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Pollutants Carbon monoxide

Sources Incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (eg. Petrol, diesel)

Chemical Reactions Carbon monoxide + haemoglobin → carboxyhaemoglobin

Impacts Environment NIL

Treatment/Prevention Human - Combines with haemoglobin to form carboxyhaemoglobin (cannot absorb oxygen) - Headaches, breathing difficulties, brain damage, death - Eye irritation and breathing difficulties - Damage lungs (bronchitis) Installation of catalytic converters which oxidises CO to harmless CO2

Catalytic converters - 2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2 CO2(g)

Sulfur dioxide -


Combustion of fossil fuels (eg. Coal, petroleum) in vehicles, power stations and factories which contain sulfur as impurities Volcanic eruptions

Formation of acid rain - S(s) + O2(g) → SO2(g) - 2SO2(g) + O2(g) + 2H20(l) → 2H2SO4(aq) Flue gas desulfurisation - CaCO3(s) + SO2(g) → CaSO3(s) + CO2(g) - 2CaSO3(s) + O2(g) → CaSO4(s)


Causes acid rain* (pH 4)




Oxides of nitrogen Combustion in vehicle engines or factories (@ high temperature) Lightning activity Forest fires Formation of oxides of nitrogen - N2(g) + O2(g) → 2NO(g) - 2NO(g) + O2(g) → 2NO2(g) Formation of acid rain - 4NO2(g) + O2(g) + 2H20(l) → 4HNO3(aq) Causes acid rain* Causes damage to our lungs (bronchitis, lung cancer) Produces ozone NO2 irritates the eyes -



Liming: Add slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) or powdered limestone (CaCO3) to lakes and soil to neutralise the acid Burn fuels that contain little/no sulfur (eg. Oil, natural gas) Remove sulfur from fossil fuels (EXPENSIVE!) Flue gas desulfurisation Installation of catalytic converters where harmful NOx is reduced to harmless N2

2NO(g) + 2CO(g) → N2(g) + 2CO2(g) Ozone Photochemical reactions (chemical reaction between nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons in the presence of sunlight) NIL Damage plant tissues in crops and forests Decrease crops yield Photochemical smog^ reduces visibility (disrupt air/road traffic) Production of peroxyacyl nitrates causes tearing of eyes Irritates eyes. throat Causes breathing difficulties for asthma sufferers Reduce unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides emissions - - Unburnt hydrocarbons Incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in vehicles (due to insufficient O2) Decay of plant and animal (dung) matter Catalytic converters [octane] . nose.2C8H18(l) + 25O2(g) → 16O2(g) + 18H20(g) NIL - Produces ozone when unburnt hydrocarbons reacted with nitrogen oxides in the presence of strong sunlight - Methane - NIL - A greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming NIL - Installation of catalytic converters where the unburnt hydrocarbon is further oxidised to form CO2 and water vapour Improve diet of cattle and other ruminant animals (poor nutrition gives rise to excess methane production) *Effects of acid rain .Catalytic converters .

manufacture of packing foam. rise up/diffuse high up in the atmosphere over time Example of CFC molecules: CFCl3. fluorine and carbon Gases are room conditions.Smog refers to a mixture of smoke and fog Catalytic converters Attached to motorcars’ exhausts Contain ceramic elements coated with platinum and rhodium (act as catalysts) & stainless steel casing Redox reactions take place DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER Benefits of ozone layer In the stratosphere. ozone helps filter out high levels of ultraviolet radiation (from the sun) Cause of ozone depletion: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Compounds containing chlorine. easily compressed into liquid with small pressure Chemically uncreative (harmless to plants and animals) Not broken down at ground level. coolants for refrigerators or air-conditioners. CF2Cl2 Sources: aerosol propellants. ^Photochemical smog . good solvents to clean grease from silicon chips . thus destroys trees and vegetations.- corrodes limestone buildings/structures by dissolving carbonates in walls and statues. reduce pH value of natural water bodies. leaches important nutrients such as K+ and Ca2+ (needed by trees for good growth) from soil.The presence of hazy brown air that reduces visibility . attacks metal structures. Galvanised iron sheets corrode more quickly. thus destroy aquatic life and kills fishes.

CFCs decompose to form chlorine atoms Chlorine atoms react with ozone molecules to form chlorine oxide and oxygen.How ozone layer is being depleted In the presence of sunlight. genetic mutations and eye damage (eg. Cataracts) CARBON CYLE Definition: The mechanism that maintains the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere 0.03% carbon = 740 billions of carbon (continually removed from and returned to the atmosphere by various processes) To maintain a constant amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide: Rate of removal of CO2 = Rate of return of CO2 Processes involved in producing CO2 (returned to atmosphere) 1) Respiration 2) Combustion 3) Decay and Decomposition Processes involved in removing CO2 (removed from atmosphere) 1) Photosynthesis 2) Ocean uptake - GLOBAL WARMING Greenhouse effect and greenhouse gases . thus destroying the protective ozone layer Consequences of ozone depletion Harmful UV radiation reaches Earth through holes in ozone layer High levels of UV radiation can cause skin cancer.

Increased decay of vegetation due to human activities (eg. The natural greenhouse effect is crucial for maintaining the proper temperature needed to sustain life on Earth. Deforestation. increased farming of rice fields) Consequences 1) Food shortage/possible famine due to a decrease in crop yields worldwide as the areas currently covered by vegetation may become deserts .Due to increased use (combustion) of fossil fuels 2) Methane .Greenhouse gases trap some of the infrared radiation emitted by the Earth so that heat is retained in the atmosphere.Climatic changes (more rainfall in some areas and drought in others) 2) Causes large quantities of ice at the poles to melt which causes level of oceans to rise and flood low-lying countries . 1) Carbon dioxide .