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Tng quan v mng thng tin di ng ca Vinaphone Mng di ng Vinaphone l mt trong 2 mng di ng u tin c cp php cung cp dch v ti th trng

Vit Nam sau Mobifone v u thuc Tp on Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam (VNPT). Mng Vinaphone t khi thnh lp nm 1996 trin khai h thng thng tin di ng GSM 900, sau m rng bng tn thm GSM 1800 v gn y nht vo thng 10/2009 tr thnh mng di ng u tin Vit Nam cung cp dch v 3G theo chun WCDMA. Cho n hin nay, Vinaphone vn c 3 Trung tm ti H Ni, H Ch Minh v Nng, m bo vic qun l, gim st, iu hnh, pht trin h tng phc v ph sng v dch v ti 64/64 tnh, thnh ph. Di y s trnh by mt s c im cu trc h thng thng tin di ng Vinaphone i vi c h thng 2G GSM v 3G WCDMA. 1.2.1. Cu trc, cc thnh phn chc nng h thng GSM Mng Vinaphone ban u s dng GSM 900 l h thng thng tin di ng dng bng tn xung quanh bng tn 900 MHz (890 - 960) c chia thnh 2 di tn: Di tn t 890 915 MHz dng cho ng ln t MS n BTS (Uplink). Di tn t 935 960 MHz dng cho ng xung t BTS n MS (Downlink). Khong cch gia cc sng mang trong h thng GSM l 200 KHz. M h thng GSM c 2 bng tn rng 25 MHz bao gm 25MHz / 200 = 125 knh. Trong knh 0 l dy bo v, cn cc knh t 1 124 c gi l knh tn s v tuyn tuyt i. Trong , Vinaphone c cp pht knh t 1 41, Viettel t knh 42 83 v Mobifone t knh 84 124. Tng t, vi di bng tn 1800 MHz dng cho ng ln t 1710 1785 MHz v ng xung t 1805 1880 MHz, Vinaphone c cp di knh vi tn s trong khong t 1710.1 1723.5 Mhz (Uplink) v 1805.1 1818.5 MHz (Downlink). Do Vinaphone s dng h thng GSM nn v c bn s c cu trc tng t nh cu trc chun ca h thng GSM do ETSI quy nh. Cu trc h thng thng tin di ng GSM c phn chia thnh cc thnh phn c bn c cho trong hnh di y:

H thng chuyn mch (SS) H thng trm gc (BSS) H thng iu hnh, gim st hot ng (OSS)

1.2.1.1. Cu trc h thng chuyn mch (SS) H thng chuyn mch bao gm cc thnh phn: MSC (Mobile Switching Center): Trung tm chuyn mch dch v di ng. MSC chu trch nhim v vic thit lp s kt ni cc knh lu thng: Ti h thng qun l h tng v tuyn BSS (trc tip ti BSC qua giao din A) Ti h thng chuyn mch di ng MSC khc (kt ni MSC MSC qua giao din E) Ti nhng mng chuyn mch khc khi MSC ng vai tr G-MSC (v d ti PSTN, mng ngoi) Trung tm chuyn mch di ng c chc nng x l cc cuc gi i v n, ng thi cung cp cc chc nng iu khin hot ng cho tt c cc trm c s trong cng mt h thng. Chnh v vy MSC l mt b phn quan trng nht trong h thng thng tin di ng. N bao gm cc b phn iu khin v qun l ton b h thng t c hiu qu cao ng thi phi m bo tuyt i v an ninh v an ton. HLR (Home Location Register): B ghi nh v thng tr B ghi nh v thng tr c chc nng qun l ton b d liu thu bao. N l

c s d liu thu bao qun l nhn thc, cp pht, hy, qun l cc dch v ngi dng. VLR (Visitor Location Register): B ghi nh v tm tr B ghi nh v tm tr thng nm kt hp trong MSC. Trong thi gian my di ng cp nht v tr, d liu thu bao c chuyn t HLR ti VLR hin ti. D liu ny c lu tr trong VLR trong sut thi gian m MS di chuyn trong vng ny. VLR s cung cp d liu cho thu bao bt k lc bo n cn cho vic x l mt cuc gi. Khi MS di ng sang mt vng phc v ca MSC mi, MSC/VLR c s thng bo cho HLR v HLR li tip tc n nh cho MSC/VLR mi qun l thu bao ang di ng trn. AUC (Authencation Centre) : Trung tm nhn thc Khi mt thu bao mun truy nhp mng, VLR ang qun l s kim tra thng tin yu cu ca thu bao c c chp nhn hay khng, ngha l n thc hin mt s nhn thc. VLR s dng nhng thng s nhn thc c gi l nhng b ba, n c to ra mt cch lin tc v ring bit cho mi thu bao di ng c cung cp bi trung tm nhn thc AUC. Thng thng, AUC c kt hp vi HLR. EIR (Equipment Identification Register): B ghi nhn dng thit b EIR kim tra tnh hp l ca thu bao da trn yu cu c tnh thit b di ng quc t theo s IMEI t MS sau gi n ti b ghi nhn dng thit b EIR. Trong EIR, IMEI ca ton b thit b di ng c s dng c phn chia thnh cc danh sch qun l: thit b di ng c chp nhn, theo di, khng c chp nhn (whitelist, greylist, blacklist) EIR kim tra IMEI ca MS v a vo mt trong cc danh sch phn loi trn chuyn kt qu ti MSC. 1.2.1.2. H thng trm gc H thng trm gc bao gm cc khi chc nng chnh l BSC v BTS: BSC (Base Station Controller): B iu khin trm gc B iu khin trm gc BSC cung cp nhng chc nng thng minh iu khin mi hot ng ca h thng con v tuyn. Mt BSC c th iu khin nhiu BTS. N phn

phi s kt ni cc knh lu lng (Traffic channel) km bo hiu t h thng chuyn mch ti cc cell v tuyn BTS, ngoi ra n cn thc hin qu trnh chuyn giao cng vi MSC. BTS (Base Transceiver Station): Trm thu pht gc Trm thu pht gc BTS bao gm cc thit b thu pht, anten v x l tn hiu c th cho giao din v tuyn. BTS c thit lp ti tm ca mi tm ca mi t bo, n thng tin n cc MS thng qua giao din v tuyn Um, c nhim v cung cp nhng kt ni v tuyn gia MS v BTS MS c th thc hin c cc dch v. Mt b phn quan trng ca BTS l TRAU l khi chuyn i m ha v tc . TRAU (Transcoder/Adapter Rate Unit). Khi chuyn i m ha thoi v tc TRAU gm b chuyn i m ha TC (Transcoder) v b tng thch tc RA (Rate Adaptor) thc hin chuyn i lung 64 kbit/s thoi v d liu tng ng t MSC thnh lung thoi, d liu c tc thp dng cho giao din v tuyn ti BTS l 16 kbit/s. TRAU l mt b phn ca BTS nhng cng c th t n cch xa BTS v thm ch trong nhiu trng hp n c t gia MSC &BSC. Hnh v di y m t cc v tr c th t TRAU. i vi cc nh khai thc nh Vinaphone, Mobifone, TRAU thng c t gn MSC tit kim ng truyn dn n BSC qua lung E1 PCM30.

1.2.1.3. H thng h tr gim st OSS Tt c mi s hot ng, s kim tra v s bo tr cho tt c nhng thnh phn mng SS, BSS (BSC, BTS, TRAU) c th c thc hin trung tm OMC, gi l trung tm vn hnh v bo dng. OMC c lin kt vi nhng phn t SS v BSS thng qua mt mng d liu gi X25. H thng OMC bao gm mt hoc nhiu OMC. i vi ring h thng h tr gim st mng GSM th phn l OMC R, OMC S tng ng vi vic qun l phn v tuyn, phn chuyn mch. Khi thm cc thnh phn mng gi nh GPRS th s c thm thnh phn OMC G, iu ny c th hin trong hnh v cc kt ni gia thnh phn mng li GSM/GPRS/EDGE ca Vinaphone.

Nh ta thy trn hnh v, ngoi cc thnh phn c bn trong cu trc h thng GSM theo chun 3GPP trnh by, cn c rt nhiu cc thnh phn khc nhm duy tr cc dch v ngi dng v d nh h thng IN qun l cc thu bao tr trc, h thng SMSC thc hin cc dch v lin quan n h thng nhn tin, cc im tp trung bo hiu STP Cc kt ni gia cc thnh phn MSC, TSC, STP, HLR c thc hin trn nhiu giao din E1, STM1 ty theo dung lng hng kt ni. Trong lung PCM 2Mbit/s l giao din vt l truyn thng mang cc knh thoi, bo hiu C7 cn STM1 l giao din quang c s dng gn y do yu cu tng v mt dung lng kt ni, ghp cc lung thoi v bo hiu HSL trn cng lung STM1.

Trong hnh v trn cng c nhng thnh phn mng h thng GPRS, di y s trnh by r thm v thnh phn, chc nng cc khi h thng GPRS. 1.2.2. Cu trc, cc thnh phn chc nng h thng GPRS/EDGE Nh trnh by phn tng quan, v c bn h thng GPRS v EDGE c nng cp, b sung h thng chuyn mch gi vo h thng GSM trc y ch yu dnh cho dch v thoi. iu ny s lm cho mng PLMN tn ti 2 h thng song song l chuyn mch knh cho thoi v chuyn mch gi cho d liu. nng cp t h thng GSM ln h thng GPRS/EDGE cn b sung vo li thit b phn cng mi l cc thnh phn qun l chuyn mch gi: nt h tr dch v GPRS phc v (SGSN) v nt h tr dch v GPRS cng (GGSN). Hai nt ny c gi chung l cc nt h tr GPRS (GSN) v thng l cc Router c dung lng ln. Trong cc GGSN c thm cng BG (Border Gateway) chia s cc giao din vt l n cc mng ngoi v n mng trc khi lin kt vi h thng GPRS/EDGE ca mng khc, hng thit b khc. Ngoi ra, cn b sung thm PCU (Packet Control Unit) thng c nng cp BSC x l vic truyn d liu gi gia MS v SGSN. Cng vi vic nng cp phn cng cho trin khai mng t GSM ln GPRS/EDGEE, cn nng cp phn mm x l d liu gi ti BSC (km PCU), nng cp phn mm BTS x l phn v tuyn cho chuyn mch gi. Di y l s c bn ca h thng GPRS kt hp vi GSM.

Chc nng cc thnh phn h thng GPRS/EDGE Nt h tr GPRS phc v (SGSN) SGSN c cc chc nng chnh sau: o Qun l vic di chuyn ca cc u cui GPRS bao gm vic qun l vo mng, ri mng ca thu bao, mt m, bo mt ca ngi s dng, qun l v tr hin thi ca thu bao o nh tuyn v truyn cc gi d liu gia cc my u cui GPRS. Cc lung c nh tuyn t SGSN n BSC thng qua BTS n MS. o Qun l trung k logic ti u cui di ng bao gm vic qun l cc knh lu lng gi, lu lng nhn tin ngn SMS v tn hiu gia cc my u cui vi mng. o X l cc th tc d liu gi PDP (Packet Data Protocol) bao gm cc thng s quan trng nh tn im truy nhp, cht lng dch v khi kt ni vi mt mng d liu khc bn ngoi h thng. o Qun l cc ngun knh ti nguyn BSS. o Cung cp cc file tnh cc dnh cho d liu gi. o Qun l truy nhp, kim tra truy nhp cc mng d liu ngoi bng mt m v s xc nhn. Nt h tr GPRS cng (GGSN ) trao i thng tin vi mng d liu ngoi SGSN phi thng qua nt h tr GPRS cng l GGSN. V mt cu trc GGSN c v tr tng t nh Gate-MSC. Thng thng GGSN l mt Router mnh c dung lng ln. Chc nng chnh ca GGSN l: o H tr giao thc nh tuyn cho d liu my u cui. o Giao tip vi cc mng d liu gi IP bn ngoi . o Cung cp chc nng bo mt mng. o Qun l phin GPRS theo mc IP, thit lp thng tin n mng bn ngoi. o Cung cp d liu tnh cc (CDRs). Khi iu khin gi (PCU) nng cp mng GSM ln GPRS, ngoi vic nng cp phn mm ta cn b sung vo trong BSC mt phn cng gi l khi iu khin gi (PCU). PCU ny c nhim v x l vic truyn d liu gi gia my u cui v SGSN trong mng GPRS. PCU thc hin vic qun l cc lp MAC v RLC ca giao din v tuyn, cc lp dch v mng ca giao din Gb (giao din gia PCU v SGSN ). N bao gm phn mm trung tm, cc thit b phn cng v cc phn nn tng x l vng (RPP). Chc nng ca RPP l phn chia cc khung PCU gia cc giao din Gb v A-bis, chng c th c thit lp lm vic vi mt giao din A-bis hay vi c hai giao din A-bis v Gb.

Tng hp s liu mng GSM/GPRS ca Vinaphone H thng mng GSM/GPRS ca Vinaphone v c bn trin khai ng theo kch bn nh 3GPP khuyn ngh. S kin trc tng qut mng li c cho trong hnh 1.5 nh trn. Thng k s liu mng li ca Vinaphone tnh n ht nm 2008 c th hin nh di y: Phn chuyn mch: o MSC/VLR: 24 tng i MSC_TDM vi tng dung lng 15.450K. o MSC Transit/Gateway: 4 TSC_TDM vi tng dung lng 84.000 Erl. o H thng HLR vi dung lng 22.000K. o H thng chuyn tip bo hiu: STP1-HNI: im chuyn tip bo hiu ti khu vc min Bc v min Trung; STP2-HCM: im chuyn tip bo hiu ti khu vc min Nam; H thng mng PPS-IN: o H thng np d liu th voucher: 27.000K; o H thng SCP, SDP c dung lng: 20.500K phn cng, license phn mm 20.500K. Cc h thng cung cp dch v: o H thng SMSC : 9.728K BHSM o H thng WAP : 10K o H thng VMS : 50K hp th o H thng MMS : 20K BHMM H thng GPRS: o H thng GPRS: 500K GGSN H Ni : 500K SGSN H Ni : 250K SGSN H Ch Minh : 250K Phn v tuyn v vng ph sng: o S BSC : 206 o Tng s BTS: 7.335

Trung tm khai thc v bo dng OMC: Mng Vinaphone hin c 3 h thng qun l khai thc v bo dng chnh ti H Ni gm c: OMC-R, OMC-S, OMC-G. o OMC-R: Gim st h thng mng v tuyn, bao gm h thng OMC-R ca Motorola, Alcatel, Ericsson, Siemens-Nokia, Huawei. o OMC-S: Gim st mng chuyn mch ca Vinaphone, bao gm h thng OMC-S ca Nokia-Siemens v h thng OMC-S ca Ericsson. o OMC-G: Gim st h thng GPRS ca Nokia-Siemens. 1.2.3. Cu trc, cc thnh phn chc nng h thng 3G Cu trc h thng 3G s dng WCDMA ca Vinaphone khi trin khai t GSM >GPRS/EDGE -> WCDMA pha u s theo chun 3GPP Release 4 nh hnh v sau.

Trong kin trc mng 3G ny, cc phn t mng c phn thnh 3 thnh phn: thit b ngi dng (UE), mng v tuyn UMTS (UTRAN) v mng li (CN). Trong , UE v UTRAN u bao gm cc giao thc hon ton mi, vic thit k chng da trn nhu cu ca

cng ngh v tuyn WCDMA mi. Cn mng li th ngc li, c cc thnh phn c k tha t mng li GSM, GPRS/EDGE trc . Thit b ngi s dng (UE): Thit b UE c dng giao tip vi ngi s dng v giao din v tuyn. N gm hai thnh phn: o Thit b di ng (ME) l u cui v tuyn s dng giao tip v tuyn qua giao din Uu. o Modul nhn dng thu bao UMTS (USIM) l mt th thng minh m nhn vic xc nhn thu bao, thc hin thut ton nhn thc, v lu gi kho m mt, kho nhn thc v mt s cc thng tin v thu bao cn thit ti u cui. Cc giao din kt ni trong UE v gia UE vi UTRAN bao gm: o Giao din Cu: y l giao din gia th thng minh USIM v ME. Giao din ny tun theo tiu chun cho cc th thng minh. o Giao din Uu: y l giao din v tuyn WCDMA. Uu l giao din nh UE truy nhp c vi phn c nh ca h thng, v y c th l phn giao din m quan trng nht trong UMTS. Mng truy nhp v tuyn (UTRAN) Mng truy nhp v tuyn UTRAN thit lp tt c cc chc nng lin quan n v tuyn. N ng v tr tng t nh h thng BSS GSM. N gm 2 thnh phn: o Nt B: chuyn i d liu truyn gia giao din Iub v Uu. N cng tham gia vo qun l ti nguyn v tuyn. o B iu khin mng v tuyn (RNC): s hu v iu khin ngun ti nguyn v tuyn trong vng ca n, bao gm cc Nt B kt ni vi n. RNC l im truy nhp dch v cho tt c cc dch v m UTRAN cung cp cho mng li. Cc giao din kt ni mng UTRAN bao gm: o Giao din Iur: Giao din m Iur h tr chuyn giao mm gia cc RNC t cc nh sn xut khc nhau, v v th b sung cho giao din m Iu. o Giao din Iub: Giao din Iub kt ni mt Nt B v mt RNC. y l giao din m hon thin gia b iu khin v trm gc c chun ho. Ging nh cc giao din m khc, Iub thc y hn na tnh cnh tranh gia cc nh sn xut trong lnh vc ny. o Giao din Iu: Giao din ny kt ni UTRAN ti mng li. Giao din Iu gm: Iu-CS v Iu-PS tng ng vi cc giao din tng thch trong GSM l giao din A (i vi chuyn mch knh) v Gb (i vi chuyn mch gi). G iao din Iu em li cho cc b iu khin UMTS kh nng xy dng c UTRAN v CN t cc nh sn xut khc nhau. o Giao din Iu-BC: Giao din ny kt ni RNC vi min qung b ca mng li l trung tm qung b cell (Cell Broadcast Center). Giao din Iu-BC c dng pht thng tin qung b ti ngi dng di ng trong cell cn qung b.

Mng li (Core Network): Mng li thc hin chc nng chuyn mch v nh tuyn cuc gi, iu khin cc phin truyn v kt ni d liu n cc mng ngoi. Cc thnh phn ca mng li gm nhiu cc thnh phn k tha t mng li GSM v GPRS/EDGE bao gm: MSC/VLR, G-MSC, SGSN, GGSN, HLR/EIR/AuC. Tuy nhin, cc thnh phn MSC/VLR v HLR s c cc thnh phn phn cng v phn mm thay i ph hp vi vic qun l cp pht cho cc dch v thoi, d liu khc nhau. Di y ta s tm hiu thm v cc thnh phn mng li MSC, MGW. kin trc mng 3G ca Vinaphone, xut hin cc MSC Softswitch thay cho vic c cc MSC chuyn mch knh. V cn bn, MSC Softswitch c chia thnh MSC server v cng cc phng tin (MGW: Media Gateway). MSC server ny cha tt c cc phn mm iu khin cuc gi, qun l di ng c mt MSC tiu chun nh trong GSM, tuy nhin n khng cha ma trn chuyn mch. Ma trn chuyn mch nm trong MGW c MSC Server iu khin v c th t xa MSC Server. Bo hiu iu khin cc cuc gi chuyn mch knh c thc hin gia RNC v MSC Server. ng truyn lu lng thoi cho cc cuc gi chuyn mch knh c thc hin gia RNC v MGW. Thng thng MGW nhn cc cuc gi t RNC v nh tuyn cc cuc gi ny n ni nhn trn cc ng trc gi. Trong nhiu trng hp ng trc gi s dng Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc (RTP: Real Time Transport Protocol) trn Giao thc Internet (IP). T hnh 1.7 ta thy lu lng s liu gi t RNC i qua SGSN v t SGSN n GGSN trn mng ng trc IP. C d liu v thoi u c th s dng truyn ti IP bn trong mng li. y l mng truyn ti hon ton IP. Ti ni m mt cuc gi cn chuyn n mt mng khc, PSTN chng hn, s c mt cng cc phng tin khc (MGW) c iu khin bi MSC Server cng (GMSC server).

MGW ny s chuyn ting thoi c ng gi thnh PCM tiu chun a n PSTN. Giao thc iu khin gia MSC Server hoc GMSC Server vi MGW l giao thc ITU H.248. Giao thc ny c ITU v IETF cng tc pht trin v c tn l iu khin cng cc phng tin (MEGACO: Media Gateway Control). Giao thc iu khin cuc gi gia MSC Server v GMSC Server c th l mt giao thc iu khin cuc gi bt k. 3GPP khuyn ngh s dng (khng bt buc) giao thc iu khin cuc gi c lp knh mang (BICC: Bearer Independent Call Control) c xy dng trn c s khuyn ngh Q.1902 ca ITU Vinaphone hin ang s dng giao thc ny. Rt nhiu giao thc c s dng bn trong mng li l cc giao thc trn c s gi s dng hoc IP hoc ATM. Tuy nhin mng phi giao din vi cc mng truyn thng qua vic s dng cc cng cc phng tin. Ngoi ra mng cng phi giao din vi cc mng SS7 tiu chun. Giao din ny c thc hin thng qua cng SS7 (SS7 GW). y l cng m mt pha n h tr truyn ti bn tin SS7 trn ng truyn ti SS7 tiu chun, pha kia n truyn ti cc bn tin ng dng SS7 trn mng gi (IP chng hn). Cc thc th nh MSC Server, GMSC Server v HSS lin lc vi cng SS7 bng cch s dng cc giao thc truyn ti c thit k c bit mang cc bn tin SS7 mng IP. B giao thc ny c gi l Sigtran. Di y l hnh v cu hnh mng li 3G ca Vinaphone giai on u mi trin khai. Vinaphone s dng h thng MSS (Mobile Softswitch Solution) ca Ericsson lm h thng tng i v cng phng tin: nh MSS-E2A/MGW-E2A, MSSE2B/MGW-E2B, MSS-E4A/MGW-E4A. Ngoi ra, truyn ti bo hiu SS7 trn mng gi vi giao thc Sigtran, c cc TSS1A, TSS2A, TSS2B cng ca hng Ericsson ng vai tr GMSC kt ni

gia cc trung tm H Ni, H Ch Minh, Cn Th, tng ng vi n l cc truyn ti lu lng gia cc G-MGW qua giao thc Nb trn lung truyn dn IP.

Hin nay, Vinaphone trin khai HSDPA trn nn kin trc 3G cp trn. Cu trc ca h thng HSDPA v c bn tun theo chun 3GPP Release 5 v vi h tng mng trin khai, Vinaphone cung cp dch v HSDPA vi tc 7,2 Mbps v ang trong tin trnh nng cp ln tc 14,4 Mbps. trin khai HSDPA, Vinaphone ch cn nng cp phn mm trn phn cng h tr sn ti phn mng UTRAN l RNC v NodeB c th s dng cc k thut iu ch, m ha kt hp vi cc phng thc iu khin knh truyn, lp biu cung cp dch v tc cao ng xung.

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