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I HC CNG NGH THNG TIN V TRUYN THNG CNG NGH IN T V TRUYN THNG --------------o0o---------------

CH H THNG MIMO-SDM Ging vin: TS. Nguyn Anh Tun

Thi nguyn, thng 11 nm 2012

DANH SCH NHM THO LUN

1. L c Minh 2. V Vit Dng 3. Nguyn Vn Thng

MC LC

Contents
Contents...........................................................................................................................................3 LI M U..................................................................................................................................4 III. tng v cu hi mn hc.....................................................................................................21 3.1. tng................................................................................................................................21 3.2.Cu hi.................................................................................................................................21 KT LUN....................................................................................................................................22 NH GI NHN XT CA THY GIO..............................................................................23

LI M U

Nh ta bit MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output ) l h thng truyn dn v tuyn s dng c phn tp pht v thu vi N anten pht v M anten thu. p ng c nhu cu truyn thng d liu tc cao th h th 4 ca thng tin v tuyn di ng th cc h thng truyn dn a u vo a u ra (MIMO: Multiple Input Multiple Output) ang l mt trong nhng c vin sng gi nht. Trong ch tho lun H thng MIMO/SDM nhm chng em tm hiu gm nhng ni dung: I. II. III. Tng quan v h thng MIMO Phn knh theo khng gian SDM tng v cu hi v mn hc

Phn 1: Tng quan v h thng MIMO a ra ci nhn tng quan v m hnh knh MIMO, dung nng knh MIMO cng nh lch s pht trin ca n. Phn 2: Phn knh theo khng gian SDM gii thiu v cc b tch tn hiu MIMO-SDM tp trung vo vic thit k b tch tn hiu ti my thu. Bi bo co khng th trnh khi nhng thiu xt v kin thc chng em rt mong thy gio nh gi v b sung kin thc gip chng em hon thin hn. Chng em xin chn thnh cm n! Nhm thc hin!

I. Tng quan v MIMO 1.1. Lch s pht trin - Nm 1994: Paulrai & Kaailath gii thiu k thut phn chia mt t, nu ra khi nim hp knh khng gian vi Patent US nm 1994 nhn mnh vic ng dng cho pht thanh qung b. - Nm 1996: Foschini gii thiu k thut BLAST nhm hp cc lung truyn trn knh fading nhanh. - Nm 1997: Winter trnh by cc kt qu nghin cu tng qut u tin v dung nng knh MIMO, chng minh tim nng pht trin ca n. - Nm 1998, sn phm mu hp knh u tin cho tc truyn dn cao c lm bi Bell labs. - Nm 2001, sn phm thng mi u tin ca hng Jospan Wireless Inc dng cng ngh MIMO-OFDMA h tr c m phn tp v hp knh khng gian. SDM l gii php ha hn cho vic tng ng k dung lng truyn v hiu sut bng thng. Thut ton SDM khai thc ht mc knh wireless phn tp nh s dng cc anten thu pht. 1.2. H thng MIMO MIMO l cc h thng truyn dn v tuyn s dng ng thi nhiu anten my pht v my thu, nhm tng tc truyn. Chui tn hiu pht c m ha theo c hai min khng gian v thi gian nh b m ha khng gian thi gian (STE: Space-Time Encoder). Tn hiu sau khi c m ha khng gian - thi gian c pht i nh N

anten pht. My thu s dng phn tp thu vi M anten thu. Knh tng hp gia my pht (Tx) v my thu (Rx) c N u vo v M u ra c gi l knh MIMO M N . Trong cc trng hp c bit khi N = 1 v M = 1, tng ng chng ta c cc h thng phn tp thu SIMO v phn tp pht MISO.

Hnh 1.1. M hnh h thng MIMO

trnh nh hng gia cc anten pht v cc anten thu vi nhau, khong cch yu cu ti thiu gia cc phn t anten cc mng anten pht hoc thu l 1.3. M hnh ton hc Chng ta bt u t trng hp n gin l knh truyn c h s truyn xc nh (khng c fading m ch c h s suy gim v n) v c bit trc qua php c lng knh, bng tn hp bt bin vi thi gian. Mt h thng gm N anten pht v M anten thng c gi l h thng MIMO MxN. Mt h thng nh vy thng c m t mi quan h ng vo - ng ra nh sau: y = Hs + z trong : z l thnh phn tp m; H l ma trn cc c tnh knh truyn nh thng tin v ln, v pha ca ng truyn gia N anetn pht v M anten thu. M hnh ton hc c din t nh sau: .

Hnh 1.2: Quan h gia ng vo v ng ra ca h thng MIMO Ma trn H c dng:

H=

Cc vecto pht, thu v tp m tng ng l: s= y= z= Phng trnh tng qut: =H +

Mi quan h gia tn hiu pht v tn hiu thu biu din qua phng trnh h thng:

y=

Hs + z

vi PT l tng cng sut pht t N anten pht. 1.4. Dung lng knh MIMO

Dung lng knh truyn l tc c th truyn dn ti a vi mt xc sut li tng i nh no . Dung lng ca mt knh truyn chu nh hng ca tp m nhiu cng trng Gauss:

C=W Trong : W : bng tn ca knh truyn (hz)

[bits/s]

: t s cng sut tn hiu trn tp m (SNR) i vi knh truyn c nh, dung lng knh truyn MIMO c th biu in tng qut nh sau:

CMIMO =

Trong thc t do cc tc ng ca pha-inh, knh truyn bin ng theo thi gian v thng c m phng ha bng cc bin s ngu nhin tun theo phn b Rayleigh. Dung lng knh truyn c xc nh:

II. Phn knh theo khng gian SDM Chun 802.11n t c ci tin ng k v tc d liu thng qua vic s dng MIMO/SSM( nhiu u vo, nhiu u ra-ghp knh phn chia theo khng gian).

Nu trn ng truyn c s bin ng, anten thu s nhn ra tn hiu sai khc t anten truyn. Anten pht s pht tn hiu trn mt hnh vm rng, trn ng truyn tn hiu s xy ra hin tng phn x, tn xdo tc ng ca nhng vt cn trong mi trng xung quanh.

Hnh 2.1. Phn knh theo khng gian SDM

Hnh trn th hin 3 ng tn hiu n anten th 2. Tn hiu mnh nht l a v thng tin mang trn n s c gii m. Hai ng khc n vi mc nng lng thp hn v dch i mt khong thi gian va pha so vi tn hiu a. Do vy n c th lm suy gim t s SNR vi a. Mi mt anten nhn s nhn c mt tn hiu chim u th t mt anten pht khc. V vy h thng c th tn dng bng cch truyn nhng tn hiu khc nhau trn mt anten. y l mt u im ni bt ca MIMO. u im ca SDM Tng dung lng Cho php truyn nhiu lung d liu.

Nguyn l: my pht, dng d liu pht c b DEMUX chia nh thnh N lung s n(t) song song v truyn ng thi qua N anten pht. V vy, tc truyn dn tng N ln so vi h thng s dng mt anten pht, mt anten thu (SISO) thng thng. Ti my thu cc lung tn hiu s c tch ring ra ri ghp li bng b ghp knh MUX.

Hnh 1.1. Phng php phn knh theo khng gian.

Tuy nhin, do cc lung d liu thu c ti my thu b nhiu ln nhau nn tng s lng anten pht N ng ngha vi vic tng nhiu ng knh gia cc lung tn hiu, v vy lm tng BER. gim nh BER ca h thng my thu s dng M N anten v mt b tch tn hiu hiu qu thc hin tch ring tng lung tn hiu. Da theo tnh cht tuyn tnh ca phng php tch tn hiu, cc b tch tn hiu MIMOSDM c phn loi thnh hai nhm ln l cc b tch tn hiu tuyn tn v cc b tch tn hiu phi tuyn.

Hnh 2.2. Phn loi cc b tch tn hiu MIMO-SDM

2.1. Cc b tch tn hiu tuyn tnh Mt b tch tn hiu tuyn tnh l b kt hp tuyn tnh biu din bi ma trn trng s W. Da trn ma trn trng s W, vector c lng c l:
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Cc gi tr c lng c s ny sau c a qua b quyt nh la chn u ra b tch tn hiu

Hnh 2.3 . S b tch tn hiu tuyn tnh cho MIMO-SDM

2.1.1. B tch tn hiu ZF(zero forcing) Nh ta bit, trong h thng MIMO, knh truyn c biu din l mt ma trn m cc phn t ca n l cc knh fading a ng. Gi tr knh ny khng c bit trc ti b thu tn hiu v tuyn. Do vy, ngi ta thit k cc b c lng knh nhm gip khi phc gi tr knh truyn, v nh khi phc chnh xc tn hiu pht. B tch tn hiu ZF cn c tn gi l b tch tn hiu LS (Least Square: bnh phng nh nht). Bn cht ca b tch tn hiu LS l gi s tp m bng khng ri s dng phng php bnh phng nh nht tm cc tn hiu pht s n. Vic ny tng ng vi gii mt h M phng trnh vi N n s. Trong phng php tch ZF ta b qua thnh phn tp m, nn ta c phng trnh ton hc sau: Y= Hs (z=0) Trong : Y l tp tn hiu thu c. S tn hiu pht ban u.
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H l ma trn knh truyn. Ta gi nh rng ma trn knh truyn, tn hiu y thu c bit. V vy ta cn phi i tm tn hiu pht s. tm s ta cn tm ma trn trng s W tha mn tnh cht WH=I. Mt khc hm chi ph tm s c nh ngha nh sau : = arg min {||y H| |2 2 } s Trong ||.| |2 2 biu din php ly chun (norm) ca vector ma trn. Tc l chng ta cn tm sao cho ti gin ha gi tr bnh phng sai s sau:
|| y ||2 2

= ||y H| |2 2

Qua cc bc trin khai v ly o hm theo ta c: = (HH H)-1HHy Trong : H= (HH H)-1HH c gi l php o ma trn gi bn tri (left pseudo-inverse) ca H. Hay b qua thnh phn tp m z chng ta c th biu din li nh sau : = (HH H)-1HH Hs Qua biu thc trn ta thy b tch tn hiu ZF tch ring ra tng tn hiu pht Sn v loi b can nhiu t tn hiu khc. Hay can nhiu t cc anten khc b cng bc bng khng. Kt hp vi cc biu thc trn ta tm c ma trn trng s W nh sau
= WHy s = (H H ) H s
H 1 H

W = H H = H H H H H

,MN

V gi tr W ch ph thuc vo ma trn knh truyn H nn my thu ch cn c lng ma trn H v s dng n tch cc tn hiu pht sn pha thu. Do H+ l php o ma trn gi bn tri (s hng phi ln hn s ct) tng ng vi s anten thu ln hn s anten pht nn trong trng hp ny ch p dng khi M> N. Tuy nhin, s dng phng php SVD kt hp vi s nhn Lagrange chng ta c th tm c dng tng t. =HH (HH H)-1y
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Trong H = HH (HH H)-1 c gi l php o ma trn bn phi (right pseudo-inverse) ca H. V c kt qu tng ng nh sau:
= WHy s = H (H H ) y s
H H 1

W = H H = H H H

HH , M < N

Trong Matlab, hm pinv c th p dng cho c hai php o ma trn gi bn phi v bn tri. V d : Xt mt knh MIMO c (N,M)=(3,4) vi chm sao 16QAM c cc im l S ={
1 j , 1 3 j , 3 j , 3 3 j }

Ma trn knh truyn H l

0 0.7i 0.3 0.3i 0.5 0.4i H = 0.8 0.6i 0.7 1.1i 0.8 1.1i 0.2 + 0.3i 0 + 0.2i 0.8 + 0i 0.1 0.2i 1.2 0.3i 1.7 0.6i
Vector tn hiu gi i l s= (1+i, -1-i, 1+3i)T, Sau khi tn hiu i qua knh truyn H th vector Y nhn c s l :
0.9 2.6i 2 2.7i Y=Hs = 1.1 1.1i 1.3 6.8i

Ma trn gi bn tri H+ c tnh theo cng thc : H+ = (HH.H)-1.HH nh sau :

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Ta c ma trn H+H l :
1 0 0 H H= 0 1 0 0 0 1
+

Li ra b c lng ZF

c tnh nh sau :

+ = H y

1.71 + 1.07i = 1.76 1.75i 0.56 + 3.13i

So snh vi tn hiu gi i bit trc trn v tr gin chm sao. Ta chn tn hiu l im chm sao gn nht trong bng chm sao bn pht ( khong cch gn nht ng vi xc xut ln nht.) Sau khi xc nh c ta thu c vevtor quyt nh s l :
1 + i s = 1 i 1 + 3i
_

Vy bn thu tch c tng tn hiu ring r v ging nh tn hiu pht. c im ca phng php tch ZF u im : B tch tn hiu ZF n gin C yu cu phc tp tnh ton thp.

Nhc im : - Do tp m b b qua nn khi thit k ma trn trng s W nn b tch tn hiu ny chu nh hng ca hiu ng khuch i tp m (noise amplification). V vy, b tch tn hiu ZF thng thch hp vi cc knh truyn c t s SNR cao. 2.1.2. B tch tn hiu MMSE B tch tn hiu MMSE (Minimum Mean Square Error: Sai s trung bnh bnh phng ti thiu) lm gim thiu sai s bnh phng trung bnh MSE Khc vi b tch tn hiu ZF b tch MMSE cn xem xt n c c tnh tp m ti cc nhnh anten thu. Ma trn trng s: Phn tch hm chi ph tm ma trn trng s:
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Tc l chng ta i tm ma trn trng s W ti gin ha gi tr trung bnh sai s bnh phng gia vector pht v vector c lng c, ngha l : ||s -

y||2 = min

Khi pht i mt tp tn hiu s n S pha pht, tn hiu pht sau khi thu c pha thu s c tr i tn hiu c lng tm ra gi tr min. V d: Khi bn pht pht i mt tp tn hiu c mc in p khc nhau (do nh hng ca fading a ng) : 1V 2V 3V 4V 5V Gi x nh tn hiu c lng c l 3,8V tm c W min ta s ln lt thay tng tn hiu pht tr i tn hiu c lng |1V 3,8V | = 2,8V |2V 3,8V | = 1,8V |3V 3,8V | = 0.8V |4V 3,8V | = 0.2V |5V 3,8V | = 1,8V Gi tr min = 0,2V vy l ta tch c tn hiu pht c mc in p l 4V c im ca MMSE u im: - Khc phc c nhc im ca phng php ZF v n c tnh n thnh phn tp m z pha pht nn khng chu nh hng ca hiu ng khuch i tp m.
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- n gin hn v trong thc t d trin khai nh cc thut ton thch nghi nh LMS, RLS - tnh ton phc tp thp - C phm cht BER hay SNR tt hn so vi b tch ZF Nhc im: - S lng anten s dng ln - t c t s li bit BER tng i thp 2.2. Cc b tch tn hiu phi tuyn 2.2.1. B tch tn hiu QRD Phng php ny phn tch ma trn knh truyn H thnh tch ca hai ma trn Q v R (MN): H= Q.R Trong : R C NxN l ma trn tam gic trn c dng:

Q C MxN l mt ma trn n nht c tnh cht QH.Q= Q-1.Q =1. Nhn c 2 v ca phng trnh h thng y= H.s + z vi QH ta c: QH.y = QH.H.s + QH.z Thay H= Q.R v phng trnh trn QH.y = QH.Q.R.s + QH.z y.QH = R.s + QH.z

t y = y.QH v z = QH.z , ta c phng trnh h thng mi l: y = R.s + z


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y1 = R1,1. S1 + R1,2 S2 +. . . + R1,N. SN + z1 y2 = R2,2. S2 + R2,3 S3 +. . . + R2,N. SN + z2 . . . yN-1 = RN-1,N-1. SN-1 + RN-1,N SN + zN-1 yN = RN,N .SN + zN

Vi z: thnh phn tp m Gauss c lp. Do R v mt ma trn tam gic trn nn phn t yi ch ph thuc v thnh phn di y j vi j >i. Hay ta c th biu din phn t di dng nh sau yi nh sau: yi = Ri,jsi + Ri,jsi + zi
j =i +1 N

Trong phn t Ri,i .si l tn hiu mong mun thu c, phn t th 2 l tng hp nhiu t cc anten khc ( tc l tn hiu ca cc anten ln cn), cn phn t z i biu din tp m ca h thng. T cc phng trnh trn ta d dng tch c tn hiu mong mun t thnh phn yN , do thnh phn y ca lp cui cng N khng chu nh hng nhiu t cc anten trc nn n c tch du tin. Sau n c thay th vo kh nhiu cho cc thnh phn lp trn n. V nh vy ta tch ln lt c cc tn hiu thu cc anten tng ng.
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2.2.2. B tch tn hiu V-Blast V nguyn l b tch tn hiu V-Blast cng tng t nh b tch QRD. N s dng phng php tch tn hiu vng lp trit nhiu ni tip, tc l ti mi vng lp, s ch c tn hiu ca mt lp c tch ra. Tn hiu va tch c phn hi li vng tip theo trit tiu hon ton khi tn hiu thu nhm loi b nh hng ca n n qu trnh tch cc tn hiu cc lp cn li. Nh vy tn hiu ca lp sau cng c tch s khng b nh hng ca cc lp khc, do vy cng tch sau th tn hiu c phm cht cng tt (tc l t li hn). Hnh sau m t nguyn l lm vic ca b tch tn hiu V-Blast

Hnh 2.4. M t nguyn l tch tn hiu ca b tch V-Blast Da vo m hnh trn ta c th gii thch nguyn l tch nh sau: Tp cc tn hiu thu c t cc nhnh s c a ng thi vo b tch tn hiu tuyn (c th l tch bng phng php ZF hoc MMSE). Khi Order and Select s cho php chn v sp xp u tin th t nhnh no c tch trc, khi ny s a ra ch s k i ca nhnh c sai s bnh phng trung bnh MSE min thc hin tch ra nhnh bng mt trong hai phng php tch tuyn tnh trn bng vic tnh ton cc hm chi ph tng ng i vi tng phng php. Tn hiu tng ng vi lp xc nh c :

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Trong wki l ct th ki ca ma trn trng s W c tnh ton Tn hiu sau khi tch c vng ny s c phn hi li IC trit tiu khi tp tn hiu thu. Tp tn hiu cn li s c tch ln lt cc vng tip theo.

Trong hki l vector c xy dng t ct ki ca ma trn H . cc vng sau th tp tn hiu gim dn, do vy tn hiu tch c s tt hn. Do vy khi thc hin tch, m bo cht lng cho tn hiu cc nhnh th ta u tin tch cc tn hiu khe trc v cc tn hiu yu c tch sau. c im V-Blast V-Blast c ni n vi knh truyn MIMO t c tc d liu cao. Lung data c chia thnh cc lung data nh hn c lp nhau v gi i trn cc anten khc nhau. Khi nghin cu V-Blast ta thy cha t c s trao i phn tp hp knh ti a ti tc thp: kh nng phn tp ln nht ca cc lung d liu b gii hn bi s anten thu. Tuy nhin, V-blast cng khng phi l ti a cho knh truyn tc cao. V d cho knh truyn 2x1 cho rng mt trong s cc knh truyn c h s l 0 v cc knh cn li tha mn (0,1). Khi phn tp t c bi lung d liu c gi trn anten pht u tin vi li phn tp v li hp knh nn kin trc ny khng t c s trao i ti u cho knh truyn MIMO. So snh gia ZF, MMSE, QR v V-Blast

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Hnh 2.5. S so snh phm cht ca cc phng php tch. Nhn s so snh phm cht ca cc phng php tch ta thy rng V-Blast t c t s BER tt hn. u im ca cc b tch tn hiu tuyn tnh c tnh ton phc tp thp. Nhng nhc im ca cc b tch tn hiu tuyn tnh l phm cht tch tn hiu tng i thp, c bit khi s dng nhiu anten. So vi b tch tn hiu tuyn tnh, cc b tch tn hiu phi tuyn c u im l c phm cht BER tt hn nhng li c nhc im v tnh ton phc tp hn. - B tch tn hiu ZF thc hin n gin hn, tuy nhin khi s dng phng php ZF khng tnh n thnh phn tp m nn khi thit k ma trn trng s W th b tch tn hiu ny chu nh hng ca hiu ng khuch i tp m, v vy m b tch tn hiu ZF thng thch hp vi cc knh truyn c t s SNR cao. - B tch tn hiu MMSE c xt n c cc thnh phn tp m nn khc phc c nhc im ca phng php ZF - B tch tn hiu QR c phm cht km hn nhng c u im n gin v khng yu cu tnh ton cao. - B tch tn hiu V-Blast yu cu mc tnh ton ln hn nhng vn c th chp nhn c. Vi yu cu tnh ton cao nh vy th b tch V-Blast kt hp MMSE hay VBlast kt hp ZF cho phm cht BER ci thin rt nhiu so vi b tch tn hiu khc.
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Vi b tch QR: nhnh u tin c tch s c tt hn (tc l lp cui cng c tch trc s khng b nh hng ca nhiu t cc anten khc) Vi b tch V-Blast : nhnh c tch sau cng s cho phm cht tt hn ( do sau mi vng tch th cc nhiu t nhnh s b trit tiu nn khng gy nh hng n cc nhnh cn li, nhnh cui cng s l c lp v khng b nh hng ca nhiu)

III.

tng v cu hi mn hc

3.1. tng Khi mun tng dung nng knh truyn MIMO th ta s dng nhiu anten.

V dung lng ca knh MIMO c th t n r=min(M,N) ln dung lng knh truyn SISO( 1 anten pht , 1 anten thu ). thp. Trong thc t ta nn ng dng h thng MIMO-SDM vo trong Wifi. S tch tn hiu trong cc h thng MIMO-SDM ta nn dng b tch tn

hiu V-BlAST v b tch cho phm cht BER tt hn cc b tch khc v tnh ton

ghp knh phn chia theo khng gian (SDM: Spatail Division Multiplexing) ghp nhiu lung d liu c lp trong mt knh. MIMO/SDM c th lm tng ng k tc d liu khi s cc lung d liu trong khng gian tng ln. Vi 4 anten cho c hai u cui, chun 802.11n c th cho tc ln ti 600Mbps. C th s dng MIMO- SDM vo trong h thng 3G, LTE v u im ca

MIMO cho dung nng knh ln, tc c th ln ti gigabit. 3.2.Cu hi Ti sao trong thc t in thoi di ng ch dng 1 anten, trong khi dng 2 anten l tt

hn v kinh t th cng khng nh hng ? Trong b tch MMSE ti sao li cng thm tp m vo cc nhnh anten thu mc d ta

ang mun loi b n ?

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KT LUN Qua bi bo co chng ta cng nm bt c h thng MIMO (NxM) khc vi SISO (1x1), cng nh s dng b tch ZF th s anten thu M phi ln hn s anten pht N Nh vy vi ni dung trn nu ra mt ci nhn tng quan cho MIMO cng vi ng dng ca n vo Wifi, 3G, LTE ni ti trong phn tng. MIMO/SDM to ra nhng u th mi cho wifi, to th mnh cho cng ngh ny pht trin mnh m phc v ngy cng cao nhng nhu cu v gii tr, truyn ti a phng tin MIMO cng c ln k hoch s c s dng trong in thoi di ng i pht thanh tiu chun nh gn y 3GPP v 3GPP2. Tiu chun 3GPP, High-Speed Packet Access cng (HSPA +) v Long Term Evolution (LTE) MIMO vo ti khon. Hn na, h tr y cc mi trng di ng, MIMO nghin cu bao gm cc tp on Mascot-IST ngh pht trin cc k thut MIMO tin tin, v d nh, nhiu ngi s dng MIMO (MU-MIMO) . Cng ngh MIMO c th c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin lin lc khng dy. Mt v d l cc mng gia nh tiu chun ITU-T G.9963 , trong xc nh mt h thng thng tin lin lc ng dy in s dng cc k thut MIMO truyn tn hiu nhiu hn nhiu dy AC (giai on, trung tnh v mt t). MIMO vn ang cn pht trin kt hp vi nhng cng ngh khc to ra nhng t ph mi trong cng ngh, ngy cng p ng nhu cu cao ca con ngi trong thng tin lin lc, giao lu vn ha

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NH GI NHN XT CA THY GIO

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