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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


PREFACIO Es innegable la importancia que el aprendizaje del idioma ingls tiene en la formacin profesional de un ingeniero civil. El poder consultar, por lo menos, informacin tcnica en ese idioma de manera fluida debe ser una prctica natural para cualquier estudiante que desea tener acceso a conocimientos actualizados sobre las materias que cursa, si es que quiere lograr niveles altos de desempeo en sus estudios y potenciar su nivel de competitividad cuando termine su carrera e ingrese al mercado laboral. Este libro trata de ser una ayuda inicial a los estudiantes que estn comenzando la carrera de ingeniero civil, para introducirlos a algunos trminos bsicos en ingls que se irn encontrando a lo largo de sus estudios. Se ha diseado de manera a que las lecturas propuestas cubran los campos bsicos de accin de la ingeniera civil, fomentando la comprensin del texto a travs de una serie de preguntas que encontrarn al final de cada una de ellas.

Es deseable que en cada una de las materias que vayan cursando, los profesores les proporciones lecturas adicionales que les permita conocer cada vez con mayor precisin y profundidad los trminos tcnicos en ingls asociados. Esta es una labor permanente del proceso de enseanza-aprendizaje de un idioma.

Ojala les sea de utilidad.

El autor

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


Table of contents

Lectura 1. Introduction to civil engineering Lecture 2: History of the civil engineering profession Lecture 3: Construction engineering Lecture 4: Geotechnical engineering Lecture 5: Structural engineering Lecture 6: Environmental engineering Lecture 7: Hydraulic engineering Lecture 8: Coastal management Lecture 9: Material science Lecture 10: Surveying Lecture 11: Transport engineering

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 1: Introduction to civil engineering


Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. Civil engineering is the oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish it from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, transportation engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civil engineering takes place on all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to federal levels, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles, and its history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields. QUESTIONS:

1. Based on the text, what do you understand by the term civil engineering? 2. Name various sub-disciplines of civil engineering. 3. A knowledge of which subjects is necessary for the study of civil engineering?

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 2: History of the civil engineering profession

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. Civil engineering might be considered properly commencing between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, thus causing a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. The construction of Pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700-2500 BC) might be considered the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447-438 BC), the Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), and the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Chine Emperor Shih Huang Ti (c. 220 BC). The Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts, insulae, harbours, bridges, dams and roads. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same person, often used interchangeably. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering began to be used to and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of distinguish it from military engineering. QUESTIONS: 1. What reasons can you give for the beginning of civil engineering? 2. Give examples of various historic civil engineering constructions, mentioning others that are not included in the text. 3. What is the distinction between civil engineering and architecture?

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 3: Construction engineering

Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs. Construction of such projects requires knowledge of engineering and management principles and business procedures, economics, and human behavior. Construction engineers engage in the design of temporary structures, quality assurance and quality control, building and site layout surveys, on site material testing, concrete mix design, cost estimating, planning and scheduling, safety engineering, materials procurement, selection of equipment, and cost engineering and budget. Construction Engineering is differentiated from Construction Management from the standpoint of the level of mathematics, science and engineering used to analyze problems and design a construction process. Construction engineers have a wide range of responsibilities. Typically entry level construction engineers analyze reports and estimate project costs both in the office and in the field. Other tasks may include: Analyzing maps, drawings, blueprints, aerial photography and other topographical information. Construction engineers also have to use computer software to design hydraulic systems and structures while following construction codes. They must calculate load and grade requirements, liquid flow rates and material stress points to ensure that structures can withstand stress. Keeping a workplace safe is key to having a successful construction company. It is the construction engineer's job to make sure that everything is conducted correctly. In addition to safety, the construction engineer has to make sure that the site stays clean and sanitary. Surveying the land while construction is in progress is also the construction engineer's responsibility. They have to make sure that there are no impediments in the way of the structure's planned location and must move any that exist. They also have to test soils and materials used for adequate strength. Finally, more seasoned construction engineers will assume the role of project management on a construction site and are involved heavily with the construction schedule and document control as well as budget and cost control. Their role on site is to provide construction

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


information, including repairs, requests for information, change orders and payment applications to the managers and/or the owner's representatives

Construction engineers should have strong understanding of math and science, but many other skills are required, including critical thinking, listening, learning, problem solving, monitoring and decision making. Construction engineers have to be able to think about all aspects of a problem and listen to others ideas so that they can learn everything about a project before it begins. During project construction they must solve the problems that they encounter using math and science. Construction Engineers must maintain project control of labor and equipment for safety, to ensure the project is on schedule and monitor quality control. When a problem occurs it is the construction engineer who will create and enact a solution.

QUESTIONS:

1. What type of construction projects are covered by a construction engineer? 2. The knowledge of which themes are necessary for a construction engineer? 3. State the difference between construction engineering and construction management. 4. What are the responsabilities of a construction engineer? 5. Using the aid of a diagram or flow chart describe the process of a typical construction from starting to completion.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 4: Geotechnical engineering


Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering includes

investigating existing subsurface conditions and materials; assessing risks posed by site conditions; designing earthworks and structure foundations; and monitoring site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction. A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rock falls. A geotechnical engineer then determines and designs the type of foundations, earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be built. Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes such as high-rise buildings, bridges, medium to large commercial buildings, and smaller structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design. Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations. Retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks include embankments, tunnels, dikes, levees, channels, reservoirs, deposition of hazardous waste and sanitary landfills. Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, and jetties. Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures such as oil platforms. The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, and have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology. Geotechnical engineers must also ask themselves, "how can we prevent the contamination of the ground with chemicals or biological agents? If the ground is contaminated, how do we assess health or safety hazards and hence propose technical measures such as soil remediation?" Geotechnical engineering has evolved and branched off into new areas such as geoenvironmental engineering, which deals with underground environmental problems. Another area is Geomechanics. Modern geotechnical engineering use sophisticated tools such as the finite element method for computing the behaviour of geological structures. These rely heavily on principles of mechanics featuring systems of forces, displacements, stresses and strains that are used to characterize the behaviour of geomaterials (soils and rocks).

QUESTIONS:

1. What is a geotechnical engineer? 2. Why is a geotechnical engineer essential to the success of a construction or civil engineering project? 3. Describe the different necessities for above ground and below ground foundations, including examples of their applications. 4. To what others areas can the geotechnical engineering be related? 5. What is your understanding of the basic difference between the terms geotechnical engineering and engineering geology? 6. Name any tools or tests which to your knowledge would be of use to a geotechnical engineer in his or her work.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 5: Structural engineering

Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the design of structures that support or resist loads. Structural engineering is usually considered a speciality within civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right. Structural engineers are most commonly involved in the design of buildings and large nonbuilding structures but they can also be involved in the design of machinery, medical equipment, vehicles or any items where the structural integrity of the design item affects its function or safety. Structural engineers must ensure their designs satisfy given design criteria, predicated on safety (e.g. structures must not collapse without due warning in any circumstances) or serviceability and performance (e.g. building sway must not cause discomfort to the occupants). Structural engineering theory is based upon physical laws and empirical knowledge of the structural performance of different geometries and materials. Structural engineering design utilises a relatively small number of basic structural elements to build up structural systems than can be very complex. Structural engineers are responsible for making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve these goals. Structural engineers are responsible for engineering design and analysis. Entry-level structural engineers may design the individual structural elements of a structure, for example the beams, columns, and floors of a building. More experienced engineers would be responsible for the structural design and integrity of an entire system, such as a building. Structural engineers often specialise in particular fields, such as bridge engineering, building engineering, pipeline engineering, industrial structures or special structures such as vehicles or aircraft. Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to construct their own structures. It became a more defined and formalised profession with the emergence of by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


the architecture profession as distinct from the engineering profession during the industrial revolution in the late 19th Century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were often one and the same - the master builder. Only with the understanding of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and 20th century did the professional structural engineer come into existence.

QUESTIONS: 1. Explain the significance of the term structural engineering. 2. Apart from building, in what other fields is structural engineering applied? 3. What are the responsabilities of a structural engineering? 4. In which differing fields can a structural engineer specialise? 5. Bonus point. In which country was the first cast iron bridge constructed and the name of the engineer.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 6: Environmental engineering

Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. Environmental engineering involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction projects. Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate the significance of such hazards, advise on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps. Environmental engineers also design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems as well as being concerned with local and worldwide environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources. Ever since people first recognized that their health and well-being were related to the quality of their environment, they have applied thoughtful principles to attempt to improve the quality of their environment. The ancient Harappan civilization utilized early sewers in some cities. The Romans constructed aqueducts to prevent drought and to create a clean, healthful water supply for the metropolis of Rome. In the 15th century, Bavaria created laws restricting the development and degradation of alpine country that constituted the region's water supply. Modern environmental engineering began in London in the mid-19th century when Joseph Bazalgette designed the first major sewerage system that reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases such as cholera. The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries reduced waterborne diseases from leading causes of death to rarities. by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


In many cases, as societies grew, actions that were intended to achieve benefits for those societies had longer-term impacts which reduced other environmental qualities. One example is the widespread application of DDT to control agricultural pests in the years following World War II. While the agricultural benefits were outstanding and crop yields increased dramatically, thus reducing world hunger substantially, and malaria was controlled better than it ever had been, numerous species were brought to the verge of extinction due to the impact of the DDT on their reproductive cycles. The story of DDT as vividly told in Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" is considered to be the birth of the modern environmental movement and the development of the modern field of "environmental engineering."

QUESTIONS: 1. Give your understanding of environmental engineering. 2. What different themes are involved in environmental engineering? 3. What types of studies and projects do environment engineers participate in? 4. Name historical examples related to environmental engineering, including any that are not mentioned in the text. 5. Explain the positive and negative aspects on the use of DDT in the post war years.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 7: Hydraulic engineering


Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, levees, elevators, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering. Common topics of design for hydraulic engineers includes hydraulic structures, including dams and levees, water distribution networks, water collection networks, storm water management, sediment transport, and various other topics related to transportation engineering and geotechnical engineering. Equations developed from the principles of fluid dynamics are frequently utilized by traffic engineers. Related branches include hydrology, hydraulic modeling, flood mapping, catchment flood management plans, shoreline management plans, estuarine strategies, coastal protection, and flood alleviation. Hydraulic engineering had already been highly developed under the Roman Empire where it was especially applied to the construction and maintenance of aqueducts. They used hydraulic mining methods to prospect and extract alluvial gold deposits in a technique known as hushing, and applied the methods to other ores such as those of tin and lead. The recent best-selling historical novel Pompeii has such a Roman hydraulic engineer ("aquarius" in Latin) as its main protagonist. In ancient China, hydraulic engineering was highly developed, and engineers constructed massive canals with levees and dams to channel the flow of water for irrigation. Modern hydraulic engineering involves the use of computers to perform the calculations to accurately predict flow characteristics.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


QUESTIONS:

1. What are the specific areas concerned with hydraulic engineering? 2. Name the common topics of design performed by hydraulic engineers. 3. List the related branches of hydraulic engineering. 4. Name two important hydraulic engineering projects, constructed or under construction, in Mexico en recent years.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 8: Coastal management


In some jurisdictions the terms sea defense and coastal protection are used to mean, respectively, defense against flooding and erosion. The term coastal defense is the more traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has expanded to include techniques that allow erosion to claim land. The coastal zone is a dynamic area of natural change and of increasing human use. They occupy less than 15% of the earth's land surface; yet accommodate more than 50% of the world population (it is estimated that 3.1 billion people live within 200 kilometers from the sea). With three-quarters of the world population expected to reside in the coastal zone by 2025, human activities originating from this small land area will impose an inordinate amount of pressures on the global system. Coastal zones contain rich resources to produce goods and services and are home to most commercial and industrial activities. In the European Union, almost half of the population now lives within 50 kilometers of the sea and coastal zone resources produce much of the Unions economic wealth. The fishing, shipping and tourism industries all compete for vital space along Europes estimated 89 000 kilometers of coastline, and coastal zones contain some of Europes most fragile and valuable natural habitats. Shore protection consists up to the 50's of interposing a static structure between the sea and the land to prevent erosion and or flooding, and it has a long history. From that period new technical or friendly policies have been developed to preserve the environment when possible. Is already important where there are extensive low-lying areas that require protection. For instance: Venice, New Orleans, Nagara river in Japan, Holland, Caspian Sea Protection against the sea level rise in the 21st century will be especially important, as sea level rise is currently accelerating. This will be a challenge to coastal management, since seawalls and breakwaters are generally expensive to construct, and the costs to build protection in the face of rising sea levels would be enormous. Changes on sea level have a direct adaptative response from beaches and coastal systems, as we can see in the succession of a lowering sea level. When the sea level

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


rises, coastal sediments are in part pushed up by wave and tide energy, so sea-level rise processes have a component of sediment transport landwards. This results in a dynamic model of rise effects with a continuous sediment displacement that is not compatible with static models where coastline change is only based on topographic data.

QUESTIONS: 1. Based on the text, explain what is meant by coastal management. 2. Explain the importance of the coastal zones, referring to economic and others aspects. 3. Describe the phenomena, natural or other, which affect or in the future will have an affect on the coastal zones.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 9: Materials science

Materials science or materials engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. This science investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scale and their macroscopic properties. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering. With significant media attention to nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities. It is also an important part of forensic engineering and forensic materials engineering, the study of failed products and components. In materials science, rather than haphazardly looking for and discovering materials and exploiting their properties, one instead aims to understand materials fundamentally so that new materials with the desired properties can be created. The basis of all materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms and phases in that material through characterization. The major determinants of the structure of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and the way in which it has been processed into its final form. These, taken together and related through the laws of thermodynamics, govern a materials microstructure, and thus its properties. An old adage in materials science says: "materials are like people; it is the defects that make them interesting". The manufacture of a perfect crystal of a material is currently physically impossible. Instead materials scientists manipulate the defects in crystalline materials such as precipitates, grain boundaries (Hall-Petch relationship), interstitial atoms, vacancies or substitutional atoms, to create materials with the desired properties. Not all materials have a regular crystal structure. Polymers display varying degrees of crystallinity, and many are completely non-crystalline. Glasses, some ceramics, and many natural materials are amorphous, not possessing any long-range order in their by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


atomic arrangements. The study of polymers combines elements of chemical and statistical thermodynamics to give thermodynamic, as well as mechanical, descriptions of physical properties. In addition to industrial interest, materials science has gradually developed into a field which provides tests for condensed matter or solid state theories

QUESTIONS: 1. Explain materials science or material engineering and name the different elements involved. 2. What governs a materials microstructure and its properties? 3. What can scientists do to help create materials with the desired properties? 4. Describe the elements in the study of polymers

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 10: Surveying

Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or threedimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. These points are usually, but not exclusively, associated with positions on the surface of the Earth, and are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or governmental purposes. In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law. An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points and/or details. Furthermore, as alluded above, a particular type of surveying known as "land surveying" (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and establishing of property boundaries. It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can include associated services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data. Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (ca. 5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications, mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.

QUESTIONS:

1. Describe the term surveying, its uses and elements involved, including the American congress version

2. Detail the different areas and uses of land surveying.

3. Name the modern uses of surveying.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 11: Transport engineering

Transport engineering (alternatively transportation engineering) is the science of safe and efficient movement of people and goods (transport). It is a sub-discipline of civil engineering. The planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve technical forecasting decisions and political factors. Technical forecasting of passenger travel usually involves an urban transportation planning model, requiring the estimation of trip generation (how many trips for what purpose), trip distribution (destination choice, where is the traveler going), mode choice (what mode is being taken), and route assignment (which streets or routes are being used). More sophisticated forecasting can include other aspects of traveler decisions, including auto ownership, trip chaining (the decision to link individual trips together in a tour) and the choice of residential or business location (known as land use forecasting). Passenger trips are the focus of transport engineering because they often represent the peak of demand on any transportation system. The design aspects of transport engineering include the sizing of transportation facilities (how many lanes or how much capacity the facility has), determining the materials and thickness used in pavement, designing the geometry (vertical and horizontal alignment) of the roadway (or track). Operations and management involve traffic engineering, so that vehicles move smoothly on the road or track. Older techniques include signs, signals, markings, and tolling. Newer technologies involve intelligent transportation systems, including advanced traveler information systems (such as variable message signs), advanced traffic control systems (such as ramp meters), and vehicle infrastructure integration. Human factors are an aspect of transport engineering, particularly concerning drivervehicle interface and user interface of road signs, signals, and markings.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING


QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the significance of transport engineering. 2. What are the planning aspects of transport engineering? 3. What do the design aspects of transport engineering include?

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department