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University of San Carlos School of Business and Economics Department of Accountancy AC 518 Advanced Financial Accounting and Reporting,

, Part 3 1st Semester, A.Y. 2013-2014

REVISED CHART OF ACCOUNTS UNDER THE NGAS Chart of Accounts is a list of account titles and codes that guides the bookkeeper in recording government transactions. - It provides the framework within which the accounting records are constructed. Standard Chart of Accounts (SGCA) is a list of general ledger accounts prepared for the use of National, Local and Government Owned or Controlled Corporations design to achieve the objectives of uniformity in accounting and reporting, facility in consolidating financial reports and adaptability in computerization. It consists of Balance sheet accounts and Budget/Operation accounts. Coding the systematic assignment of number, letters or other symbols to distinguish items within a given classification from each other. Purposes: 1. To save time and clerical work in recording items of accounts, funds, projects, allotments and expenditures; 2. To facilitate location of accounts in the general and subsidiary ledger; 3. To facilitate systematic arrangement and classifying of accounts; and 4. To comply with the requirements of mechanized accounting.

The Chart of Accounts consists of three-digit codes grouped as follows: Accounts Account Codes Assets 100-299 Asset Contra Accounts 300-399 Liabilities 400-499 Equity 500-549 Income 550-699 Tax Revenue National Taxes 550-579 Local Taxes 580-599 General Income Permits and Licenses 600-609 Service Income 610-629 Business Income 630-649 Subsidy Income 650-659 Other Income 660-679 Gain or Loss Accounts 680-699 Expenses 700-999 Personal Services 700-749

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MOOE Financial Expenses

750-969 970-999

III. ACCOUNTING FOR DISBURSEMENTS AND RELATED TRANSACTIONS Most of the transactions in the government involves the receipt and disbursement of cash. The cash transactions affect every classification within the financial statements assets, liabilities, residual equity, income and expenses.by check. Thus it is essential that cash transactions are recorded correctly for reliability in the financial statements. . Disbursements constitute all cash paid out during a given period either in currency (cash) or by check. It may also mean the settlement of government payables/obligation by cash or by check. It shall be covered by Disbursement Voucher (DV), Petty Cash Voucher, or Payroll. How to Distinguish Disbursement from Expenditures? Expenditures are the obligations incurred by the Agency. It includes both the amount actually paid and those incurred and recorded as liabilities to be paid in the future. While Disbursements are payments made for such government obligations by cash or check. Typical transactions for disbursements include the following major classes of payments: A. Current Operating Expenses 1. Personal Services - Salaries and wages - Other Compensation - Personnel benefits - Other personnel benefits 2. Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses - travelling expenses - training and scholarship program - supplies and material expenses - repairs, etc. 3. Financial Expenses - bank charges - commitment fees - documentary stamps - interest and other financial charges B. Capital Expenditures these expenditures need allotment for CO. As opposed to the current operating expenses, this involves investments and procurement of assets that is expected to be used for a longer period of time. C. Inter-agency fund transfers - this covers the transfer of funds to other agencies for the implementation of specific projects. This is taken up in the books under Due to by the receiving agency and Due from by the releasing agency. Basic Requirements for Disbursement: 1. Existence of a lawful and sufficient allotment certified as available by the budget officer. 2. Existence of a valid obligation certified by the Chief Accountant/Head of Acctg. Unit;

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3. Legality of transactions and conformity with laws, rules and regulation. 4. Approval of the expense by the Chief of Officer or by his duly authorize representative; and 5. Submission of proper evidence to establish the claim. Disbursement System involves the preparation and processing of disbursement voucher; preparation and issuance of check, payment of cash, granting, utilization, and liquidation/replenishment of cash advances. All disbursement of the government require the certification as: 1) to validity, propriety, legality of the claim by the head of office who has control of the funds , and 2) certification that funds are available for the purpose. Modes of disbursement in the government: 1. by check thru MDS checks or commercial checks 2. by cash cash advances granted to disbursing officer and petty cash fund. 3. Advices to Debit account Disbursement by Checks Checks shall be drawn only on duly approved DV or PCV. These shall be reported and recorded in the books of accounts only when actually released to the respective payees. Two types of checks are being issued by government agencies: 1. Modified Disbursement System (MDS) checks issued by government agencies chargeable against the account of the Treasurer of the Phil which are maintained with different MDS Government Servicing Banks. These are covered by Notice of Cash Allocation, an authorization issued by the DBM to all government agencies to withdraw cash from the National Treasury through the issuance of MDS checks or other authorized mode of disbursements. 2. Commercial checks issued by government agencies chargeable against the agency checking account with GSBs. These are covered by income/receipts authorized for deposits with AGDBs and funding checks received by RO/OUs from CO/ROs respectively. All checks issued including cancelled checks shall be recorded chronologically in the Check Disbursement Record (CKDR) and indicate the date checks were actually released. All checks actually released to the claimants including the cancelled ones shall be included in the Report of Checks Issued (RCI), which shall be prepared daily by the Cashier. All unreleased and cancelled as of the report date shall be enumerated in the List of Unreleased Checks to be attached to the RCI. The agency received Notice of Cash Allocation for payment of its obligations. It maybe either for payment of prior years or current year, the same is recorded as: Cash National Treasury, MDS Subsidy Income from NG XXXX XXXX

This entry will show that the NCA received, is the share of the Agency in the income of the National Government, and is proof that there was an allocation of cash for the Agency by the National Treasury. The NCA received by the agency may be net of the amount of the taxes to be withheld by the agency. Disbursement by Cash - shall be made from cash advance drawn and maintained in accordance with COA rules and regulations. Cash payments are to be based on duly approved payrolls/disbursement vouchers. May either for: 1. personal services or salaries and wages 2. travels 3. miscellaneous expenses, which shall be recorded in separate cashbooks.
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For Personal Services/payroll fund, the cash advance shall only be equal to the net amount due the officials and employees. The cash advance for the payroll shall be fully liquidated within five (5) days after the pay period. Any unclaimed wages shall be remitted and receipted to close the cash advance account. Cash advances granted for travel shall be accounted for as Due from Officers and Employees and these are subject to liquidation upon completion. For liquidation of travel where the amount of cash advance is equal to or more than the travel expenses incurred, the Liquidation Report form shall be prepared by the officers/employees concerned and submitted to the accounting unit as basis for JEV preparation. This shall close the receivable account. The excess cash advance shall be refunded and an OR shall be issued to acknowledge receipt thereof and shall be noted in the Liquidation Report. In the case the amount of cash advance is less than the travel expenses incurred, a Liquidation Report shall be submitted to liquidate the cash advance previously granted and a DV shall be prepared to claim reimbursement of the deficiency in amount. The Report of Disbursement shall serve as the liquidation report of the cash advance granted to the Disbursing Officer. Petty Cash Fund(PCF) - another mode of disbursement and the fund shall be sufficient for emergency and petty expenses of the agency. As such, all replenishment shall be directly charged to the appropriate expense accounts and at all times, the PCF shall be equal to the total cash on hand and the unreplenished expenses. The PCF shall not be used to purchase regular inventory items for stock nor for the liquidation of outstanding cash advances. It shall be used only for disbursements which cannot be conveniently paid by check. Disbursement through Petty Cash Fund - shall be through the PC Voucher which shall be approved by authorized officials and signed by the payee to acknowledge receipt of the amount from the PC Custodian. A DV shall be prepared to replenish the fund. At the end of the year, the PCC shall submit to the Accounting unit all outstanding PCVs. In case the fund could not be replenished for lack of funds, a JEV shall be prepared to recognize all unreplenished expenses in the books and the PCF account shall be credited. At the start of the year, as soon as cash becomes available, the fund shall be replenished by a debit to account Petty Cash Fund and credit to the appropriate Cash in Bank account to restore the fund to its original amount. In case the PCC resigns or ceases as the custodian of the fund, full accounting/liquidation shall be made. Any excess cash shall be refunded and all the PCVs together with the original supporting documents shall be surrendered to the Accounting Unit which shall prepare a JEV to take up the expenses in the books and credit account Petty Cash Fund. In no case shall the remaining cash of the former custodian be transferred to the incoming PCC. The Petty Cash Fund record shall be used to record all the PCs received by the PCC as well as reimbursements received for expenses paid. All PCV shall be supported with valid documents to prove the propriety of disbursements, such as ORs, invoices, etc.
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Advice to Debit Account (ADA) This is a system by which no check is issued to the payee in payment of government obligations, but instead, the current account number of the payee in the bank where the government maintains a deposit, shall be obtained by the accounting unit. If payment is to be made, the ADA shall be issued by the Accounting Unit of the agency to the bank where it maintains an account. All payments shall be made to the credit of the payees account and a debit to the account maintained by the government agency in the same bank. A JEV shall be prepared to record the transaction in the GJ.

Recording the different types of Disbursements: a. Personal Services Under the new accounting system payment of salaries and wages and other remuneration to the personnel of the AGENCY may be made through the following: 1. Payroll Fund in the hands of a Disbursing Officer(DO) as cash advance. Payments are made by the DO in cash to the employees. 2. Payroll Fund deposited in an authorized depository bank, withdrawal by the employees is through the automated teller machine (ATM). 3. Direct payment to employees by individual check. Example: Assume the following payroll fund is established: Salaries and wages Additional Compensation Personnel Economic Relief Allowance (PERA) Gross Less: Withholding tax P 2,000 GSIS contribution 3,000 PAG-IBIG contribution 3,000 PHILHEALTH contribution 2,000 Net Payroll a) b) c) d) e) P 36,000 10,000 6,000 P 52,000

10,000 P 42,000 =======

Enters the obligation RAOPS Cash Advance to be granted to the DO Recognize the expenses and liabilities Obligation and recording of the government share of the mandatory contributions Remittance of the deductions to the respective offices.

Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses Under NGAS, the Asset Method will be used in recording disbursements when expenditures apply to more than the accounting period. Example: Assume the following types of expenditures: Rent: The government signed a contract for the rental of office space with 3 months advance payment of P1,200 starting November. The Agency enters the obligation of P1,200 in the RAOMO, and records the payment as: Prepaid Rent Cash National Treasury, MDS P1,200 P1,200

Like the prepaid expenses, the expense shall be taken up upon utilization/consumption.

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Supplies and Materials: Assume the following transactions about office supplies: 1. Issued Purchase Order (PO) for office supplies, P60,000. a. Obligation b. Payment (thru Procurement Service). Compare with purchases made to outside supplier. c. Record the asset received/delivered d. Record the used supplies. e. Remittance of withholding tax thru TRA

Cash Advances: Petty Cash Fund, Travelling Expenses a. Obligation b. Record the granting of cash advances c. Record liquidations. Determine if there are refunds, reimbursements or additional claims. d. remittance of refunds to the Bureau of Treasury and adjust obligations. Property and Inventory accounting System - consists of the system of monitoring, controlling and recording of acquisition and disposal of property and inventory. The system starts with the receipt of the purchases inventory items and equipment. The requesting office need of the inventory items and equipment after determining that the items are not available in stock shall prepare and cause the approval of the Purchase Request (PR). Based on the approved PR and after accomplishing all the required procedures adopting a particular mode of procurement, the agency shall issue a duly approved Purchase Order. Procedures relative to the obligation of the purchase order and payment of the deliveries follow the procedures in the obligation accounting system and disbursement system. The sub-system are as follows: 1. Receipt, Inspection, Acceptance and Recording Deliveries of Inventory Items and Equipment, 2. Requisition and Issuance of Inventory Items 3. Requisition and Issuance of Equipment Perpetual Inventory Method purchase of supplies and materials for stock regardless of whether or not they are consumed within the accounting period, shall be recorded as Inventory account. Under the perpetual inventory method, an inventory control account is maintained in the General Ledger on a current basis. Regular purchases shall be recorded under the Inventory account and issuance thereof shall be recorded based on the Report of Supplies and Materials Issued. Purchases out of Petty Cash Fund shall be charged immediately to the appropriate expense accounts. The accounting Unit shall maintain perpetual inventory records, such as the Supplies Ledger Cards for each inventory stock, Property, Plant and Equipment Ledger Cards for each category of plant, property and equipment including work and other animals, livestock, etc. The subsidiary ledger cards shall contain the details of the General Ledger accounts. For check and balance, the Property and Supply Officer/Unit shall maintain Property Cards (PC) for property, plant and equipment, and Stock Cards (SC) and for inventories. The balance in quantity per PC and SC should always reconcile with the ledger cards of the Accounting Unit. The Moving Average Method of costing shall be used for costing inventories. This is a method of calculating cost of inventory on the basis of weighted average on the date of issue. The Accounting Unit shall be responsible in computing the cost of inventory on a regular basis. Financial Expenses These are expenses which are not used in the actual operation of the agency such as interest expenses, cank charges, etc. Purchase and/or Construction of Fixed Assets Property, Plant and Equipment and Inventory Accounts acquired through purchase shall include all costs incurred to bring them to the location necessary for their intended use, like transportation cost, freight charges, installation costs, etc. These are recorded in the books of accounts as Asset after inspection and acceptance of delivery.

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Construction Period Theory Fixed assets are charged against capital outlay. Since corollary entry is no longer made, the asset account is taken up upon purchase. Under the depreciation accounting adopted, depreciation will be taken up starting on the month succeeding the month of purchase or completion of construction. Straight-line method will be followed. The rate of depreciation shall depend on the nature of the assets, guidelines for this shall be issued by the COA. In recording of fixed assets, the Construction Period Theory shall be followed. All expenses such as interests, license fees, etc., during the construction period shall be capitalized. During the construction period , property, plant and equipment shall be classified and recorded as Construction in Progress with the appropriate asset classification. As soon as these are completed, the Construction in Progress account shall be transferred to the appropriate asset accounts. Accounts Public Infrastructures and Reforestation Projects are closed to Government Equity account and the asset is recorded in the Registry of Public Infrastructures/Reforestation Projects at the end of the year.

Purchase/Construction of Fixed Assets Example: Purchase of office equipment either thru the Procurement Service / outside suppliers. 1. Issue PO for the office equipment Record the obligation, RAOCO 2. Record payment (Procurement Service/outside supplier) or recognize the liability and taxes withheld 3. Record the asset receive/delivered 4. Remit taxes withheld upon receipt of TRA Construction of Building by Contract 1. Signed the construction contract. Record the obligation RAOCO 2. Record performance bond posted by the contract(cash-5%, bank guarantee-10%, And surety bond-30% of the contract cost) 3. Grant 15% advances to the contractor if requested 4. Payment based on the percentage of completion billed 5. Imposed retention fees and observed if needed up to the last claims 6. Required withholding taxes to be deducted for every billing 7. Record completion and turn-over 8. Return the performance bond, retention fees and remittance of withholding taxes

Miscellaneous Transactions
These are the transactions that are unique and not recurring in the ordinary course of government operations. These seldom take place or should not happen at all. Accounting for loss of cash and property. This may be due to malversation, theft, robbery, fortuitous event or other causes. Cash shortage discovered during cash examination conducted by auditors is reported through the Report of Cash Examination. The Auditor issues and audit report in case of shortage in property accountability. As soon as a shortage is definitely established, the auditor shall issue a memorandum pertaining thereto and the accountant shall draw a JEV to record the shortage as a receivable from the accountable officer concerned.
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In case of loss of property due to other causes like theft, force majeure , etc., a report thereon shall be prepared by the accountable Officer concerned for purposes of requesting relief from accountability. No accounting entry shall be made but the loss shall be disclosed in the notes to financial statements pending result or request for relief from accountability. Grant of Relief from Accountability. When a request for relief from accountability for shortage or loss of funds is granted, a copy of the decision shall be forwarded to the Chief Accountant who shall draw a JEV to record the transaction. The loss shall be debited to the Loss of Assets account and credited to the appropriate receivable account. In case the request for relief is denied, immediate payment of the shortage shall be demanded from the AO. Retitution shall be acknowledged by the issuance of an official receipt. In case the request for relief from accountability for loss of property caused by fire, theft, etc, is granted a copy of the decision shall likewise be forwarded to the Chief Accountant for the preparation of the JEV. The loss shall be debited to the Loss of Assets account and credited to the appropriate asset account. If request for relief is denied, the loss shall be taken as receivable from the accountable officer and shall be credited to the appropriate asset account. Accounting for Cash Overage. In case the cash examination of the auditor disclosed an overage, the amount shall be forfeited in favor of the government and an official receipt shall be issued by the cashier. The cash overage shall be taken up as Miscellaneous Income. Accounting for stale checks. Checks may be cancelled when it become stale. The depository bank considers a check stale, if it has been outstanding for over six months from date of issue or as prescribed. A stale check shall be marked cancelled on its face and reported as follows: 1. Unclaimed stale checks which are still with Cashier shall be cancelled and reported in the List of Unreleased Checks as cancelled. The List of Unreleased Checks is attached to the RCI. 2. For stale checks which are in the hands of the payees or holders in due course and requested for replacements, new checks maybe issued upon submission of stale checks to the accounting unit. A certified copy of the previously paid DVs shall be attached to the request for replacement. A JEV shall be prepared to take up the cancellation. The replacement check shall be reported in the RCI. Accounting for Disallowance. Disallowances shall be taken up in the books of accounts only when they become final and executory. The accountant shall prepare the JEV to take up the ReceivableDisallowance/Charges and credit the appropriate expense account for the current year or Prior Years Adjustment account if pertaining to expenses of previous years. Cash settlement for disallowances shall be acknowledged through the issuance of an official receipt and reported by the cashier in the RCD. Accounting for overpayments. Sometimes overpayments or even double payments of expenditures do happen in agencies. These could be avoided with the institution of peroper controls but some could not be avoided because of built-in procedures. One example is the payment of payrolls. Payrolls are prepared in advance and some agencies pay their employees through the banking system. All these are done before reports of attendance are submitted, making it impossible to know the exact amount to be paid in case there are absences without pay during the pay periods. In case of overpayments, refunds shall be demanded of the employees concerned. TRIAL BALANCES, FINANCIAL REPORTS AND STATEMENTS Financial Reporting System. This financial Reporting System (FRS) includes the preparation and submission of trial balances, financial statements and other reports needed by fiscal and regulatory agencies. The sub-systems are as follows: 1. Preparation and Submission of Trial Balances and Other Reports

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2. Preparation and Submission of Financial Statements The Trial Balance shows the equality of debit and credit balances of all general ledger accounts as of a given period. It is prepared and submitted monthly, quarterly and annually. At the end of the fiscal year, the pre-closing and the post-closing trial balances shall be prepared. Purposes of the Trial Balance. The trial balance is prepared to: 1. prove the mathematical equality of the debits ad credits after posting; 2. uncover errors in journalizing and posting; and 3. serve as basis for the preparation of the financial statements The Pre-closing trial balance shall be prepared after recording the adjusting journal entries in the General Journal and posting the same to the General Ledger. It shows the adjusted balances of all accounts as of a given period. This is also described as the adjusted trial balance. Adjusting or Correcting Journal Entries. Under the matching principle, adjustments shall be made for economic activities that have taken place but are not yet recorded at the time when the financial statements are prepared. Such adjusting journal entries are made to ensure that revenues and expenses are recorded in the period when they are earned or incurred. Adjustments are two main types: accrued items and deferred items. Adjustment for Accrued Item. It is an adjusting entry for an economic activity already undertaken but not yet recorded into an asset and revenue accounts or a liability and expense accounts. It requires asset/revenue adjustments and liability/expense adjustments. Asset/Revenue Adjustment. It involves earned revenues not yet recorded as assets and income at the end of the accounting period. Examples are receivables for revenues already earned but not yet collected nor billed as of the year end. Account Title Account Code Debit Credit -------------------------------Interest Receivables 117 500 Interest Income 612 500 Liability/Expense Adjustment. It involves expenses, which exist already but remain unpaid at the end of the accounting period. Examples are salaries, wages and other expenses already incurred but not yet paid. Account Title Account Code -----------------------Salaries and Wages-Regular 701 Due to Officers and Employees 423 Debit Credit ----- -----1,000 1,000

Asset/Expense Adjustments. These pertains to assets, portion of which shall be recorded as expense of the agency at the end of the accounting period. Examples are prepaid expenses, bad debts and depreciation. Account Title ------------Original Entry: Account Code -----------Debit ----Credit ------

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Adjustment for Deferred Items. These are adjusting entries transferring data previously recorded in an asset account to an expense account, or data previously recorded in a liability account to a revenue account. It also requires asset/expense adjustments and liability/revenue adjustments.

Prepaid Rent 171 Cash-National Treasury, MDS 107 Adjusting Entry: Rent Expenses Prepaid Rent

1,000 1,000

786 171

900 900

Bad Debts. Trade receivables shall be valued at their face amounts minus, whenever appropriate, allowance for doubtful accounts. Bad debts expense and/or any anticipated adjustments, which in the normal course of events will reduce the amount of receivables from the debtors to estimated realizable values, shall be set up at the end of the accounting period. The Allowance for Doubtful Accounts shall be provided in an amount based on collectibility of receivables balances and evaluation of such factors as aging of the accounts, collection experiences of the agency, expected loss experiences and identified doubtful accounts The determination of bad debts expense shall be derived from computations based on percentages and aging of accounts receivables as follows: Age of Accounts Percentage -----------------------1-60 days 1% 61-180 days 2% 181-1 year 3% More than 1 year 5% An adjusting journal entry to take up bad debts expense is as follows: Account Title ------------Bad Debts Allowance for Doubtful Accounts Account Code Debit Credit --------------------901 1,000 301 1,000

Depreciation for Property, Plant and Equipment. The cost of property, plant and equipment are allocated to the periods benefited through the provision of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is the systematic and gradual allocation of the depreciable amount of assets over its useful life. Method of Depreciation. Depreciation shall be computed using the Straight Line Method. Depreciation shall start on the second month from purchase. A residual value equivalent to ten percent of the cost shall be set. Annual depreciation is computed as follows: Annual Depreciation = Assets Cost less Estimated Residual/Salvage Value -------------------------Estimated Useful Life
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Asset Cost Estimated Salvage Value Estimated Useful Life

- Purchase or Acquired Value of the Asset - 10% of the asset cost - Estimated number of years the asset shall be used as determined by the Commission on Audit

A sample adjusting journal entry for depreciation expense is as follows: Account Title Account Code Debit Credit --------------------------------Depreciation-Office Equipment 907 1,000

10

Accumulated DepreciationOffice Equipment

307

1,000

Reversion of the unused or utilized Subsidy Income from National Government at the end of the year due to the DBM policy that NCA will only be valid within the year of issue except NCA for accounts payable, which is valid one month after its issuance. There is no need to issue an MDS Check when reverting the account. Account Title Account Code -----------------------Subsidy Income from National Government 631 Cash-National Treasury, MDS 107 Debit Credit ---------100 100

Closing Journal Entries. Closing journal entries are general entries which close out the balances of all nominal/temporary and intermediate accounts at the end of the accounting period. The nominal and intermediate accounts that shall be closed at the end of the accounting period are as follows: 1. Close the balance of the Subsidy Income from National Government account to Income and Expense Summary account. Account Title Account Code Debit Credit --------------------------------Subsidy Income from National Government 631 1,000 Income and Expense Summary 999 1,000 2. Close the balance of all income accounts to Income and Expense Summary account. Account Title Account Code -----------------------Other business Income 618 Other Income 659 Income and Expense Summary 999 3. Debit ----500 400 Credit ------

900

Close the balance of all expense accounts to Income and Expense Summary account. 999 701 800 800

Income and Expense Summary Salaries and Wages-Regular Pay 4.

Close the balance of the Income and Expense Summary account to the Retained Operating Surplus account. 999 1,100 1,100 Retained Earnings Surplus account.
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Income and Expense Summary Retained Operating Surplus

5. Close the balance of the Prior Year's Adjustments accounts to Prior Year's Adjustment Retained Operating Surplus 6. 684 200

200

Close the balance of the Retained Operating Surplus to Government Equity account. 1,300 471 1,300

Retained Operating Surplus Government Equity

11

7.

Close Public Infrastructures or Reforestation Projects accounts to Government Equity account and transfer the corresponding amount to the respective registries. 471 251-260 261-262 1,300 1,300

Government Equity Public Infrastructures/ Reforestation Projects

For the purpose of preparing the financial statements for the first, second and third quarters, the closing entries nos. 1 to 6 shall be prepared using the worksheet. The Post-Closing Trial Balance. The Post-closing Trial Balance shall be prepared after recording the closing journal entries in the General Journal and Posting to the General Ledger. It contains a listing of all general ledger accounts that remain open after the closing process is completed. GENERATION OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Generation of Financial Statements and Supporting Schedules. Financial statements and their supporting schedules are the products of the government accounting processes. These are the principal comprehensive means by which the information accumulated and processed in the state accounting system is periodically communicated to those who use them. The financial statements generally prepared in the National Government are: the Balance Sheet, Statement of Income and Expenses, Statement of Government Equity, and Statement of Cash Flows. Responsibility for Financial Statements. Responsibility for the fair presentation and reliability of financial statements rests with the management of the reporting agency. This responsibility is discharged by applying generally accepted state accounting principles that are appropriate to the entity's circumstances, by maintaining effective system of internal control and by adhering to the chart of accounts prescribed by the Commission on Audit. To achieve fair presentation and reliable information of the financial statements, the following standards shall be observed. a. FAIRNESS OF PRESENTATION. This refers to the overall propriety in disclosing financial information. Full disclosure in financial aspects requires observance of the following standards of reporting: All essential facts relating to the scope and purpose of each report and the period involved shall be included and clearly displayed. All financial data presented shall be accurate, reliable, and truthful. The requirement for accuracy does not rule out the inclusion of reasonable estimates when the making precise measurements is impracticable, uneconomical, unnecessary, or conducive to delay. All appropriate steps shall be taken to avoid bias, unclear facts, and presentation of misleading information. Financial reports shall be based on official records maintained under an adequate accounting system that produces information objectively and discloses the financial aspects of all events or transactions taking place. Where financial data or reports based on sources other than the accounting systems are presented, their basis shall be clearly explained. The financial data reported shall be derived from accounts that are maintained in all material respects on a consistent basis from period to period; material changes in accounting policies or methods and their effect shall be clearly explained. Consistent and non-technical terminology shall be used in financial reports to promote clarity and usefulness.

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b.

COMPLIANCE. The report shall be in accordance with prescribed government requirements and international accounting standards of reporting. TIMELINESS. All needed reports shall be produced promptly to be of maximum usefulness. USEFULNESS. Financial reports shall be carefully designed to present information that is needed and useful to reports users.

c. d.

STATEMENT OF MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY FOR FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. The Statement of Management Responsibility for Financial Statements shall serve as the covering letter in transmitting the agencies financial statements to the Commission on Audit, Department of Budget and Management, other oversight agencies and other parties. It shows the agency's responsibility for the preparation and presentation of the financial statements. The statement shall be signed by the Director of Finance and Management Office or Comptrollership Office, or the Chief of Office who has direct supervision and control over the agency's accounting and financial transactions, and the Head of Agency or his authorized representative. BALANCE SHEET. The Balance is a formal statement which shows the financial condition of the agency as of a certain date. It includes information on the three elements of financial position - assets, liabilities, and government equity. It shall be prepared from information taken directly from the year-end Post-Closing Trial Balance. The Balance Sheet shall be supported with the following schedules/statements; Schedules of Accounts Receivables (SAR) Schedules of Accounts Payables (SAP) Schedules of Public Infrastructures (SPI) Other schedules as may be required.

Although the allotments and obligations of the agency are not recorded in the books of accounts, the Statement of Allotments, Obligations and Balances (SAOB) shall be submitted to the Commission on Audit by the Budget Officer/Agency Officer concerned. This statement shall to be included among the aforementioned schedules for information of government officials and oversight agencies. STATEMENT OF INCOME AND EXPENSES. The Statement of Income and Expenses shows the results of operation/performance of the agency at the end of a particular period. This statement shall be prepared by the Accounting Unit from information taken directly from the Pre-Closing Trial Balance. STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT EQUITY. The Statement of Government Equity shows the financial transactions, which resulted to the change in Government Equity account at the end of the year. STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS. The Statement of Cash Flows is a statement summarizing all the cash activities of an agency. This includes the operating, investing and financing activities of the entity and provides information on the cash receipts and cash payments during the period. The primary purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows is to give relevant information on the agency's overall cash position, liquidity and solvency. Using the Statement of Cash Flows, managers, investors, and creditors could easily assess if the agency could meet its obligations in operating, investing and financing activities. PREPARATION OF THE STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS. To facilitate the preparation of the Statement of Cash Flows, the use of a Working Paper is encouraged. It shall show the increase or decrease in the cash account between two periods. The net increase in cash provided by 1) operating 2) investing and 3) financing activities in addition to the cash balance at the beginning shall equal to the cash balance at the end of the period.

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1)

OPERATING ACTIVITIES. Operating activities involves the principal resources producing activities of the enterprise and other activities that are not investing or financing (SFAS 22). Generally, these include the cash effect on transactions that enter in the Income and Expense Summary account. INVESTING ACTIVITIES. Investing activities involves the acquisition and disposal of long-term assets and other investments not included in cash equivalent (SFAS 22). These activities include cash transactions covering non-operating assets, such as the purchase of property, equipment, short and long-term investments and other non-current assets. Non-cash investing activities are not included in the statement of cash flows.

2)

3)

FINANCING ACTIVITIES. Financing activities are derived from the equity capital and borrowings of the agency (SFAS 22). These include cash transactions involving the government equity and non-operational liabilities. Non-cash financing activities are not included in the statement of cash flows. The increase or decrease in the cash accounts are analyzed and the following computations are made: CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES Cash Inflows - Receipt of Notice of Cash Allocation (NCA) from the DBM - Receipt of Notice of Transfer of Allocation to Agency RO/OU from CO - Cash receipts from all sources of revenues - Receipt of Inter-Agency cash transfers (Due to) - Cash receipts from the sale of goods or rendition of services - Cash receipts of interest income, rental income, dividend income, etc. - Receipt of payment for liquidated damages - Receipt of refund of deposits - Receipt of refunds of cash advance or excess payments - Collection of receivables - Cash receipt of grants and donations - Receipt of cash dividends from enterprises (e.g. PLDT) Cash Outflows: - Payments of accounts payable - Cash purchase of merchandise for sale - Cash advances granted for travel - Inter-agency transfers (Due from) - Notice of Transfer of Allocation to Agency RO/OU issued by the NGA Main Office to RO/OU and/or attached agencies through Government Servicing Banks. - Return of unused NCA - Cash payment for operating expenses - Remittance of taxes withheld not covered by TRA and other deductions (if any) - Cash purchase of supplies and equipment - Cash payment of retirement benefits - Cash payment of claims for damages - Cash payment of liabilities incurred in operations - Cash payments for interest CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES

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AC 518: 3rd Hand-Out

Cash Inflows: - Proceeds from sale of marketable stocks and bonds - Cash proceeds from the sale/disposal of equipment and other property, plant and equipment. - Redemption of long-term investments or repayment by GOCC/GFI of long-term loans Cash Outflows: - Purchase of property, plant and equipment - Purchase of land - Investment in stocks/bonds - Investment in GOCC/GFI - Exposure as other long-term investments CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES Cash Inflows: - Cash received from domestic and foreign loans - Issuance of treasury bills Cash Outflows: - Payment of domestic and foreign loans - Redemption of treasury bills outstanding - Payment of cash dividend The net increase in cash provided by operating activities, investing activities and financial activities for the year, and the cash balance at the start of the year, shall equal the cash balance at the end of the year. Such amount shall tally with the total cash account shown in the balance sheet. NOTES TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. Notes to Financial Statements are integral parts of financial statements, which pertain to additional information necessary for fair presentation in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles. These may explain the headings captions or amounts in the statements of present information that cannot be expressed in money terms, and description of accounting policies. Information shall be presented in a way that will facilitate understanding and avoid erroneous implications. The headings, captions and amounts shall be supplemented by enough additional data so that the meaning would be clear and not overshadowed by so much information that important matters are buried in mass trivia. Where Notes to Financial Statements appear on a separate page, indicate the phrase "See accompanying Notes to Financial Statements" placed at the bottom of said statements. Material changes in classification of accounts shall be indicated and explained as notes to financial statements. The four types of disclosure considered necessary are as follows: a. CUSTOMARY OR ROUTINE DISCLOSURE. Information about measurement bases of important assets, restrictions on assets and government equity, important long-term commitments not recognized in the body of the statements, information on terms of owner's equity and long-term debt, and certain other disclosures required by pronouncements of the Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountants, Accounting Standards Council, and regulatory bodies that have jurisdiction are necessary for full disclosure. DISCLOSURE OF CHANGES IN ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES. Changes in accounting principles, practices, or the methods of applying them, together with the financial effect, and the justification for the change shall be disclosed in the financial statements or a note thereto.

b.

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AC 518: 3rd Hand-Out

In particular, it shall include any of the following: - Selection from existing acceptable alternatives - Principles and methods peculiar to the agency - Unusual application of generally accepted accounting principles. c. DISCLOSURE OF SUBSEQUENT EVENTS. Disclosure of events that affect the agency directly and that occur between the date of, or end of the period covered by, the financial statements and the date of completion of the statements is necessary if knowledge of the events might affect the interpretation of the statements, even though the events do not affect the propriety of the statements themselves. DISCLOSURE OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES. Description of the accounting policies adopted by the reporting entity is required as an integral part of the financial statements. It is usually captioned "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies", and placed as first item in the Notes. It shall be limited to description of the policies and no quantitative data shall be included. Examples of accounting policy disclosures commonly required: - Consolidation principles - Accounting for long-term investments - Adoption of policy on increasing benefit entitlements of the program members. The effect of the increase shall be disclosed. - Basis of revenue recognition In general, disclosures shall include important judgment as to appropriateness of principles relating to recognition of revenues and allocation of asset costs to current and future periods. INTERIM REPORTS. Interim reports are the financial statements required to be prepared at any given period or at a financial reporting period without closing the books of accounts. The following interim financial statements shall be prepared and submitted quarterly with the Notes to Financial Statements: a. Statement of Income and Expenses; b. Balance Sheet; and c. Statement of Cash Flows. The interim financial statements shall be prepared employing the same accounting principles used for annual reports. Adjusting and closing journal entries shall be prepared. However, only the adjusting journal entries are recorded in the books of accounts. To facilitate the preparation of the interim financial statements, the use of the worksheet is recommended. Sec. 82. WORKSHEET. A worksheet is a tool for accumulating and sorting information needed for the preparation of the financial statements. It is a columnar sheet used to adjust and close account balances for the preparation of the financial statements. The format of the worksheet shall be as follows: Agency Name Worksheet As of ______________, 20__ Unad justed Trial Bal. Title a. b. Code Dr Adjusted Or PreAdjusted Trial Bal. Dr Cr Closing Entries Statement Of Income & Exp Dr Cr Post Closing Trial Bal. Dr Cr Balance Sheet
AC 518: 3rd Hand-Out

d.

Adjustments Cr

Cr Dr

Dr

Cr

Dr

Cr

Account Title and Code columns show the accounts of the General Ledger. The Unadjusted Trial Balance columns reflect the amount balances of the General Ledger accounts.

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c.

Adjustments columns show adjusting journal entries effected for the accounts.

d.

Adjusted/Pre-Closing Trial Balance columns show the balances of all the accounts after adjustments are added/deducted from the balances of accounts in the unadjusted trial balance. Closing Entries debit and credit columns show the amounts debited and credited to close the nominal accounts. Statement of Income and Expenses columns show all the debit and credit amount balances of the nominal accounts (subsidies, income and expenses) and intermediate accounts. Post-Closing Trial Balance columns show the debit and credit amount balances of all accounts after posting the closing entries. Balance Sheet columns show all the debit and credit amount balances of all real accounts in the postclosing trial balance (assets, liabilities, and government equity).

e.

f.

g.

h.

It is the mark of an educated mind to be able to entertain a thought without accepting it.

Aristotle

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AC 518: 3rd Hand-Out