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Design and Optimisation of 3G Networks

Payam Taaghol Managing Director of Mycom - EMEA

Mycom International Confidential

End-to-End Network Deployment

Business Objectives and High Level Design

Management Programme Management


Preliminary Preliminary Network Network Design Design Site Acquisition, Town and Country Planning
Detailed Network Design

Site Design Design Permitting Permitting Site & & Procurement Procurement Construction Contracting Contracting Construction

Equipment Equipment I&C I&C

Pre-launch Pre-launch Performance Performance Optimisation Optimisation Acceptance Acceptance

Find Ideal Site Location

Refine Site Locations Order transmission

Design site Construction Rigging

Drive testing Network statistics

Find willing landlord Obtain planning permit Sign a rental agreement

Select subcontractors Select suppliers Order material And manage delivery

Install all equipment Meeting Key Performance Indicators Connect to network Configure and test

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Step-1, Business Requirements and HLD


Theory
Expected Services and Data Rates Demand Models Mobility Models Traffic Models Staged Rollout Plan

Practice
We do not really know what services We do not know the demand We do know exactly know 3g user distribution We need coverage in big cities Why not go 384kbps and assume 60% loading? How many sites? How much? Too expensive, so lets go for 64kbps How many sites? How much? OK this is better, but our competition may go for 384kbps, why not 384kbps for? How many sites? How much? central business districts? OK lets go!

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Step-1, Business Requirements and HLD


Spreadsheet Analysis
Pr op rie tar y

UMTS Network Planning for a Particular or a Mixed Bearer rate Coverage Capacity
Traffic Prediction Interference Margin Mixed Service Traffic Model Total Req. Er. HW Capacity Erlangs/Site or Sector

Uplink, Link Budgets Cell Radius

B
B/A No of Required Sites/Sectors for Coverage No of Required Sites/Sectors for Capacity

A
Capacity Enhancement Options

C
Coverage Limited
Yes

D
C>D
No

Capacity Limited

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Step-1, Business Requirements and HLD Variable Rate Coverage 9 Dimensioning for 12.2kbps, 144 kbps or 384kbps? 9 The true demand for high data rate uplink access is not know 9 Variable rate coverage is reality 9 Multirate applications and services are envisaged in UMTS allowing rate changes during an active session

Higher uplink rates

Lower uplink rates

9 This will avoid over engineering the network and helps reduce the infrastructure costs
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Step-2, Preliminary Network Planning

Business Objectives and High Level Design

Programme Management
Site Preliminary Acquisition, Network Town and Design Country Planning Detailed Network Design Permitting Site Design & Procurement Contracting Construction

Equipment I&C

Pre-launch Performance Optimisation Acceptance

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Step-2, Preliminary Network Planning

Carried out by radio planners commonly known as RF Engineers Using planning tools Propagation predictions based on, available, existing and ideal new site locations WE NEED A SITE HERE

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Step-2, Preliminary Network Planning


Detailed planning tool based analysis Propagation Model Tuning Digital Terrain Map Clutter Maps Design guidelines OUTPUT-Search Rings or Search Area Request Forms (SARFs)

Friendly Sites Shared Sites Other Viable Structure RF Databases

Consolidation of Requirements

Preliminary RF Plan Preliminary RF Design Review (per city)

CW Testing and Model Tuning

Market Data Collection

RF Design Specifications

iPlanner

Stage-1: Preliminary Design


RF Design Acceptance Procedure

Preliminary RF Design Acceptance SARFs, Site Visits, Candidate Selection, Design Tuning, Initial Data Fill

Radio Planning Guidelines

X% of sites selected
Yes

No

Operator/Contractor

Final RF Design Review (by cluster)

Operator Jointly

Stage-2: Final Design

Final RF Design Acceptance (by cluster)

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Step-2, Preliminary Network Planning


Detailed Analysis

Re qu ire

sP

 Define Define system system requirements requirements    

oo Capacity, Capacity, coverage, coverage, services services and and schedule schedule ls Acquire Acquire Data Data sets sets Digital Digital terrain, terrain, streets, streets, highways, highways, railways, railways, boundaries. boundaries. Subscriber Subscriber distribution. distribution. Friendly Friendly sites. sites. Detailed Detailed coverage coverage requirements. requirements. Quality, Quality, probability probability of of coverage coverage & & specific specific coverage coverage goals. goals. Detailed Detailed capacity capacity requirements. requirements. User User services services and and traffic, traffic, GoS GoS requirements requirements // blocking blocking prob. prob. Design Design analysis. analysis. Reverse Reverse and and Forward Forward links, links, capacity, capacity, coverage, coverage, best best server, server, polluter polluter and and HO HO analysis. analysis.

lan nin g

Step-2, Preliminary Network Planning


DTM
Typically 20m100m horizontal resolution 0.5m-5m resolution

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Step-2, Preliminary Network Planning


Clutter Maps
Typically between 10-100 clutter types Resolution of 5m100m

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Step-4, Detailed Network Plan

Business Objectives and High Level Design

Programme Management
Site Preliminary Acquisition, Network Town and Design Country Planning Detailed Network Design Permitting Site Design & Procurement Contracting Construction

Equipment I&C

Pre-launch Performance Optimisation Acceptance

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Step-4, Detailed Network Plan

Site locations almost fixed Every site has been visited and evaluated More radio analysis Normally done per cluster of site (10-30 sites) OUTPUT- A design that meets the requirements, final site locations and type (site mix)

Friendly Sites Shared Sites Other Viable Structure RF Databases

Consolidation of Requirements

Preliminary RF Plan Preliminary RF Design Review (per city)

CW Testing and Model Tuning

Market Data Collection

RF Design Specifications

iPlanner

Stage-1: Preliminary Design


RF Design Acceptance Procedure

Preliminary RF Design Acceptance SARFs, Site Visits, Candidate Selection, Design Tuning, Initial Data Fill

Radio Planning Guidelines

X% of sites selected
Yes

No

Operator/Contractor

Final RF Design Review (by cluster)

Operator Jointly

Stage-2: Final Design

Final RF Design Acceptance (by cluster)

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Step-2, Preliminary Network Planning


Planning Similarity and Differences
Traffic Forecasting Capacity Planning Coverage Planning Deployment Deployment Pre-launch Optimization Into Service Into Service Post-Launch Optimization Post-Launch Optimization
3G W-CDMA Process Overview

Traffic Forecasting System Coverage & Capacity Planning Design Optimization

Pre Launch Optimization

2G TDMA Process Overview

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance


Ec/Io vs. Signal Strength Ec/Io Plots Signal Strength Plots

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance


Before optimisation After optimisation

Areas with pilot quality Ec/Io > -12dB from 67% to 86% 19% increase in coverage area for the same loading (60%)
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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance CDMA Analysis


Cluster of Interest
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Include at least 2 tiers around the cluster of interest in all predictions and simulations. Ensure that the traffic maps and mobility models have correctly captured the clients needs. Carry out pilot dominance analysis to identify problematic areas. Focus on improving the pilot quality in problematic areas though design adjustments (tilt, azimuth, power). Carry out forward and reverse link Eb/(No+Io) analysis to ensure traffic channel quality.
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First Tier

Second Tier

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance CDMA Analysis


6. 7. 8. 9.

Analyse handover regions. Analyse and minimise pilot pollution. Increase system load in steps to identify capacity limits. Push the interference out of the dense and high traffic areas into rural areas.

Clutter Dense Urban

Urban

Suburban

Rural

Roads

Traffic High Medium Low High Medium Low High Medium Low High Medium Low High Medium Low

Service Area 100% 100% 98% 100% 98% 95% 100% 95% 85% 100% 95% 75% 100% 100% 95%

Area percentage Ec/Io > min Ec/Io

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance Dominance


9

Ec/Io dominance provides an overview of the design quality. It also provides an indication as to where to focus design optimisation effort.

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance Pilot Quality


9

A stronger signal does not necessarily mean better quality. Pilot Ec/Io is effectively determines the cell boundaries. Facing sectors should be avoided. Sites above 20m should be carefully investigated. Typical target Ec/Io values range between 16 to 12.

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance Pilot of Polluters


9

A polluter transmitter is a transmitter that meets all criteria to enter in activeset but is not admitted due to the active-set limit size. If there are more cells in the active set than the available RAKE fingers, slipover cells will act as interferes and are referred to as polluters. 1-2 pilot polluters are deemed acceptable.

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Step-4, Detailed Network Plan


Soft Handover Plots Ec/Io

Pilot Pollution Eb/No

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance

Business Objectives and High Level Design

Programme Management
Site Preliminary Acquisition, Network Town and Design Country Planning Detailed Network Design Permitting Site Design & Procurement Contracting Construction

Equipment I&C

Pre-launch Performance Optimisation Acceptance

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance

Default Parameter Settings

Bring a site live Test live site against plans Drive test and make test calls Analyze test calls Make changes Drive test again Carry out acceptance testing OUTPUT- Tuned network that meets the set performance targets for launch

Cluster Performance Evaluation

Site Integrated and Commissioned + Shakedown

Cluster Testing

Antenna and Azimuth

x% of the sites in cluster Ready?

No

Yes

Modification Request (SW/HW) Change

Yes

Code Plan (CP) Neighbour List (NL) etc. Generate Datafill or Data Transcript Review & Verify Datafill Datafill Upload Site on Air (Barred)

Stage-2
No

Acceptance Testing Acceptance Report Acceptance Procedures

Stage-3

Cluster Acceptance

Parameter Changes

Data Processing and Analysis

Operator/Contractor
Cluster in Commercial Service Performance Monitoring and Performance Management

Operator Operator/Contractor

Stage-1

Commercial Service

Procedures/Guidelines

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Optimisation Procedures

Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance

What do we optimize?

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance


Some Optimization parameters

9 Coverage probability (based on Ec/Io [correlated signal


strength of pilot channel])

9 Call blocking probability 9 Call drop rate 9 Call completion success rate 9 Variable data rate performance 9 Throughput at the edge of the cell (PS and CS bearers) 9 End-to-end packet delay transfers 9 Cell search time 9 Inter-cell handover success rate 9 Intersystem (UMTSGSM and UMTSGPRS [general packet
radio service]) handover/cell reselection success rate
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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance

Not all parameters have the same importance with different operators.

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance


Artificial Loading Conditions

9 In the absence of a large subscriber base, how would we optimize


UMTS?

The truth is that most optimisation issues will not be evident in early
UMTS life until the subscriber base grows.

This does not mean we have to wait until we hit a problem. Artificial loading in the form of noise can be generated at the receiver
(both Node-B and UE) to emulate increased interference.

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance


Ongoing Optimization Issues

9 Better designs require less optimisation. 9 With all the uncertainties in respect to the mix of services and
loading UMTS would require a long an on-going optimisation period.

9 CDMA optimisation is more exhaustive as it happens as cell,


cluster and inter-cluster level.

9 With significantly smaller cell radii than GSM, controlling the


interference becomes an important issue.

9 Advanced interference management algorithm using the outer


loop power control provisions of UMTS would be in great demand.

9 Cell breathing has to be controlled in order to avoid an increased


handover failure rate or an increased other-cell interference.

9 Optimisation tools are in release- correct operation to be


confirmed.

9 QoS is an end-to-end measure. Tools that can analyse access,

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Dead Dead Zone Zone size size depend depend on: on: - Geometry Geometry of of the the cells. cells.

- Minimum Minimum Coupling Coupling Loss Loss (MCL (MCL dependant dependant on on antenna antenna radiation radiation pattern) pattern) - Adjacent Adjacent Channel Channel Selectivity Selectivity (UE (UE ACS ACS >= >= 33dB) 33dB) - Adjacent Adjacent Channel Channel Leakage Leakage power power Ratio Ratio (UE (UE ACLR ACLR >= >= 33@5 33@5 & & 43@10 43@10 MHz) MHz)

(BS (BS ACLR ACLR >= >= 45@5 45@5 & & 50@10 50@10 MHz) MHz)

Operator A

Operator A Subscriber

Operator B

Operator A Coverage
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Dead Zone
~ 100m for 1Km cell 30

Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance

9 TEMS Investigation-WCDMA tool


with Qualcomm UE real-time air-interface test tool Ability to tune and optimize WCDMA
networks

UE-based measurements for


verification of true terminal behavior

Verification of cell coverage, capacity,


accessibility, etc.

Troubleshooting capabilities System verification of trial systems

9 TEMS Scanner-system verification


and troubleshooting CPICH scanner-Scanning received
power of Scrambling code

SCH scanner-scanning received power


of SCH
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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance

Drive Test Set up

9 Equipment 9 Anritsu Scanner 9 2 x Samsung Z105 mobile


phones with Qualcom Chipset

9 CF29 Tough book PC.

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance

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Step-8 and 9, Pre Launch Optimization and Acceptance


Capacity Growth

9Increased Sectorisation
Antenna patterns are not perfect and will result in increased interference

9Reduced cell radius


Increased number of sites / equipment hence increased infrastructure cost

9Use of enhanced technologies


Transmit diversity: Fairly easy, planned for phase-1 Intelligent antenna: Technology not mature enough Multiuser Detectors: Technology not mature enough

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Performance Management Breaking through the silos


E2E Optimization (user experience)

Expansion

OPEX Trade off CAPEX Trade off Features and Upgrades Performance Requirement Customer Feedback Core Network Transport Network Statistics & Call Trace Drive Testing & Benchmarking Network Performance Monitoring & Analysis End user Views Trade off Analysis- Advanced Performance Management Tools

Analysis and Recommendation 36

Corrective Decision

Recommendation Report

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Example Tasks

Site Rationalization

Transmission Rationalization

Thank You

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