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101 Reasons Why I’m a Vegetarian

By Pamela Rice • SIXTH EDITION • 2003

Judea Rochelle
Johnson Goldman

Aqua-cide: Fishers employ high tech to scour the seas

1 Today, virtually all of the over 9
billion animals slaughtered for
food in the U.S. every year are the
their risk of many types of cancer sively rapid line speeds that can result
consume a primarily vegetarian diet in animals being cut up while fully
consisting of fruits, vegetables, conscious. Sped-up conveyor belts pro-
product of a swift-moving assembly- cereals, and legumes. They declared duce more profits for packing plants,
line system, incorporating dangerous, that up to 40 percent of cancers are but the cost is borne by the animals
unprecedented, and unsustainable preventable, with diet, physical activ- and by the laborers who have to work
methods of efficiency. If farmers were ity, and body weight appearing to have on the petrified creatures as they fight
required by law to give their animals a measurable bearing on risk. for their lives. As for birds (not legally
humane living conditions, with spa-
cious quarters, clean surroundings,
fresh air, sunlight, and opportunities
4 The U.N. Food and Agriculture Or- recognized as animals), “humane”
ganization estimates that nearly 70 preslaughter stunning is not adminis-
percent of commercial fish stocks tered (see #72).
for social interaction—if it were ille-
gal simply to administer drugs to ani-
mals who would otherwise die from
worldwide are considered fully ex-
ploited, overfished, or collapsed. Fish-
ers, using rapacious
6 A meat diet dramatically raises
your risk for heart attack, but in re-
cent years you’re less
the environments they live in—cheap techniques such as likely to die from one.
meat could never exist. Time and sonar, drift nets, long- a ls Technology will prob-
again, the industry fights proposed lines, dredgers, and
are ably save your life, but
measures designed to improve the floating refrigerated
n o t now you’re left to
abject conditions endured by today’s fish-packing factories,
edible s live with the conse-
farmed animals—even slightly—some are ultimately not only quences. In the case of
of which would cost only pennies putting themselves out congestive heart fail-
more per animal. Ultimately, low of business but rap- ure—an increasingly
prices have allowed demand to stay idly destroying ocean common outcome—
high and the industry to become ecosystems. In the case your heart, now so
highly concentrated. Over the past of longlining, scien- damaged, is unable to
half century, farming in the U.S. has tists estimate that fish- circulate blood to the
been allowed to grow into a grim cor- ers launch 4.5 million rest of your body ade-
porate monstrosity, the scale of which hooks every night. quately; this results
is hard to comprehend or even believe. Overall, a quarter of in fluid build-up and

2 When the Clean Water Act went

into effect in 1972, the government
exempted agriculture. One result:
the world’s fish catch
comes from nontarget
species; a third goes to PHOTO BY MICHELLE FORNOF
organ damage. In the
U.S., nearly 5 million
people live with the
Vegetarian outreach activist Jean
35,000 river miles in just 22 states are feed livestock. Early in condition, and about
Thaler raises a voice of dissent at
polluted by feedlot operations. And to- 1998, a meeting of 1,600 Nathan’s hot-dog–eating contest. 550,000 new cases crop
day, an entrenched livestock industry, scientists sounded a up every year. The dis-
which produces several trillion pounds clarion call that the oceans were in ease is the leading cause of hospital-
of manure per year, balks at regulation. peril. Five years later, the Pew Oceans ization among the elderly, and hospital
In 2003, the government issued two re- Commission blamed industrial-scale bills attributed to it come to $19 billion
ports. The first revealed that only a commercial fishing for wiping the per year.
quarter of the nation’s largest dairies
and hog operations were spreading
their manure on enough land to miti-
Earth of 90 percent of the ocean’s
largest predatory species found only 50
years ago (see #92).
7 It might be easy on your con-
science to consume the flesh of a
creature perceived to be stupid, dirty,
gate toxic runoff. The second said that
the EPA’s computer systems are grossly
inadequate to track down farms lack-
5 The Humane Slaughter Act re- and brutish. It may be surprising to
quires that an animal be rendered some, however, that pigs are highly in-
unconscious with one swift applica- telligent. Ask Professor Stanley Curtis
ing manure-management plans. As a tion of a stunning device before of Pennsylvania State University. He
result, millions of tons of waste are slaughter. This requirement, however, taught several pigs to understand com-
sent into our waterways, and the gov- can easily be violated, thanks to exces- plex relationships between actions
ernment is unable to control it. and objects in order to play video

3 After reviewing 4,500 scientific

studies and papers on the relation-
ship between cancer and lifestyle, a
games. Curtis, along with his col-
leagues, found pigs to be focused, cre-
ative, and innovative, equal in intelli-
team of 15 scientists sponsored by two THANKS TO MY HUSBAND, ALAN RICE, FOR HIS
gence to chimpanzees. Similarly, other
leading cancer research institutions UNENDING SUPPORT, WITHOUT WHICH THIS researchers have found chickens to
advised those interested in reducing BOOKLET COULD NEVER HAVE BEEN WRITTEN. show empathy (and to be smart as

Plant Parade: Antioxidants, phytochemicals, fiber

well), cows to respond to music, and Gloom and depression affect between between 25 and 50 percent of the re-
fish to be as individual as dogs. a third and three-quarters of patients. ported catch. A big part of the problem

8 U.S. livestock consume five times

as much grain as is consumed
directly by the entire American popu-
Many will require a second operation.
A vegetarian diet, regular exercise,
and spiritual nourishment have been
lies with “flag-of-convenience” poach-
ers, operating on ships from nations
that have not signed on to interna-
lation. On average, it takes 5.86 pounds proven to reverse heart disease, the tional fishing treaties that regulate en-
of plant protein (grain and forage) to biggest killer in Western countries. vironmental conventions. These boats,
produce 1 pound of animal protein—a
horrible waste in a time when hunger
pervades many regions of the world
12 Jim Mason and Peter Singer
write in their book Animal Fac-
tories, “Instead of hired hands, the fac-
which bring in a full quarter of the
world’s fish, are actually owned by
companies from signatory countries,
(see #31). Albeit, the meat industry tory farmer employs pumps, fans, particularly the U.S., European states,
continually works to improve feed-to- switches, slatted or wire floors, and and Japan. Such “legal” pirating of
flesh efficiency, but improvements automatic feeding and watering hard- the seas doubled during the 1990s.
come at the expense of the animals via
genetic tinkering and growth-enhanc-
ing drugs.
ware.” As with any other capital-in-
tensive system, man-
agers are concerned
16 Factory hens today are forced to
live in “battery” cages stacked
in rows by the thousands. Each is con-

9 About 25 million pounds of antibio-

tics are fed every year to livestock
for growth promotion and disease pre-
with the “cost of in-
put and volume of
output.…The differ-
fined to about 48 to 86 square
inches of floor space. (This
page is 91 square inches.) Af-
vention, almost eight times the amount ence is that in animal ter months of confinement,
given to humans to treat disease. factories the product is necks are covered with blisters,
Though perfectly legal, the practice is a living creature.” wings bare, combs bloody, feet torn.
leading to the selection of antibiotic-
resistant bacteria. More and more,
these superbugs are causing human ill-
13 Eating a plant-based
diet guards against
disease, first in an active
Manure fumes and rotting carcasses
force poultry workers to wear
gas masks. When the hens be-
nesses that physicians are finding dif- way, with complex carbohydrates, phy- come what the industry matter-
ficult and even impossible to treat. The tochemicals, antioxidants, vitamins, of-factly calls spent, producers truck
practice is adding to the general world- minerals, and fiber, then by default: the mutilated birds—often long dis-
wide crisis of drug-resistant disease. The more plant foods you eat, the less tances—to slaughter, or they will gas

10 Every year, Americans suffer 76

million illnesses, over 300,000
room you have for animal foods, which
clog arteries with cholesterol, strain
them and grind them up to feed the
next flock.
hospitalizations, and over 5,000 deaths
from something they ate. That some-
thing was probably of animal origin.
kidneys with excess protein, and bur-
den the heart with saturated fat. In
2003, a small but influential Canadian
17 Consumer Reports went to 60
cities in 8 states in 2003 to pur-
chase and test 400 packages of chicken
Except in rare instances, neither the study found that a low-fat vegetarian and beef to check them for bacterial
USDA nor the FDA has any regulatory diet, including soy, reduces cholesterol contamination. It found that though
powers on farms where pathogens levels by about as much as widely used incidence of bacteria in chicken had
originate. With the exception of E. coli statin drugs. decreased since their 1997 tests (75 per-
O157:H7, dangerous bacteria are con-
sidered “inherent” to raw meat. Pro-
ducers may legally sell infected meat,
14 Meat packing and poultry pro-
cessing are notoriously haz-
ardous and dangerous. Workers may
cent then compared to 50 percent in
2003), many more of the contaminated
birds this time harbored antibiotic-
leaving it up to the consumer to neu- be crushed by animals falling off the resistant strains of salmonella and
tralize pathogens with cooking. line. Poultry workers typically make a campylobacter. It also found 25 per-

11 Bypass surgery requires that

your rib cage to be opened, your
heart stopped, and your body hooked
single movement up to 20,000 times a
day and suffer repetitive-stress disor-
ders at 16 times the national average.
cent of the beef contaminated with
listeria, a pernicious and elusive bug
usually associated with cold cuts.
up to an external pumping machine so Turnover at plants can be as high as Listeria carries a high incidence of
an artery or vein from some other part 100 percent per year. death from infection. Cooking kills it,
of your body can be removed and
grafted as a replacement blood vessel
to your heart. Memory, language abil-
15 With so many fish species on the
brink of extinction (see #4), gov-
ernments often try to regulate fishing
but store labels say “ready-to-eat.”

18 An English study that com-

pared the diets of 6,115 vegetar-
ity, and spatial orientation are still im- gear, catch size, and catch season— ians and 5,015 meat eaters for 12 years
paired in 10 to 50 percent of bypass pa- usually without success. Policing is found that the meatless diet yielded a
tients six months later. For some peo- expensive. All told, illegal fishing 40 percent lower risk of cancer and a
ple these side effects never go away. around the world is estimated to equal 20 percent lower risk of dying from

Meat industry: Writes own laws on animal treatment

any cause. After monitoring 2,000 vege- up with skyrocketing demand they
Sponsor s tarians and near-vegetarians for 22 should be allowed merely to rinse off
years, German researchers found that fecal matter from bird carcasses rather
American Vegan Society compared with the general population than cut away affected parts. The gov-
Compassionate living • Since 1960 groups of people who eat little or no ernment gave in to their pleas. A num-
856-694-2887 • meat can expect to cut their death rates ber of studies have since proved that
from diseases by 25 to 50 percent. rinsing, even up to 40 times, is ineffec-
Animal People
News for People Who Care About Animals
P.O. Box 960, Clinton, WA 98236-0960
19 Half of every butchered cow and
a third of every butchered pig be-
comes either by-product material or
tive at dislodging the filth. Moreover,
the violent motion of defeathering
rubber fingers not only works to squirt
$24/yr. • 360-579-2505 • (free sample) waste. In addition, 920 million animals feces out from the chickens’ bodies but
die on U.S. factory farms each year be- can push bacteria deep into crevices of
fore reaching slaughter. What’s an in- birds’ skin where no process is able to
Janet Bloor dustry to do with all this death and dislodge it.
Costume designer of
Penelo Pea Pod
gore? Call the renderer straightaway!
Recycling, they call it. Lips are exported
to Mexico for taco filling; horns are
22 Many of the world’s mightiest
rivers no longer reach the sea,
and aquifer levels everywhere are drop-
Bernice & Howard, made into gelatin; other parts are fash- ping precipitously. For these we can in
Winnie & Jim, Mrs. T. & Mrs. H. ioned into everything from drugs to large part blame the fivefold increase in
We miss and love y’all. aphrodisiacs and cosmetics. The rest is worldwide meat production that took
—Bonny & Jay minced, pulverized, and boiled down place over the past half-century, and the
for more products. Much is dried to a trend is far from over. Indeed, meat is a
Jay-Jay: My guy—My best powder to be mixed into animal feed. In water guzzler. Producing a pound of an-
friend and love of my life. 1997, feeding ruminant slaughterhouse imal protein requires about 100 times as
—Bonny by-product to cattle became illegal—a much water as producing a pound of
stopgap attempt to safeguard the public vegetable protein. As Newsweek once
against mad cow disease (see #63). To put it, “the water that goes into a 1,000-
Candle Cafe
begin with, the measure remains rid-
dled with loopholes. And then, in 2001,
pound steer would float a destroyer.”
Seventy percent of the water that is
1307 Third Ave., NYC the FDA found hundreds of animal-feed pulled from the world’s rivers, lakes,
212-472-0970 producers in violation. and underground wells goes to agricul-
Christian Vegetarian
Association 20 Essentially, if a farming practice
is established as “accepted,”
ture, and 40 percent of the world’s grain
goes to feed animals for slaughter.
P.O. Box 201791, Cleveland, OH 44120
“common,” “customary,” or “normal,”
no matter how inhumane, anticruelty
statutes do not apply. Such a legal envi-
23 Castration makes bulls easier to
handle. It makes their meat more
marketable also. There are three castra-
BE A HUMANE HUMAN. ronment serves to grant meat produc- tion methods, two of which shut off the
ers carte blanche for the development of blood supply so that the testicles either
Craig & Cherie Cline still other cruel practices and technolo- are reabsorbed into the animal’s body or
Salem, Oregon gies. In general, the laws that are writ- simply fall away after a couple of weeks.
ten to protect animals are rarely en- In a third method, the scrotum is cut so
forced. Fines for violations are negligi- that the testicles can be pulled out.
Interested in a NYC bly small, and prosecutors may have to Anesthesia is rarely given before any of
Veggie Kids Playgroup? demonstrate that a defendant was in a
particular mental state when an act was
these procedures, and sometimes opera-
tions are botched. One livestock expert
We are starting one up. committed. Basically, the meat industry advises would-be emasculators, “Sloppy
For details, e-mail enjoys a privilege unique in the world castration means lower profits.”
of law: Instead of society judging which
of its actions should be legal or illegal,
it makes this determination itself. Is
24 As many as one person in three
in industrialized countries may
be affected by foodborne illness each
there any wonder that precious little year, with children, pregnant women,
Emerge Holistic economic loss exists for the benefit of the sick, the poor, and the elderly being
Specializing in vegetarian farmed animals? the most at risk, according to the World
nutrition & lifestyle counseling • 917-355-0913 21 In the mid-1970s, chicken proces-
sors argued that in order to keep
Health Organization. Furthermore,
Stacey A. Sawel, director of scientific

Veg-abundance: World without hunger through 2050

and regulatory affairs for the United Fearing the strain might be signaling alive and to make him grow. He is kept
Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Associa- the beginning of a pandemic (see #35), in darkness except for feeding time.
tion, tells us that “outbreaks of food- authorities slaughtered and buried 1.3 The result? A nearly full-grown ani-
borne illness associated with produce million poultry-market chickens in mal with flesh as tender and milky-
are very rare. CDC [Centers for Dis- the city over a chaotic three-day pe- white as a newborn’s. The beauty of
ease Control] data for 1986–1996 shows riod. Similarly, a pig virus directly in- the system, from the standpoint of the
3,227 outbreaks occurred from all food fected 250 people in Malaysia in 1999. veal industry, is that meat from today’s
sources, but only 21…were associated As a result, a million pigs were herded “crate veal” still fetches the premium
with produce. And of those, al- price it always did when such
most half were due to cross con- flesh came only from a baby
tamination with raw meat prod- calf. But now each animal yields
ucts during food preparation.” much more meat.

25 In 2000, the USDA released

its official dietary guide-
lines, as it does every five years,
31 On October 12, 1999, the
population of the world
hit 6 billion, at least in theory.
and as always it told people to This number is expected to near
eat less meat. Of course it didn’t 10 billion by 2050. The Green
use those words. When it did, in Revolution, which fueled much
1979, the meat industry sounded of the recent growth, appears to
such a hue and cry that the U.S. have come to an end. Indeed,
agency quickly retreated. Re- grain production worldwide has
duce “saturated fat and choles- been declining since 1983, and
terol” it says now, something biotech is not likely to reverse
that means little or nothing to Such a mural may not take on any particular significance the downturn. Today, 70 percent
for the everyday person, but a vegetarian may make note
many people. of grain in the U.S. and 40 per-

of the crazed look in the veal calf’s eyes and a vandal’s
Birds are cheap and cages cent of grain worldwide lav-
splash of paint above the nose. The air vents above the face
are expensive, so battery add an extra touch of ignobility to the composition. ishly goes to feed livestock. And
hens live out their dreary days in Appropriately, the photographer found this one in the just when the world seems to
space just about the size of their decrepit meat district of New York City. think it needs more land to cul-
bodies. No hen gets to run, build tivate grain to feed to animals
a nest, enjoy a cleansing dust bath, into pens and shot or beaten to death. (so more people can eat them), per-
mate, lift a wing, protect a chick, for- Some pigs ended up being buried alive. capita world cropland declined by 20
age in the sun, perch, or fly. Instead,
this creature will spend her time 29 Gigantic open-air cesspools of percent—this in the 1990s alone. The
urine and feces are invariably World Health Organization says 1.2
crouching and fending off the frantic situated adjacent to the barns that billion people in the world don’t get
feather pulling of cage mates. And hold thousands and even millions of enough to eat. More meat production
every egg that is laid will roll away factory animals. The stench that they is definitely not the answer.
down the slope of a wire floor, which give off is exceedingly more pungent
will also cripple her legs and feet. than everyday farm odor—even miles 32 Polychlorinated biphenyls
(PCBs) are highly toxic chemi-

27 The senseless waste of the away. It will hammer you, perhaps cals, once used widely in a number of
world’s growing meat-centered only intermittently like Chinese water industrial applications. Though they
diet is illustrated by a hypothetical torture. In one Illinois case, assess- are now banned in the U.S. and other
statement put forth by the Population ments on nearby homes were officially Western countries, their residues have
Reference Bureau: “If everyone reduced by 10 to 30 percent. become part of the food chain, lodged
adopted a vegetarian diet and no food
were wasted, current [food] produc- 30 A male calf born to a dairy cow: in the fat of fish, beef, pork, and milk
What does a farmer do with this products. Various studies have linked
tion would theoretically feed 10 billion by-product of the milk industry? If he prenatal exposure to PCBs—even tiny
people [65 percent more people than is not immediately slaughtered or fac- amounts—to impaired intellectual de-
alive today], more than the projected tory-raised, he is made into fancy veal. velopment in children. Women who
population for the year 2050.” To this end, he is locked up in a stall plan to become pregnant are advised

28 In 1997 a bird virus jumped to a and chained by his neck to prevent to avoid foods containing them, be-
human for the first time in his- him from turning around for his en- cause the chemicals can accumulate in
tory. The avian influenza strain H5N1 tire life. He is fed a special diet without their bodies for years.
eventually killed six people as well as iron or roughage. He is injected with
entire chicken flocks in Hong Kong. antibiotics and hormones to keep him 33 Some U.S. farmers feed their
chicken flocks manure. No, it’s

Cows’ Milk: Most significant chemical carcinogen

Sponsor s not illegal, and yes, animals will grow
by eating it. According to the FDA, the
practice is safe if, during composting,
37 Adopting one of the popular
high-protein diets today may
help you lose weight in the short run,
Support vegetarian options the feces are allowed to reach high but so might other unhealthful prac-
in the public schools. enough temperatures to destroy harm- tices, such as smoking. Eventually
—B.G. ful bacteria. The problem is, farmers you’ll need to learn how to eat. The
rarely take all the necessary steps in American Heart Association and other
the composting process. major health organizations have ada-
Leigh & Helayne 34 The late parent advisor Dr. Ben-
jamin Spock maintained that
mantly warned people against the
Atkins diet and others, because they
Gaither cows’ milk “causes internal blood loss, can unnecessarily strain the kidneys as
allergies, and indigestion and con- well as cause fatigue or dizziness.
tributes to some cases of childhood dia- They’ve also been shown to cause dehy-

Elliot L. Gang betes.” In the last edition of his famous

baby book he recommended that chil-
dration, which may remain undetected.
Furthermore, upping fat and lowering
dren after the age of 2 essentially ad- carbohydrate intake—part and parcel
here to a vegan diet. But dairy milk is of these risky diets—have been found to
Emanuel Goldman not recommended for infants either. impair brain function over time.

the Vegetarian Cinophile
Naomi Weinshenker
According to renowned nutrition
researcher T. Colin Campbell, “Cows’-
milk protein may be the single most
38 Genetics through single-trait se-
lection has become as important
a component of today’s intensive farm-
significant chemical carcinogen to ing as drugs and confinement hardware.

Bob Gotch which humans are exposed.” The animals themselves, right down to

Vegan for 101 reasons—

vegan for life
35 Because of animal agriculture,
the world sees a global pandemic
of influenza three or four times per cen-
their DNA, must stand up to the rigors
of the industrial process, both in life
and in carcass form. They must produce
tury. Ducks are often the original incu- at breakneck speeds and do so on as lit-
Hangawi bators for a new subtype. In turn, pigs tle feed as possible. And ultimately, the
“A vegetarian shrine are periodically able to act as hosts for particular output they unwillingly give
in another space and time” both the avian viruses and the human forth must please our final end user, the
12 E. 32nd St., NYC • 212-213-0077
ones. Within the pigs’ lungs, the trans- consumer, in texture, taste, uniformity,
FREE Indian cooking species viruses swap genetic material, convenience, and price. Mutant genes
sauces. Pay only S&H. creating a new strain that may be that would not survive in the wild for a passed back to humans. Historically, minute are cultivated to monstrous
908-369-6300 the most fertile place for this to happen ends. Today’s hen produces 300 eggs per
has been Southern China, where bil- year; her wild forebears would have laid
The Mary T. and Frank L. lions of pigs, domesticated ducks, and 2 dozen. Today’s cow yields a staggering
people all live in close proximity to one 9.1 tons of milk per year on the average,
Hoffman Family Foundation another. whereas 2.3 tons was the norm in 1940.

Lantern Books
36 Beef cattle are best suited to
moist climates, like those of
Europe, where they evolved. But in the
Sows, breeding cows, and hens have
similarly been reduced to piglet-, calf-,
and chick-making machines.
U.S., many are herded in the West on the
nation’s most arid land. Native grasses
long ago were overrun by heartier for-
39 U.S. subsidies to ranchers on
public lands come to about $500
million annually. To eliminate livestock
eign varieties, inadvertently brought predators—real or anticipated—one
here on bovine hooves. Grazing usually government program uses steel-jaw
Living Among Meat Eaters takes place along fragile riparian leghold traps, firearms, cyanide, and
zones—the strips of land along rivers poison gas to exterminate thousands of
Help! My Child Has Stopped and streams where wild species of black bears, mountain lions, bobcats,
Eating Meat! An A–Z Guide to plants and animals concentrate and re- foxes, and coyotes every year.

Surviving a Conflict in Diets

BOTH BY Carol J. Adams
generate. These delicate ecosystems,
which serve as natural purifiers of the
water, are summarily trampled by cows
40 Though osteoporosis is a disease
of calcium deficiency, it is not one
of low calcium intake. The main cause of
AUTHOR OF The Sexual Politics of Meat
and contaminated by manure. the bone disorder is too much protein in

Talking Fish: Vibratory “calls” sounding a message,

the diet. Excesses can leach calcium lift to slaughter. Such animals may be and urine, which percolate with bacte-
from the bones. The typical meat-eating left to starve or freeze to death. The ria, wormy parasites, and viruses, es-
American is eating about five times as downer phenomenon would be drasti- sentially need to be defined as sites of
much protein as needed. cally reduced if all stockyards refused hazardous industrial waste and regu-

41 Young women who ingest, on

the average, 23 percent of their
calories from animal fat—particularly
to receive and process them.

45 Over the last century, midwest-

ern farmers drained more than
lated as such. Livestock waste can be
10 to 100 times as concentrated as hu-
man waste. The National Resources
from red meat and full-fat dairy prod- 105 million acres of wet- Defense Council docu-
ucts—are at a 33 percent greater risk lands, half of all that mented at least 1,000 ma-
of developing breast cancer than those once were. In Iowa alone, nure spills and at least
women whose calorie intake from ani- prairies that once took 200 fish kills in 10 states
mal fat averages 12 percent, according up 80 percent of the state from 1995 to 1998.
to an eight-year study. Researchers
looked at 90,000 women, ages 26 to 46,
and reported in 2003 that the kind of
are down to .01 percent
of their acreage. Wet-
lands and prairies allow
49 Eating fish from
coral reefs is like
burning the Mona Lisa
fat, not the amount, was key. Non- native species to flour- for kindling. Reefs are
hydrogenated vegetable fats, such as ish, cleanse and filter home to 25 percent of all
olive oil did not affect a woman’s risk. pollutants from the wa- known marine fish

42 When faced with a flock of

spent hens, an egg farmer
knows he can induce production again
ter, and need no artifi-
cial fertilizers to exist.
Monotonous stretches of
species. Yet a burgeon-
ing demand from restau-
rants for live coral-reef
by way of a forced molt—accom- non-ecological and pol- fish has created huge in-
plished with starvation and water de- luting feed crops— Paul Dios centives for divers to
privation for periods of up to two mostly corn and soy- capture the fish with
weeks. No U.S. law prevents this, and beans—have taken their place. cyanide. First they dissolve concen-
in fact most hens are molted at least
once in their lives. So cruel is the prac-
tice that even McDonald’s couldn’t
46 Cattle thrive best on grass and
hay. But to give beef its signa-
ture fatty marbling and to speed
trated tablets of the poison into plastic
squirt bottles. Once the prey is
stunned, full immobilization tends not
stomach it. In 2000 the burger giant an- growth, ranchers fatten them with a to take place until after the fish have
nounced that it would not purchase high-grain diet, mostly corn. Without had a chance to burrow back into the
eggs from suppliers that employ it. the use of antibiotics, the rich feed reef. Divers extract their catch with

43 Fish make vibratory sounds

with various “calls” that re-
searchers have identified as communi-
would cause abscesses to form on the
livers of 75 percent of the animals.
Such routine drug use raises the risk
destructive tools. Some reefs are over a
million years old. Yet 20 percent have
been destroyed, in large part, by fish-
cating alarm and aggravation. They for the development of antibiotic- ing in just the past two decades.
possess fully formed nervous systems
as well as complex social behaviors.
They are also capable of learning com-
resistant bacteria (see #94).

47 If you like the idea of being wel-

come at the places where your
50 According to a European study
of 400,000 people, a high-fiber
diet can slash the risk of developing
plicated tasks. British researchers dis- food is produced, don’t count on your deadly cancers by as much as 40 per-
covered in 2003 that fish have the cere- local poultry grower allowing you to cent. Fiber is also an answer to the
bral mechanisms to feel pain. As one see his birds anytime soon. Just barely obesity epidemic, because it has been
animal activist put it, “Fish are not holding onto life in their drugged-up, proven to satiate. Moreover, if diabet-
merely vegetables that can swim.” It overbred, and chronically immuno- ics ate the recommended 50 grams of
does seem all too convenient for com- deficient state, chickens and turkeys fiber per day, they would be able to
mercial and sport fishers to declare in today’s factory systems must be pro- control their blood-sugar levels signif-
that fish do not feel pain. tected from infection brought in from icantly. Because only plant foods con-

44 In any factory-farm operation, a

percentage of the animals are
sick or crippled. The industry calls
the outside. If even slightly lax in ap-
plying rigorous measures of “biosecu-
rity,” farmers over wide geographic re-
tain fiber, and meat has none, most
Americans do not get enough of it to
fend off disease.
them “downers.” Federal law does not
protect them in any way. Downers are
gions can be forced by a mass outbreak
to destroy millions of birds at a time. 51 North Carolina today is host to
10 million pigs—animals that in-
dealt with conveniently. Veterinary
care is not wasted on them. If unable to
walk, a downer is likely to be dragged
48 The livestock industry eu-
phemistically refers to football-
field–size outdoor manure pits as
dividually produce two to four times
the waste of a human. A survey found
1,000 abandoned waste pits in the state,
by chain or pushed by a tractor or fork- “lagoons.” But these cesspools of feces the result of a plunge in pork prices in

Corrosion Brain: Slaughterhouses emit H2S plumes

1998. A year later, Hurricane Floyd in- threatens to wreak financial disaster on
Sponsor s undated some of the pits and sent waste fledgling economies, according to re-
into the Pamlico Sound. There it conta- searchers in India. Without treatment
minated marine nurseries that replen- infrastructures in place, the inevitable
Sheila Low-Beer ish fish all along the eastern seaboard. need for high-tech medical procedures

Tom Lyons & Joan Zacharias

52 Animal agriculture routinely
mutilates farmed animals for its
own convenience. Debeaking, branding,
puts undue strain on national coffers.

56 A report issued by the National

Academy of Sciences in 2000 said
castration, ear notching, wing and that 60,000 children are born in the U.S.
“Animals are not edibles.” comb removal, dehorning, teeth clip- each year with neurological problems
—Henry Spira ping, and tail and toe docking are ever- caused by mercury exposure. Environ-
present tasks on today’s farm and mental groups later concluded that the
ranch. Not veterinarians, but ranch and toxic threat of mercury in seafood was
Lola & Mia farm hands, who learn on the job, per- greater than previously thought, espe-

MacDonald form the surgeries and procedures

using restraint only—no anesthesia.
cially for children and pregnant
women. Their warning advised that

Mike Marinelli, CHHC, AADP 53 Egg producers consider male

chicks a liability. Chick sexers
certain ocean fish, not just species of
freshwater fish, should be avoided.
Holistic Health &
Nutrition Counselor
will divert them for expedient deaths.
Humane methods are not required by
any law. Most often, the little ones,
57 Hoof-and-mouth disease is rarely
fatal for its victims but it might
as well be a death sentence. When blis-
chirping wildly for their mothers, are ters form on hooves and lips and
Frank Mediate dumped in trash bins to die by crushing, growth slows because of fever, fate dic-
Health Meditation through dietary suffocation, starvation, or exposure. tates execution and incineration. In
habits, fitness, and attitude
212-945-7549 54 Though sometimes considered a
panacea for our time, fish and
shellfish farming, or aquaculture, is
2001, to save its export trade, Great
Britain responded to an outbreak by de-
stroying nearly 4 million mostly
Mid-Hudson even more disruptive to the environ- healthy cattle, sheep, and pigs at a cost
Vegetarian Society, Inc. ment than fishing the seas.  The con- of (U.S.)$4.8 billion. There were only
struction of pens along shorelines is a 2,030 known cases of the disease. The • 845.876.2626
major reason for the decimation of rest of the animals were done away
mangrove forests, where fish repro- with as buffers to contain the outbreak.
Gourmet Vegan Cuisine
580 Geary St., San Francisco
duce.  Some fish will not breed in cap-
tivity, so fish farmers must acquire
stock from the wild. These species will
58 If you want to find a lawless in-
dustry, you don’t have to look far-
ther than the people who produce ani-
415-345-3900 •
have less chance to replenish their mals foods. In February 2000, USA
numbers in nature.  Farmed fish often Today broke a not-atypical story about
Whiskers escape into the wild, corrupting the ge- an IBP slaughterhouse in Nebraska.
Another heaven and another
earth must pass before netic purity of wild species and spread- The Justice Department was accusing
such a one can be again. ing disease at the same time.  Shrimp it of emitted up to 1,800 pounds of
are fed on a mashed-up aquatic protein hydrogen sulfide a day—18 times the
Snowball mix. So-called biomass fishing, used to level that is to be regulated. One expert
You were a snowball,
but you melted our hearts. derive the feed, is done with fine nets. described the poison’s effects: “It’s this
We love you and miss you. (Normally, nets are wrought loosely to progressive loss of brain,” he ex-
—The Two Mommies and Grandma allow juvenile fish to escape and repro- plained. Also, H2S corrodes the lungs
duce—thus assuring future stocks.) Bio- and destroys a person’s ability to
Moo Shoes mass fishing extracts fish indiscrimi- breathe. Some of the townspeople
nately. The fish that are caught may be walked around with tanks of oxygen,
207 East 26th St. • New York City endangered or may be the food on but most were just gagging. The chemi-
212-481-5892 which endangered fish live.  Huge cal is similarly to blame for the fact that
amounts of nitrogenous waste emanate 70 percent of all workers employed in
North American Vegetarian Society from fish farms, just as with all inten- hog barns suffer from bronchitis. Not
P.O. Box 72, Dolgeville, NY 13329 sive animal agriculture. surprisingly, the USA Today story noted
518-568-7970 •
Remember World Vegetarian Day: October 1 55 The continued adoption of meat
diets in developing nations
that IBP had a 20-year history of envi-
ronmental misconduct.

Bacterial firewall: Many ingenious antidotes to filth

59 Genetic manipulation through state. If an area so big and devoid of spread. Projections run as high as half
single-trait selection has al- life occurred on land it would be con- a million human victims over time.
ready created monsters as well as sidered catastrophic. Though feeding ruminant remains
monstrous suffering for farmed ani-
mals. Cloning threatens to jack up that 62 In what is still the most compre- back to ruminants was outlawed in the
hensive study of diet and life- U.S. in 1997, the imprudent practice of
misery yet another notch, that is if style ever made, the China Project recycling animal parts back to live-
this perfect monoculture of the most found that the ingestion of animal pro- stock had been going on for decades.
freakish, super-producing specimens tein, even a little, is linked to chronic
takes hold. Cloning for production disease. The findings from this grand 64 Though considered
healthful than beef (not the
agriculture is, albeit, a ways off, if it epidemiological study are especially best endorsement), fish is still a high-

ever becomes commercially viable. In compelling because the data collected fat, high-calorie, fiberless food imbued
the meantime, as the technique is per- have allowed meaningful comparisons with artery-clogging cholesterol. More
fected, cloned animals will suffer pre- between populations with similar ge- than a quarter of the nation’s lakes
mature deaths and deformi- post advisories warning con-
ties, and their meat and sumers that fresh-caught
milk are all but guaranteed fish may be contaminated
to enter the human food (see #32 and #56). But ac-
supply. cording to one expert quoted

60 In 1982, E. coli O157:-

H7 poisoning was
rare. In 1999, the USDA re-
in a 1992 TIME article, you
could drink water from a pol-
luted lake over a lifetime and
vealed that the deadly not absorb the chemical con-
strain may infect half of the tamination you would get
cattle that are processed from just one fish meal.
into ground beef. Today’s
feedlot cattle live in their
own excrement, which is the Factory broiler chickens on the Delmarva Peninsula.
65 When researchers em-
ployed videocameras
in the kitchens of 100 homes
carrier of the bug. Caked-on to watch residents prepare
manure will aerosol its way to edible netic backgrounds yet with nonhomo- designated pathogen-prone dishes, they
portions at the slaughterhouse, where geneous diets and lifestyles. were shocked to find the study partici-
line speeds of 300 animals per hour
cause mishaps. Ground beef today is 63 One by one we’re hearing of pants undercooked the meat 42 percent
people downed by the very mys- of the time, risked cross-contamination
made up of mixtures of hundreds or terious new-variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob of deadly pathogens to raw foods nu-
even a thousand animals, and the disease, a brain-eating affliction that merous times, and even put their young
grinding process brings surface patho- experts say is the human version of ones in danger—in one case returning
gens to the interior. In 2003 a univer- bovine spongiform encephalopathy a baby bottle to the mouth of a child
sity study reported that E. coli O157:H7 (BSE), or mad cow disease. At press after it had been dipped in raw egg. The
can now also be harbored in the inte- time, the number of definite or proba- meat industry claims it does not have to
rior of a solid piece of meat. ble nvCJD cases since 1986 (dead and provide pathogen-free products, de-

61 From the animal-feed bread- alive) is 137—a relatively tiny number. spite the fact that bacteria in animal
basket of the nation’s midwest, The worldwide horror about the dis- foods have become increasingly deadly.
massive amounts of fertilizer, pesti- ease arises from the hideous nature of
cides, and manure runoff travel down it. Over a prolonged and ghastly pe- 66 From farm to table, animal foods
are a filthy business. Antidotes
the Mississippi River and end up in riod, victims display involuntary to the many pathogens they harbor are
the Gulf of Mexico. This high-nutrient movements and appear insane. The an ever-burgeoning industry.  On the
mix causes an ecological chain reac- theory is that these people became in- farm, there are ionizing systems to re-
tion that ultimately ends with micro- fected with the brain-wasting disease duce pathogen-laden dust.  In the
scopic organisms robbing the bottom after eating beef from cows who had slaughterhouse, there are steam, saline
of the ocean of oxygen. Marine life been fed brain and nerve tissue of and acidic solutions, irradiation, ultra-
must relocate or die. Slow and nonmo- scrapie-infected sheep. Evidence con- high pressure, competitive exclusion
bile species will suffocate. The phe- firming the transspecies link gives cre- (which adds benign bacteria to crowd
nomenon is known as hypoxia. Scien- dence to the notion that the disease, out the lethal kinds), electrolyzed wa-
tists have dubbed affected areas “dead which has an undetermined though ap- ter, liquid nitrogen, and ozone gas.  In
zones.” Each summer the Gulf ’s dead parently long incubation period, may the supermarket, detection tabs moni-
zone grows to the size of a small U.S. someday become much more wide- tor food temperature. Other detection

Global Warning: Belching ruminants threaten climate

devices include scat scanners and fiber- leased by the world’s 1.2 billion belch-
Sponsor s optic pathogen sensors that use vibrat- ing ruminant livestock. This adds up to
Don’t buy while they die! ing quartz crystals.  In the kitchen, a 80 million tons per year of a potent
Adopt a shelter animal. silver-coated cutting board kills food greenhouse gas associated with global
View adoptable animals on-line. bacteria.  Then, if you still get sick, you warming. Meanwhile, ranchers con- can take a drug to absorb the toxicity. tribute significantly to the clearing of
What’ll they think up next! the Amazon rainforests, which natu-
New York City Vegetarians
Fun dining and social events
67 Cows tend to want to be milked— rally release oxygen and absorb carbon
to unload their burden—and, dioxide. At the current rate, these won-
when in heat, to receive a bull naturally. drous “lungs of the world” are pro-
or Les at 718-805-4260 Still, according to the Handbook of jected to be gone in 80 years.

Eat healthy! Smart NYC-area

vegetarians belong to the
Livestock Management, “Two or more
people may be needed to force her into 70 Up against the powerful meat in-
dustry, inspectors are more and
the [milking] parlor.” Similarly, the more facing hostile and even violent
Park Slope Food Coop book notes, “A cow in heat may require working environments. A 2000 survey of
782 Union St., btwn. 6th/7th Aves.
Brooklyn • 718-622-0560 two or more persons to move her from 6 percent of the U.S. meat-inspection
her group.” Once she is pried away, she force revealed that almost half chose
will be tethered in a stall with a swing- not to report animal feces, vomit, metal

Joe Passaretti ing gate behind her rear

end allowing it access to
shards, and other conta-
minants, weekly or
a bull pen. Stock men monthly. A Freedom of
designate the stall as Information Act find-
Eternal Treblinka the breeding rack. Ani- ing revealed in 1998 that
by Charles Patterson mal activists call it the seven meat plants were
rape rack. allowed to operate, even

w w w. p o w e r f u l b o o k . c o m
Today the poul- after each had received
try industry is a more than a thousand
Peace begins in the kitchen. vertically integrated citations.

Go vegetarian!
oligopoly, meaning that
a few giant chicken Pamela Rice holds a sign in mid- 71 Turkeys today
have been selec-
companies control pro- town Manhattan as part of a tively bred to such an
duction, from chick spirited demonstration of 25 ac- extent that their huge
tivists. The target? Big Red, a
HELP ANIMALS. hatching to grocery- breasts make it impos-
$100-a-plate “celebration” spon-
store delivery. Squeezed sible for them to accom- sored by 31 red-meat and red-
into the arrangement is wine restaurants and purveyors. plish the sex act on
the contract grower. their own. The industry
The big company owns the birds; the must artificially inseminate them. The grower supplies the farm hands and the job is nearly as dehumanizing for the

212-715-6100 factory confinement hardware. The sit- workers—who must work rapidly for
uation often appears good to the grower long hours and low wages—as it is de-
when she signs her first contract and plorable for the tortured breeder birds,
Chula & Winston goes into debt by several hundred thou- who are essentially raped once or twice
sand dollars. It’s not long before she a week for 12 to 16 months until they are
My heart and soul
finds that the multi-billion-dollar cor- sent to slaughter.
—Marilyn Ramos poration she’s dealing with is now call-
ing all the shots, and that the debt she’s 72 In most large commercial
chicken slaughter plants the in-
incurred has reduced her to little better verted heads of doomed birds are first
Norma Ramos, Esq. than indentured servitude. And now, as plunged into an electrified brine bath.
federal manure-handling regulations The electric current is set at a voltage
begin to be instituted, their burden is just high enough to immobilize the
likely to fall solely on the growers, birds and to promote bleedout without
the raw bakery allowing the giant chicken conglomer- hemorrhage. The birds not only are
Gourmet raw vegan desserts ates to slough off any responsibility. sentient during slaughter but must also
& festive cakes
69 About 22 percent of human re- suffer the excruciating shock. The cur-
lated emissions of methane is re- rent serves to minimize inconvenient

Okinawan Longevity: Not a chance in meaty U.S.

flailing that would interfere with the cost it (U.S.)$410 million. In 2001, hoof- the Earth and given humans the lux-
slaughter process. and-mouth disease (see #57) instantly ury of feeding crops to livestock. Yet

73 Legally, the term free-range is

virtually meaningless. The fed-
eral government has only the vague re-
resulted in countries all over the world
severing trade with the entire Euro-
pean Union, although the disease was
what gives the world abundance has,
by way of runoff, poisoned waterways
from the China countryside to the
quirement that the animals from which mostly confined to England. Mean- Ohio Valley. (Excess nitrogen causes
such meat is derived have access to the while, the hormone-in-beef dispute be- algae to grow, robbing waterways of
outdoors. This could mean one small tween the U.S. and the European oxygen.) Even human sewage has be-
opening for thousands of birds. There Union continues to simmer, as do dis- come more nitrogen-rich, especially
is nothing in the law to prevent these putes about safety standards in meat with the many more meat eaters that
“free-range” animals from receiving that vary from one nation to another. the world can now support. Waterways
the same kind of cruel treatment im- In 1997 the United Nations reported in North America and Europe have 20
posed on any other factory-farmed ani- that over 100 countries were involved times the nitrogen they did before the
mals. Moreover, Consumer Reports in fishing disputes. Industrial Revolution. To produce a
found free-range poultry actually more
contaminated with salmonella and
campylobacter than other poultry.
77 The population explosion
should not be thought of exclu-
sively in terms of people—not when
gram of meat you need over 15 grams

74 In 2000, New York State’s De-

partment of Environmental
Conservation and its Department of
the combined weight of the world’s 1.2
billion domesticated cattle exceeds
that of the entire human population.
Health released a flyer called “Eating Cattle disrupt ecosystems over half
Sport Fish.” The advice speaks for it- the world’s land mass. In the past half
self: No one should eat more than one century alone, more than 60 percent of
meal of fish per week from any of the the world’s rangelands have been dam-
state’s fresh waters; chemical contam- aged by overgrazing, the most perva-
inants may be a problem; trim all fat; sive cause of desertification.
don’t consume cooking liquids. On the
other hand, if you still want to enjoy
the “fun” of sport fishing but don’t
78 It is estimated that 40 to 50 per-
cent of U.S. dairy cows are in-
fected with mastitis at any one time. of nitrogen; to produce a gram of
want to contaminate yourself, the flyer The painful udder infection is consid- wheat flour, only 3 grams.
suggests “catch and release.” But don’t
tear out the hook, “cut its leader.” Also
avoid playing fish to exhaustion, the
ered a man-made condition. Cows get it
by improper care, poor milking proce-
dures, overmilking, and improperly
81 Food animals are transported in
all weather. When it is cold, ani-
mals may freeze right to the sides of
flyer advises. functioning milking machines. Add to trucks or become frozen in the urine

75 Okinawa has the healthiest and

longest-lived people in the world,
boasting the highest percentage of peo-
the misery the genetically engineered
bovine growth hormone Bovine Soma-
totropin (bST), which boosts milk
and feces that build up on truck floors.
In hot weather, heat stress kills many.
Losses, however, are figured into the
ple who live to 100 years old. The super yields: Its use is also linked to mastitis. cost of doing business. According to
seniors found there also tend to retain
their mental keenness, and few need to
live in nursing homes. Surprise: Oki-
79 Animal foods are high in
sodium, which causes the blood
to retain water. They also cause plaque
swine specialist Kenneth B. Kephart,
“Even with a zero death rate that
might be associated with providing
nowans eat very little food of animal to build up in the arteries, narrowing more space on a truck, the hogs that
origin, according to a 25-year study on the flow area for blood. Combine these we save would not be enough to pay for
the island. Genes could take some of phenomena and you have a recipe for a the increased transportation costs of
the credit, although researchers be- disease that afflicts about 50 million hauling fewer hogs on a load.”
lieve that many of the centenarians
would not have made it even into their
80s in the meat-laden U.S.
Americans: high blood pressure. You
can take calcium channel blockers and
diuretics to control it, but studies
82 When meat, fish, or poultry is
barbecued, dripped fat over the
open flame sends up plumes of smoke

76 As markets for animal-based

foods become more global,
warn that you risk losing intellectual
function if you do.
that coat the food with carcinogens.
Other unhealthful chemicals are cre-
“carnivore conflicts” increasingly
threaten international peace. In just
the first month after a “mad cow” was
80 In the early twentieth century
man learned how to extract ni-
trogen from the air, cheaply and in
ated just by extended cooking times.
Chemists are telling meat eaters today
to keep those grill times down. Even
discovered in Canada, the beef indus- large quantities. The discovery has al- environmentalists are saying that
try there estimated that import bans lowed 2 billion more people to inhabit restaurant grilling is a major source of

Exotic & Endangered: Conduit for deadly pandemic

soot and smog. But you still need to pany sanitation measures. Inspections
Sponsor s cook your meat thoroughly: How else often entail nothing more than an
are you going to kill all of that deadly overview of the company’s paperwork.
Richard H. Schwartz bacteria? Moreover, three-quarters of all fish con-
Author of Judaism and
Vegetarianism and Judaism
and Global Survival •
83 As a result of the introduction of
cattle to this hemisphere, major
forest fires in the American West occur
sumed in the U.S. are imported. Only a
few of the largest foreign processing
plants are ever seen by U.S. inspectors.

Tamarind Tree
Heat-and-serve Indian entrees
today at the rate of one every three
years, where earlier they may have oc-
curred only once in a century. Histori-
87 Joel Fuhrman, M.D., who has
cured hundreds of people from
chronic diseases with no-nonsense veg- cally, ranchers suppressed “cool” grass etarian diet plans, says that it is impos-
fires on the bovines’ behalf, allowing sible to devise a diet that conforms to
tinderboxes of dense foliage to build up the recommendations in the scientific
Your “101 Reasons” saved my life. below taller trees. Factor in cheatgrass, literature about food and health if ani-
—Ted Teisler a nonnative plant that would not have mal foods are included in significant
had the opportunity to take root in quantities. Sure, meats contain nutri-
America without the overgrazing of ents, but plant foods give you more nu-
Triangle Vegetarian Society cattle. This prolific weed provides dry, trition for your calorie.

papery kindling in early summer, per- Just as smokestack emissions re-
TVS, POB 3364, Chapel Hill, fectly conducive to massive forest fires. sult in acid rain, toxic fumes
NC 27515 • 919-489-3340

Shop cruelty-free.
84 Negotiating truck on- and off-
ramps can be a cruel challenge
for large mammals bred for muscle
from decomposing livestock waste on
factory farms become poisonous to fish
when they are returned to the Earth via without attendant skeletal strength. rainfall. The errant ammonia also rav-
Broken bones are common. Likewise, ages terrestrial ecosystems because
Phone: 1-866-88-VEGAN
the bones of egg-laying hens are espe- plants that thrive on nitrogen are fa-
cially fragile, weakened by a life of in- vored over species that don’t. Fallout
Help advance vegan
tense egg production. Industry research can degrade environments as far away
nutrition research. has revealed that by slaughter time, as 300 miles.

over one in four will have broken bones. Pursuing food from animals And since chicken catchers—the labor- must be considered highly risky
ers who gather up birds into transport behavior, as humans more and more cages—are poorly paid by the job, not catch diseases from animals: Creutz-
Your online guide to vegetarian the hour, they are invariably swift and feldt-Jakob disease, Nipah virus, in-
restaurants around the world brutal on the birds. fluenza, and now SARS can all be

VegNews 85 Clog up your arteries on a diet

loaded on saturated animal fat
year after year and you risk a heart at-
counted as examples. Exotic and often
endangered animal cuisine, increas-
ingly provides the conduit for a poten-
Subscribe today to North America’s
favorite vegetarian magazine. tack or stroke. Of course, you can opt to tially deadly pandemic (see #35 and • 415.665.NEWS avert these afflictions with a now-rou- #28). In China, so-called wet markets
tine operation known as angioplasty, display caged and often sickly creatures,
which may have to be performed re- such as cobras, civet cats, and anteaters,
Vegetarian Restaurant Hotline peatedly. The $12,000 procedure is per- for consumers who want that “taste of
212-810-2110 formed with a balloon-tipped catheter, the wild.” In Africa, bush meat is all the
which flattens plaque against artery rage and likely to wipe out species of
walls, thus opening up passageways for our closest relatives, the larger pri-
FREE “Love them, don’t eat
them” bumper sticker and blood flow. A whole-foods vegetarian mates. Contemporary air travel and
NEWS DIGEST. diet—along with regular exercise—can, trade promise to speed up the process.
however, have the same effect.

86 More than half of the nation’s

seafood companies do not follow
90 Even if meat eaters are spared
the big killers (heart disease,
stroke, diabetes, and cancer) that can
federal food-safety guidelines. Regula- end life, they may be robbing them-
Wilson Wong tors from the Food and Drug Adminis-
tration visit processors only once a year
selves of good health just the same. A
meat diet can also lead to nagging con-
to oversee essentially voluntary com- ditions and ailments. A whole-foods,

Feedlot Fish: Strange sex characteristics downstream

high-fiber vegetarian diet, full of
grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes,
is just the ticket to ease arthritis pain,
95 Except for a single decade from
time to time, the climate above
America’s Ogalalla aquifer is bone-
the U.N. In the U.S., a fisherman is 16
times as likely to die on the job as a po-
liceman or fireman. On one day in
cool irritable-bowel disorders, mitigate dry. Thanks to titanic amounts 2003, more than 200 fishers
common back pain, relieve cold and of water tapped from this an- were drowned after nearly 60
allergy symptoms, and lower risk for cient underground lake, how- Bangladeshi fishing boats
gallstones, kidney stones, and heart- ever, for the last fifty years the sank in the Bay of Bengal dur-
burn. And perhaps the most immedi- land has been blanketed with ing a storm. As fish become in-
ate relief that vegetarianism can bring thirsty feed grains. Farmers in creasingly scarce, thanks to
is its ability to cure constipation! some years have irrigated unsustainable fishing, fishers

91 Drains and sewers at slaughter-

houses often become backed up
with guts and coagulated blood. The
their land with more water
than the annual flow of the
Colorado River. Since this
must take more and more
risks to get to the places where
fish are.
pools that develop may rise to workers’
ankles—whole heads of shackled ani-
mals may even be dragged through
aquifer was originally the gift
of a glacier in another age, to-
day’s rainfall has essentially
99 Every day 600 people in
the U.S. die so suddenly
from cardiac arrest that they
them. The muck may splash up onto no recharging effect. Conse- don’t even make it to the hos-
the animals, spreading contamination. quently, the experts give only pital. Of the victims, 90 per-

92 As fishers find that their usual

catch has been diminished by
overfishing, they are likely to turn to
fifty years before this phenom-
enal creation of the natural
world is gone for good.
cent have two or more arteries
narrowed by atherosclerosis
(hardening of the arteries), a
species lower on the aquatic food
chain to fill their nets. Knowingly or 96 A 25 percent decline in
heart disease in Poland
disease inexorably linked to a
meat-based diet.
otherwise, people today are putting
fish that would normally be food for
endangered fish on their own dinner
in the early 1990s coincided
with the country’s switch to a
market economy that ended
100 Vegetarians are be-
lieved to be less
likely to suffer from certain
plates. If the trend continues, experts government subsidies to meat. cancers, stroke, and hardening
predict, marine food webs will collapse A switch to primarily veg- of the arteries because their
in 25 to 35 years. (see #4). etable fats and the increased blood tends to contain high

93 In nature, swine avoid filth and

will trek and root over 9 miles
in a night. Yet factory internment
importation of fruit were also
seen as factors in the decline,
according to a report made by
levels of salicylic acid, the ac-
tive ingredient in aspirin. A
Scottish study found vegetar-
brings a breeding sow cold, strawless a team of multinational re- ian subjects to have levels of
floors, noxious filth, deafening noise, searchers. The authors of the salicylic acid 12 times as high
and space barely bigger than her own report noted that the decline as meat- and fish-eating sub-
body. This highly intelligent creature was “apparently without jects. The chemical is a power-
will be driven insane as she endures precedent in peacetime.” ful anti-inflammatory agent
repeated pregnancies via artificial in-
semination. Her body will be pinned in 97 To produce foie gras,
male ducks are force-fed
found in abundance in fruits
and vegetables.
place to expose her teats to her piglets.
When her productive capacity wanes,
she will be sent to slaughter.
6 or 7 pounds of grain three
times a day with an air-driven
feeder tube. This torturous
101 A symposium of sci-
entists predicted in
the mid-nineties that energy

94 It’s the high-energy starch of

corn that makes beef cattle
grow to slaughter weight so fast—14 to
process goes on for 28 days un-
til the ducks’ livers, from
which the pâté is made, bloat
shortages, exhausted land,
scarce water, and a doubling
population will impose more
16 months today, versus 4 to 5 years to 6 to 12 times their normal of a plant-based diet onto
early in the twentieth century (see size. About 10 percent of the America’s dinner tables by
#46). In fact, as food energy goes, cattle ducks don’t make it to slaugh- 2050. They acknowledged that
might as well be gaining their weight ter: They die when their this diet, born of scarcity,
on Snickers bars. Feedlot manure is stomachs burst. would “actually be a healthier
not only too rich with nitrogen to be
used as fertilizer, it is so laced with
hormones and other pharmaceuticals
98 Every year, 24,000 fishers world-
wide die on the job, making
fishing the most dangerous occupa-
one.” Surely the sooner we all learn to
enjoy it the better!

that fish downstream can be found COPYRIGHT © 2003 BY PAMELA RICE

tion in the world, according to the
with strange sexual characteristics. Food and Agriculture Organization of COPY EDITING BY GLEN BOISSEAU BECKER
1. David Wolfson, Beyond 8. David Pimentel, “Live- 19. “FDA Warns Livestock 26. Prisoned Chickens Atlantic Monthly, Jan.
the Law: Agribusiness stock Production: Energy Feed Makers Violating (see #5), pp. 54–55. 1996, pp. 26–38.
and the Systemic Abuse of Inputs and the Environ- Mad Cow Rules,” Assoc. 27. “Diverse Diets With Meat 37. E. J. Mundell, “High-
Animals Raised for Food ment,” report to the Press, Jan. 12, 2001. and Milk Endanger World Protein Diets Dehydrate
or Food Production, Farm Canadian Society of Sandra Blakeslee, “Fear Food Supply,” Hearst Even the Very Fit,”
Sanctuary, 1999, pp. 12–16. Animal Science, Mon- of Disease Prompts New News Service, Mar. 8, 1997. Reuters, Apr. 22, 2002.
2. “Reducing Water Pollu- treal, Jul. 24–26, 1997. Look at Rendering,” The 28. Rone Tempest, “New, “High-Fat Diets Linked to
tion from Animal Feeding 9. “Food and Environment: New York Times, Mar. 11, Lethal Flu May Stem Poorer Brain Function,”
Operations,” EPA, Con- Antibiotic Resistance,” 1997, p. C1. from ‘Chicken Ebola’ , ” Reuters, Feb. 21, 2001.
gressional testimony, May Union of Concerned Sci- “Number of Victims Los Angeles Times, Dec.
13, 1998. entists, Jun. 16, 2003. 38. Lance Gay, “Hen Starva-
Reaches New High,” The 14, 1997. tion to Boost Egg Produc-
Joby Warrick and Todd 10. Nicols Fox, Spoiled: The FARM Report, newsletter Kathy Wilhelm, “Hong tion Draws Fire,” Scripps
Shields, “Maryland Coun- Dangerous Truth About a of Farm Animal Reform Kong Made Mass Slaugh- Howard News Service,
ties Awash in Pollution- Food Chain Gone Hay- Movement, Summer/Fall ter Errors,” Assoc. Press, Aug. 2, 2001.
Causing Nutrients,” The wire, Basic Books, 1997, 1997, p. 8. Jan. 2, 1998.
Washington Post, Oct. 3, pp. 139–40, 274. Jack Norris, “But It
J. Peder Zane, “It Ain’t “A Horrible End for Doesn’t Hurt the Cow,”
1997, p. A1. Nicols Fox, “Safe Food? Just for Meat; It’s for Malaysia’s Porkers,” The Vegan Outreach,
Emily Gersema, “Farm- Not Yet,” The New York Lotion,” The New York Economist, Mar 25, 1999. Mar. 1, 2000.
ers Need More Land to Times, Jan. 30, 1997, Times, May 5, 1996, p. 5.
Spread Manure, USDA Op/Ed page. 29. Tara Burghart, “Tax Dan Looker, “The Milk
20. Correspondence, David Break for Hog Farm Meisters,” Successful
Study Says,” Assoc. Press, “How Safe Is Our Meat?” Wolfson, author of Be-
Jul. 10, 2003. Neighbors May Set Farming, Nov. 1998.
Modern Meat, PBS Online yond the Law (see #1). Precedent,” Assoc. Press,
Katharine Q. Seelye, “U.S. and WGBH/Frontline, 39. “The Rancher Subsidy”
21. Elliot Jaspin and Mike May 26, 1998. (see #36), p. 38.
Report Faults Efforts to Apr. 18, 2002. Ward, “Chicken Once
Track Water Pollution,” 30. John Robbins, Diet for a “Grazing Fact Sheets,”
11. Sanded Jauhar, “Saving Tainted by Feces Sal- New America, Stillpoint
The New York Times, the Heart Can Sometimes vaged, Sold,” Austin Forest Guardians, Santa
May 27, 2003. Publishing, 1987, Fe, NM, 1996.
Mean Losing the Mem- American-Statesman, Jun. pp. 112–17.
3. David Brown, “Panel: Up ory,” The New York 18, 1998. “Hot Issues for the Sec-
to 40% of Cancer Cases Times, Sep. 19, 2000, p. F1. 31. Ed Ayres, “Will We Still ond Session of the 105th
Richard Behar and Eat Meat?” TIME, Nov. 8,
Are Preventable,” The Rani Hutter Epstein, Michael Kramer, “The Congress” (fact sheet),
Washington Post, Oct. 1, 1999, pp. 106–7. Humane Society of the
“Facing Up to Depression Epsy Scandal is Minor
1997, p. A12. After a Bypass,” The New Compared With the Way David Pimentel, “How U.S., Jan. 7, 1998.
4. John Heilprin, “Study York Times, Nov. 27, 2001, the USDA Has Favored Many Americans Can the 40. Michael Klaper, M.D., A
Finds Large Drop in p. F8. the Poultry Industry,” Earth Support? Eco- Diet for All Reasons
Predatory Fish,” Assoc. TIME, Oct. 17, 1994. Future, May 18, 2000. (video), Institute of
12. Jim Mason and Peter
Press, May 14, 2003. Singer, Animal Factories, Beatrice Trum Hunter, “Population Expected to Nutrition Education and
William J. Broad and Crown, 1980, p. 18. “Overlooked Threats of Hit 6 Billion,” Assoc. Research, 1993.
Andrew C. Revkin, “Has Foodborne Illness,” Con- Press, Oct. 9, 1999. 41. Maggie Fox, “Animal Fats
13. “Position of the Ameri-
the Sea Given Up Its can Dietetic Assoc. and sumers’ Research, Oct. 1, T.R. Reid, “Feeding the Linked With Breast
Bounty?” The New York Dietitians of Canada: 1995, pp. 14–15. Planet,” National Geo- Cancer in U.S. Study,”
Times, Jul. 29, 2003, p. F1. Vegetarian Diets,” 2003. “From Cradle to Gravy,” graphic, Oct. 1998, p. 65. Reuters, Jul. 16, 2003.
Carl Safina, “The World’s “Vegetarian Diet May Cut Consumer Reports, 32. Elizabeth Kolbert, “The 42. Prisoned Chickens
Imperiled Fish,” Scientific Cholesterol as Well as Mar. 1998, p. 14–15. River,” The New Yorker, (see #5), pp. 74–75.
American, Nov. 1995, Drugs,” Assoc. Press, 22. Danielle Nierenberg, Dec. 4, 2000. Rod Smith, “McDonald’s
pp. 48–49. Jul. 22, 2003. “Factory Farming in the Jane E. Brody, “Study Guidelines Send Signal
“Scientists Sound Alarm 14. Slaughterhouse (see #5), Developing World,” World- Finds Lasting Damage Across All Animal-
About Ocean Perils,” Jan. pp. 32, 62, 76, 271. watch, May/Jun. 2003. From Prenatal PCB Production Segments,”
6, 1998, Assoc. Press. “Global Water Supply Exposure,” The New York Feedstuffs, Aug. 28, 2000.
Eric Schlosser, Fast Food Times, Sep. 12, 1996, p. A14.
Kenneth R. Weiss, “Sea Nation, Houghton Mifflin Central Issue at Stock- 43. Peter Singer, Animal Lib-
Turtle Is Losing the Race Co., 2001, p. 172. holm Conference,” 33. Michael Satchel and eration, 1990, pp. 171–174.
to Poachers, Fishing In- Reuters, Aug. 14, 2000. Stephen J. Hedges, “The Patrick Bateson, “The
dustry,” Los Angeles “Trouble on the Line,” Next Bad Beef Scandal:
Consumer Reports, Mar. Roger Segelken, “End Pain League for Ani-
Times, May 4, 2003. Irrigation Subsidies and Cattle Feed Now Contains mals,” New Scientist,
1998, p. 16. Things Like Manure and
5. Gail Eisnitz, Slaughter- Reward Conservation, Apr. 25, 1992, p. 30.
house: The Shocking Story 15. Paul Brown, “UN to Cornell U. Study Ad- Dead Cats,” U.S. News &
Crack Down as Pirate World Report, Sep. 1, 1997, Michael Holden, “Fish Do
of Greed, Neglect, and In- vises,” Cornell Chronicle, Feel Pain, Say British Sci-
humane Treatment Inside Boats Threaten to Drive Jan. 30, 1997. p. 22–24.
Fish to Extinction,” The entists, Reuters, May 2, 2003.
the U.S. Meat “Shortage of Fresh Water 34. T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D.,
Industry, Prometheus Guardian, Aug. 15, 2000. “New York Times: Reality 44. “Why Farm Sanctuary Is
Predicted,” Assoc. Press, Driving for Protection of
Books, 1997, p. 24. “The Tragedy of the Aug. 27, 1998. Check Needed,” essay,
Oceans,” The Economist, Oct. 26, 2000. ‘Downers’ ” (fact sheet),
Karen Davis, Prisoned 23. Matt Claeys, “Castration: Farm Sanctuary.
Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: Mar. 19, 1994, p. 21. Joe Crea, “Don’t Have a
Not Cutting Will Cut 45. Gale Norton and Ann
An Inside Look at the 16. Prisoned Chickens Profits,” Animal Hus- Cow, Man: Making Sense
Modern Poultry Industry, (see #5), pp. 54–55, 64, of Warnings About the Venman, “There’s More
bandry Newsletter Than One Way to Protect
Book Publishing Co., 76–77, 106–07. Jan./Feb. 1996. Hazards of Milk,” Daily
1996, p. 139. News, Oct. 21, 1992, p. 6. Wetlands,” The New York
17. “How We Tested Beef and John W. Comerford, “Get Times, Mar. 12, 2003.
“Meat Inspectors Say Chicken,” Consumer Re- the Calves Castrated,” 35. Judy Foreman, “Team
USDA Ignores Humane ports, Aug. 2003. Hopes to Unearth 1918 Verlyn Klinkenborg,
Livestock Notes, PEN- “Keeping a Lost World
Slaughter Act,” Reuters, “Of Birds and Bacteria,” pages, Feb./Mar. 1997. Flu Virus,” The Boston
June 13, 2001. Globe, Nov. 3, 1997, p. C1. Alive: A Last Remnant of
Consumer Reports, Jan. 24. “Foodborne Diseases Are Iowa’s Tallgrass Prairie,”
6. “2001 Heart and Stroke 2003. on the Rise in Europe,” David Brown, “Second The New York Times, Aug.
Statistical Update,” Amer- “Listeria Outbreak FAO news rel., Person Identified With 7, 2003.
ican Heart Assoc., p. 19. Prompts Blame Game,” Feb. 25, 2002. Flu Previously Found
Only in Birds,” The Wash- 46. “High-Calorie Cattle
Denise Grady, “As Heart Assoc. Press, Oct. 16, 2002. “Letters: Is Imported Feeding Studied,” Assoc.
Attacks Wane, Heart ington Post, Dec. 3, 1997,
18. “Eat Your Vegetables!” Produce Safe to Eat?” p. A2. Press, May 20, 2001.
Failure Is on the Rise,” Harvard Health Letter, The Washington Post,
The New York Times, 36. Jeremy Rifkin, Beyond 47. Kenton Kreager et al.,
Nov. 1994, p. 8. Aug. 5, 1997, p. Z4. “Biosecurity Tips,” Cali-
May 4, 1999, pp. F1, F4. Beef: The Rise and Fall of
“Going Vegetarian—the 25. Marian Burros, “Guide- the Cattle Culture, Dutton, fornia Poultry Letter, U.
7. “He’s Smarter Than You Healthy Way,” Mayo lines Mix Politics and of California at Davis,
Think,” The Electronic 1992, pp. 187–88, 205, 211.
Clinic Women’s Health- Chicken Skin,” The New Jan. 1997, p. 19.
Telegraph, May 31, 1997. Source, Nov. 1997. York Times, Jan. 25, 2000. Todd Oppenheimer, “The
Rancher Subsidy,” The Peter Jackson, “Poultry
Epidemic Threatens Interview with Robert Of Rape and Pillage,” pages, Oct. 15, 1997. Moves Down the Marine
Industry,” Assoc. Press, Tauxe, “Modern Meat,” Farm Sanctuary News, 82. “Smogburgers Would Be Food Chain, Creating
June 23, 1997. draft transcript, PBS On- Fall 1997, pp. 5–7. Out Under Air-Quality Havoc,” The New York
48. “Pork Power,” 60 Minutes, line and WGBH/Front- 72. Prisoned Chickens Plan,” San Jose Mercury Times, Feb. 10, 1998, p. F3.
CBS–TV, Dec. 22, 1996. line, Apr. 18, 2002. (see #5), pp. 115–116. News, Sep. 6, 1994, p. 3B. 93. “Pigs in Hell,” Viva!LIFE,
Spills and Kills, NRDC, Robert Bazell, “Steak may 73. “Home, Home on “These Few Tips Make Summer 2001, p. 2.
2000. be bearer of bacteria,” the…Small Patch of Food Cooked on the Grill Matthew Scully, “Don’t
NBC News, Jul. 3, 2003. Dirt,” Consumer Reports, Healthier,” The Wall Tolerate the Cruelty on
49. Dirk Bryant, et al., Reefs
at Risk, WRI, ICLARM, 61. Tim Beardsley, “Death in Mar. 1998, pp. 14–15. Street Journal, June 2, Hog Farms,” St. Peters-
WCMC, and UNEP, 1998, the Deep: ‘Dead Zone’ in 74. For a copy of the 1997, p. B1. burg Times, Sep. 29, 2002.
pp. 5, 7, and 15. the Gulf of Mexico Chal- flyer, call 800-458-1158, 83. Mark Robichaux, 94. Terry Gross, producer,
lenges Regulators,” ext. 27815. “Scientists Fight Fires By “Michael Pollan Dis-
“Coral Reefs: Magnificent Scientific American,
Creations of Nature,” 75. Richard Saltus, “Oki- Trying to Outwit a Very cusses the U.S. Beef
Nov. 1997, pp. 17–18. Persistent Weed,” The Industry,” Fresh Air,
The Coral Reef Alliance. nawans, the World’s Long-
62. Jane E. Brody, “Huge est-lived People, Have a Lot Wall Street Journal, WHYY–NPR, Apr. 3, 2002.
50. “Fiber Helps Diabetics Study of Diet Indicts Fat Sep. 1, 2000, p. 1.
Control Blood Sugar, to Teach Americans,” The Michael Pollan, “Power
and Meat,” The New York Boston Globe, May 21, 2001, 84. Gene Bauston, Battered Steer,” The New York
Study Says,” Reuters, Times, May 8, 1990, p. A1.
May 10, 2000. p. A14. Birds, Crated Herds: How Times Magazine,
63. Sandra Blakeslee, “New 76. Melinda Fulmer, “Bans We Treat the Animals We Mar. 31, 2002.
“High-Fiber Diet Can Cut Evidence Said to Dispel Eat, Farm Sanctuary,
Cancer Risk by 40 Per- on Meat: Imports Fuel 95. Richard Cowen, “Chap.18:
Doubt on Mad Cow Dis- Claims of U.S. Protection- 1996, p. 46. Mining Ground Water,”
cent,” Reuters, Jun. 23, ease,” The New York
2001. ism,” Los Angeles Times, 85. Diet for All Reasons lect. notes, Geology 115,
Times, Sep. 30, 1997. Mar. 21, 2001. (see #40). Earth Sci., Hist., and Peo-
51. Heather Dewar and Tom Terence Chea, “‘Mad ple, Dept. of Geology, U. of
Horton, “Seeds of Jonathan Friedland, “An Abandoned Drug
Cow’ Fears Create a Mar- “Eco-Threats: Redefining Offers Hope for Heart C., Davis, CA, Mar. 2003.
Solution to Nitrogen ket,” The Washington
Glut,” Baltimore Sun, National Security,” Dow Patients, Study Finds,” “Water: Drying out,” The
Post, May 29, 2001, p. E1. Jones News, Nov. 25, 1997. The New York Times, Economist, Sep. 18, 1999.
Sep. 28, 2000.
“Bungled,” The Econo- Roberta Rampton, Aug. 7, 1997, p. A19. 96. “Diet Credited for Fall in
52. Richard A. Battaglia, mist, Mar. 14, 1998.
Handbook of Livestock “Desperate Times for 86. Melinda Fulmer, “Study: Polish Heart Deaths,”
pp. 21–23. Canada’s Beef Industry,” System for Seafood Safety Reuters, Apr. 6, 1998.
Management Techniques,
2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, Anita Manning, “Mad Reuters, Jul. 12, 2003. Inspections Flawed,” 97. “The Grief Behind Foie
1998. Cow Disease Runs a 77. Beyond Beef (see #36), Los Angeles Times, Gras,” PETA, May 15, 1997.
Baffling Course,” p. 1. Feb. 14, 2001.
53. C. David Coats, Old Mac- USA Today, Science, 98. “Fishing at Sea Claims
Donald’s Factory Farm, “Be an Environmental- 87. Joel Fuhrman, M.D., Fast- More Than 70 Lives a Day,
Dec. 2, 1997. ing and Eating for Health,
Continuum, 1989, p. 84. ist,” EarthSave news- FAO Says,” FAO news
64. Neal Barnard, M.D., letter, EarthSave Founda- St. Martin’s Griffin, 1998, rel., Jan. 25, 2001.
54. Kieran Mulvaney, “A Sea Power of Your Plate, p. 51.
of Trouble,” E/The Envi- tion, Mar. 1995, p. 6. John Hendren, “No Expe-
Book Publishing Co., 88. Robbin Marks, Cesspools
ronmental Magazine, 1995, pp. 22, 194–196. 78. Handbook of Livestock rience Necessary to Oper-
Jan./Feb. 1998. Management Techniques, of Shame, NRDC, Jul. ate Fishing Vessel,” Seat-
Leon Jaroff and Janice (see #52), p. 196. 2002, p. 18. tle Times, Apr. 22, 2001.
“Imperiled Fish” (see #4), M. Horowitz, “Is Your
pp. 49–50. 79. Diet for All Reasons Gert-Jan Monteny, “More Than 200
Fish Really Foul?” TIME, “Quantify [sic] Ammonia
55. “Cardiovascular Disease Jun. 29, 1992, p. 70. (see #40). Bangladeshi Fishermen
Emissions From Build- Feared Drowned,”
Epidemic Threatens 65. Lauran Neergaard, Theresa Tamkins, “Blood ings, Stores, and Land
Developing Countries, Pressure Drugs Affect Reuters, Jul. 28, 2003.
“Hygiene Lapses Cited Application,” Conference:
Global Economy,” Amer- As Cause of Food Intellect,” Reuters, Livestock Farming and 99. Power of Your Plate
ican Heart Assoc. news Poisoning,” Assoc. Press, Dec. 3, 1997. the Environment, Ger- (see #64), pp. 12–14.
rel., Feb. 16, 1998. June 20, 2000. 80. Tom Horton and Heather many, Sep. 28–29, 2000. “2001 Heart and Stroke
56. Robert Braile, “Warning 66. References are too nu- Dewar, “Seeds of Solution 89. Kerry Bowman, “Please Statistical Update”
Sounded on Safety of merous to list. Contact to Nitrogen Glut” and Don’t Eat the Animals,” (see #6), p. 3.
Seafood,” The Boston the VivaVegie Society. “Feeding the World, Poi- Globe and Mail (Canada), 100. Patricia Reaney, “Why
Globe, Mar. 11, 2001, p. W1. soning the Planet,” Balti- Jul. 7, 2003. Veggie Diet May Reduce
67. Handbook of Livestock more Sun, Sep. 28 and
57. “England Posts Foot and Management Techniques 90. Neal Barnard, M.D., Heart Disease, Cancer,”
Mouth Costs,” Assoc. Sep. 24, 2000. Reuters, Jun. 27, 2001.
(see #52), pp. 187, 191. Foods That Fight Pain,
Press, Oct. 30, 2001. 81. Slaughterhouse (see #5), Three Rivers Press, 1998. 101. “Scarcities to Force a
68. Larry McKnight, “All pp. 100–1, 211.
58. Elliot Blair Smith, Farmers Have a Stake in 91. Slaughterhouse (see #5), Leaner Diet, Experts
“Special Report: Stench Our Chicken War,” Kenneth B. Kephart, pp. 30, 83–84. Say,” The New York
Chokes Nebraska Meat- National Contract “Handling Hogs,” PEN- Times, Feb. 18, 1995, p. 22.
packing Towns,” USA 92. William K. Stevens, “Man
Poultry Growers Assoc.,
Today, p. B1. Feb. 1997.
Andrew Nikiforuk and 69. “Ruminant Livestock and
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101 Reasons Why I’m a Vegetarian

his docu- fact, no nutritional requirement to founder Pamela Rice would wear a
ment, which consume meat, and, on the contrary, signboard—created by her sister,
you now animal foods are likely to Julia Fauci—which reads “Ask Me
hold in your hands, impede good health. Why I’m a Vegetarian.”
is all about ethical But enough about depri-

Photo by Ted Teisler

choices. Once you
are aware of these
“reasons,” your
vation. If you take my
words to heart and adopt
the vegetarian diet, you
T hanks to a gift from costume
designer Janet Bloor, the group
has enjoyed the use of a giant “pea
conscience will never be able to will discover that this pod” suit (see left) to draw interest
ignore them, even if you never way of life is in fact a from pedestrians. VivaVegie makes
become a vegetarian. wonderful creed to live appearances at street events in New
My “101 Reasons Why I’m a by, which will actually York City where it knows it can find
Vegetarian”—if you don’t already open doors on foods, great numbers of people. At the
know—does not spare the reader. rather than shut them. Easter Parade, 2002, VivaVegie
And as is often the case with the May I suggest that as achieved a record: handing out—to
truth, what you’ll find here is you read my “101 Reasons” willing, inquisitive recipients—2,000
not always pretty. If you just you not neglect to glance copies of “101 Reasons Why I’m a
take the time to read this doc- over the boxed copy from the Vegetarian” in only three hours.
ument, you will forever know fifty-five sponsors whose names VivaVegie regularly enjoys cover-
that eating meat is not with- and advertisements appear age of its activities—in the past,
out a lot of ugly, though com- here. Feel the exuberance most notably from CNN, The New
pletely unseen consequences. behind them. Just don’t let it York Times, WNYC-Radio, The New
The marketers behind ani- scare you away. Yorker, Time Out, and New York 1.
mal-derived foods are calculat- Penelo Pea Pod —PAMELA RICE Since 1992, VivaVegie has pub-
(Jean Thaler)
ed in their quest to hide the lished its own magazine, The
things that I reveal here. It is their History of the VivaVine. And in 1999, the group
mission to keep you disconnected opened a vegetarian center, which it
from the realities behind your food. VivaVegie Society maintained for four years.

They are particularly intent on hav- he VivaVegie Society is a non- Founder Pamela Rice is an expert
ing you see animals as nothing more profit, 501(c)3, organization, on vegetarian issues. She gives lec-
than abstractions. dedicated to public education tures on government subsidies to
If I’ve done my job, however, “101 about vegetarianism. When the the meat industry and the environ-
Reasons” will reconnect you by mak- group was formed in 1991, its objec- mental impact of society’s meat-cen-
ing it clear that in exchange for a tive was vegetarian street advo- tered diet. She has organized and
moment of personal pleasure, you cacy—reaching out to New York City emceed numerous vegetarian events
not only bring misery to some cor- pedestrians with the group’s hall- in New York City.
ner of the world, your survival has mark publication, “101 Reasons Why
nothing to do with it. There is, in I’m a Vegetarian.” Then, as now, INFORMATION LINE: 212-871-9304

Find a useful order form on the second page of the references (back of this page).