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Regular court Special courts En banc is a legal term used to refer to a case heard or to be heard before all judges

of a court in other words, before the entire bench rather than by a panel selected from them. En banc is often used for unusually complex cases or cases considered to be of greater importance.

Division jurisdictions The court consists of 68 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice. Under the Constitution, the Court of Appeals (CA) "reviews not only the decisions and orders of the Regional Trial Courts nationwide but also those of the Court of Tax Appeals, as well as the awards, judgments, final orders or resolutions of, or authorized by 21 Quasi-Judicial Agencies exercising quasi-judicial functions mentioned in Rule 43 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, plus the National Amnesty Commission (Pres. Proclamation No. 347 of 1994) and Office of the Ombudsman (Fabian v. Desierto, 295 SCRA 470). Under RA 9262, which elevated the CTA to the same level of the CA, CTA En banc decisions are now subject to review by the Supreme Court instead of the CA (as opposed to what is currently provided in Section 1, Rule 43 of the Rules of Court). Added to the formidable list are the decisions and resolutions of the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC) which are now initially reviewable by this court, instead of a direct recourse to the Supreme Court, via petition for certiorari under Rule 65

The Collegiate Courts The following are the collegiate courts in the Philippines: Supreme Court Court of Appeals Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals The Lower Courts The following are the lower courts in the Philippines: Court of Appeals Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals Regional Trial Courts Metropolitan Trial Courts Municipal Trial Courts in Cities Municipal Trial Courts
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Municipal Circuit Trial Courts Shari'a District Courts Shari'a Circuit Courts

The Court of Tax Appeals was created under Republic Act No. 1125. It is a special court of limited jurisdiction. Republic Act No. 9282 expanded the jurisdiction of the Court of Tax Appeals, elevating its rank to the level of a collegiate court with special jurisdiction and enlarging its membership. The Court of Tax Appeals (CTA) is now of the same level as the Court of Appeals, possessing all the inherent powers of a Court of Justice, and shall consist of a Presiding Justice and five (5) Associate Justices. The incumbent Presiding Judge and Associate Judges shall continue in office and bear the new titles of Presiding Justice and Associate Justices. The Presiding Justice and the most Senior Associate Justice shall serve as chairmen of the two (2) Divisions. The additional three (3) Justices and succeeding members of the Court shall be appointed by the President upon nomination by the Judicial and Bar Council. The Presiding Justice shall be so designated in his appointment, and the Associate Justices shall have precedence according to the date of their respective appointments, or when the appointments of two (2) or more of them shall bear the same date, according to the order in which their appointments were issued by the President. They shall have the same qualifications, rank, category, salary, emoluments and other privileges, be subject to the same inhibitions and disqualifications, and enjoy the same retirements and other benefits as those provided for under existing laws for the Presiding Justice and Associate Justices of the Court of Appeals. The Presiding Justice and Associate Justices shall hold office during good behavior, until they reach the age of seventy (70), or become incapacitated to discharge the duties of their office, unless sooner removed for the same causes and in the same manner provided by law for members of the judiciary of equivalent rank." The CTA may sit en banc or in two (2) Divisions, each Division consisting of three (3) Justices. Four (4) Justices shall constitute a quorum for sessions en banc and two (2) Justices for sessions of a Division: Provided, That when the required quorum cannot be constituted due to any vacancy, disqualification, inhibition, disability, or any other lawful cause, the Presiding Justice shall designate any Justice of other Divisions of the Court to sit temporarily therein. The affirmative votes of four (4) members of the Court en banc or two (2) members of a Division, as the case may be, shall be necessary for the rendition of a decision or resolution.
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The CTA shall have a Clerk of Court and three (3) Division Clerks of Court who shall be appointed by the Supreme Court. No person shall be appointed Clerk of Court or Division Clerk of Court unless he is duly authorized to practice law in the Philippines. The Clerk of Court and Division Clerks of Court shall exercise the same powers and perform the same duties in regard to all matters within the Courts jurisdiction, as are exercised and performed by the Clerk of Court and Division Clerks of Court of the Court of Appeals, in so far as the same may be applicable or analogous; and in the exercise of those powers and the performance of those duties they shall be under the direction of the Court. The Clerk of Court and the Division Clerks of Court shall have the same rank, privileges, salary, emoluments, retirement and other benefits as those provided for the Clerk of Court and Division Clerks of Court of the Court of Appeals, respectively. No Justice or other officer or employee of the CTA shall intervene, directly or indirectly, in the management or control of any private enterprise which in any way may be affected by the functions of the Court. Justices of the Court shall be disqualified from sitting in any case on the same grounds provided under Rule one hundred thirty-seven of the Rules of Court for the disqualification of judicial officers. No person who has once served in the Court in a permanent capacity, either as Presiding Justice or as Associate Justice thereof, shall be qualified to practice as counsel before the Court for a period of one (1) year from his retirement or resignation.
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Equivalent to the Regional Trial Courts in rank are the Shari'a District Courtswhich were established in certain specified provinces in Mindanao where theCode of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines is being enforced. There are five Shari'a District Courts and fifty one Shari'a Circuit Courts in existence. A Shari'a District Court is of limited jurisdiction. It was created underPresidential Decree No. 1083. Cases falling within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Shari'a District Courts primarily pertain to family rights and duties as well as contractual relations of Filipino Muslims in the Mindanao.
Supreme Court of the Philippines Appellate Courts

Court of Appeals Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals Offices under the Supreme Court Judicial and Bar Council Office of the Court Administrator Philippine Judicial Academy Philippine Mediation Center

THE SHARI'A CIRCUIT COURTS

Equivalent to the Municial Circuit Trial Courts are the Shari'a Circuit Courtswhich were established in certain municipalities in Mindanao where the Code of Muslim Personal Laws of the Philippines is being enforced. There are five Shari'a Circuit Courts and fifty one Shari'a Circuit Courts in existence.
Every municipality in the Philippines has its own Municipal Trial Court. It is referred to as such if it covers only one municipality; otherwise, it is called Municipal Circuit Trial Court if it covers two or more municipalities. Municipal Trial Courts in the towns and cities in the Metropolitan Manila area, as distinguished from the other political subdivisions in the Philippines, are referred to as Metropolitan Trial Courts. In cities outside Metropolitan Manila, the equivalent of the Municipal Trial Courts are referred to as Municipal Trial Courts in Cities.

President of the Republic of the Philippines and/or PANGULO Vice President of the Republic of the Philippines Senate President Speaker of the House Representatives

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Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Cabinet Secretary Senator Congressman Associate Justices of the Supreme Court Presiding Justice and other Justices of the Court of Appeals Chairman of the Commission on Elections Cabinet Undersecretary Solicitor General Chief of Staff, AFP/Chief, PNP RTC Judges

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