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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING LECTURES FOR STUDENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING by Paul Garnica, Head
LECTURES FOR STUDENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
LECTURES
FOR
STUDENTS OF
CIVIL ENGINEERING

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING PREFACIO Es innegable la importancia que el aprendizaje del idioma

PREFACIO

Es innegable la importancia que el aprendizaje del idioma inglés tiene en la formación profesional de un ingeniero civil. El poder consultar, por lo menos, información técnica en ese idioma de manera fluida debe ser una práctica natural para cualquier estudiante que desea tener acceso a conocimientos actualizados sobre las materias que cursa, si es que quiere lograr niveles altos de desempeño en sus estudios y potenciar su nivel de competitividad cuando termine su carrera e ingrese al mercado laboral.

Este libro trata de ser una ayuda inicial a los estudiantes que están comenzando la
Este libro trata de ser una ayuda inicial a los estudiantes que están comenzando la
carrera de ingeniero civil, para introducirlos a algunos términos básicos en inglés que
se irán encontrando a lo largo de sus estudios. Se ha diseñado de manera a que las
lecturas propuestas cubran los campos básicos de acción de la ingeniería civil,
fomentando la comprensión del texto a través de una serie de preguntas que encontrarán
al final de cada una de ellas.
Es deseable que en cada una de las materias que vayan cursando, los profesores les
proporciones lecturas adicionales que les permita conocer cada vez con mayor precisión
y profundidad los términos técnicos en inglés asociados. Esta es una labor permanente
del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de un idioma.
Ojala les sea de utilidad.
El autor

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Table of contents Lectura 1. Introduction to civil engineering Lecture

Table of contents

Lectura 1. Introduction to civil engineering Lecture 2: History of the civil engineering profession Lecture
Lectura 1. Introduction to civil engineering
Lecture 2: History of the civil engineering profession
Lecture 3: Construction engineering
Lecture 4: Geotechnical engineering
Lecture 5: Structural engineering
Lecture 6: Environmental engineering
Lecture 7: Hydraulic engineering
Lecture 8: Coastal management
Lecture 9: Material science
Lecture 10: Surveying
Lecture 11: Transport engineering

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 1: Introduction to civil engineering Civil engineering is a

Lecture 1: Introduction to civil engineering

Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction and maintenance
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design,
construction and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including
works such as bridges, roads, canals, dams and buildings. Civil engineering is the oldest
engineering discipline after military engineering, and it was defined to distinguish it
from military engineering. It is traditionally broken into several sub-disciplines
including environmental engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering,
transportation engineering, water resources engineering, materials engineering, coastal
engineering, surveying, and construction engineering. Civil engineering takes place on
all levels: in the public sector from municipal through to federal levels, and in the
private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies.
Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles, and its history
is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and mathematics
throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging profession, including
several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of
structures, materials science, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and
other fields.
QUESTIONS:
1. Based on the text, what do you understand by the term civil engineering?
2. Name various sub-disciplines of civil engineering.
3. A knowledge of which subjects is necessary for the study of civil engineering?

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 2: History of the civil engineering profession Engineering has

Lecture 2: History of the civil engineering profession

Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. Civil engineering
Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. Civil
engineering might be considered properly commencing between 4000 and 2000 BC in
Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence,
thus causing a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation
became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. The
construction of Pyramids in Egypt (circa 2700-2500 BC) might be considered the first
instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering
constructions include the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece (447-438 BC), the
Appian Way by Roman engineers (c. 312 BC), and the Great Wall of China by General
Meng T'ien under orders from Chine Emperor Shih Huang Ti (c. 220 BC). The Romans
developed civil structures throughout their empire, including especially aqueducts,
insulae, harbours, bridges, dams and roads.
Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and
architecture, and the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations
referring to the same person, often used interchangeably. In the 18th century, the term
civil engineering began to be used to and exchange, and in the construction of ports,
harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of distinguish it from
military engineering.
QUESTIONS:
1. What reasons can you give for the beginning of civil engineering?
2. Give examples of various historic civil engineering constructions, mentioning
others that are not included in the text.
3. What is the distinction between civil engineering and architecture?

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 3: Construction engineering Construction engineering concerns the

Lecture 3: Construction engineering

Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of structures such as highways,
Construction engineering concerns the planning and management of the construction of
structures such as highways, bridges, airports, railroads, buildings, dams, and reservoirs.
Construction of such projects requires knowledge of engineering and management
principles and business procedures, economics, and human behavior. Construction
engineers engage in the design of temporary structures, quality assurance and quality
control, building and site layout surveys, on site material testing, concrete mix design,
cost estimating, planning and scheduling, safety engineering, materials procurement,
selection of equipment, and cost engineering and budget.
Construction Engineering is differentiated from Construction Management from the
standpoint of the level of mathematics, science and engineering used to analyze
problems and design a construction process.

Construction engineers have a wide range of responsibilities. Typically entry level construction engineers analyze reports and estimate project costs both in the office and in the field. Other tasks may include: Analyzing maps, drawings, blueprints, aerial photography and other topographical information. Construction engineers also have to use computer software to design hydraulic systems and structures while following construction codes. They must calculate load and grade requirements, liquid flow rates and material stress points to ensure that structures can withstand stress. Keeping a workplace safe is key to having a successful construction company. It is the construction engineer's job to make sure that everything is conducted correctly. In addition to safety, the construction engineer has to make sure that the site stays clean and sanitary. Surveying the land while construction is in progress is also the construction engineer's responsibility. They have to make sure that there are no impediments in the way of the structure's planned location and must move any that exist. They also have to test soils and materials used for adequate strength. Finally, more seasoned construction engineers will assume the role of project management on a construction site and are involved heavily with the construction schedule and document control as well as budget and cost control. Their role on site is to provide construction

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING information, including repairs, requests for information, change orders and

information, including repairs, requests for information, change orders and payment applications to the managers and/or the owner's representatives

Construction engineers should have strong understanding of math and science, but many other skills are
Construction engineers should have strong understanding of math and science, but
many other skills are required, including critical thinking, listening, learning, problem
solving, monitoring and decision making. Construction engineers have to be able to
think about all aspects of a problem and listen to other’s ideas so that they can learn
everything about a project before it begins. During project construction they must solve
the problems that they encounter using math and science. Construction Engineers must
maintain project control of labor and equipment for safety, to ensure the project is on
schedule and monitor quality control. When a problem occurs it is the construction
engineer who will create and enact a solution.
QUESTIONS:
1. What type of construction projects are covered by a construction engineer?
2. The knowledge of which themes are necessary for a construction engineer?
3. State the difference between construction engineering and construction
management.
4. What are the responsabilities of a construction engineer?
5. Using the aid of a diagram or flow chart describe the process of a typical
construction from starting to completion.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 4: Geotechnical engineering Geotechnical engineering is the branch of

Lecture 4: Geotechnical engineering

Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials. Geotechnical engineering includes investigating existing subsurface conditions and materials; assessing risks posed by site conditions; designing earthworks and structure foundations; and monitoring site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.

A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a site investigation of soil, rock, fault distribution
A typical geotechnical engineering project begins with a site investigation of soil, rock,
fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest to determine
their engineering properties including how they will interact with, on or in a proposed
construction. Site investigations are needed to gain an understanding of the area in or on
which the engineering will take place. Investigations can include the assessment of the
risk to humans, property and the environment from natural hazards such as earthquakes,
landslides, sinkholes, soil liquefaction, debris flows and rock falls.
A geotechnical engineer then determines and designs the type of foundations,
earthworks, and/or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures
to be built. Foundations are designed and constructed for structures of various sizes
such as high-rise buildings, bridges, medium to large commercial buildings, and smaller
structures where the soil conditions do not allow code-based design.
Foundations built for above-ground structures include shallow and deep foundations.
Retaining structures include earth-filled dams and retaining walls. Earthworks include
embankments, tunnels, dikes, levees, channels, reservoirs, deposition of hazardous
waste and sanitary landfills.
Geotechnical engineering is also related to coastal and ocean engineering. Coastal
engineering can involve the design and construction of wharves, marinas, and jetties.
Ocean engineering can involve foundation and anchor systems for offshore structures
such as oil platforms.

The fields of geotechnical engineering and engineering geology are closely related, and have large areas of overlap. However, the field of geotechnical engineering is a

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is

specialty of engineering, where the field of engineering geology is a specialty of geology.

Geotechnical engineers must also ask themselves, "how can we prevent the contamination of the ground with chemicals or biological agents? If the ground is contaminated, how do we assess health or safety hazards and hence propose technical measures such as soil remediation?"

Geotechnical engineering has evolved and branched off into new areas such as geoenvironmental engineering, which
Geotechnical engineering has evolved and branched off into new areas such as
geoenvironmental engineering, which deals with underground environmental problems.
Another area is Geomechanics. Modern geotechnical engineering use sophisticated tools
such as the finite element method for computing the behaviour of geological structures.
These rely heavily on principles of mechanics featuring systems of forces,
displacements, stresses and strains that are used to characterize the behaviour of
geomaterials (soils and rocks).
QUESTIONS:
1. What is a geotechnical engineer?
2. Why is a geotechnical engineer essential to the success of a construction or
civil engineering project?
3. Describe the different necessities for above ground and below ground
foundations, including examples of their applications.
4. To what others areas can the geotechnical engineering be related?
5. What is your understanding of the basic difference between the terms
geotechnical engineering and engineering geology?
6. Name any tools or tests which to your knowledge would be of use to a
geotechnical engineer in his or her work.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 5: Structural engineering Structural engineering is a field of

Lecture 5: Structural engineering

Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the design of structures that support
Structural engineering is a field of engineering dealing with the design of structures that
support or resist loads. Structural engineering is usually considered a speciality within
civil engineering, but it can also be studied in its own right.
Structural engineers are most commonly involved in the design of buildings and large
nonbuilding structures but they can also be involved in the design of machinery,
medical equipment, vehicles or any items where the structural integrity of the design
item affects its function or safety. Structural engineers must ensure their designs satisfy
given design criteria, predicated on safety (e.g. structures must not collapse without due
warning in any circumstances) or serviceability and performance (e.g. building sway
must not cause discomfort to the occupants).
Structural engineering theory is based upon physical laws and empirical knowledge of
the structural performance of different geometries and materials. Structural engineering
design utilises a relatively small number of basic structural elements to build up
structural systems than can be very complex. Structural engineers are responsible for
making creative and efficient use of funds, structural elements and materials to achieve
these goals.
Structural engineers are responsible for engineering design and analysis. Entry-level
structural engineers may design the individual structural elements of a structure, for
example the beams, columns, and floors of a building. More experienced engineers
would be responsible for the structural design and integrity of an entire system, such as
a building.
Structural engineers often specialise in particular fields, such as bridge engineering,
building engineering, pipeline engineering, industrial structures or special structures
such as vehicles or aircraft.

Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to construct their own structures. It became a more defined and formalised profession with the emergence of

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING the architecture profession as distinct from the engineering profession

the architecture profession as distinct from the engineering profession during the industrial revolution in the late 19th Century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were often one and the same - the master builder. Only with the understanding of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and 20th century did the professional structural engineer come into existence.

QUESTIONS: 1. Explain the significance of the term structural engineering. 2. Apart from building, in
QUESTIONS:
1. Explain the significance of the term structural engineering.
2. Apart from building, in what other fields is structural engineering applied?
3. What are the responsabilities of a structural engineering?
4. In which differing fields can a structural engineer specialise?
5. Bonus point. In which country was the first cast iron bridge constructed and the
name of the engineer.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 6: Environmental engineering Environmental engineering is the

Lecture 6: Environmental engineering

Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air,
Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to
improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water,
air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted
sites.
Environmental engineering involves water and air pollution control, recycling, waste
disposal, and public health issues as well as a knowledge of environmental engineering
law. It also includes studies on the environmental impact of proposed construction
projects.
Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate the
significance of such hazards, advise on treatment and containment, and develop
regulations to prevent mishaps. Environmental engineers also design municipal water
supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems as well as being concerned with
local and worldwide environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, ozone
depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial
sources.
Ever since people first recognized that their health and well-being were related to the
quality of their environment, they have applied thoughtful principles to attempt to
improve the quality of their environment. The ancient Harappan civilization utilized
early sewers in some cities. The Romans constructed aqueducts to prevent drought and
to create a clean, healthful water supply for the metropolis of Rome. In the 15th century,
Bavaria created laws restricting the development and degradation of alpine country that
constituted the region's water supply.

Modern environmental engineering began in London in the mid-19th century when Joseph Bazalgette designed the first major sewerage system that reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases such as cholera. The introduction of drinking water treatment and sewage treatment in industrialized countries reduced waterborne diseases from leading causes of death to rarities.

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING In many cases, as societies grew, actions that were intended

In many cases, as societies grew, actions that were intended to achieve benefits for those societies had longer-term impacts which reduced other environmental qualities. One example is the widespread application of DDT to control agricultural pests in the years following World War II. While the agricultural benefits were outstanding and crop yields increased dramatically, thus reducing world hunger substantially, and malaria was controlled better than it ever had been, numerous species were brought to the verge of extinction due to the impact of the DDT on their reproductive cycles. The story of DDT as vividly told in Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" is considered to be the birth of the modern environmental movement and the development of the modern field of "environmental engineering."

QUESTIONS: 1. Give your understanding of environmental engineering. 2. What different themes are involved in
QUESTIONS:
1. Give your understanding of environmental engineering.
2. What different themes are involved in environmental engineering?
3. What types of studies and projects do environment engineers participate in?
4. Name historical examples related to environmental engineering, including any
that are not mentioned in the text.
5. Explain the positive and negative aspects on the use of DDT in the post war
years.

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 7: Hydraulic engineering Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of

Lecture 7: Hydraulic engineering

Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow and conveyance of
Hydraulic engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering concerned with the flow
and conveyance of fluids, principally water. This area of engineering is intimately
related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, levees, elevators, and to both
sanitary and environmental engineering.
Common topics of design for hydraulic engineers includes hydraulic structures,
including dams and levees, water distribution networks, water collection networks,
storm water management, sediment transport, and various other topics related to
transportation engineering and geotechnical engineering. Equations developed from the
principles of fluid dynamics are frequently utilized by traffic engineers.
Related branches include hydrology, hydraulic modeling, flood mapping, catchment
flood management plans, shoreline management plans, estuarine strategies, coastal
protection, and flood alleviation.
Hydraulic engineering had already been highly developed under the Roman Empire
where it was especially applied to the construction and maintenance of aqueducts. They
used hydraulic mining methods to prospect and extract alluvial gold deposits in a
technique known as hushing, and applied the methods to other ores such as those of tin
and lead.
The recent best-selling historical novel Pompeii has such a Roman hydraulic engineer
("aquarius" in Latin) as its main protagonist.
In ancient China, hydraulic engineering was highly developed, and engineers
constructed massive canals with levees and dams to channel the flow of water for
irrigation.

Modern hydraulic engineering involves the use of computers to perform the calculations to accurately predict flow characteristics.

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING QUESTIONS: 1. What are the specific areas concerned with hydraulic

QUESTIONS:

1. What are the specific areas concerned with hydraulic engineering?

2. Name the common topics of design performed by hydraulic engineers. 3. List the related
2. Name the common topics of design performed by hydraulic engineers.
3. List the related branches of hydraulic engineering.
4. Name two important hydraulic engineering projects, constructed or under
construction, in Mexico en recent years.

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 8: Coastal management In some jurisdictions the terms sea

Lecture 8: Coastal management

In some jurisdictions the terms sea defense and coastal protection are used to mean, respectively,
In some jurisdictions the terms sea defense and coastal protection are used to mean,
respectively, defense against flooding and erosion. The term coastal defense is the more
traditional term, but coastal management has become more popular as the field has
expanded to include techniques that allow erosion to claim land.
The coastal zone is a dynamic area of natural change and of increasing human use. They
occupy less than 15% of the earth's land surface; yet accommodate more than 50% of
the world population (it is estimated that 3.1 billion people live within 200 kilometers
from the sea). With three-quarters of the world population expected to reside in the
coastal zone by 2025, human activities originating from this small land area will impose
an inordinate amount of pressures on the global system. Coastal zones contain rich
resources to produce goods and services and are home to most commercial and
industrial activities. In the European Union, almost half of the population now lives
within 50 kilometers of the sea and coastal zone resources produce much of the Union’s
economic wealth. The fishing, shipping and tourism industries all compete for vital
space along Europe’s estimated 89 000 kilometers of coastline, and coastal zones
contain some of Europe’s most fragile and valuable natural habitats. Shore protection
consists up to the 50's of interposing a static structure between the sea and the land to
prevent erosion and or flooding, and it has a long history. From that period new
technical or friendly policies have been developed to preserve the environment when
possible. Is already important where there are extensive low-lying areas that require
protection. For instance: Venice, New Orleans, Nagara river in Japan, Holland, Caspian
Sea
Protection against the sea level rise in the 21st century will be especially important, as
sea level rise is currently accelerating. This will be a challenge to coastal management,
since seawalls and breakwaters are generally expensive to construct, and the costs to
build protection in the face of rising sea levels would be enormous.

Changes on sea level have a direct adaptative response from beaches and coastal systems, as we can see in the succession of a lowering sea level. When the sea level

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING rises, coastal sediments are in part pushed up by wave

rises, coastal sediments are in part pushed up by wave and tide energy, so sea-level rise processes have a component of sediment transport landwards. This results in a dynamic model of rise effects with a continuous sediment displacement that is not compatible with static models where coastline change is only based on topographic data.

QUESTIONS: 1. Based on the text, explain what is meant by coastal management. 2. Explain
QUESTIONS:
1. Based on the text, explain what is meant by coastal management.
2. Explain the importance of the coastal zones, referring to economic and others
aspects.
3. Describe the phenomena, natural or other, which affect or in the future will have
an affect on the coastal zones.

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 9: Materials science Materials science or materials engineering is

Lecture 9: Materials science

Materials science or materials engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and
Materials science or materials engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the
properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering.
This science investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or
molecular scale and their macroscopic properties. It includes elements of applied
physics and chemistry, as well as chemical, mechanical, civil and electrical engineering.
With significant media attention to nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years,
materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities. It is also an
important part of forensic engineering and forensic materials engineering, the study of
failed products and components.
In materials science, rather than haphazardly looking for and discovering materials and
exploiting their properties, one instead aims to understand materials fundamentally so
that new materials with the desired properties can be created.
The basis of all materials science involves relating the desired properties and relative
performance of a material in a certain application to the structure of the atoms and
phases in that material through characterization. The major determinants of the structure
of a material and thus of its properties are its constituent chemical elements and the way
in which it has been processed into its final form. These, taken together and related
through the laws of thermodynamics, govern a material’s microstructure, and thus its
properties.
An old adage in materials science says: "materials are like people; it is the defects that
make them interesting". The manufacture of a perfect crystal of a material is currently
physically impossible. Instead materials scientists manipulate the defects in crystalline
materials such as precipitates, grain boundaries (Hall-Petch relationship), interstitial
atoms, vacancies or substitutional atoms, to create materials with the desired properties.

Not all materials have a regular crystal structure. Polymers display varying degrees of crystallinity, and many are completely non-crystalline. Glasses, some ceramics, and many natural materials are amorphous, not possessing any long-range order in their

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING atomic arrangements. The study of polymers combines elements of chemical

atomic arrangements. The study of polymers combines elements of chemical and statistical thermodynamics to give thermodynamic, as well as mechanical, descriptions of physical properties.

In addition to industrial interest, materials science has gradually developed into a field which provides
In addition to industrial interest, materials science has gradually developed into a field
which provides tests for condensed matter or solid state theories
QUESTIONS:
1. Explain materials science or material engineering and name the different
elements involved.
2. What governs a materials microstructure and its properties?
3. What can scientists do to help create materials with the desired properties?
4. Describe the elements in the study of polymers

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 10: Surveying Surveying is the technique and science of

Lecture 10: Surveying

Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three- dimensional space
Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-
dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them. These
points are usually, but not exclusively, associated with positions on the surface of the
Earth, and are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership or
governmental purposes. In order to accomplish their objective, surveyors use elements
of geometry, engineering, trigonometry, mathematics, physics, and law.
An alternative definition, per the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping
(ACSM), is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the
relative position of points and/or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the
surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of
points and/or details.
Furthermore, as alluded above, a particular type of surveying known as "land
surveying" (also per ACSM) is the detailed study or inspection, as by gathering
information through observations, measurements in the field, questionnaires, or research
of legal instruments, and data analysis in the support of planning, designing, and
establishing of property boundaries. It involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys
and land boundaries based on documents of record and historical evidence, as well as
certifying surveys (as required by statute or local ordinance) of subdivision plats/maps,
registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can
include associated services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction
layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as
well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land
survey data.

Surveying has been an essential element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history (ca. 5000 years ago) and it is a requirement in the planning and execution of nearly every form of construction. Its most familiar

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and

modern uses are in the fields of transport, building and construction, communications,

mapping, and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.

QUESTIONS: 1. Describe the term surveying, its uses and elements involved, including the American congress
QUESTIONS:
1. Describe the term surveying, its uses and elements involved, including the
American congress version
2. Detail the different areas and uses of land surveying.
3. Name the modern uses of surveying.

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LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING Lecture 11: Transport engineering Transport engineering (alternatively

Lecture 11: Transport engineering

Transport engineering (alternatively transportation engineering) is the science of safe and efficient movement of people
Transport engineering (alternatively transportation engineering) is the science of safe
and efficient movement of people and goods (transport). It is a sub-discipline of civil
engineering.
The planning aspects of transport engineering relate to urban planning, and involve
technical forecasting decisions and political factors. Technical forecasting of passenger
travel usually involves an urban transportation planning model, requiring the estimation
of trip generation (how many trips for what purpose), trip distribution (destination
choice, where is the traveler going), mode choice (what mode is being taken), and route
assignment (which streets or routes are being used). More sophisticated forecasting can
include other aspects of traveler decisions, including auto ownership, trip chaining (the
decision to link individual trips together in a tour) and the choice of residential or
business location (known as land use forecasting). Passenger trips are the focus of
transport engineering because they often represent the peak of demand on any
transportation system.
The design aspects of transport engineering include the sizing of transportation facilities
(how many lanes or how much capacity the facility has), determining the materials and
thickness used in pavement, designing the geometry (vertical and horizontal alignment)
of the roadway (or track).

Operations and management involve traffic engineering, so that vehicles move smoothly on the road or track. Older techniques include signs, signals, markings, and tolling. Newer technologies involve intelligent transportation systems, including advanced traveler information systems (such as variable message signs), advanced traffic control systems (such as ramp meters), and vehicle infrastructure integration. Human factors are an aspect of transport engineering, particularly concerning driver- vehicle interface and user interface of road signs, signals, and markings.

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department

LECTURES

FOR

STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

LECTURES FOR STUDENTS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING QUESTIONS: 1. Explain the significance of transport engineering. 2. What

QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the significance of transport engineering.

2. What are the planning aspects of transport engineering? 3. What do the design aspects
2. What are the planning aspects of transport engineering?
3. What do the design aspects of transport engineering include?

by Paul Garnica, Head of Civil Engineering Department