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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions

[Colour codes used in this document] Black: Dark red: Green: [Blue]: items derived from the conclusions on BAT of the currently adopted WT BREF, including some rewording. standard texts additional proposals expected to meet the BAT conclusions criteria set in the BREF Guidance messages to the TWG [in square brackets]

[The original numbers of the conclusions on BAT of the adopted WT BREF are indicated below each BAT conclusions statement of this document, e.g. BAT 2, 13, while deleted conclusions on BAT are indicated with struck through numbers, e.g. BAT 82. The word [other] is used in a list or table to indicate that other items of the list or table are expected Empty cells or suspension points () are used to indicated areas where further work is needed]

BAT conclusions
for

Waste Treatment
(Detailed guideline draft for the expression of initial positions)

WT_BATC_2013_07_AP_MC

Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions

TABLE OF CONTENT
1 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES............................................................................................... 4 Scope ................................................................................................................................... 4 Definitions............................................................................................................................................... 7 General considerations ............................................................................................................................ 9 Reference conditions for emissions to air................................................................................................ 9 Averaging periods for emissions to air.................................................................................................... 9 Conversion of emissions concentration to reference oxygen level........................................................ 10 Reference conditions for emissions to water......................................................................................... 10 Averaging periods for emissions to water ............................................................................................. 10 1.1 General BAT conclusions ......................................................................................................... 11 1.1.1 Overall environmental performance .................................................................................... 11 1.1.1.1 Environmental management systems............................................................................. 11 1.1.1.2 Monitoring ..................................................................................................................... 12 1.1.2 Waste treatment performance.............................................................................................. 14 1.1.2.1 Reception, handling and storage .................................................................................... 15 1.1.2.2 Compatibility to mix or blend........................................................................................ 18 1.1.2.3 Input pre-treatment and output finalisation.................................................................... 19 1.1.3 Emissions to air ................................................................................................................... 21 1.1.4 Emissions to water and water consumption......................................................................... 24 1.1.5 Consumption of raw materials and chemicals ..................................................................... 25 1.1.6 Energy consumption............................................................................................................ 26 1.1.7 Noise and vibrations ............................................................................................................ 27 1.1.8 Prevention of soil and groundwater contamination ............................................................. 28 1.1.9 Decommissioning ................................................................................................................ 28 1.2 BAT conclusions for mechanical treatments............................................................................. 31 1.2.1 BAT conclusions for sorting, sieving .................................................................................. 31 1.2.1.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 31 1.2.2 BAT conclusions for crushing, shredding, or milling.......................................................... 31 1.2.2.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 31 1.2.2.2 Mercury emissions to air................................................................................................ 32 1.2.2.3 Dioxins and furans emissions to air ............................................................................... 32 1.2.2.4 Emissions to water ......................................................................................................... 33 1.2.2.5 Vibrations ...................................................................................................................... 33 1.3 BAT conclusions for biological treatments............................................................................... 34 1.3.1.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 34 1.3.1.2 Odour ............................................................................................................................. 34 1.3.2 BAT conclusions specific to aerobic treatment ................................................................... 34 1.3.2.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 34 1.3.2.2 Emissions to air.............................................................................................................. 35 1.3.2.3 Water consumption and emissions to water................................................................... 36 1.3.2.4 Energy efficiency........................................................................................................... 37 1.3.3 BAT conclusions specific to anaerobic digestion................................................................ 38 1.3.3.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 38 1.3.3.2 Emissions to air.............................................................................................................. 38 1.3.3.3 Water consumption and emissions to water................................................................... 39 1.3.3.4 Energy efficiency........................................................................................................... 40 1.4 BAT conclusions for physicochemical treatments .................................................................... 42 1.4.1 BAT conclusions for extraction........................................................................................... 42 1.4.1.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 42 1.4.1.2 Acid emissions to air...................................................................................................... 42 1.4.1.3 Emissions to water ......................................................................................................... 42 1.4.2 BAT conclusions for washing ............................................................................................. 43 1.4.2.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 43 1.4.2.2 Emissions to water ......................................................................................................... 43 1.4.3 BAT conclusions for physicochemical treatment of water-based liquid waste ................... 44 1.4.3.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 44 1.4.3.2 Emissions to air.............................................................................................................. 44 1.4.3.3 Emissions to water ......................................................................................................... 45 1.4.4 BAT conclusions for thermal drying ................................................................................... 46 1.4.4.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 46
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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions 1.4.4.2 Ammonia emissions to air ............................................................................................. 46 1.4.4.3 Emissions to water ......................................................................................................... 46 1.4.5 BAT conclusions for immobilisation................................................................................... 47 1.4.5.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 47 1.4.5.2 Asbestos emissions to air ............................................................................................... 47 1.4.5.3 Lead emissions to air ..................................................................................................... 48 1.4.5.4 Cadmium emissions to air.............................................................................................. 48 1.4.5.5 Mercury emissions to air................................................................................................ 48 1.4.6 BAT conclusions for thermal desorption............................................................................. 49 1.4.6.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 49 1.4.6.2 Mercury emissions to air................................................................................................ 49 1.4.6.3 Dioxins and furans emissions to air ............................................................................... 50 1.4.6.4 Acid emissions to air...................................................................................................... 50 1.4.6.5 SOX emissions to air ...................................................................................................... 51 1.4.6.6 Emissions to water ......................................................................................................... 51 1.4.7 BAT conclusions for distillation.......................................................................................... 52 1.4.7.1 General environmental performance.............................................................................. 52 1.4.7.2 Mercury emissions to air................................................................................................ 52 1.4.7.3 Dioxins and furans emissions to air ............................................................................... 53 1.4.7.4 Emissions to water ......................................................................................................... 53 Description of techniques...................................................................................................................... 55

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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions

1 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES


SCOPE These BAT conclusions concern the following activities specified Directive 2010/75/EU, namely: in Annex I to

5.1. Disposal or recovery of hazardous waste with a capacity exceeding 10 tonnes per day involving one or more of the following activities: (a) biological treatment; (b) physicochemical treatment; (c) blending or mixing prior to submission to any of the other activities listed in points 5.1 and 5.2 of the Annex I to the Industrial Emissions Directive; (d) repackaging prior to submission to any of the other activities listed in points 5.1 and 5.2 of the Annex I to the Industrial Emissions Directive; (e) solvent reclamation/regeneration; (f) recycling/reclamation of inorganic materials other than metals or metal compounds; (g) regeneration of acids or bases; (h) recovery of components used for pollution abatement; (i) recovery of components from catalysts; (j) oil re-refining or other reuses of oil; (k) surface impoundment. 5.3 (a) Disposal of non-hazardous waste with a capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day involving one or more of the following activities: (i) biological treatment; (ii) physicochemical treatment; (iii) pre-treatment of waste for incineration or co-incineration; (iv) treatment of slags and ashes; (v) treatment in shredders of metal waste, including waste electrical and electronic equipment and end-of-life vehicles and their components. (b) Recovery, or a mix of recovery and disposal, of non-hazardous waste with a capacity exceeding 75 tonnes per day involving one or more of the following activities: (i) biological treatment; (ii) pre-treatment of waste for incineration or co-incineration; (iii) treatment of slags and ashes; (iv) treatment in shredders of metal waste, including waste electrical and electronic equipment and end-of-life vehicles and their components. When the only waste treatment activity carried out is anaerobic digestion, the capacity threshold for this activity shall be 100 tonnes per day. 5.5. Temporary storage of hazardous waste pending any of the activities listed in points 5.1, 5.2, 5.4 and 5.6 of the Annex I to the Industrial Emissions Directive with a total capacity exceeding 50 tonnes.'

In particular, these BAT conclusions cover the following processes and activities, whether these are carried out as the primary activity on the installation or as a directly associated activity to another IED activity: the loading, unloading and handling of waste the temporary storage of waste the blending and mixing of waste
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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions

Waste treatment processes such as: o Mechanical treatment of waste: o Biological treatment of waste o Physicochemical treatment of waste o Combined treatment of waste (e.g. mechanical-biological treatment of biological waste) Upstream and downstream activities directly associated with the waste treatment (e.g. combustion of biogas from the anaerobic digestion) the applied techniques to prevent and control emissions and consumption site remediation measures needed as a consequence of the waste treatment activity within IED installations.

These BAT conclusions do not address the following activities: activities covered by Council Directive 91/271/EEC concerning urban waste-water treatment; temporary storage, pending collection, on the site where the waste is generated; waste management activities, recovery or disposal of waste not occurring in IED installations and related acceptance criteria; recovery of waste to substitute raw materials used in IED installations covered in other BAT reference documents and related acceptance criteria; waste incineration and co-incineration and related acceptance criteria; landfilling and related acceptance criteria (covered by Council Directive 1999/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste); underground storage of waste and related acceptance criteria; waste management in the extractive industries (covered by Directive 2006/21/EC);

These BAT conclusions do not address the following topics: end-of-waste criteria, product specifications

These BAT conclusions are without prejudice of the following directives and regulations: end-of-life vehicles (covered by Directive 2000/53/EC) electronic waste (covered by Directive 2012/19/EU) batteries (covered by Directive 2006/66/EC) [placeholder for the regulation on ship recycling COM/2012/0118 final 2012/0055 (COD)] POP-containing waste (Regulation (EC) n. 850/2004) PCB-containing equipments are decontaminated (Directive 96/59/EC)

Other reference documents, which are relevant for the activities covered by these BAT conclusions, are the following:
Reference document Emissions from Storage BREF (EFS) General Principles of Monitoring (MON) Energy Efficiency BREF (ENE) Economic and Cross-Media Effects (ECM) CWW Activity / Subject Storage and handling of fuels and additives Emissions and consumptions monitoring General energy efficiency Economic and cross-media effects of techniques Common waste water and waste gas treatments

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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions
WI LCP, CLM, IS, GLS, [] MTWR Waste incineration Waste co-incineration and recovery of waste as a substitute of other materials in IED installations Management of Tailings and Waste-rock in Mining Activities

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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions

DEFINITIONS For the purpose of these BAT conclusions, the following definitions apply:
Term used Biological treatment Mechanical treatment wet bio-waste Biogas Waste input Waste holder Waste producer Output Mixing Blending POP content Recovery rate Extraction Definition Treatment of biodegradable waste by mean of aerobic or anaerobic process that degrade the biological matter to stable compounds. [] Biowaste with water content > 80 % The gaseous output of the anaerobic digestion process The incoming waste to be treated in the waste treatment plant The subject sending the waste input to the waste treatment plant The subject that generated the waste input sent to the waste treatment plant The processed material flow dispatched from the waste treatment plant The process of merging solid waste streams The process of merging liquid waste streams

Immobilisation Water-based liquid waste Washing Thermal drying Immobilisation Thermal desorption Distillation Dust HCl HF Hg CH4 VOC TOC Continuous measurement

Periodic measurement

PEMS

Treatment of solid or liquid wastes by mean of co- or counter-currant of e.g. vapour, solvent, acid, to extract pollutants as metals, salts, organic compounds. Treatment of solid waste by mean of e.g. stabilisation, solidification, vitrification, melting, to reduce the rate of contaminant migration to the environment and/or to reduce the level of toxicity of the waste. [] [] [] [] [] [] [] all gaseous chlorides expressed as HCl all gaseous fluorides expressed as HF The sum of mercury and its compounds, expressed as Hg [] [] [] Measurement using an 'automated measuring system' (AMS) or a 'continuous emission monitoring system' (CEM) permanently installed on site Determination of a measurand (particular quantity subject to measurement) at specified time intervals using manual or automated reference methods. A periodic measurement of emissions to air is the average over 3 consecutive measurements of at least half an hour). A periodic measurement of emissions to water is a flow-proportional composite sample over 24-hour. Predictive Emissions Monitoring Systems: systems used to determine the emissions concentration of a pollutant based on its relationship with a number of characteristic continuously-monitored process parameters and feed quality data of an emission source.

For the purposes of these BAT conclusions, the following acronyms apply:
Acronyms POP MSW MBT WEEE Definition Persistent organic pollutant Municipal Solid Wastes Mechanical Biological Treatment Waste Electric and Electronic Equipment
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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions EoLV WFGD AMS CEM PEMS End of Live Vehicles Wet flue-gas desulphurisation automated measuring system continuous emission monitoring system Predictive Emissions Monitoring Systems

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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS The techniques listed and described in these BAT conclusions are neither prescriptive nor exhaustive. Other techniques may be used that ensure at least an equivalent level of environmental protection. Unless stated otherwise, the techniques identified in these BAT conclusions are generally applicable. [NOTE: Whilst cross-references are provided to other parts of this document in order to aid the work of the TWG, they will not be included in the final BAT conclusions themselves. Such cross-references are consequently displayed in square brackets.] EXPRESSION OF EMISSION LEVELS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES (BAT-AELs) [TWG: please note that in order to avoid repetition, this section contains general considerations that are essential to the understanding of the BAT conclusions taken as a standalone document, such as: reference conditions for air emissions (e.g. dry gas, standard temperature/pressure, oxygen concentration) averaging periods sampling times conversions to reference conditions adopted units of measures] Reference conditions for emissions to air Unless stated otherwise, emission levels associated with the best available techniques (BAT-AELs) for emissions to air given in these BAT conclusions refer to monthly average values of concentrations, expressed as mass of emitted substance per volume of waste gas under the following standard conditions: dry gas, temperature 273.15 K, pressure 101.3 kPa. For combustion processes, oxygen reference conditions for oxygen are given in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1:

Oxygen reference conditions for BAT-AELs concerning emissions to air from combustion processes Activities Unit mg/Nm3 mg/Nm3 Oxygen reference conditions 3 % oxygen by volume 15 % oxygen by volume

Combustion process using liquid or gaseous fuels with the exception of gas turbines and engines Gas turbines (including combined cycle gas turbines CCGT) and engines

Averaging periods for emissions to air

For continuous measurements

Unless stated otherwise, BAT-AELs refer to monthly average values Monthly average: average over a period of one month based on valid hourly averages measured by continuous measurements Daily average: average over a period of one day based on valid hourly averages measured by continuous measurements

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Waste Treatment draft BAT conclusions Guideline draft for the expression of initial positions For periodic measurements BAT-AELs refer to the average value over the sampling period

Conversion of emissions concentration to reference oxygen level The formula for calculating the emissions concentration at reference oxygen level (see Table 1.1) is shown below.
ER = 21 OR 21 OM

EM

Where: ER (mg/Nm3): OR (vol %): EM (mg/Nm3): OM (vol %): emissions concentration corrected to the reference oxygen level OR reference oxygen level emissions concentration referred to the measured oxygen level OM measured oxygen level.

Reference conditions for emissions to water Unless stated otherwise, emission levels associated with the best available techniques (BAT-AELs) for emissions to water given in these BAT conclusions refer to values of concentration (mass of emitted substances per volume of water) expressed in mg/l. Averaging periods for emissions to water Unless stated otherwise, the averaging periods associated with the BAT-AELs are defined as follows:

Daily average

Average over a sampling period of 24 hours taken as a flowproportional composite sample. Time-proportional sampling can be used provided that sufficient flow stability is demonstrated. Average (weighted according to the daily flows) of the daily average values taken with the minimum frequency set for the relevant parameter within a year/month

Yearly/Monthly average

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1.1

General BAT conclusions

Unless otherwise stated, the BAT conclusions presented in this section are generally applicable. The process-specific BAT conclusions included in Sections 1.2 to 1.4 apply in addition to the general BAT conclusions mentioned in this section.

1.1.1

Overall environmental performance

1.1.1.1 Environmental management systems


1. In order to improve the overall environmental performance of waste treatment plants, BAT is to implement and adhere to an environmental management system (EMS) that incorporates all of the following features: [BAT 1, 3, 5, 16, 17, 18, 40, 57] i. commitment of the management, including senior management; ii. definition of an environmental policy that includes the continuous improvement of the installation by the management; iii. planning and establishing the necessary procedures, objectives and targets, in conjunction with financial planning and investment; iv. implementation of procedures paying particular attention to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) structure and responsibility training, awareness and competence communication employee involvement documentation efficient process control maintenance programmes emergency preparedness and response safeguarding compliance with environmental legislation;

v. checking performance and taking corrective action, paying particular attention to: (a) monitoring and measurement (see also the Reference Document on the General Principles of Monitoring) (b) corrective and preventive action (c) maintenance of records (d) independent (where practicable) internal and external auditing in order to determine whether or not the EMS conforms to planned arrangements and has been properly implemented and maintained; vi. review of the EMS and its continuing suitability, adequacy and effectiveness by senior management; vii. following the development of cleaner technologies; viii. consideration for the environmental impacts from the eventual decommissioning of the installation at the stage of designing a new plant, and throughout its operating life; ix. application of sectoral benchmarking on a regular basis. Specifically for waste treatment sector, it is also important to consider the following potential features of the EMS:
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x. details on point iv above that include: (a) process and risk management procedures (b) periodic specific job training or education for all personnel (e.g. on environmental protection and prevention from risks, safety operations, process performance) (c) indications of the availability of qualified on-duty staff during all the plant activities. (d) The ability of the personnel implementing all the procedures (e.g. pre acceptance, acceptance, sampling, checking and analysis, see BAT 8 and BAT 9) to cope with all the issues relevant for the waste treatment in the concerned plant, due to his profession and/or experience. xi. Details on point v above to indicate the type of recordings indicated in these BAT conclusions xii. A good housekeeping system embedded within the EMS covering the following basic items: (a) an adequate training programme that includes also the preventive actions that workers need to take on environmental risks (b) leak detection and maintenance procedures (see BAT 7.d) (c) procedures for moving and dispatching drums and containers under the instructions from the appropriate manager (d) an operational diary integrated with the waste tracking system (see BAT 7.c) to record drums/containers moving procedures xiii. Noise and vibrations management plan and reduction programme (see BAT 22) xiv. Odour reduction programme (see BAT 16) xv. Own residues/waste management plan, integrated within the basic housekeeping techniques (see BAT 12.f) and with internal/external benchmarking techniques (see BAT20.b). xvi. a structured accident management plan xvii. an incident diary xviii. loading and unloading management system (see BAT9.b) xix. energy efficiency plan (see BAT 21.b) xx. water audits (see BAT 18.f) xxi. decommissioning plan (see BAT 24.b) xxii. [Other] Applicability The scope (e.g. level of details) and nature of the EMS (e.g. standardised or non-standardised) is generally related to the nature, scale and complexity of the installation, and the range of environmental impacts it may have.

1.1.1.2 Monitoring
2. In order to improve the overall environmental performance of waste treatment, BAT is to monitor emissions to: a. air before releasing to the atmosphere b. water at the point of discharge at the boundary of the installation, including indirect discharge for the pollutants given in each BAT-AEL table of these conclusions, with at least the frequency indicated in the same table and in accordance with EN standards. If EN standards are not available, BAT is to use ISO, national or other international standards that ensure the provision of data of an equivalent scientific quality. [50, 55, 74]

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3. In order to improve the overall environmental performance of waste treatment, BAT is to monitor the process parameters and the additional environmental parameters given below. [50]

Parameter Water consumption Energy consumption Waste input Waste processed Waste rejected Sludge generation Waste generation Waste water flow Waste water toxicity Noise level [other]

Applicability

Point of measurement

Monitoring frequency daily

daily daily

4. In order to improve the overall environmental performance of waste treatment installations, BAT is to improve the knowledge of the waste input by performing waste characterisation with at least the minimum frequency and in accordance with EN standards given below. BAT is to record the outcome of the characterisation onto advanced computerised process control system as described in BAT 7.
Analysis and characterisation parameter
-

Waste(s) [waste]

Sampling frequency

[parameter]

5. BAT is to monitor periodically odour emissions to air in accordance with EN standards (e.g. by using dynamic olfactometry according to EN standards). When applying complementary methods for which no EN standards are available (e.g. measurement/estimation of odour exposure, estimation of odour impact), BAT is to use ISO, national or other international standards that ensure the provision of data of an equivalent scientific quality. Applicability Applicability is restricted to cases where the results of BAT16 I and II show that odour emissions are likely to cause a significant odour exposure to sensitive receptors.

6. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce the environmental risks of treating hazardous waste, BAT is to monitor in the emissions to air and to water each hazardous substance found in the waste input characterisation/analysis above the concentration level that lead the waste input to be categorised as hazardous.
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1.1.2

Waste treatment performance

[BAT 91, 117, 118, 119, 130] 7. In order to prevent accidents and to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce pollution emissions from waste treatment, BAT is to use all the techniques given below: [BAT 2, 7, 12, 40, 53, 60, 62, 66, 72, 78]
Techniques a Complete set of operational documents Description A fully-fledged set of engineered project sheets is produced, kept available and implemented to ensure the provision of full details of all the activities carried out on-site, including the following: (i) a plan of the site clearly identifying the following areas: the waste treatment plant the inspection, unloading and sampling areas (see BAT10) (ii) detailed descriptions, flow charts and mass balances of the waste treatment methods (iii) descriptions of the procedures in place for the waste treatment process (iv) diagrams of the main plant items that have environmental relevance, together with process flow diagrams (schematics) (v) details of the chemical reactions and their reaction kinetics/energy balance (vi) details of the advanced computerised process control system (see technique b): general philosophy and environmental monitoring information (vii) details on the environmental protection measures in place during other than normal operating conditions such as momentary stoppages, start-ups, and shutdowns (viii) an instruction manual, detailing also the roles and profiles of staff An advanced computerised process control system includes all the main parameters in order to keep a full control of the ongoing treatment process. In addition to the automatic measurements, the system integrates all the recordings given in these BAT conclusions. (see BAT 1.xi). All the data are backed-up. A tracking system includes the following elements: (i) carrying out data traceability through several operational steps (e.g. pre-acceptance/acceptance/storage/treatment/dispatch). (ii) the application of a waste tracking system unique identifier (label/code) to each container at the reception stage (see BAT 8). The identifier includes the date of arrival on-site and the European Waste List (EWL) code. (iii) Records of deliveries, on-site treatment and dispatches are made and kept up-to-date in real-time onto the advanced computerised process control system. The treatment steps are documented by using the same flow charts and mass balances given in BAT 7.a. Records are typically held for a minimum of six months after the waste has been dispatched (iv) recording and referencing the information on waste characteristics and the source of the waste stream, so that it is available at all times. A reference number is given to the waste and is obtainable at any time to enable the operator to identify where a specific waste is in the installation, the length of time it has been there and the proposed or actual treatment route (v) The tracking system operates also as a waste inventory/stock control system in real-time onto the advanced computerised process control system. It includes: date of arrival on-site, waste Applicability Generally applicable

b Advanced computerised process control system

Generally applicable

c Waste tracking system

Generally applicable

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d Leakage detection and repair

producer details, details on all previous holders, an unique identifier, pre-acceptance and acceptance analysis results, package type and size, intended treatment/disposal route, an accurate record of the nature and quantity of wastes held on-site including all hazards details on where the waste is physically located in relation to a site plan, at which point in the designated disposal route the waste is currently positioned. A procedure that, for the purpose of early detection, operates regularly leak checks of vessels, tanks, spits, drainage, pipe work and triggers a prompt reaction by the maintenance team. Particular attention is paid to underground elements. See BAT 1.xii(b).

Applicable in installations where materials that may easily leak and generate fugitive emissions and or soil contamination are stored.

e [other]

1.1.2.1 Reception, handling and storage


8. In order to reduce the environmental risks in the waste treatment and to improve the waste treatment performance, BAT is to have a good knowledge of the waste input and a safe and sound waste input reception by using all the following techniques: [BAT 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 43, 72, 87, 92, 95, 105]

Techniques Pre-acceptance procedure

Description The waste input pre-acceptance procedure provides details of the following steps that are performed by the operator: (i) The following information is received and verified with the producer; the contact details of the waste producer an appropriate description of the waste input, including its composition and hazardousness; information on the nature and variability of the waste input generation process; the European Waste List (EWL) code for the waste input. (ii) for each new waste treatment request, a potentially suitable treatment method for each waste input batch is identified, taking into account: the installation treatment capabilities and risks; the desired output quality and intrinsic risk (iii) representative waste input samples from its generation process are obtained and analysed; (iv) tests on the waste input samples with respect to the planned treatment are conducted; (v) the treatment of the waste input is assessed, by applying a clear and sound-based methodology, on the basis of the physicochemical properties of each individual waste input batch and the specifications for the output (treated waste). (vi) [other] A sampling procedure and laboratory facility includes: (i) The sampling procedure is based on a risk approach. Some elements to consider are the type of waste (e.g. hazardous or nonhazardous) and the knowledge of the customer (e.g. waste producer)

Applicability Generally applicable

b Sampling procedure and laboratory facility

Generally applicable This may affect the applicability


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Acceptance procedure

(ii) registration of all waste materials (iii) the relevant physicochemical parameters are checked on (e.g. by viscometry, infrared, chromatography and mass spectrometry as appropriate) (iv) sampling procedures are customised for bulk liquid bulk solids large and small containers / vessels. The number of samples increases with the number of containers / vessels. laboratory smalls. (v) details of the sampling of wastes in drums within designated storage, e.g. the time-scale after receipt (vi) sample prior to acceptance (vii) the following information is determined and recorded: the sampling regime for each load, together with a record of the justification for the selection of each option are recorded; a suitable location for the sampling points; the capacity of the sampled vessel (for samples from drums, an additional parameter would be the total number of drums); the number of samples and degree of consolidation; the operating conditions at the time of sampling. (viii) in the case of cold ambient temperatures, a temporary storage may be needed in order to allow sampling after defrosting. (ix) a laboratory to timely analyse all the samples at the required speed. (x) a robust quality assurance system and quality control methods for the laboratory. The laboratory analyses results are timely recorded onto the advanced computerised process control system. Particularly for hazardous wastes, this often means that the laboratory needs to be on-site (xi) [other] The waste input acceptance procedure provides details the following steps that are performed by the operators: (i) the operator accepts the waste input only if a defined treatment method and disposal/recovery route for the output of the treatment is determined; the results of the laboratory analysis are used to fine-tune the main control parameters for the chosen treatment route (e.g. by mean of bench-scale test) (see preacceptance technique a(v)); (ii) the operator follows clear and unambiguous criteria for the rejection of wastes and the reporting of all non conformances; (iii) the residual waste storage capacity of the installation is an information always kept up-to-date in the advanced computerised process control system; a pre-booking system ensures that the residual waste storage capacity is sufficient for the incoming acceptable waste inputs; (iv) the operators fully document and deal with waste inputs arriving at the site, by checking and recording that the following criteria are available, guaranteed and respected the necessary storage given by the real-time inventory, treatment capacity, dispatch conditions, including the acceptance criteria required by the receiver of the output; (v) determination that the waste input is not radioactive waste; (vi) the operators inspect the waste input also to check compliance with the description received during the pre-acceptance procedure: visually when there are no safety concern when visual inspection is not feasible for safety and/or healthy reasons, the control of the compliance of waste-input is supported by analytical equipments (e.g. viscometry, infrared, chromatography, mass spectrometry), laboratories and the adequate human resources

of some of the above items in this BAT (see Section 4.1.1.5).

Generally applicable

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d Reception system

A reception system includes: (i) move waste to the storage area only after acceptance of the waste (ii) written procedures to manage non-accepted waste (iii) a dedicated quarantine waste storage area where the rejected waste can temporarily be safely stored when the inspection or analysis indicates that the wastes fail to meet the acceptance criteria (including, e.g. damaged, corroded or unlabelled drums). Such storage and procedures are designed and managed to promote the rapid management of the rejected waste (e.g. days or less) (iv) a procedure dealing with rejected waste that includes all measures to: inform competent authorities, safely store the delivery for any transition period reject the waste and send it back to the waste producer or to any other authorised destination. (v) [other]

Generally applicable

[other]

9. In order to reduce the environmental risk of accidents and incidents from the handling of waste, BAT is to use all the following techniques: [BAT 28, 40]

Techniques Handling systems and procedures b Loading and unloading management system a

Waste checking

origin

d Fit-for-purpose equipments e [other]

Description Handling systems and procedures ensure that wastes are transferred to the appropriate storage safely. A management system for the loading and unloading of waste takes into consideration any risks that these activities may incur. In is an integrated part of the EMS (see ), whose options include ticketing systems, supervision by site staff, keys or colour-coded points/hoses or fittings of a specific size A qualified person attends the waste holder site to check the laboratory smalls and the old original waste to categorise them according to the waste treatment procedures and to package the waste into specific containers, which may include special protection from mechanical damage (e.g. fillers adapted to the packaged waste properties) Vessels, hoses, valves and connections are used when they are not damaged.

Applicability

Applicable to the treatment of waste from an unclear origin or undefined waste

Generally applicable

10. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce the environmental risk of the storage of waste, BAT is to use all the following techniques: [BAT 24, 25, 26, 27, 31, 34]
a Techniques Strategic location of storage areas Description The storage areas are located:

Applicability

away from watercourses and sensitive perimeters, and to reduce the handling and movement of wastes across the site A dedicated area/store for sorting and repackaging laboratory smalls or similar waste is equipped with all necessary measures related to the specific risk
17

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Safety conditions

storage

Storing of containerised wastes under cover

of the wastes Waste-input and output are stored in specific containers, in a building under slight negative pressur and controlled temperature Containerised wastes are stored in covered areas that give protection from e.g. sunlight, too high/low temperature, precipitation. The covered areas have adequate ventilation and access always available.

Applicable to containing waste

mercury-

Applicable when containerised wastes are stored at any stages, including pending the sampling and emptying. Not applicable if the waste or the containers are not affected by ambient conditions.

Sorting and repackaging laboratory smalls Valve closures Preventing overflows

e f

g h

Inert atmosphere Bund for liquids

Tank and pipe work labelling

laboratory smalls or similar waste are sorted according to their hazard classification, with due consideration for any potential incompatibility problems and then repackaged. After that, they are moved to the appropriate storage area. All connections between the vessels are capable of being closed via valves. Prevention measures for sludge and liquids to achieve levels higher than a safe threshold. Preventing the emergence of foams that may affect such measures in tanks for liquids, e.g. by regularly controlling the tanks, by sucking out the sludge for appropriate further treatment and using anti-foaming agents. Equipping tanks and vessels with level meters and alarms. These systems need to be sufficiently robust (able to work if sludge and foam is present) and regularly maintained. Storing organic liquid waste with a low flashpoint under a nitrogen atmosphere allows keeping it inert. Bunds for liquid waste storage are impermeable and resistant to the stored liquids. Separate bunds are used for incompatible liquids. Tank and process pipe work labelling consists in: i. clearly labelling all vessels with regard to their contents and capacity, and applying an unique identifier. Tanks have an appropriately labelled system depending on their use and contents ii. labels differentiating between waste water and process water, combustible liquid and combustible vapour and the direction of flow (i.e. in or outflow) iii. keeping records for all tanks, detailing the unique identifier; capacity; its construction, including materials; maintenance schedules and inspection results; fittings; and the waste types which may be stored/treated in the vessel, including flashpoint limits iv. keeping the labelling system synchronised with the advanced computerised process control system of BAT 7.b Take measures (e.g. acceptance planning, identifying the maximum capacity limit for that waste, and ensuring storage capacity is not exceeded) to avoid problems that may be generated from the storage/accumulation of waste

Minimisation of storage residence time [other]

Not applicable when the waste is used as a reactant.

1.1.2.2 Compatibility to mix or blend


11. In order to reduce pollution emissions and to prevent incidents/accidents from the waste treatment, BAT is to use all the following techniques:
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[BAT 13, 14, 29, 30, 72, 78, 79, 80]

Techniques Segregation compatibility procedure

and

Procedure mix/blend

to

Description A segregation and compatibility procedure includes the following features: (i) keeping records of the testing, including any reaction giving rise to safety parameters (increase in temperature, generation of gases or raising of pressure); a record of the operating parameters (viscosity change and separation or precipitation of solids) and any other relevant parameters, such as generation of odours; the records are inserted into the advanced computerised process control system of BAT 7.b; (ii) packing containers of waste into separate drums based on their hazard classification. Waste which are incompatible (e.g. oxidisers and flammable liquids, metals-bearing waste and complexing agents, other chemical incompatibilities) are not stored in the same drum; (iii) evidence of the mixing/blending environmental benefits is proven and recorded onto the advanced computerised process control system of BAT 7.b by considering the following features: (i) The reduction of substances concentration in the waste is not considered an environmental benefit; (ii) the type of waste (e.g. hazardous, containing POP/accumulative substances): waste with POP, accumulative substances, chromium (VI), [other substance] are usually not compatible with other materials or waste, unless a specific environmental benefit is obtained by the mixing/blending operation. (iii) waste treatment to be applied, (iv) the emissions of the treatment process as well as (v) the subsequent steps that will be carried out to the output Mixing/blending operations, such as: (i) bulking of different batches that have to be unloaded; (ii) re-using the waste from one activity/treatment as a feedstock for another are carried out: (i) after a positive outcome of the segregation and compatibility procedure; (ii) by trained personnel under instruction and supervision of a suitable manager/chemist; additional care is taken when opening of packaged waste is required; (iii) under local exhaust ventilation (see BAT 13)

Applicability Applicable above [threshold for each concerned waste]

[other]

1.1.2.3 Input pre-treatment and output finalisation


12. In order to reduce the amount of treated waste sent to disposal and increase the waste recovery efficiency while achieving the output quality requested by the receiver, BAT is to implement the European waste hierarchy by using the following techniques: [BAT 2, 4, 11, 15, 34, 122, 123, 50, 58, 59, 60, 86, 94, 103]
Techniques Detailed material balance a Description A detailed materials balance provides a breakdown of the material input (waste, raw material, chemicals) and output (including waste Applicability Generally applicable

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Waste activities survey

Enhanced quality of waste input

to disposal, waste water, emissions to air) by type (i.e. gaseous, liquid, solid). This involves: (i) reporting the waste input flow (ii) reporting the raw material consumption (iii) reporting the output and dispatched from the installation (iv) providing materials flow information (for example, Sankey diagrams) showing how the materials flow throughout the process. A survey of the activities carried out and the waste treated, including also a monthly balance sheet of the waste, residue streams, and the auxiliary materials used at the waste treatment plant. The results are recorded onto the advanced computerised process control system of BAT 2. The required quality of waste necessary for improving the environmental performance of the waste treatment process to be carried out can be obtained by e.g. : having a close relationship with the waste producer/holder, suggesting the customers sites to implement measures to enhance the waste quality
-

Generally applicable

Generally applicable within the constraint given by the authorities control on the waste producer.

Preparation of waste input Full knowledge and control of the output characteristics

Preparation or pre-treatment of waste input may involve several different operations depending on the waste nature The knowledge and control are obtained by analysing and recording the output according to the relevant parameters important for the receiver (e.g. landfill, incinerator). Internal residues management plan optimise the reuse or regeneration and establish the proper disposal of internal residues or waste. Several own residues or waste are properly handled, reused or disposed of by implementing the waste hierarchy: Used packaging, including unusable or broken containers, tanks, drums (see BAT 12.g) spent scrubber media exhaust catalyst sludge [other] Re-usable packaging (drums, containers, IBCs, palettes, etc.) are newly used for containing waste when they are in a good working state and sufficiently clean on the basis of the compatibility check between the two substances contained (first and second use). In case of need, they are sent for appropriate treatment (e.g. reconditioning, cleaning, and washing).

(i) and (ii) are applicable to preparation of solid waste fuels from a limited ferromagnetic portion.

Own residues management plan

Re-usable packaging

[other]

BAT-associated environmental performance levels The BAT-associated recovery efficiency levels are presented in Table 1.2
Table 1.2: BAT-associated recovery efficiency levels

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Waste stream

Parameter

Unit

Monitoring frequency

BAT-AEPL New plant Existing plant Monthly average [65 %, dry basis]

Waste oil Recovery rate [other waste streams] % Continuous measurement

1.1.3

Emissions to air

13. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce diffuse emissions to air from waste treatment activities, BAT is to use all the following techniques: [BAT 24, 28, 29, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 65, 72, 82, 88, 89, 98]
a Techniques Exhaust gas capture, collection and treatment Description The suitably sized (e.g. for peak loads associated with loading and unloading) exhaust gas extraction, capture and abatement system consists in: (i) covering the holding tanks, pre-treatment areas, storage tanks, mixing/reaction tanks and the filter press areas (ii) capturing nearest to the source and collecting the exhaust gas from vessels and tanks in the handling of liquid waste, e.g. by mean of extraction or depression and connecting the head space above the settlement tanks to the overall site exhaust treatment units; vapour return lines for loading and unloading vehicles, routing all vents to abatement systems (iii) handling and treating solids and sludge waste in closed areas which are fitted nearest to the source with extractive vent systems linked to abatement equipment; (iv) equipping storage tanks and vessels with suitable capture, collection and treatment systems to treat the vent gases from specific tanks (e.g. thermal oxidiser/incinerator or an activated carbon adsorption). Keep the process under low pressure, controlled temperature, linked with air treatment Highly odorous materials are stored and handled in fully enclosed or suitably abated vessels placing them in enclosed buildings connected to abatement Correctly operate, regularly clean and optimise the removal efficiency of the abatement system Separated dust and contaminated carbon from air treatment are returned to the process Applicability Applicable when emissions to air (e.g. dust, toxic substances) or odour nuisance are generated in the loading, unloading, handling, storing and processing ([process steps]) of waste and raw materials.

b c

Low pressure process Enclosed buildings connected to abatement

Applicable when treating mercury-containing waste Applicable to highly odorous materials

d e f g

Abatement system optimisation Recycling of effluents enclosed conveyor systems [Other]

Applicable when treating mercury-containing waste Applicable to dusty solid waste

The BAT reference document on Emissions from Storage (EFS BREF) contains BAT conclusions that are of relevance for the storage and diffuse emissions of fuels and additives.

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14. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce dust emissions to air from waste treatment, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 41, 93, 107, 128]
Technique a b c d Wet scrubber ESP Bag or fabric filter [Other] Generally applicable Description Applicability

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for dust are presented in Table 1.3.
Table 1.3: BAT-associated emission levels for dust Pollutant Unit Monitoring frequency BAT-AEL Monthly average Waste stream

MSW Metallic wastes (shredding, crushing) Continuous Spent activated Dust mg/Nm3 measurement carbons Ashes Soils [Other] [In previous BATC, the PM emission levels associated to the use of BAT (mg/Nm3):

5 20]

15. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce VOCs emissions to air from waste treatment, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 37, 93, 126]
Technique Condenser Adsorption system Thermal oxidiser activated carbon [Other] Applicable to extracted gas from tanks holding waste contaminated with solvents Description Applicability

a b c d e

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for VOCs are presented in Table 1.4
Table 1.4: BAT-associated emission levels for VOCs Pollutant VOCs in total C Unit mg/Nm3 Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEL Monthly average

Waste stream Drums/tanks (washing) MSW

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Soils sludge Liquid wastes [Other] [In previous BATC, the VOCs emission levels associated to the use of BAT (mg/Nm3): 7 20, for low VOC loads, the higher end of the range can be extended to 50]

16. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce odorous emissions, BAT is to set up and implement an odour management plan, as part of the EMS in BAT 1, that includes all of the following elements: I. II. III. a protocol for conducting odour monitoring; a protocol for response to identified odour events; an odour prevention and elimination programme designed to identify the source(s), to measure odour emissions, to measure/estimate odour exposure (see BAT 5), to characterise the contributions of the sources and to implement elimination and/or reduction measures; it includes a table containing actions and timelines; a reporting programme to regularly inform management on the results of the odour management plan; a review programme to regularly update the odour management plan; training of staff; a review of historical odour incidents and remedies and the dissemination of odour incident knowledge.
[other]

IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.

Applicability The applicability of BAT 16 III. is restricted to cases where the results of BAT16 I. and II. lead to the assumption that odour emissions are likely to cause a significant odour exposure to sensitive receptors.

17. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce odorous emissions from waste treatment, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13.

Technique

a Minimisation of residence times

b Chemical treatment

c End-of-pipe treatment

Description Applicability Odour emissions are prevented by minimising the residence time of odorous waste in unloading, handling, storage and treatment areas, in particular under anaerobic conditions. Use of chemicals to destroy or to reduce Generally applicable. the formation of odorous compounds This potentially includes: bio filtration; Generally applicable. bioscrubbing; biotrickling; moving bed trickling filter.

d [other]

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1.1.4

Emissions to water and water consumption

18. In order to reduce water consumption and, where practicable, to prevent the discharge of pollutants to water from the waste treatment, BAT is to use all the techniques given below. [BAT 20, 34, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 48, 49, 51, 54, 74, 116]
a Technique Waste water treatment plant design Description At the design stage, identifying the main expected chemical constituents of the treated effluent and make an informed assessment of the fate of these chemicals in the environment results in adequate levels of emissions. See pre-acceptance and acceptance procedures in BAT 8. Design of an industrial site with optimised water management, where each (potentially) contaminated water stream (e.g. road water, run-offs, process water) is collected and treated separately, depending on the pollution content. Design of an industrial site in order to avoid sending non-contaminated water to general waste water treatment system and to reuse as much as possible collected water internally for industrial/sanitary purpose in substitution of other raw water. The rainwater is collected in a special basin for checking, treatment if contaminated, and further use Identify, segregate and treat waste waters that may contain hazardous compounds (e.g. adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX); cyanides; sulphides; aromatic compounds; benzene or hydrocarbons) Increase the number and/or capacity of water recycling systems. Avoid the use of potable water for processes and air-pollution abatement techniques Carry out regular water audits (see EMS in BAT 1), with the aim of increasing the reliability of the control and abatement performance, reducing water consumption, and preventing water contamination Applicability Generally applicable

Segregation of different water streams in the water and drainage systems

Applicable to new plants. Applicable to existing plants within the constraints given by the configuration of the water circuits

Segregate water streams with hazardous compounds Maximise internal water recycling Avoid the use of potable water Water audits

Applicable to new plants. Applicable to existing plants within the constraints given by the configuration of the water circuits Water recycling may be limited considering the waste treatment process (see specific sections) Generally applicable Generally applicable

e f

[other]

BAT-associated environmental performance levels The BAT-associated water consumption levels are presented in Table 1.5
Table 1.5: BAT-associated water consumption levels BAT-AEPL Waste stream [process/waste steams] Parameter Fresh water consumption Unit m3/t Monitoring frequency New plant Existing plant daily average

Continuous measurement

19. In order to reduce emissions to water from waste treatment plants, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 52, 53, 55, 56, 67, 75, 83, 116, 120]
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24

a b

Technique Mechanical treatment Biological treatment

Description Filtration, sedimentation, oil separation Aerobic biological waste water treatment using aeration, including the removal of suspended solids by, e.g. sedimentation, secondary flotation Removal of COD, particulates by adding chemicals to cause the solids to settle, and metals by increasing pH (precipitation, flocculation, coagulation, sedimentation, neutralisation). Some additional treatment (e.g. metal hydroxide precipitation, sulphide precipitation) may be needed e.g. when operating spent activated carbon regeneration Activated carbon Evaporation

Applicability Generally applicable

Physicochemical treatment

d e

Adsorption Thermal treatment

Applicable to waste water that is contaminated by hazardous substances Applicable to waste water that is highly contaminated by hazardous substances

[other]

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for direct and indirect discharge to water are presented in Table 1.6
Table 1.6: BAT-associated emission levels to water from waste treatment Monitoring Pollutant Unit frequency pH COD TOC TSS Continuous measurement Sb+As+Pb+Cr+Co+Cu+Mn+Ni+V mg/l Cd+Tl Hg HCT AOX [In previous BATC, emission values associated with the use of BAT (ppm): COD 20 120 BOD 2 20 Heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) 0.1 1 Highly toxic heavy metals: As <0.1 Hg 0.01 0.05 Cd <0.1 0.2 Cr(VI) <0.1 0.4] BAT-AEL Monthly average

1.1.5

Consumption of raw materials and chemicals

20. In order to reduce raw materials and chemicals consumption in the waste treatment, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 22, 23, 61]
a Technique use of waste as a raw material Description Waste is used as a raw material for the treatment of other wastes by substituting chemicals or raw Applicability

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25

benchmarking materials consumption [other]

of

materials. The waste supply availability is guaranteed, but alternative treatments or other raw materials are also available to avoid any unnecessary waiting treatment time. carry out an internal benchmarking (e.g. on an annual basis) of raw materials consumption (see also BAT 1.ix and 12.a)

Some applicability limitations derive from the presence of impurities in the waste that substitutes the raw material.

BAT-associated environmental performance levels The BAT-associated raw materials and chemicals consumption levels are presented in Table 1.8
Table 1.7: BAT-associated raw materials and chemicals consumption levels Parameter [Raw material] consumption [chemical] consumption Unit Monitoring frequency BAT-AEPL New plant Existing plant Monthly average

Waste stream [immobilisation, other process/waste steams]

kg/t

Continuous measurement

1.1.6

Energy consumption

21. In order to use energy efficiently in the waste treatment, BAT is to use all the following techniques: [BAT 20, 21]
Techniques Detailed energy balance Description A detailed energy balance provides a breakdown of the energy consumption and generation (including exporting) by the type of source (i.e. electricity, gas, liquid conventional fuels, solid conventional fuels and waste). This involves: (v) reporting the energy consumption information in terms of delivered energy (vi) reporting the energy exported from the installation (vii) providing energy flow information (for example, Sankey diagrams or energy balances) showing how the energy is used throughout the process. An energy efficiency plan entails defining and calculating the specific energy consumption of the activity (or activities), setting key performance indicators on an annual basis (e.g. MWh/tonne of waste processed) and plan the periodic improvement targets and related actions. Applicability Generally applicable

Energy efficiency plan b

Generally applicable

[other]

The BAT reference document on Energy Efficiency (ENE BREF) contains BAT conclusions that are of relevance for the reduction of energy consumption and the efficient use of energy. BAT-associated environmental performance levels The BAT-associated energy consumption levels are presented in Table 1.8
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Table 1.8:

BAT-associated energy consumption levels Parameter Electrical energy consumption Fuel consumption Unit Monitoring frequency BAT-AEPL New plant Existing plant Monthly average

Waste stream

[process/waste steams]

MWh/t

Continuous measurement

1.1.7

Noise and vibrations

22. In order to reduce noise and vibrations emissions from relevant sources from waste treatment, BAT is to use an appropriate combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 18]
Technique a Description Applicability Applicable to new plants. In the case of existing plants, the relocation of equipment and production units may be restricted by the lack of space. Generally applicable.

e f

Strategic planning of the Noise levels can be reduced by location of equipment, units increasing the distance between the and buildings emitter and the receiver and by using buildings as noise screens. Noise and vibrations A noise and vibrations management plan management plan includes identification of noise and vibrations sources and affected areas, calculations and measurements of noise levels, and a reduction programme with the identification of most cost-effective combination of techniques, their implementation, and monitoring. See EMS (BAT 1) Operational and management This includes: techniques in buildings improved inspection and containing noisy equipment maintenance of equipment to prevent failures; closing of doors and windows of covered areas; equipment operation by experienced staff; avoidance of noisy activities during night-time; provisions for noise control during maintenance activities. Low-noise equipment This potentially includes: compressors with 85 dB(A); speed-controlled pumps; avoidance of punched disks. Noise-reducers Installation of noise-reducers on equipment and ducts. Vibration insulation Vibration insulation of machineries and decoupled arrangement of noise sources and potentially resonant components. Enclosure of noisy equipment Enclosure of noisy equipment in separate structures such as buildings or soundproofed cabinets where internalexternal lining is made of impactabsorbent material. Soundproofing of buildings This potentially includes: sound-absorbing materials in walls and ceilings;

Applicability is restricted to cases where the results of BAT 22.b lead to the assumption that noise or vibrations emissions are likely to cause a significant nuisance to sensitive receptors

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Noise abatement

sound-isolating doors; double-glazed windows. Noise propagation can be reduced by inserting obstacles between emitters and receivers. Appropriate obstacles include protection walls, embankments, and buildings.

Applicability is restricted to cases where the results of BAT 22.b lead to the assumption that noise or vibrations emissions are likely to cause a significant nuisance to sensitive receptors. Applicable to new plants. In the case of existing plants, the insertion of obstacles may be restricted by the lack of space.

[other]

1.1.8

Prevention of soil and groundwater contamination

23. In order to prevent soil and groundwater contamination from the waste treatment, BAT is to use all the following techniques, in addition to BAT 9 and 10: [BAT 24, 42, 47, 63, 64]
Technique a Sealed surface Description Applicability

c d e

A sealed surface (e.g. full concrete base) Applicable to new plants in the whole waste treatment area (e.g. reception facility, storage area, treatment areas) that falls to internal site drainage systems which lead to storage tanks or to interceptors that can collect rainwater and any spillage. Interceptors with an overflow to sewer have automatic monitoring systems, such as pH checks, which can shut down the overflow. Adequate drainage and The drainage infrastructure of the areas Applicable to new plants overflow infrastructure where waste is received, handled, stored, treated or dispatched contains all possible contaminated run-offs and the drainages from incompatible wastes do not mix. Overflow pipes of vessels for liquids are directed to a contained drainage system (i.e. the relevant bund area or another vessel). Also rainwater falling on the processing areas is collected along with tanker washings, occasional spillages, drum washings, etc. and returned to the processing plant or collected in a combined interceptor. Waterproof retention area Each storage tank for liquids is put in a waterproof retention area Aboveground vessels and Aboveground vessels and pipe work are Applicable to new plants pipe work used. Security basin Implement a security basin to collect accidentally polluted water. The discharge from this storage is only possible after the conclusion of all the treatment measures and a subsequent final inspection [other]

1.1.9

Decommissioning

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24. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce the environmental risks during the decommissioning of waste treatment plants, BAT is to use all the following techniques: [BAT 19]

Technique a Design considerations decommissioning

Description

Applicability

Decommissioning plan

for Design considerations for end-of-life plant Applicable to new plants decommissioning: (i) considering the environmental impact from the eventual decommissioning of the installation at the stage of designing a new plant, as forethought makes decommissioning easier, cleaner and cheaper (ii) decommissioning poses environmental risks for the contamination of land (and groundwater) and generates large quantities of solid waste; preventive techniques are process-specific but general considerations may include: using aboveground structures incorporating features that facilitate dismantling choosing surface finishes that are easily decontaminated using an equipment configuration that reduces trapped chemicals and facilitates drain-down or cleaning designing flexible, self-contained units that enable phased closure using recyclable and/or biodegradable materials where possible. A decommissioning plan incorporates the following Generally applicable features: i. inclusion of some of the staff experienced in running the former plant at all stages of elaboration and implementation; ii. provision of procedures and instructions for all stages of implementation; iii. provision of a detailed training and supervision programme for personnel; iv. determination of the quantity of waste to be recovered and disposed of and of the contamination levels contained therein; v. provision of working areas which are: vi. emptying of the waste containers, tanks, pipe works, vessels, drainage, drums, bund by: vii. carrying out of all dismantling and demolition operations by: storing of contaminated equipment in suitable areas; accounting of waste streams; decontaminating or renewing the waste water collection systems in or around the plant; monitoring of in air, water and waste, including for an appropriate time after the finalisation of the decommissioning or conversion; viii. if needed, interim storage of waste on site in
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storage facilities that are: well lit and weatherproof; equipped with a suitable secondary containment capable of retaining 110 % of the volume of any single container; equipped with aspiration and abatement equipment; periodically inspected; ix. if needed, transport, potential further treatment and disposal of waste.
-

[other]

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1.2 BAT conclusions for mechanical treatments


Unless otherwise stated, the BAT conclusions presented in this section apply to the mechanical treatment of waste, in addition to the general BAT mentioned in Section 1.1.

1.2.1 BAT conclusions for sorting, sieving

1.2.1.1 General environmental performance


25. In order to improve the general environmental performance and reduce the risk of accidents and incidents from the sorting of wastes, BAT is to implement the European waste hierarchy by using an appropriate combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 24, 84, 124]
Technique a Optimising recovery rate Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) Visual inspection Separators for metals Description Operate sorting considering the potential recovery of the waste components, e.g. sort out and recover metallic parts before biological treatment Near Infrared spectroscopy helps the process of sorting out different type of plastics Visual inspection of the incoming waste to sort out the bulky metallic or non-metallic parts The use of magnetic ferrous and non-ferrous metal separators. Operate sorting in dedicated areas or buildings, according to the hazard classification of the waste to be sorted, and with due consideration for any potential incompatibility Steam- or high-pressure water jet is used to rapid clean the filter holes of the sieving processes. Applicable to preparation of solid waste fuels from non hazardous waste. Not applicable when preparing solid waste fuels from source-separated waste streams. Applicability

b c d

Dedicated sorting location

f g

Filter cleaning [Other]

Applicable to liquid waste

1.2.2 BAT conclusions for crushing, shredding, or milling

1.2.2.1 General environmental performance


26. In order to improve the general environmental performance and reduce the risk of accidents and incidents from crushing, shredding, or milling of wastes, BAT is to use an appropriate combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 33, 122, 123, 124, 125, 127]
Technique Description Applicability

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Prevent hazardous components in waste-input

In complement of BAT 25, this includes: a. Confiscate and repatriate dangerous items (e.g. gas cylinders, dirty drums, EoLVs with dangerous parts, etc.) to the appropriate owner left by mistake in the waste stream b. Reception and acceptance of drums and tanks only with certificate of cleanliness c. Produce and follow a detailed baled material inspection procedure before fragmentising Perform crushing/shredding operations under full encapsulation and under an inert atmosphere. The inert atmosphere is captured and treated.

Generally applicable

Inert atmosphere

Generally applicable to plants processing waste containing flammable, hazardous or highly volatile substance

[Other]

1.2.2.2 Mercury emissions to air


27. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce mercury emissions to air from crushing, shredding, or milling of wastes, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique Adsorption Condensation [Other] Description Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by mercury is treated

a b c

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for mercury are presented in Table 1.9
Table 1.9: BAT-associated emission levels for mercury from crushing, shredding, milling of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Daily average Mercury-containing Continuous Hg mg/Nm3 waste measurement [Other]

1.2.2.3 Dioxins and furans emissions to air


28. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce dioxins and furans emissions to air in the crushing, shredding, or milling of wastes, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique a b Thermal oxidiser [Other] Description Thermal oxidation at 1100 C (850 C when burning exhaust gases with less than 1 % of halogenated organic substances) with a two seconds residence time and an oxygen content > 3 % Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by halogenated organic substances is treated

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BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for dioxins and furans are presented in Table 1.10
Table 1.10: BAT-associated emission levels for dioxins and furans from the crushing, shredding and milling of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Average over the sampling period EoLV Periodic WEEE Dioxins and monitoring ngI-TEQ/Nm3 MSW furans Times/year Drums/containers [other]

1.2.2.4 Emissions to water


29. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions to water from the crushing, shredding or milling of wastes, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given in BAT 18 and 19:

BAT-associated emission levels Specific BAT-associated emission levels for zinc emissions to water from crushing, shredding and milling of wastes are presented in Table 1.11.
Table 1.11: BAT-associated emission levels for zinc from the crushing, shredding milling of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Monthly average Continuous EoLV Zn mg/l measurement [Other]

1.2.2.5 Vibrations
30. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce vibrations emissions from mechanical treatment of waste, BAT is to use the technique given below, in addition to BAT 22:
Technique a b c Dampening adjustment Resonance assessment [Other] Description Adjustment of mill and its dampening mounts, taking into consideration the foundation Assessment of resonance during mill operation Applicability Applicable to plants close to sensitive receptors Applicable to plants close to sensitive receptors

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1.3

BAT conclusions for biological treatments

Unless otherwise stated, the BAT conclusions presented in this section apply to biological treatment of waste, in addition to the general BAT mentioned in Section 1.1.

1.3.1.1 General environmental performance


31. In order to prevent at source the generation of pollutants and to improve the general performance of the biological treatment of waste, BAT is to select and pre-treat the waste input feedstock by using the techniques given below. [BAT 66]
Technique a Selection of feedstock for biological systems Description Active parts of the feedstock can be easily re-used or recycled after an early separation from the rest (e.g. glass, metals) adjust the admissible waste types and separation processes according to the type of process carried out and the abatement technique applicable (e.g. depending on the content of non-biodegradable components) Applicability Generally applicable

Admissible adjustment

waste

Generally applicable

[other]

1.3.1.2 Odour
32. In order to reduce emissions to air of odorous substances from the unloading, storage and handling of biodegradable waste, BAT is to use the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 16 and 17. [BAT 65]
Technique Automated and action doors rapid Description (opening times of the doors being kept to a minimum) housing closed feed bunkers constructed with a vehicle sluice An exhaust air collection device results in an small vacuum effect in the hall or bunkers area Include the use of the air as combustion air in the engines or bio-filter Applicability Applicable in combination with technique c to odour-intensive wastes Applicable in combination with technique c to highly odour-intensive wastes Generally applicable Generally applicable

a b

Closed feed bunkers Exhaust air collection device Odour abatement [Other]

c d e

1.3.2 BAT conclusions specific to aerobic treatment

1.3.2.1 General environmental performance


33. In order to improve the general environmental performance of aerobic biodegradation, BAT is to use an appropriate combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 7.
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[BAT 67, 69]


a Techniques Specific process parameters control Description Controlling the levels of biodegradation and the air supply by using a stabilised air circuit and by adapting the aeration to the actual biodegradation activity allow to keep full control of the biodegradation process and to avoid anaerobic conditions. Other parameters are used for additional control of the process or of the output quality Fully enclosed bioreactors allow having a better control of the biodegradation processes A uniform and optimised feed is ensured by optimising the C:N ratio Applicability Generally applicable

b c d

enclosed bioreactors Uniform feed [Other] and optimised

1.3.2.2 Emissions to air


34. In order to prevent or reduce emissions to air from aerobic biodegradation, BAT is to use the techniques given below: [BAT 68, 69, 70]
a Techniques Fine tune the control process Description A fine tuning of the process control parameters based on the continuously learning of the connection between the controlled variables of biological degradation and the measured (gaseous) emissions Applicability

b c d

Bag filter regenerative oxidiser [Other]

thermal

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels to air from aerobic biodegradation are presented in Table 1.15.
Table 1.12: BAT-associated emission levels for odour, NH3, N2O, Hg, CH4, dust, VOC from aerobic biodegradation BAT-AEL Monitoring Monthly average Type of waste Parameter Unit frequency New plant Existing plant exhaust gas [old values: 2500 8000] [old values: 2500 8000] specific Nm3/t volume [Sewage sludge, biological waste from separated collection, mechanically pre treated MSW, other] odour NH3 N2O CH4 Hg [Other] mg/Nm3 ouE/m3 Continuous monitoring [old values: <500 6000] [old values: <1 20] [old values: <500 6000] [old values: <1 20]

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1.3.2.3 Water consumption and emissions to water


35. In order to reduce water consumption and prevent emissions to water of aerobic biodegradation plants, BAT is to use the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 18. [BAT 69]
a Techniques Water management integration Description A close integration between the process and the water management by mean of the advanced computerised process control system allow to keep full control of the water consumption The waste water and leachate is recycled as water input to the maximum extent allowed by the process (e.g. high concentrations of some toxic compounds may cause negative effects). recycling process waters or muddy residues within the aerobic treatment process to completely avoid water emissions. Applicability Generally applicable

Waste water reuse

Generally applicable

recycling process waters

Generally applicable

[other]

BAT-associated environmental performance levels Specific BAT-associated water consumption levels from aerobic treatment are presented in Table 1.13.
Table 1.13: BAT-associated water consumption levels from aerobic treatment Waste stream Sewage sludge Biological waste from separated collection mechanically pre-treated MSW [Other] Parameter Unit Monitoring frequency BAT-AEPL New plant Existing plant daily average

Fresh water consumption

m3/t

Continuous measurement

36. In order to prevent or reduce emissions to water from aerobic treatment plants, BAT is to use the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 18 and 19. [BAT 71]
a Techniques [tertiary techniques that remove nitrogen compounds] Description Applicability

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for emissions to water are presented in Table 1.15.
Table 1.14: BAT-associated emission levels for emissions to water from aerobic treatment Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Monthly average WT_BATC_2013_07_AP_MC

36

[Sewage sludge, biological waste from separated collection, mechanically pre treated MSW, other] (1) Total Nitrogen

P N (1) NH3 Nitrate Nitrite Cl [Other]

mg/l

Continuous measurement

1.3.2.4 Energy efficiency


37. In order to use energy efficiently in aerobic treatment, BAT is to use the techniques given below. [BAT 69]
a b c Techniques Building insulation Pre-treatment [Other] Description thermally insulating the ceiling of the biological degradation hall in aerobic processes pre-treat the waste by anaerobic digestion Applicability

Applicable to wet biodegradable waste

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1.3.3

BAT conclusions specific to anaerobic digestion

Unless otherwise stated, the BAT conclusions presented in this section apply to anaerobic digestion plants and their associated activities, in addition to the general BAT mentioned in Section 1.1.

1.3.3.1 General environmental performance


38. In order to improve the general environmental performance of anaerobic digestion plants, BAT is to use the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 7. [BAT 67]
a Techniques Specific process parameters control Description Measuring TOC, COD, N, P and Cl levels in the inlet and outlet flows allow to keep full control of the anaerobic process. Other parameters may be added for additional control of the process or of the output quality. Applicability Generally applicable

[Other]

1.3.3.2 Emissions to air


39. In order to prevent or reduce diffuse emissions of methane to air from anaerobic digestion, BAT is to use the techniques given below. [NEW]
Techniques a b [Technique] Description Applicability

40. In order to prevent or reduce emissions to air when using biogas from anaerobic digestion as a fuel in gas engines, gas turbines or boilers, BAT is to use the techniques given below. [BAT 68]
a b c d e Techniques Biogas pre-treatment Denox techniques thermal oxidation unit activated carbon filtration [Other] Description Pre-treatment, e.g. scrubbing the biogas with iron salts E.g. SCR Applicability Generally applicable Generally applicable

Generally applicable

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for NOX, SOX, CO, Hg, H2S and VOC in the engine combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion are presented in Table 1.15.
Table 1.15: BAT-associated emission levels for NOX, SOX, CO, Hg, H2S and VOC in the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion Type of Monitoring BAT-AEL Pollutant Unit combustion frequency Monthly average WT_BATC_2013_07_AP_MC

38

New plant Existing plant NOX SOX CO Continuous Gas engine [Formaldehyde?] mg/Nm3 monitoring (1) H2S VOC Hg NOX SOX Continuous CO Gas turbine [Formaldehyde?] mg/Nm3 monitoring (1) H2S VOC Hg NOX SOX CO Continuous boiler [Formaldehyde?] mg/Nm3 monitoring (1) H2S VOC Hg Reference O2: %; (1) When the abatement technique is applied to the biogas before combustion the measurement may take place also before the combustion.

unit

1.3.3.3 Water consumption and emissions to water


41. In order to reduce water consumption of anaerobic digestion plants, BAT is to use the techniques given below. [BAT 67]
a Techniques Water management integration Description A close integration between the process and the water management by mean of the advanced computerised process control system allow to keep full control of the water consumption The waste water is recycled as water input to the reactor to the maximum extent allowed by the anaerobic process (e.g. high concentrations of some toxic/inhibiting compounds may cause negative effects on the biological process). Applicability Generally applicable

Waste water reuse

Generally applicable

[Other]

BAT-associated environmental performance levels Specific BAT-associated water consumption levels from anaerobic digestion are presented in Table 1.16
Table 1.16: BAT-associated water consumption levels from anaerobic digestion Waste stream Sewage sludge Parameter Fresh water Unit m3/t Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEPL New plant Existing plant daily average

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Biological waste from separated collection mechanically pre-treated MSW

consumption

42. In order to prevent or reduce emissions to water from anaerobic digestion plants, BAT is to use the techniques given below. [BAT 68]
b Techniques [tertiary techniques that remove nitrogen compounds] Description Applicability

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels from anaerobic digestion are presented in Table 1.17.
Table 1.17: BAT-associated emission levels from anaerobic digestion Type of waste [Sewage sludge, biological waste from separated collection, mechanically pre treated MSW, other] (1) Total Nitrogen Pollutant P N (1) NH3 Nitrate Nitrite Cl Unit Monitoring frequency BAT-AEL Monthly average

mg/l

Continuous measurement

1.3.3.4 Energy efficiency


43. In order to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce the emissions to air of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste and associated activities, BAT is to use all the techniques given below. Flaring the biogas is not BAT. [BAT 67]

Techniques Using biogas as a fuel

Description Using biogas from anaerobic digestion as a fuel in energy conversion apparatus, e.g. gas engines, gas turbines, boilers, vehicles.

Applicability Not applicable for limited periods due to safety reasons or non-routine operational conditions (e.g. start-ups, shutdown)

Biogas maximisation

Maximise the production of biogas. This technique needs to consider the effect on the digestate and biogas quality

Thermo-chemical pre-treatment of the waste input thermophilic digestion

operate the system under thermophilic digestion conditions. For certain types of wastes, thermophilic conditions cannot to be reached
40

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e f

Engines injection design and management [Other]

Engines injection design and management to avoid biogas slip to flares

BAT-associated environmental performance levels The BAT-associated energy efficiency levels are given in Table 1.18.
Table 1.18: BAT-associated energy efficiency levels for anaerobic digestion installation BAT-AEPL Type of plant Parameter Unit (yearly average) Biogas Existing generation rate Anaerobic digester MJ/t per mass unit New of waste Gas engine Gas turbine [other] Conversion efficiency, LHV basis %

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1.4 BAT conclusions for physicochemical treatments


Unless otherwise stated, the BAT conclusions presented in this section apply to physicochemical treatment of waste, in addition to the general BAT mentioned in Section 1.1.

1.4.1 BAT conclusions for extraction

1.4.1.1 General environmental performance


44. In order to increase the general environmental of the extraction of pollutants from wastes, BAT is to use all the techniques given below:
Technique a b Close loop operation [Other] Description Return the extraction solvent to the process Applicability Applicable to solvent extraction

1.4.1.2 Acid emissions to air


[39, 85] 45. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce acid emissions to air from acid extraction, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in additions to BAT 13:
Technique a b scrubber [Other] Description Applicability Generally applicable

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for acid are presented in Table 1.19
Table 1.19: BAT-associated emission levels for acid from extraction of pollutant from wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Monthly average Solid wastes as e.g. Continuous pre-treatment [acid] mg/Nm3 measurement before immobilisation

1.4.1.3 Emissions to water


46. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions to water from extraction, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given in BAT 18 and 19. BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for chlorine and sulphate are presented in Table 1.20.
Table 1.20: BAT-associated emission levels to water from extraction of pollutant from wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Monthly average WT_BATC_2013_07_AP_MC
42

Oil Solvent Spent catalysts sludge soils mg/l Oil Solvent Spent catalysts sludge soils [Other] [Other] Sulphate Continuous measurement Cl-

1.4.2 BAT conclusions for washing

1.4.2.1 General environmental performance


47. In order to improve the general environmental performance of the washing of wastes, BAT is to use the techniques given below: [BAT 34]
a Techniques Full encapsulation washing vessels of the Description To prevent diffused/flammable emissions, the washing vessels for drums/containers containing highly volatile substances and/or flammable substances are fully encapsulate and linked to an appropriate atmosphere control systems Reuse of the washing water Applicability Applicable to the washing drums/containers of

b Close loop operation c [Other]

Generally applicable

1.4.2.2 Emissions to water


48. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce phenol emissions to water from washing of wastes, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 18 and 19:
Techniques a Extraction b Adsorption c Wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide d [Other] Description Applicability

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for phenols emissions to water from washing of wastes are presented in Table 1.21
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Table 1.21: BAT-associated emission levels to water from washing Waste Pollutant Unit Monitoring frequency stream Drums/Tanks Phenols [or phenol index with EN Continuous mg/l [-] measurement 14402 analytical method] Soils

BAT-AEL Monthly average

1.4.3 BAT conclusions for physicochemical treatment of water-based liquid waste

1.4.3.1 General environmental performance


49. In order to improve the general environmental performance, to prevent accidents or incidents and to reduce emissions from the physicochemical treatment of water-based liquid waste, BAT is to use the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 11, 18 and 19. [BAT 76, 78, 79, 80]
a Techniques Testing emulsions break-up before Description In case of presence of e.g. cyanides, the emulsion is treated by chemical oxidation (see c below) According to the waste-input composition, oxidation of water-based liquid waste containing cyanide, nitrite, [other substance] by using e.g. hypochlorite, chlorine, ozone, peroxides. Nitrous fumes are avoided during the oxidation/acidification treatment of nitrites. According to the waste-input composition, reduce Cr(VI) contained in the water-based liquid waste to Cr(III) Adding caustic soda in excess is a mean of controlling a decreasing pH Applicability

b Chemical oxidation

Applicable to water-based liquid waste containing cyanide, nitrite, [other substance].

Chromium reduction

Applicable to water-based liquid waste containing Cr(IV), as pre-treatment prior to metal precipitation

d pH control e [Other]

The BAT reference document on Common Waste Water/Waste gas treatment/management in the chemical sector (CWW BREF) contains BAT conclusions that are of relevance for the physicochemical treatment of water-based liquid waste.

1.4.3.2 Emissions to air


50. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce HCN emissions to air from chemical oxidation of water-based liquid waste, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13: [BAT 39, 77]
Technique a b c Preventive detection Base scrubber [Other] Description Applicability

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BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for HCN are presented in Table 1.22
Table 1.22: BAT-associated emission levels for HCN from oxidation of water-based liquid waste Waste stream Chemical oxidation Pollutant HCN Unit mg/Nm3 Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEL Monthly average

51. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce ammonia emissions to air from treatment of water-based liquid waste, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below: [BAT 81]
Technique Description In dual column air stripping system with an acidic scrubber, the ammonia is recovered and/or removed from the gas phase by scrubbing with sulphuric acid to produce ammonium sulphate Applicability

dual column air stripping system

waste with ammonia solutions up to 20 w/w-%

[Other]

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for NH3 in exhaust stacks are presented in Table 1.23
Table 1.23: BAT-associated emission levels for NH3 in exhaust stacks from treatment of water-based liquid waste Waste stream Ammonia-rich liquid waste Pollutant NH3 Unit mg/Nm3 Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEL Monthly average

1.4.3.3 Emissions to water


52. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions to water from chemical oxidation of water-based liquid waste, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given in BAT 18 and 19. [BAT 73] BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for chlorine to water from chemical oxidation of water-based liquid waste are presented in Table 1.24:
Table 1.24: BAT-associated emission levels to water for chlorine from physicochemical treatment of waterbased liquid waste Waste / process Hypochlorite or chlorine chemical oxidation Pollutant Unit Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEL Monthly average

Cl

mg/l

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[other]

[other]

1.4.4 BAT conclusions for thermal drying

1.4.4.1 General environmental performance


[BAT 126] 53. In order to improve the general environmental performance of the drying of wastes , BAT is to use all the techniques given below:
a Techniques Full encapsulation of drying vessels Description To prevent diffused emissions, the drying vessels for wastes containing e.g highly volatile and/or odorous substances, are fully encapsulated and linked to appropriate atmosphere control systems Reuse waste gas as process air for drying Applicability

b Low air emission process

1.4.4.2 Ammonia emissions to air


54. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce ammonia emissions to air from drying, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13: [BAT 39]
Technique Adsorption Scrubber [Other] Description Applicability

a b c

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for ammonia are presented in Table 1.25
Table 1.25: BAT-associated emission levels for ammonia from drying of wastes Waste stream sludge Pollutant NH3 Unit mg/Nm3 Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEL Monthly average

1.4.4.3 Emissions to water


55. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce emissions to water from drying, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given in BAT 18 and 19 BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for emissions of Cl and sulphate to water from extraction of solid wastes are presented in Table 1.26.
Table 1.26: BAT-associated emission levels to water from drying of wastes WT_BATC_2013_07_AP_MC
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Waste stream sludge Soils sludge Soils

Pollutant Cl

Unit

Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement

BAT-AEL Monthly average

mg/l Sulphate

1.4.5 BAT conclusions for immobilisation


[BAT 85, 90]

1.4.5.1 General environmental performance


56. In order to improve the general environmental performance of immobilisation of wastes, BAT is to use all the techniques given below: [BAT 87]
Technique Specific acceptance procedure for immobilisation process Description Wastes to be treated by solidification/immobilisation do not contain high levels of VOCs, odorous components, solid cyanides, oxidising agents, [other] The amount of reagents is fine-tuned to control exactly the process. Applicability

b c

Management of reagents [Other]

1.4.5.2 Asbestos emissions to air


57. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce asbestos emissions to air from thermal immobilisation of asbestos-containing waste, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique a b Wet operating conditions [Other] Description Add water to asbestoscontaining waste pre-treating before thermal immobilisation Applicability

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for asbestos are presented in Table 1.27
Table 1.27: BAT-associated emission levels for asbestos from thermal immobilisation of asbestos-containing waste Waste stream Asbestoscontaining waste Pollutant Asbestos Unit mg/Nm3 Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEL Monthly average

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1.4.5.3 Lead emissions to air


[BAT 93] 58. In order prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce lead emissions to air from thermal immobilisation of wastes, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique Adsorption Thermal oxidiser [Other] Description Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by lead is treated

a b c

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for Pb are presented in Table 1.28
Table 1.28: BAT-associated emission levels for Pb from immobilisation of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Monthly average Spent carbon Ashes Continuous Pb mg/Nm3 measurement sludge Soils

1.4.5.4 Cadmium emissions to air


[BAT 93] 59. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce Cd emissions to air from thermal immobilisation of wastes, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique Adsorption Thermal oxidiser [Other] Description Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by cadmium is treated

a b c

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for Cd are presented in Table 1.29
Table 1.29: BAT-associated emission levels for Cd from thermal immobilisation of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Monthly average Spent carbon Ashes Continuous Cd mg/Nm3 measurement Sludge Soils

1.4.5.5 Mercury emissions to air


[BAT 93]
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60. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce mercury emissions to air from thermal immobilisation of wastes, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique Adsorption Condensation [Other] Description Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by mercury is treated

a b c

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for Hg are presented in Table 1.30
Table 1.30: BAT-associated emission levels for Hg from thermal immobilisation of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Daily average Spent carbon Ashes Continuous Hg mg/Nm3 Sludge measurement Soils [Other]

1.4.6 BAT conclusions for thermal desorption

1.4.6.1 General environmental performance


[BAT 109, 110, 111, 114] 61. In order to improve the general environmental performance of the thermal desorption, BAT is to use the techniques given below:
a Techniques Prevent the cross contamination between the waste and the heating gas Description Use an indirect fired kiln for treatment of industrial carbons to avoid contact between kiln content and flue-gases generated from a burner quench and/or venturi and aqueous scrubbing sections, followed by an induced draft fan This includes: an effective quality control procedure in place to ensure that the operator can differentiate between the carbon used for potable water or food grade carbon and the rest of spent carbons a written undertaking from waste input producer indicating what the activated carbon has been used for Applicability

b Flue-gas treatment train

Characterisation of waste input for spent activated carbon

Applicable to regeneration of spent activated carbon

1.4.6.2 Mercury emissions to air


[BAT 93]

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62. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce mercury emissions to air from thermal desorption, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique Condensation [Other] Description Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by mercury is treated

a b

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for Hg are presented in Table 1.31
Table 1.31: BAT-associated emission levels for Hg from thermal desorption of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Daily average Soils Spent activated Continuous carbon Hg mg/Nm3 measurement Spent catalysts [Other]

1.4.6.3 Dioxins and furans emissions to air


[BAT 112, 113, 93] 63. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce dioxins and furans emissions to air from thermal desorption, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Description Thermal oxidation at 1100 C (850 C when burning exhaust gases with less than 1 % of halogenated organic Thermal oxidiser substances) with a two seconds residence time and an oxygen content > 3% [Other] Technique Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by halogenated organic substances is treated

a b

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for dioxins and furans are presented in Table 1.32
Table 1.32: BAT-associated emission levels for dioxins and furans from thermal desorption of wastes Waste stream Soils Spent activated carbon Spent catalysts Dioxins and ngI-TEQ/Nm3 furans Pollutant Unit Monitoring frequency Periodic monitoring [n. times] / year BAT-AEL Average over the sampling period

1.4.6.4 Acid emissions to air


64. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce acid emissions to air from thermal desorption, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
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[BAT 39, 115]


Technique a Scrubber Description Caustic or soda ash scrubbing solutions Applicability Applicable to regeneration of spent activated carbon

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for acid are presented in Table 1.33
Table 1.33: BAT-associated emission levels for acids from thermal desorption of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Monthly average Spent activated Continuous [acid] mg/Nm3 carbon measurement

1.4.6.5 SOX emissions to air


[BAT 108] 65. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce SOX emissions to air from thermal desorption, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique a Wet scrubber Description Applicability Applicable to regeneration of spent catalyst and spent activated carbon

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for SOX are presented in Table 1.34
Table 1.34: BAT-associated emission levels for SOX from thermal desorption of wastes Waste stream Spent activated carbon Spent catalysts Pollutant Unit Monitoring frequency Continuous measurement BAT-AEL Monthly average

SOX

mg/Nm3

1.4.6.6 Emissions to water


[BAT 116 120] 66. In order to prevent or, where it is not practicable, reduce emissions to water from thermal desorption, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 18 and 19:
Techniques a Extraction b Adsorption c Wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide d [Other] Description Applicability

BAT-associated emission levels

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The BAT-associated emission levels for sulphate and phenols emissions to water from thermal desorption of wastes are presented in Table 1.35:
Table 1.35: BAT-associated emission levels to water from thermal desorption of wastes Waste stream Spent catalysts Spent activated carbon Soils Spent catalysts Spent activated carbon Soils [Other] [Other] Phenols [or phenol index with EN 14402 analytical method ] mg/l Continuous measurement Sulphate Pollutant Unit Monitoring frequency BAT-AEL Monthly average

1.4.7 BAT conclusions for distillation

1.4.7.1 General environmental performance


[BAT 96, 101, 102, 103, 106, 129] 67. In order to improve the general environmental performance and to increase the waste recovery efficiency of distillation, BAT is to use the appropriate techniques given below:
a Techniques Process performance procedure for Description use a highly efficient vacuum system Chlorinated solvents and PCBs checks are part of the acceptance procedure; in case of presence, the incoming waste is rejected. use the residues from vacuum distillation or thin film evaporators e.g. as asphalt products evaporate the residue from the distillation columns to recuperate the solvents Use heat-exchange units external to the waste treatment vessel if heating of the liquid waste is required Applicability Applicable to re-refining of waste oil

b Acceptance distillation

Applicable to re-refining of waste oil

c Reuse of residues d Recover the solvent distillation residue e from

Applicable to re-refining of waste oil

Applicable to solvent distillation Applicable treatment to hazardous waste

heat-exchange units external

1.4.7.2 Mercury emissions to air


68. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce Hg emissions to air from distillation of waste, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13: [BAT 97]
a b c Technique Condensation Adsorption [Other]
52

Description

Applicability Applicable where waste contaminated by mercury is treated

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BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for Hg are presented in Table 1.36
Table 1.36: BAT-associated emission levels for Hg from treatment of wastes containing mercury Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Daily average Liquid Solid Continuous Hg mg/Nm3 sludge measurement Soils [Other]

1.4.7.3 Dioxins and furans emissions to air


[BAT 99, 100] 69. In order to prevent, or where that is not practicable, to reduce dioxins and furans emissions to air from distillation of waste, BAT is to use the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 13:
Technique a Thermal oxidiser Description direct vent streams to a thermal oxidiser with waste gas treatment if chlorinated species are present in the vent stream thermal oxidation at 1100 C (850 C when burning exhaust gases with less than 1 % of halogenated organic substances) with a two seconds residence time and an oxygen content > 3%, for the vacuum distillation vent of vacuum generators or for the air from process heaters Applicability

Applicable where waste contaminated by halogenated organic substances is treated

Condensation followed by caustic scrubbing and activated carbon guard bed [Other]

Applicable to the distillation of waste oil with high levels of chlorinated species

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for dioxins and furans are presented in Table 1.37
Table 1.37: BAT-associated emission levels for dioxins and furans from thermal desorption of wastes Monitoring BAT-AEL Waste stream Pollutant Unit frequency Average over the sampling period Periodic Waste oils Dioxins and I-TEQ 3 monitoring /Nm ng Waste solvents furans [n. times] / [Other] year

1.4.7.4 Emissions to water


[BAT 104] 70. In order to reduce emissions to water from distillation of waste, BAT is to use one or a combination of the techniques given below, in addition to BAT 18 and 19:
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Techniques a Extraction b Adsorption c Wet oxidation with hydrogen peroxide d Ion exchange e [Other]

Description

Applicability

Applicable in case of phenol content

BAT-associated emission levels The BAT-associated emission levels for phenols emissions to water from (vacuum) distillation are presented in Table 1.38:
Table 1.38: BAT-associated emission levels to water from (vacuum) distillation Waste Monitoring Pollutant Unit stream frequency Phenols [or phenol index with EN Waste oil Continuous mg/l 14402 analytical method ] measurement [Other] [Other] BAT-AEL Monthly average

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DESCRIPTION OF TECHNIQUES [TWG: please note that if needed to avoid repetitions a descriptive list of techniques that are frequently used in the BAT conclusions and need be described to the understanding of the BAT conclusions taken as standalone document will be inserted here]

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