos are constantly improving their facilities and bringing them . They are fenced off from the public except in safari parks where people can see them at close quarters from rover type vehicles. The first is conservation. Attempts to mate these in captivity have been successful. This inhibits exercise. Point two is that zoos are educational. however. These arguments do not of course apply to bird sanctuaries. tigers and elephants thus have room to move freely and to set up their own social structures. in the laboratory. Children have a chance to touch. and difficult enough in the country concerned. and are never confined. and from the text-book. The concept of confining them in cages became suspect. India and elsewhere. and a visit to the zoo has always been a treat. groom and ride on animals in a modern zoo. with the result that their natural habitats have been re-stocked. The koala bear. and arguments against them all.e. though not on grounds of ill-treatment. and worse. They are accepted as useful and entertaining amenities which were also educational. Sometimes it is unsuccessful. Due to over shooting and deforestation in Africa. Realistically.

The veterinary branch learns how best to keep animals and treat them when sick. and money becomes available for research as well as improvement. and data bases.into line with the animal's natural surroundings as far as possible. Problems of reintroduction into the wild are studied. The polar bear house in London Zoo is currently being remodeled in this way. This provides conservation. zoos as recreational amenities have a large following. What of the future ? Despite all arguments to the contrary. Animal nutrition is studied. If the wishes of the public are to be considered. Children have been mentioned. The future may lie in this direction. Entrance takings are high. powerful vehicle designed for traveling over rough or steep ground and used especially by people who work in the countryside to prevent someone from doing something. the continued development of zoos seems to be a valid policy. The fourth argument for zoos is that they not only allow for research but also finance it. with opportunities to touch and groom. This again is not considered a valid argument by the opponents. scripts and tapes available in a modern zoo attract the adult also. UK. This produces comparative surveys. There is also a strong case for the specialized zoo or sanctuary. but the informative booklets. and should be kept. statistics for analysis. others ask why animals should be made a peepshow. Some agree. What kind of research ? people ask. such as the woolly monkey sanctuary at Looe. Nothing was known about the social habits of the rhinoceros until specimens were brought into captivity and observed in suitable surroundings. Animal behavior is studied. also lectures. rover a strong. The old defects will be overcome. In the case of the London Zoo the answer is that they have an Institute of Zoology. or to slow down a process or the growth of something An exhibition of pictures or objects viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass inhibit peepshow . plus personal contact. in Cornwall. education about their kinship and social life in natural colonies. Surroundings will be made larger and more natural.