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MC LC.

n
T ng quan h th ng MIMO - OFDM
N TT NGHIP.
MC LC.
MC LC.
THUT NG VIT TT.
DANH MC HNH V.
LI NI U.
Chng 1.................................................................................................................. x
TNG QUAN V K THUT MIMO-OFDM
V H THNG THNG TIN DI NG.............................................................x
1.1. Gii thiu........................................................................................................... x
1.2. S lc v lch s pht trin trong thng tin di ng.....................................x
1.2.1. Gii thiu chung......................................................................................... x
1.2.2. Nhng tn ti kh khn v k thut trong lnh vc thng tin di ng.
............................................................................................................................. xii
1.3. Mi trng v tuyn trong thng tin di ng..............................................xiii
1.3.1. Mo bin . ...........................................................................................xiv
1.3.1.1. M hnh fading Rayleigh...................................................................xiv
1.3.1.2. M hnh fading Rician........................................................................xv
1.3.1.3. Thng k ca fading..........................................................................xvi
1.3.2. Suy hao ng truyn...........................................................................xvii
1.3.3. Tri tr trong hin tng a ng......................................................xix
1.3.4. Tp m trng Gauss...............................................................................xix
1.3.5. Hin tng Doppler.................................................................................xx
1.4. Tng quan v k thut MIMO-OFDM........................................................xxi
1.4.1. nh ngha v khi nim........................................................................xxi
1.4.2. K thut MIMO-OFDM.......................................................................xxii
1.5. Kt lun chng.......................................................................................... xxiii
N TT NGHIP.
MC LC.
Chng 2 ......................................................................................................... xxiv
K THUT OFDM............................................................................................ xxiv
2.1. Gii thiu...................................................................................................... xxiv
2.2. Khi nim chung........................................................................................... xxv
2.2.1. H thng n sng mang. .....................................................................xxv
2.2.2. H thng a sng mang........................................................................xxvi
2.2.3. Tn hiu trc giao................................................................................. xxvii
2.3. S h thng OFDM bng c s............................................................xxviii
2.4. C s ton hc............................................................................................... xxx
2.4.1. Trc giao. ............................................................................................... xxx
2.4.2. IFFT/FFT............................................................................................... xxx
2.5. Cc k thut c bn trong OFDM..............................................................xxxi
2.5.1. S iu ch/Gii iu ch................................................................xxxi
2.5.2. M ho knh. ...................................................................................... xxxiii
2.5.3. Sp xp. ............................................................................................... xxxiv
2.5.4. K thut IFFT/FFT trong OFDM.....................................................xxxiv
2.5.5. Tin t lp CP.....................................................................................xxxvi
2.5.6. c lng knh................................................................................. xxxviii
2.5.6.1. Khi nim. ..................................................................................xxxviii
2.5.6.2. c lng knh trong min tn s. .....................................................xl
2.5.6.3. c lng knh trong min thi gian.................................................xli
2.6. So snh phc tp gia k thut OFDM vi iu ch n sng mang. xliii
2.7. Kt lun chng...........................................................................................xliv
Chng 3................................................................................................................ 46
K THUT MIMO............................................................................................... 46
3.1. Gii thiu......................................................................................................... 46
N TT NGHIP.
MC LC.
3.1.1. u im ca k thut MIMO.................................................................46
3.1.2. Khuyt im ca h thng MIMO..........................................................47
3.2. Dung lng knh truyn ca h thng MIMO.............................................47
3.3. S lc phn tp............................................................................................. 47
3.3.1. Phn tp thi gian....................................................................................48
3.3.2. Phn tp tn s.........................................................................................49
3.3.3. Phn tp khng gian................................................................................49
3.3.4. Cc phng php kt hp phn tp.......................................................50
3.3.4.1. B t hp theo kiu qut v la chn (SC).........................................50
3.3.4.2. B t hp cng li (EGC)..............................................................51
3.3.4.3. B t hp vi t s ti a (MRC)........................................................52
3.4. M ha khng gian_thi gian........................................................................54
3.4.1. M ha khi khng gian thi gian (Space time block Codes)...............55
3.4.1.1. M ha Alamouti................................................................................56
3.4.1.2 Orthogonal STBC Tarokh cho s anten pht bt k.............................57
3.5. Kt lun chng.............................................................................................. 60
Chng 4................................................................................................................ 61
K THUT MIMO-OFDM.................................................................................61
4.1. Gii thiu......................................................................................................... 61
4.2. M t tng quan v h thng MIMO_OFDM...............................................61
4.2.1. MIMO-OFDM Tx....................................................................................62
4.2.2. MIMO_OFDM Rx...................................................................................62
4.2.3. Cu trc ca khung (frame) ca h thng MIMO-OFDM...................63
4.3. Phn tch h thng MIMO-OFDM................................................................64
4.3.1. M hnh h thng MIMO-OFDM...........................................................64
4.3.2. Space-Time Block-Coded OFDM...........................................................65
4.3.2.1. H thng STBC-OFDM......................................................................65
N TT NGHIP.
MC LC.
4.3.2.2. B pht STBC-OFDM........................................................................66
4.3.2.3. B thu STBC-OFDM..........................................................................67
4.4. Kt lun chng.............................................................................................. 70
Chng 5................................................................................................................ 72
M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM
V NH GI CHT LNG H THNG....................................................72
5.1. Gii thiu ni dung m phng.......................................................................72
5.2. Cc thng s m phng..................................................................................72
5.2.1. H thng OFDM. ....................................................................................72
5.2.2. H thng MIMO-OFDM.........................................................................73
5.2.3. Thng s knh truyn..............................................................................73
5.3. Lu v s thut ton ca chng trnh m phng.............................74
5.3.1. Truyn tn hiu......................................................................................... 74
5.3.2. Knh truyn.............................................................................................. 74
5.3.3. Nhn tn hiu............................................................................................ 75
5.3.4. Thut ton tnh BER...............................................................................76
5.4. Kt qu m phng v nh gi......................................................................77
5.5. Kt lun chng.............................................................................................. 81
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI..............................................82
TI LIU THAM KHO.....................................................................................83
PH LC.
N TT NGHIP.
THUT NG VIT TT.
THUT NG VIT TT.
A
AMPS Advance Mobile Phone Service
AWGN Addition White Gaussian Noise
B
BER Bit Error Rate
BLAST Bell labs Layered Space Time
C
CDMA Code Division Multiple Access
CP Cyclic Prefix
CNR Carrier Noise Rate
CSI Channel State Information
D
DFT Discrete Fourier Transform
E
EGC Equal Gain Combiner
F
FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access
FEC Forward Error Correcting
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
G
GSM Global System For Mobile Communication
I
IS-95 Interim Standard 95
IS-136 Interim Standard 136
ISI InterSymbol Interference
ITU International Telecom Union
IDFT Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
N TT NGHIP.
THUT NG VIT TT.
ICI InterChannel Interference
M
MS Mobile Station
MIMO Multi Input Multi Output
MMSE Minimum Mean Square Error
MRC Maximum Ratio Combiner
ML Maximum Likelihood
N
NMT450 Nordic Mobile Telephone 450
NTT Nipon Telegraph and Telephone
O
OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
P
PDC Personal Digital Cell
PSK Phase Shift Keying
PAPR Peak to Average Power Ratio
PSAM Pilot Signal Assisted Modulation
PLL Phase Lock Loop
pdf Power Density Function
Q
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
R
RS Reed-Solomon code
S
SC Selection Combiner
STC Space Time Coding
STBC Space Time Block Coding
STTC Space Time Trellis Coding
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
N TT NGHIP.
THUT NG VIT TT.
T
TACS Total Access Communication System
TDMA Time Division Multiple Access
TC Turbo convolutional code
W
WCDMA Wideband CDMA
WIFI Wireless Fidelity
WIMAX World Interoperability Microwave Access
N TT NGHIP.
DANH MC HNH V.
DANH MC HNH V.
Hnh 1.1: Hm pdf theo phn b Rayleigh..........................................................xv
Hnh 1.3: M hnh hin tng Doppler................................................................xx
Hnh 1.4: M hnh tng qut h thng MIMO-OFDM..................................xxiii
Hnh 2.1: S chung ca h thng n sng mang.......................................xxvi
Hnh 2.2: S h thng a sng mang............................................................xxvi
Hnh 2.3a: Bn sng mang trc giao nhau......................................................xxvii
Hnh 2.3b: Ph ca 4 sng mang trc giao.....................................................xxviii
Hnh 2.4a: K thut a sng mang.................................................................xxviii
Hnh 2.4b: K thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao..................xxviii
Hnh 2.5: S h thng OFDM.......................................................................xxix
Hnh 2.6: Chm tn hiu M_QAM..................................................................xxxii
Hnh 2.7: Tin t lp (CP) trong OFDM........................................................xxxvii
Hnh 2.8: p ng xung ca knh truyn trong mi trng truyn a ng.
......................................................................................................................... xxxviii
Hnh 2.9: Tn hiu Pilot trong min thi gian v tn s......................................xl
Hnh 2.10: Tn hiu pilot trong min tn s..........................................................xl
Hnh 3.1: M hnh mt h thng MIMO tiu biu..............................................46
Hnh 3.2: M hnh phn tp khng gian..............................................................49
Hnh 3.3: M hnh b t hp kiu la chn.........................................................51
Hnh 3.4: B t hp kiu qut...............................................................................51
Hnh 3.5: Phng php kt hp t s cc i......................................................52
N TT NGHIP.
DANH MC HNH V.
Hnh 3.6: Phng php t s cc i vi 1Tx v 2Rx..........................................53
Hnh 3.7: S m ho Alamouti........................................................................56
Hnh 3.8: S gii m ca h thng STBC.......................................................58
Hnh 4.1: S pht v thu ca h thng MIMO-OFDM.................................61
Hnh 4.2: S khi ca b pht ca h thng MIMO_OFDM........................62
Hnh 4.3: S khi ca b thu ca h thng MIMO_OFDM..........................63
Hnh 4.4: Cu trc khung d liu MIMO-OFDM..............................................63
Hnh 4.5: M hnh h thng STBC-OFDM 2x2..................................................66
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
LI NI U
Mng thng tin di ng c nhng u im m mng c dy khng c c
nh: tnh lu ng, nhng ni c a hnh phc tp, trong khng gian..v..v. V vy
con ngi khng ngng nghin cu ci tin mng di ng tng ngy, t mng
2G ln 2,5G; 3G; 4G; xy dng cc m hnh mng WIFI, WIMAX. Song song vi
tng th h l cc gii php mi c a ra nh: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, OFDM,
MIMOMi gii php mi u c nhng u im hn gii php c nhng u
c pht trin theo xu hng sau: nng cao tc d liu, nng cao cht lng tn
hiu, m rng bng thng, cht lng dch v
Trong OFDM v MIMO l hai k thut mi nht ang c a vo th
nghim v tip tc nghin cu trong hin ti v tng lai. OFDM l k thut ghp
knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao, MIMO l k thut s dng nhiu anten
truyn v nhn d liu. OFDM th c a vo ng dng trong thc t nh:
truyn hnh s, pht thanh s, truyn hnh v tinh v em li nhng hiu qu
ng k. Cn MIMO l mt k thut mi nn vn cn ang trong qu trnh th
nghim v nghin cu.
Tuy nhin, hin nay ngi ta kt hp hai k thut MIMO v OFDM vo
mt s m hnh nh l WiMax, VoWifi trong cc tiu chun 802.16, 802.11n,
em li cc kt qu cao trong thc t.
Ni dung n ny trnh by tng quan v h thng MIMO-OFDM, trong s tp
trung vo m hnh STBC-OFDM.
Ni dung n chia lm 5 chng:
Chng 1: Tng quan v k thut MIMO-OFDM v h thng thng tin di ng.
Chng 2: K thut OFDM.
Chng 3: K thut MIMO.
Chng 4: K thut MIMO-OFDM.
Chng 5: M phng h thng MIMO-OFDM v nh gi cht lng h thng.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
nh gi cht lng ca cc h thng, trong n i su phn tch
tng thnh phn ca cc k thut, tng hp cc l thuyt v cc bi bo co khoa
hc v ti lin quan. Sau cng l thc hin m phng vi cc thng s v h
thng, mi trng truyn gn thc t nht kim nh li phn l thuyt cng nh
so snh cht lng gia cc h thng.
Trong qu trnh lm n, mc d rt c gng nhng cng khng th
trnh c sai st, em mong nhn c s ch dn ca cc thy c.
Em xin chn thnh cm n thy o Minh Hng, ngi trc tip hng dn
em hon thnh ti ny.
Xin gi li cm n n thy c trong khoa, anh ch kha trn, bn b h
tr ti liu, ng vin em thc hin tt n ny.
Sinh vin thc hin
Tng Xun Ngha
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Chng 1
TNG QUAN V K THUT MIMO-OFDM
V H THNG THNG TIN DI NG.
1.1. Gii thiu.
Chng ny gii thiu khi qut v k thut MIMO-OFDM v thng tin di
ng.
1.2. S lc v lch s pht trin trong thng tin di ng.
1.2.1. Gii thiu chung.
Thng tin di ng th h th nht c pht trin vo nhng nm cui thp
nin 70, s dng cng ngh a truy cp phn chia theo tn s FDMA (Frequency
Division Multiplex Access). in hnh cho th h ny l mt s h thng nh:
AMPS (Advance Mobile Phone Service): Dch v in thoi di ng tin
tin.
TACS (Total Access Communication System): H thng thng tin truy nhp
ton b.
NMT 450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone 450): H thng in thoi di ng Bc
u bng tn 450 Mhz.
NMT 900: H thng in thoi di ng Bc u bng tn 900Mhz.
NTT (Nipon Telegraph and Telephone): Do Nht Bn nghin cu v s
dng.
Mt s c im ca th h ny l: dung lng thp, s lng dch v khng
nhiu, cht lng km, ch cung cp dch v thoi
Thng tin di ng th h 2 s dng k thut s vi cc cng ngh a truy cp
phn chia theo thi gian TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) v phn chia theo
m CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access). Hai thng s quan trng c trng
cho cc h thng thng tin di ng s l tc bit thng tin ca ngi s dng v
tnh di ng. Mt s h thng thng tin di ng th h hai in hnh nh:
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
GSM (Global System For Mobile Communication): H thng thng tin di
ng ton cu.
IS-95 (Interim Standard 95): Tiu chun thng tin di ng CDMA ca M do
Qualcomm xut.
IS-136 (Interim Standard 136): Tiu chun thng tin di dng TDMA ci tin
ca M do AT&T xut.
PDC (Personal Digital Cell ): H thng t ong c nhn ca Nht Bn.
y l cc h thng thng tin di ng bng hp vi tc bit thng tin ca
ngi s dng l 8-13Kbps. Chng c nhng pht trin rt mnh vo nhng nm
1990. Tuy nhin s thu bao di ng khng ngng tng cng vi nhu cu v dch v
mi, c bit l cc dch v truyn s liu, roaming, cc yu cu v cht lng cuc
gi i hi cc nh thit k phi a ra cc h thng thng tin di ng mi.
Trong bi cnh ITU a ra n tiu chun ha thng tin di ng th h
th ba vi tn gi IMT-2000 nhm nng cao tc truy nhp, m rng nhiu loi
hnh dch v, ng thi tng thch vi cc h thng thng tin di ng hin c
m bo s pht trin lin tc ca thng tin di ng. Nhiu tiu chun cho IMT-
2000 c xut, trong hai h thng WCDMA v CDMA-2000 c
ITU chp nhn v a vo hot ng trong nhng nm u ca thp k 2000. Cc h
thng ny u s dng cng ngh CDMA. iu ny cho php thc hin tiu chun
ton th gii cho giao din v tuyn ca h thng thng tin di ng th h th 3.
WCDMA l s pht trin tip theo ca cc h thng thng tin di ng th h
th hai s dng cng ngh TDMA nh: GSM, PDC, IS-136. CDMA-2000 s l s
pht trin tip theo ca h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 s dng cng ngh
CDMA IS-95.
Nhng khng d pht trin t th h hai sang th h ba do cc vn k
thut gia hai th h c nhng im khc nhau. Th gii c xu hng qu ln th
h 2.5 trc khi trin khai th h 3. Cc dch v mng mi v ci thin cc dch v
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
lin quan n truyn s liu nh nn s liu ngi s dng, s liu chuyn mch
knh tc cao, dch v v tuyn gi a nng v s liu 144 Kbps.
Thng tin di ng th h th ba l th h thng tin di ng cho cc dch v
truyn thng c nhn a phng tin. Mt s yu cu chung i vi h thng thng
tin di ng th h th 3:
Mng phi l bng rng v c kh nng truyn thng a phng tin.
Ngha l mng phi m bo c tc bit ca ngi s dng n
2Mbps.
Mng phi c kh nng cung cp rng bng tn theo yu cu. iu
ny xut pht t vic thay i tc bit ca cc dch v khc nhau.
Ngoi ra cn m bo ng truyn v tuyn khng i xng: tc
bit cao ng xung v tc bit thp ng ln.
Mng phi cung cp thi gian truyn dn theo yu cu. Ngha l phi
m bo cc kt ni chuyn mch cho thoi, cc dch v video v cc
kh nng s ha cc dch v s liu.
Cht lng dch v phi khng thua km cht lng dch v mng c
nh nht l i vi thoi.
Mng phi c kh nng s dng ton cu, ngha l bao gm c thng
tin v tinh.
t c nhng yu cu ny phi k n nhng k thut gp phn gii
quyt nhng vn trong lnh vc thng tin di ng: s hn ch v dung lng
h thng, tc truyn d liu ca ngi dng, cht lng dch v, tui th ca pin
trong cc thit b di ng
1.2.2. Nhng tn ti kh khn v k thut trong lnh vc thng tin di ng.
Dung lng trong cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 1 v 2 b hn ch
nhiu do s dng cc k thut a truy cp FDMA, TDMA hoc CDMA. Cc k
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
thut ny xc nh ngi dng bng vic cp pht mt tn s hoc mt khe thi gian
hoc mt m tri ph duy nht khi h ng nhp vo h thng. Nhng ph tn dnh
cho thng tin di ng th c hn. CDMA cng lm tng dung lng h thng ng
k nhng n li dn n s gia tng nhiu ng knh v nhiu xuyn knh do mt
phn b cao ca ngi dng trong mt cell. Do dung lng h thng khng
cao.
Bn cnh cht lng dch v ca ngi dng cng gim do fading v
nhiu ng knh, nhiu xuyn knh khi h di chuyn. Cc h thng thng tin di
ng th h ba s cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v bao gm cc dch v thoi v s
liu tc thp hin nay cho n cc dch v s liu tc cao, video v truyn
thanh. Tc cc i ca ngi s dng s ln n 2MHz. Nhng tc cc i
ny ch c trong cc pico trong nh, cn cc dch v vi tc 14.4Kbps s c
m bo cho di ng thng thng cc macro.
Nhng kh khn trn s c khc phc bi k thut MIMO_OFDM.Trong
n ny s tp trung trnh by k thut ny.
1.3. Mi trng v tuyn trong thng tin di ng.
Trong mt knh v tuyn l tng, tn hiu thu c ch bao gm mt tn
hiu n trc tip v s l bn thu c hon ho ca tn hiu khc. Tuy nhin,
trong mt knh thc t, tn hiu b thay i trong sut qu trnh truyn, tn hiu nhn
c s l s tng hp ca cc thnh phn b suy gim, thnh phn phn x, khc
x, nhiu x ca tn hiu khc. Quan trng nht l knh truyn s cng nhiu vo tn
hiu v c th gy ra s dch tn s sng mang nu my pht hoc thu di chuyn
(hiu ng Doppler). Cht lng ca h thng v tuyn ph thuc vo cc c tnh
knh truyn. Do , hiu bit v cc nh hng ca knh truyn ln tn hiu l vn
rt quan trng.
Knh truyn tn hiu OFDM l mi trng truyn sng in t gia my
pht v my thu. Trong qu trnh truyn, knh truyn chu nh hng ca cc loi
nhiu nh: nhiu Gauss trng cng, Fading phng, Fading chn lc tn s, Fading
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
nhiu tiaTrong knh truyn v tuyn th tc ng ca tp m bn ngoi v nhiu
giao thoa l rt ln. Knh truyn v tuyn l mi trng truyn a ng v chu
nh hng ng k ca Fading nhiu tia, Fading la chn tn s.
S phn x: xut hin khi sng in t c truyn i, va p trn mt vt c
chiu di rt ln so vi bc sng ca sng in t. Phn x xut hin t mt t,
cc ta cao c
S nhiu x: xut hin khi ng truyn v tuyn gia b pht v b thu b
mt b mt c cnh nhn chn li, nhng sng ph do vt cn to ra khp ni.
tn s cao, nhiu x cng nh phn x ph thuc vo dng hnh hc ca
vt th, bin , pha v s phn cc ca sng ti ti im nhiu x. Mc d cng
trng gim nhanh khi b thu i vo vng chn (vng ti), cng nhiu x
cng c v thng l ng k to tn hiu c ch.
S tn x: xut hin khi sng lan truyn qua mi trng m di ca cc
vt th l nh so vi bc sng v s vt cn trn n v th tch mi trng l rt
ln. Cc b mt nhp nh, nhng vt th nh, s thay i bt thng ca knh
truyn to ra sng tn x. Thc t th tn l rm, bng ng, ct in to ra hin
tng tn x trong thng tin di ng.
Vi c tnh l truyn tn hiu trn cc sng mang trc giao, phn chia bng
thng gc thnh rt nhiu cc bng con u nhau, k thut OFDM khc phc
c nh hng ca fading la chon tn s, cc knh con c th c coi l cc
knh fading khng la chn tn s. Vi vic s dng tin t lp (CP), k thut
OFDM hn ch c nh hng ca fading nhiu tia, m bo s ng b k t
v ng b sng mang.
1.3.1. Mo bin .
1.3.1.1. M hnh fading Rayleigh.
Mobile Station (MS) khng ch nhn tn hiu pht m cn nhn nhiu phin
bn ca tn hiu pht do phn x hoc nhiu x t cc ta nh v cc yu t khc.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Pha ca tn hiu nhn l tng pha ca cc tn hiu, vi mi pha thay i ngu nhin
trong khong [0, 2

]. T l thuyt gii hn trung tm ta c dng sng nhn c c


c tnh nhiu Gaussian thng di. V vy hm pdf ca cc thnh phn ng pha v
vung pha ca tn hiu nhn c l Gaussian vi trung bnh khng v phng sai
ng nht theo nh l gii hn trung tm. Hnh bao pdf ca chng theo phn b
Rayleigh:
2 2
/ 2
2
( ) , 0
r
r
P r e r


(1.1)
2
l phng sai
V phn b ca l:
1
( ) , 0 2
2
p

<
(1.2)
Hnh 1.1: Hm pdf theo phn b Rayleigh.
1.3.1.2. M hnh fading Rician.
Nu trong s nhng thnh phn ca tn hiu nhn c c mt ng tri
nh ng truyn trc tuyn cc thnh phn ng pha v vung pha khng cn c
trung bnh khng d phng sai ca chng vn ging nhau. Khi hm pdf ca tn
hiu nhn c c phn b Rician:
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
2 2
2
( )
2
0
2 2
Ar
( ) 0
( )
0 0
A r
r
e I r
p r
r

'

(1.3)
Vi I
0
l hm Bessel bin i bc 0 loi 1
Gi K l t s nng lng gia thnh phn tri vi cc thnh phn tn x
khc:
2
2
2
A
K

(1.4)
Nu khng c thnh phn tri A=0, I
0
= 1, hm pdf Rician suy gim thnh
hm pdf Rayleigh. Khi A kh ln so vi

, phn b l xp x Gaussian. V vy c
th ni knh fading Rician l trng hp chung nht.
Thnh phn tri thng lm gim ng k su fading. V mt BER fading
Rician c cht lng cao hn fading Rayleigh.
Hnh 1.2: Hm pdf Rician vi nhng gi tr khc nhau ca K.
1.3.1.3. Thng k ca fading.
a) Fast fading.
Tn hiu bng tn gc thay i nhanh nh th no so vi tc thay i ca
knh s quyt nh mt knh l slow fading hay fast fading. Trong mt knh fast
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
fading, p ng xung ca knh thay i nhanh trong mt chu k symbol. V thng
do phn x nhiu tia ca sng truyn, do cc vt th tn x nh nh ca hoc rng
cyNgi ta thng xt fading trong tng 1/2 bc sng. Hnh bao ca tn hiu
nhn c c fast fading thng theo phn b Rayleigh hoc Rician.
Hai thng s quan trng ca fast fading l tc vt mc v thi gian
fading trung bnh. Tc vt mc nh ngha l tng s ln b fading trong mt
khong thi gian chia cho chnh khong thi gian . Nu bit c thi gian
fading trung bnh ta c th chn k thut m ha kim sot li thch hp trong
truyn dn s. Cn thi gian fading trung bnh l tng thi gian ca tng fading chia
cho tng s ln xy ra fading. Gi tr ny dng c on s bit b li trong mt
ln fading. iu ny li c s dng chn phng thc m ha knh thch hp
trong h thng. Trong thc t fast fading ch xut hin vi tc d liu rt thp.
b) Slow fading.
Slow fading l s thay i ca suy hao c ly trung bnh trong khong vi
mt v ch yu l do phn b a hnh v mi trng xy dng gia MS v BS.
Thng thng Slow fading phn b theo hm lognomal, v vy hnh bao ca tn
hiu nhn c tnh theo n v dB tun theo phn b Gaussian. Slow fading cn
c gi l hin tng bng m.
Mt knh c gi l fast fading hay slow fading khng hn n l knh
fading phng hay knh fading la chn tn s. Fast fading ch cp n tc
thay i ca knh do s chuyn ng. Mt s ngi thng nhm ln gia thut
ng fast fading v slow fading vi thut ng fading din rng v fading din hp.
Cn nhn mnh rng fast fading v slow fading lin quan n mi quan h gia t l
thi gian thay i trong knh v tn hiu pht, m khng lin quan n m hnh suy
hao ng truyn.
1.3.2. Suy hao ng truyn.
Ti anten pht, cc sng v tuyn s c truyn i theo mi hng (ngha l
sng c m rng theo hnh cu). Ngay c khi chng ta dng anten nh hng
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
truyn tn hiu, sng cng c m rng di dng hnh cu nhng mt nng
lng khi s c tp trung vo mt vng no do ta thit k. V th, mt
cng sut ca sng gim t l vi din tch mt cu. Hay ni cch khc l cng
sng gim t l vi bnh phng khong cch.
Cng sut thu c sau khi truyn tn hiu qua mt khong cch R:
2
4

,
_

R
G G P P
R T T R

(1.5)
P
R
: Cng sut tn hiu thu c (W).
P
T
:

Cng sut pht (W).
G
R
: li anten thu (anten ng hng).
G
p
: li anten pht.
: Bc sng ca sng mang.
R: Khong cch truyn.
Hoc ta c th vit li l:
R T R T R
T
G G
f R
c G G
R
P
P 1 1 4 1 1 4
2 2
2 2

,
_

,
_

(1.6)
Gi L
pt
l h s suy hao do vic truyn dn trong khng gian t do:
L
pt
(dB)=P
T
(dB) - P
R
(dB)
=-10logG
T
-10log10G
R
+20logf+20logR-47.6dB (1.7)
Ni chung truyn dn trong khng gian t do rt n gin, chng ta c th
xy dng m hnh chnh xc cho cc tuyn thng tin v tinh v cc tuyn lin lc
trc tip (khng b vt cn) nh cc tuyn lin lc vi ba im ni im trong phm
vi ngn. Tuy nhin, cho hu ht cc tuyn thng tin trn mt t nh thng tin di
ng, mng LAN khng dy, mi trng truyn dn phc tp hn nhiu do vic
to ra cc m hnh cng kh khn hn. V d i vi nhng knh truyn dn v
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
tuyn di ng UHF, khi iu kin v khng gian t do khng c tha, chng
ta c cng thc tnh suy hao ng truyn nh sau:
R h h G G L
MS BS R T pl
log 40 log 20 log 20 log 10 log 10
10

(1.8)
Vi h
BS
, h
MS
<< R l cao anten trm pht v anten ca MS.
1.3.3. Tri tr trong hin tng a ng.
Tn hiu nhn c ni thu gm tn hiu thu trc tip v cc thnh phn phn
x. Tn hiu phn x n sau tn hiu thu trc tip v n phi truyn qua mt khong
di hn, v nh vy n s lm nng lng thu c tri rng theo thi gian. Khong
tri tr (delay spread) c nh ngha l khong chnh lch thi gian gia tn hiu
thu trc tip v tn hiu phn x thu c cui cng. Trong thng tin v tuyn, tri
tr c th gy nn nhiu xuyn k t nu nh h thng khng c cch khc phc.
1.3.4. Tp m trng Gauss.
Tp m trng Gaussian l loi nhiu ph bin nht trong h thng truyn dn.
Loi nhiu ny c mt ph cng sut l ng u trong c bng thng v
c phn b Gaussian v bin . Theo phng thc tc ng th nhiu Gaussian l
nhiu cng. Vy dng knh truyn ph bin l knh truyn chu tc ng ca nhiu
Gaussian trng cng. Nhiu nhit (sinh ra do s chuyn ng nhit ca cc ht
mang in gy ra) l loi nhiu tiu biu cho nhiu Gaussian trng cng tc ng
n knh truyn dn. c bit, trong h thng OFDM, khi s sng mang ph l rt
ln th hu ht cc thnh phn nhiu khc cng c th c coi l nhiu Gaussian
trng cng tc ng trn tng knh con v xt trn tng knh con ring l th c
im ca cc loi nhiu ny tha mn cc iu kin ca nhiu Gaussian trng cng.
Hu ht cc loi nhiu trong h thng thng tin v tuyn c th c m
hnh ho chnh xc nh dng d liu Gauss trng cng (AWGN).
Nh vy tn hiu khi truyn qua knh truyn AWGN phi thm vo mt tn
hiu ngu nhin khng mong mun phn b theo hm Gauss:
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
2
2
( )
2
1
( )
2
x
p x
e

(1.9)
1.3.5. Hin tng Doppler.
Hnh 1.3: M hnh hin tng Doppler.
Khi u pht v u thu chuyn ng tng i so vi nhau, tn s sng
mang nhn bao gi cng khc tn s sng mang truyn f
C
. Xt trng hp khi MS
di chuyn vi vn tc khng i v vi gc so vi tn hiu n. Tn hiu nhn
c l:
[ ] { }
( ) Re exp 2 ( )
C D
S t A j f f t
(1.10)
Trong A l bin , f
C
l tn s pht, f
D
l dch Dopper.
os( )= cos( )
c
D
vf v
f c
c

(1.11)
Nh vy tn s nhn l:
f
r
= f
C
- f
D
(1.12)
Dch Dopper cc i:
f
m
=
c
vf
c
(1.13)
N TT NGHIP.
S
Di ng
v
X Y
l V

LI NI U.
Tn s dch Doppler c th dng hoc m ty thuc vo u thu di chuyn
v pha u pht hay i cch xa u pht. Trong mi trng thc t, tn hiu n
theo cc ng phn x khc nhau vi khong cch v gc n khc nhau. Xt mt
sng pht dng sin, thay v l mt dch Doppler n gin ta nhn c on ph
tri rng t
(1 / )
c
f v c
n
(1 / )
c
f v c +
ch s tri ph Doppler. Khi mi hng
ca trm di ng hoc mi gc n gi s c xc sut bng nhau (phn phi u ),
mt ph cng sut ca tn hiu nhn c tnh theo cng thc:
2
1
( )
2
1 ( )
M c
m
K
S f
f f f
f

(1.14)
Vi K l hng s.
Khi hm t tng quan ca tn hiu nhn c l:
c 0
( ) . os(2 f ) (2 )
s m
R K c J f
(1.15)
J
0
l hm Bessel bc khng.
Dch Doppler c th gy ra cc vn quan trng nu k thut truyn dn
nhy cm vi lch tn s sng mang chng hn nh k thut OFDM.
1.4. Tng quan v k thut MIMO-OFDM.
Vi s pht trin dch v di ng, ngy cng yu cu tc cao (bng thng
rng) v cht lng thng tin tt.
Trong k thut OFDM v MIMO c s dng p ng yu cu
trn. K thut MIMO gip tng tc d liu v vn gi c tin cy thng tin,
gim cng sut pht. V k thut OFDM gip chng nhiu, tng c li truyn tin
trong mi trng khng dy. K thut MIMO-OFDM l s kt hp ca hai k thut
MIMO v OFDM tn dng c hai u im ca cc k thut, mang li cht lng
thng tin trao i l tt nht.
1.4.1. nh ngha v khi nim.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
OFDM vit tt ca Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing, l k thut
ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao. OFDM l k thut chia dng d liu ban
u tc cao thnh nhiu dng d liu tc thp hn. Mi dng d liu ny s
c truyn trn mt sng mang con. Cc sng mang con c iu ch trc giao
vi nhau. Sau sng mang con c tng hp vi nhau v c chuyn ln tn s
cao truyn i. Ti u thu, d liu s c a v bng tn c s bi b trn. Sau
c tch thnh cc lung d liu tc thp. Loi b sng mang con, chuyn
v cc lung tn hiu gc. Cui cng c tng hp thnh lung d liu ban u.
MIMO vit tt ca Multi Input Multi Output, l k thut s dng nhiu anten
pht hoc nhiu anten pht v thu nhm t c tin cy ca tn hiu truyn dn
v tc d liu cao. K thut MIMO l chia dng d liu ban u thnh cc dng
d liu con theo mt thun ton cho trc, sau a tng dng d liu ny n
cc anten tng ng v truyn i. Pha thu s nhn c cc dng d liu ny, s
dng cc thut ton thch hp tng hp li dng d liu ban u.
MIMO-OFDM l s kt hp c hai k thut OFDM v MIMO trn.
1.4.2. K thut MIMO-OFDM.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Hnh 1.4: M hnh tng qut h thng MIMO-OFDM.
Khi pht MIMO-OFDM: Mt chui tn hiu u vo s c khi MIMO
m ho v tch ra thnh cc dy tn hiu ring bit. Tng dy tn hiu ny s c
a vo khi pht OFDM tng ng chuyn thnh cc tn hiu OFDM. Sau
c a n khi TX chuyn thnh tn hiu cao tn v truyn i qua cc anten.
Khi thu MIMO-OFDM: Tn hiu cao tn c thu nhn bi cc anten
khi thu. B RX s chuyn tn hiu cao tn thnh cc tn hiu tn s thp. Khi thu
OFDM s chuyn tn hiu OFDM thnh cc tn hiu thng thng. Khi thu MIMO
s gii m v tng hp cc dy tn hiu sau khi thu OFDM thnh mt chui tn
hiu ban u.
1.5. Kt lun chng.
K thut MIMO-OFDM ra i to ra rt nhiu u im cho h thng
thng tin di ng. l cho hiu nng ph cao, thch ng vi truyn dn a ng
trong h thng truyn dn khng dy, tn dng c s phn tp anten t ci
N TT NGHIP.
Khi
pht
MIMO
Khi pht
OFDM 1
Khi pht
OFDM n
TX
1
TX
n
.
.
.
.
Anten 1
Anten n
Bits
input
RX
1
RX
m
Khi thu
OFDM m
Khi thu
OFDM 1
Khi thu
MIMO
.
.
.
.
Bits
output
Anten 1
Anten m
Khi pht MIMO-OFDM
Khi nhn MIMO-OFDM
LI NI U.
thin cht lng tn hiu ti u thu, chng c hin tng Fading nh hng n
h thng bng rng.
Cc chng sau s trnh by chi tit tng k thut OFDM, MIMO v s kt
hp MIMO-OFDM.
Chng 2
K THUT OFDM.
2.1. Gii thiu.
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) l ghp knh phn
chia theo tn s trc giao. OFDM l k thut chia dng d liu ban u tc cao
thnh nhiu dng d liu tc thp hn. Mi dng d liu ny s c truyn trn
mt sng mang con. Cc sng mang con c iu ch trc giao vi nhau. Sau
sng mang con c tng hp vi nhau v c chuyn ln tn s cao truyn i.
Ti u thu, d liu s c a v bng tn c s bi b trn. Sau c
tch thnh cc lung d liu tc thp, loi b sng mang con, chuyn v cc
lung tn hiu gc, tng hp thnh lung d liu ban u.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
K thut OFDM truyn thng tin trn cc sng mang con c iu ch trc
giao vi nhau nn c rt nhiu u im trong thng tin di ng nhng cng c vi
khuyt im cn khc phc.
u im ca OFDM:
Gim nhiu xuyn knh.
Gim nhiu xuyn k t.
Hiu sut s dng bng thng cao.
Hot ng tt trong cc knh fading nhiu tia.
Khuyt im ca OFDM:
K t symbol OFDM b nhiu bin trong mt khong ng rt ln. V
t s PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) cao ca OFDM. D gy nhiu xuyn
iu ch.
Mo nhiu (distortion) trong bng ln bc x ngoi bng do rt ngn
(clipping) tn hiu.
OFDM nhy vi tn s offset v s trt ca sng mang hn cc h thng
n sng mang con khc. Tn s offset ca sng mang gy nhiu cho cc sng
mang con trc giao v gy ra nhiu lin knh lm gim hot ng cho cc b iu
ch mt cch trm trng. V vy ng b l mt vn cc k cn thit i vi b
thu OFDM.
2.2. Khi nim chung.
2.2.1. H thng n sng mang.
H thng n sng mang l h thng m d liu c iu ch v truyn i
ch trn mt sng mang.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Hnh 2.1: S chung ca h thng n sng mang.
Vi qu trnh iu ch n sng mang, tn hiu c biu din nh sau:
( )


l
s l
lT t g a t S ) (
(2.1)
Trong a
l
l d liu u vo ca k t th l.
2.2.2. H thng a sng mang.
H thng a sng mang l h thng c d liu c iu ch v truyn i
trn nhiu sng mang khc nhau. C th hn, h thng a sng mang chia tn hiu
ban u thnh cc lung tn hiu khc nhau, v iu ch mi dng tn hiu vi cc
sng mang khc nhau. Cc tn hiu c truyn trn cc knh tn s khc nhau, sau
ghp nhng knh ny li theo kiu FDM. pha thu, b tch knh s a n b
thu cc knh c tn s khc nhau, sau chng c gii iu ch to ra tn hiu
gc ban u.
Hnh 2.2: S h thng a sng mang.
H thng a sng mang, tn hiu c th c biu din nh sau:
2 ( )
1
( ) ( )
k s
N
j f t iT
ki s
i k
s t c e f t iT

(2.2)
C
ik
l k hiu th I ti sng mang k; f(t) l dng xung ca k hiu
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
f
k
=
1
s
k
T

; f =
1
s
T
(2.3)
Nu ta s dng dng xung ch nht th:
f(t)=
1; 0
0; 0;
s
s
t T
t t T
<
'

(2.4)
2.2.3. Tn hiu trc giao.
Cc tn hiu l trc giao nu chng c lp vi nhau. Tn hiu trc giao c
tnh cht cho php truyn v thu tt nhiu tn hiu trn cng mt knh truyn m
khng gy ra nhiu xuyn k t gia cc tn hiu ny.
Tnh trc giao ca tn hiu c th hin dng ph ca n trong min tn
s. Trong min tn s, mi sng mang con ca tn hiu trc giao c p ng tn s
l sin hay sin(x)/x. Bin hm sine c dng bp chnh hp v nhiu bp ph c
bin gim dn khi cng xa tn s trung tm. Mi sng mang ca tn hiu c bin
nh tai tn s trung tm ca n v bng 0 ti tn s trung tm ca sng mang
khc. Do ta gi cc tn hiu trc giao nhau.
V d: gi s 4 tn hiu trc giao c iu ch bi 4 sng mang con hnh
sine sau:
Hnh 2.3a: Bn sng mang trc giao nhau.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Hnh 2.3b: Ph ca 4 sng mang trc giao.
Hnh 2.4a: K thut a sng mang.
Hnh 2.4b: K thut ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao.
2.3. S h thng OFDM bng c s.
N TT NGHIP.
Ch.1 Ch.2 Ch.3 Ch.4 Ch.5 Ch.6 Ch.7 Ch.8 Ch.9 Ch.10
Frequency
Saving of bandwidth
Frequency
LI NI U.
Hnh 2.5: S h thng OFDM.
Khi sp xp v m ho: m ho dng d liu bng thut ton FEC
(Forward error correcing) v c sp xp theo mt trnh t hn hp.
Khi S/P: chuyn dng d liu nh phn tc cao ban u thnh cc
dng d liu song song tc thp hn.
Khi chn pilot: chn cc chui gi nhiu, gip ta c lng c quay
pha do li tn s gy ra.
Khi IDFT: dng thut ton IFFT, tnh ton cc mu thi gian tng ng
vi cc knh nhnh trong min tn s.
Khi chn di bo v: chn cc khong bo v gim nhiu xuyn k t.
AWGN: Nhiu Gause trng cng, do tc ng trong qu trnh truyn d
liu.
Khi c lng knh: c lng knh (Channel Estimation) trong h
thng OFDM l xc nh hm truyn t ca cc knh con v thi gian thc hin
gii iu ch bn thu khi bn pht s dng kiu iu ch kt hp (coherent
modulation).
N TT NGHIP.
+
AWGN
Sp xp
v m
ho
S/P
Chn
pilot IDFT
Chn
di bo
v
P/S Knh
gii m
v sp
xp li
P/S
c
lng
knh
DFT
Loi b
di bo
v
S/P
d
liu
nh
phn
ra
d
liu
nh
phn
vo
X(k) x(n) x
f
(n)
w(n)
y
f
(n) y(n) Y(k)
LI NI U.
Cc khi pha my thu OFDM th thc hin qu trnh ngc li vi cc
khi my pht.
2.4. C s ton hc.
2.4.1. Trc giao.
Xt tp hp N sng mang con f
n
(t), trong n = 0,1,,N-1. t
1
t t
2
.
Tp hp sng mang ny s trc giao khi :
2
1
*
0;
( ) ( )
;
t
n m
t
n m
f t f t
K n m

'

(2.5)
K: hng s ;
Sng mang OFDM thng c dng:
t f j
n
n
e f
2

(2.6)
Trong : f
n
= f
0
+ nf = f
0
+ n/T.
f
0
: dch tn ban u.
f l chnh lch gia 2 tn s sng mang gn nhau.
2.4.2. IFFT/FFT.
DFT (discrete fourier transform) l bin i Fourier ri rc. IDFT (inversion
discrete fourier transform) l bin i ngc Fourier ri rac. IFFT/FFT l thut ton
gip thc hin nhanh php chuyn i IDFT/ DFT.
IDFT c s dng bin i chui d liu c chiu di N{X(k)} thnh
cc tn hiu ri rc trong min thi gian {x(n) }theo cng thc sau:
N l chiu di DFT.
DFT c s dng bin i tn hiu ri rc trong min thi gian y(n) thnh
chui d liu Y(k) theo cng thc sau:
N TT NGHIP.
(2.7)
LI NI U.
2N-IFFT/FFT :
Tn hiu vo b 2N-IFFT/FFT l chui tn hiu thc c di 2N, thay th
cho chui tn hiu phc c di N. Nguyn tc to ra chui tn hiu X(k) c
di 2N thay th cho chui tn hiu phc X(k) c di N l :
'
*
( ), 1,..., 1
( )
(2 ), 1,.., 2 1
X k k N
X k
X N k k N N

'
+

(2.9)
V
) 0 ( Im( ) ( '
) 0 ( Re( ) 0 (
'
X N X
X X


(2.10)
2.5. Cc k thut c bn trong OFDM.
2.5.1. S iu ch/Gii iu ch.
Trong h thng OFDM tn hiu vo l lung bit dng nh phn. Nn trong
h thng OFDM l cc qu trnh iu ch s v c th c chn da trn yu cu
cng sut v hiu sut s dng bng thng knh.
K thut iu ch QAM.
Trong h thng PSK, cc thnh phn ng pha v vung pha c kt hp
vi nhau sao cho to thnh mt tn hiu ng bao khng i. Tuy nhin, nu loi
b iu ny v cc thnh phn ng pha v vung pha c th c lp vi nhau th
ta c mt s iu ch mi gi l iu bin cu phng QAM (iu ch bin
vung gc). s iu ch ny, sng mang b iu ch c bin v pha.
iu ch QAM c u im l tng dung lng ng truyn dn s.
Dng tng qut ca iu ch QAM M trng thi ( M_QAM ) c xc nh
nh sau:
0 0
1
2 2
( ) cos(2 ) sin(2 )
i c i c
E E
S t a f t b f t
T T
+ ; ( ) 0 t T
(2.11)
N TT NGHIP.
(2.8)
LI NI U.
Trong :
E
0
l nng lng ca tn hiu c bin thp nht.
a
i
, b
i
l cp s nguyn c lp c chn tu theo v tr k t trong chm sao.
Tn hiu sng mang gm 2 thnh phn vung gc c iu ch bi mt tp
hp tn hiu ri rc v th c tn l iu ch bin vung gc.
C th phn tch S
i
(t) thnh cp hm c s:
1
2
( ) sin(2 )
i c
t b f t
T
; ( ) 0 t T
(2.12)
2
2
( ) cos(2 )
i c
t a f t
T
; ( ) 0 t T
(2.13)
Hnh 2.6: Chm tn hiu M_QAM.
Dng iu ch c th c qui nh bi s trng thi ng vo M v s phc
ng ra.
d
n
= a
n
+ jb
n
; ( 1 =j); (2.14)
a
n
v b
n
c th c chn nh sau:
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
M Dng iu ch a
n
, b
n
2 BPSK 1
4 QPSK 1
16 16-QAM 1, 3
64 64-QAM 1, 3, 5, 7
2.5.2. M ho knh.
Trong h thng thng tin s ni chung, m ha sa sai theo phng php
FEC (Forward Error Correcting) c s dng nng cao cht lng thng tin, c
th l m bo t s li trong gii hn cho php m khng phi nng cao gi tr t
s Eb/No, iu ny cng th hin r knh truyn b tc ng ca AWGN.
M ha FEC c chia thnh 2 loi m chnh: m khi (block coding) v m
chp (convolutional coding). Ngoi ra, ngi ta cn dng m ha Trellis, y l
kiu m ha xem nh gn ging vi m ha chp.
Vi m ha khi: Lung bit vo c chia thnh nhng nhm c k bit, mi
nhm c thm vo nhng bit kim tra to thnh nhm mi c n bit (n>k). S
bit kim tra thm vo y l (n-k) bit. V d: m khi tuyn tnh, m Hamming, m
Reed Solomon.
Vi m chp: c trng bi 3 thng s l (n, k, m), trong : n l s bit ra, k
l s bit vo, m l s bit trc . Vy n bit ca t m ra khng ch ph thuc vo k
bit vo m cn ph thuc vo (m-1)k bit thng tin trc (c gi l cc bit
trng thi). n bit ng ra c to ra bng cch chp k bit ng vo vi mt p ng
xung nh phn. M chp c xy dng bi mch dy. T s R=k/n c gi l t
s m, tng s ghi dch l (k.m) .
Vi m Trellis: l mt dng ca m chp nhng c thm phn m ha. S
dng m ha Trellis s cho hiu qu tt nht phn sp xp (mapping) khi ta s
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
dng m ha M-QAM vi M khc nhau trn cc sng mang nhnh khc nhau. Bn
thu c th s dng thut ton Viterbi. Viterbi l gii thut gii m ho.
Trong OFDM, theo mt s khuyn ngh, ngi ta cn kt hp m ha vi k
thut xen r (interleaving) trn gin thi gian tn s khc phc li chm
(burst error) thng xut hin trong thng tin a sng mang do hin tng Fading
la chn tn s. Cc li chm khng th c sa bi cc loi m ha knh. Nh
vo k thut xen r, ngi ta chuyn li chm (nu c xy ra) thnh cc li ngu
nhin v cc li ngu nhin ny d dng c khc phc bi cc loi m ha knh.
2.5.3. Sp xp.
Sau khi c m ha v xen r, cc dng bit trn cc nhnh s c iu
ch BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, hoc 64-QAM. Dng bit trn mi nhnh c sp xp
thnh cc nhm c N bits (1, 2, 4, 6) khc nhau tng ng vi cc phng php
iu ch BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM. Hay ni cch khc dng iu ch c
quy nh bi s bit ng vo v cp gi tr (I, Q) ng ra.
Chng hn: khi ta s dng phng php iu ch 64-QAM th s c 6 bit u
vo c t chc thnh mt nhm tng ng cho mt s phc trn th hnh sao
c trng cho kiu iu ch 64-QAM (64-QAM constellation). Trong 6 bit th 3 bit
LSB (b
0
b
1
b
2
) s biu th cho gi tr ca I, cn 3 bit MSB (b
3
b
4
b
5
) biu th cho gi
tr ca Q
b
0
b
1
b
2
I b
3
b
4
b
5
Q
000 -7 000 -7
001 -5 001 -5
011 -3 011 -3
010 -1 010 -1
110 1 110 1
111 3 111 3
101 5 101 5
100 7 100 7
2.5.4. K thut IFFT/FFT trong OFDM.
OFDM l k thut iu ch a sng mang, trong d liu c truyn song
song nh rt nhiu sng mang ph. lm c iu ny, c mi knh ph, ta cn
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
mt my pht sng sin, mt b iu ch v mt b gii iu ch. Trong trng hp
s knh ph l kh ln th cch lm trn khng hiu qu, nhiu khi l khng th
thc hin c. Nhm gii quyt vn ny, khi thc hin chc nng bin i
DFT/IDFT c dng thay th ton b cc b to dao ng sng sin, b iu
ch, gii iu ch dng trong mi knh ph. FFT/IFFT c xem l mt thut ton
gip cho vic thc hin php bin i DFT/IDFT nhanh v gn hn bng cch gim
s php nhn phc khi thc hin php bin i DFT/IDFT v gip tit kim b nh
bng cch tnh ti ch.
Ta quy c : Chui tn hiu vo X(k) , 0 k N-1 ,
Khong cch gia cc tn s sng mang l : f
Chu k ca mt k t OFDM l : Ts
Tn s trn sng mang th k l
f
k
= f
0
+ kf (2.15)
gi s f
0
= 0, suy ra:
f
k
= nf (2.16)
Tn hiu pht i c th biu din di dng:

1
0
2
) ( ) (
N
k
ft k j
a
e k X t x

, s
T t 0
(2.17)
Nu ly mu tn hiu vi mt chu k T
s
/N, tc l chn N mu trong mt chu
k tn hiu, phng trnh (2.17) c vit li nh sau :


1
0
/ 2
) ( ) ( ) (
N
k
N fT nk j
s N
n
a a
s
e k X T x n x

(2.18)
Nu tha mn iu kin
1
s
fT
,
) (
1
s
T
f
, th cc sng mang s trc
giao vi nhau, lc ny, phng trnh (2.18) c vit li :
{X(k)} . ) ( ) (
1
0
/ 2
IDFT N e k X n x
N
k
N nk j
a

(2.19)
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Phng trnh trn chng t tn hiu ra ca b IDFT l mt tn hiu ri rc
cng c chiu di l N nhng trong min thi gian.
Ti b thu, b DFT c s dng ly li tn hiu X(k) ban u
Tht vy, ta c :
N nk j
N
n
a
e n x n DFT k X
/ 2
1
0
a
*
) ( } ) ( {x ) (

1
0
1
0
/ ) ( 2
1
) (
N
n
N
m
N k m n j
N
e m X



1
0
1
0
1
0
1
/ ) ( 2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
N
m
N
n
N
m
N
N k m n j
N
k m N m X e m X

1
0
) ( ) (
N
m
k m m X
=
) (k X
(2.20)
y, hm
) ( k m
l hm delta, c nh ngha l :

'

0 0
0 1
) (
n khi
n khi
n
(2.21)
Khi yu cu truyn i X(k) di dng phc th hin mc iu ch QAM
khc nhau trn cc sng mang khc nhau (hay s bit truyn i trn cc knh truyn
ph l khc nhau), c th s dng b 2N-IFFT/FFT.
2.5.5. Tin t lp CP.
Tin t lp (CP) l mt k thut x l tn hiu trong OFDM nhm hn ch
n mc thp nht nh hng ca nhiu xuyn k t (ISI), nhiu xuyn knh (ICI)
n tn hiu OFDM, m bo yu cu v tnh trc giao ca cc sng mang ph.
thc hin k thut ny, trong qu trnh x l tn hiu, tn hiu OFDM c lp li
c chu k v phn lp li pha trc mi k t OFDM c s dng nh l mt
khong thi gian bo v gia cc k t pht k nhau.Vy sau khi chn thm khong
bo v, thi gian truyn mt k t (T
s
) lc ny bao gm thi gian khong bo v
(T
g
) v thi gian truyn thng tin c ch (cng chnh l khong thi gian b
IFFT/FFT pht i mt k t)
Ta c : T
s
= T
g
+ T
FFT
(2.22)
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
k t i-1 k t i k t i+1
T
s
Hnh 2.7: Tin t lp (CP) trong OFDM.
K t OFDM lc ny c dng:

'


+ +

1 , ,... 1 , 0 ) (
1 , ,... 1 , ) (
) (
N n n x
n N n x
n x
T

(2.23)
Chiu di ca di bo v b hn ch nhm m bo hiu sut s dng di tn.
Tuy nhin, n phi bng hoc ln hn gi tr tri tr cc i (the maximum delay
spread) nhm duy tr tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang nhnh v loi b c cc
xuyn nhiu ISI, ICI. y, gi tr tri tr cc i l mt thng s xut hin khi tn
hiu truyn trong khng gian chu nh hng ca hin tng a ng (multipath
effect) - tc l tn hiu thu c ti b thu khng ch n t ng trc tip m cn
n t cc ng phn x khc nhau, v cc tn hiu ny n b thu ti cc thi
im khc nhau. Gi tr tri tr cc i c xc nh l khong thi gian chnh
lch ln nht gia thi im tn hiu thu qua ng trc tip v thi im tn hiu
thu c qua ng phn x. Nu pht mt xung RF (xung Dirac) trong mi trng
truyn a ng, ti b thu s nhn c cc p ng xung c dng sau
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Hnh 2.8: p ng xung ca knh truyn trong mi trng truyn a ng.
p ng xung h(t) ca mt knh truyn chu nh hng ca hin tng a
ng:


m
k
k k
T t A t h
1
) ( ) (
(2.24)
Vi: A
k
l bin phc ca p ng xung trn ng truyn th k.
T
k
l thi gian tr ca p ng trn ng truyn th k so vi gc thi
gian.
m l s ng truyn trong mi trng truyn a ng.
Tin t lp (CP) c kh nng loi b nhiu ISI, nhiu ICI v n cho php tng
kh nng ng b (ng b k t, ng b tn s sng mang) trong h thng
OFDM.
2.5.6. c lng knh.
2.5.6.1. Khi nim.
c lng knh (Channel estimation) trong h thng OFDM l xc nh
hm truyn t ca cc knh con v thi gian thc hin gii iu ch bn thu khi
bn pht s dng kiu iu ch kt hp (coherent modulation). c lng knh,
phng php ph bin hin nay l dng tn hiu dn ng (PSAM-Pilot signal
assisted Modulation). Trong phng php ny, tn hiu pilot bn pht s dng l tn
hiu c bn thu bit trc v pha v bin . Ti bn thu, so snh tn hiu thu
c vi tn hiu pilot nguyn thy s cho bit nh hng ca cc knh truyn dn
n tn hiu pht. c lng knh c th c phn tch trong min thi gian v
trong min tn s. Trong min thi gian th cc p ng xung h(n) ca cc knh con
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
c c lng. Trong min tn s th cc p ng tn s H(k) ca cc knh con
c c lng. C hai vn chnh c quan tm khi s dng PSAM:
*Vn th nht l la chn tn hiu pilot: phi m bo yu cu chng
nhiu, hn ch tn hao v nng lng v bng thng khi s dng tn hiu ny. Vi
h thng OFDM, vic la chn tn hiu pilot c th c thc hin trn gin thi
gian-tn s, v vy OFDM cho kh nng la chn cao hn so vi h thng n sng
mang. Vic la chn tn hiu pilot nh hng rt ln n cc ch tiu h thng.
Mu tn hiu dn ng (pilot) chn vi tn hiu c ch c min tn s ln
min thi gian.
Khong cch gia hai mu lin tip phi tun theo qui lut ly mu c min
tn s ln min thi gian.
min tn s th s bin i ca knh v tuyn ph thuc vo thi gian tr
truyn dn ln nht ca knh.
max
1
f
s
D
f

(2.25)
D
f
l khong cch tn s gia hai mu lin tip.
max

l thi gian tri tr ln nht.


min thi gian th s bin i ca hm truyn ph thuc vo tn s
Doppler.
max
1
2 ( )
t
D S G
D
f T T

+
(2.26)
f
Dmax
: tn s Doppler ln nht.
T
S
: chu k c ch ca tn hiu OFDM.
T
G
: di ca khong bo v.
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
Mu tn hiu c ch.
Mu tn hiu dn ng.
Hnh 2.9: Tn hiu Pilot trong min thi gian v tn s.
Hnh 2.10: Tn hiu pilot trong min tn s.
*Vn th hai l vic thit k b c lng knh: phi gim c
phc tp ca thit b trong khi vn m bo c chnh xc yu cu. Yu cu v
tc thng tin cao (tc l thi gian x l gim) v cc ch tiu h thng l hai yu
cu ngc nhau. Chng hn, b c lng knh tuyn tnh ti u (theo nguyn l
bnh phng li nh nht-MMSE) l b lc Wiener hai chiu (2D-Wiener filter) c
ch tiu k thut rt cao nhng cng rt phc tp. V vy, khi thit k cn phi dung
ha hai yu cu trn.
2.5.6.2. c lng knh trong min tn s.
Trong min tn s, c lng knh c thc hin nh sau: Mt k t
OFDM c xc nh trc v pha v bin (gi l k t hun luyn-training
symbol) c pht i. Ti b c lng knh, thu k t ny ti hai thi im lin
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
tip nhau v so snh vi k t ban u xc nh p ng tn s H(k) ca cc
knh con. Chng hn, ti b c lng knh, knh con th k, thu c hai k t
l R
1
(k)

v R
2
(k) vi k t hun luyn c pht l X(k), ta c biu thc :
R
1
(k) = H(k)X(k) + W
1
(k) (2.27)
R
2
(k) = H(k)X(k) + W
2
(k) (2.28)
X(k) : k t phc hun luyn pht trn knh con th k .
H(k) : p ng tn s ca knh con th k .
W
1
(k), W
2
(k) : cc mu nhiu Gaussian trng cng tc ng vo knh con
th k ti hai thi im lin tip kho st.
T (2.27) v (2.28), b c lng knh s xc nh:
) ( )) ( ) ( ( ) (
*
2 1 2
1
k X k R k R k H +



) ( )) ( W ) ( ) ( ) ( W ) ( ) ( (
*
2 1 2
1
k X k k X k H k k X k H + + +


) ( )) ( W ) ( W ( ) ( ) (
*
2 1 2
1
2
k X k k k X k H + +

) ( )) ( W ) ( W ( ) (
*
2 1 2
1
k X k k k H + +
(2.29)
(Lu rng : bin ca cc X(k) c chn bng 1)
T cng thc (2.29), nu bit trc k t pht X(k), cc mu nhiu W
1
(k),
W
2
(k), ta c th xc nh c p ng tn s ca knh con th k.
2.5.6.3. c lng knh trong min thi gian.
c lng knh thc hin trong min thi gian s gip xc nh c p
ng xung ca tng knh con. Cng tng t nh c lng knh trong min tn s,
ngi ta cng s dng cc k t hun luyn bit trc v t kt qu so snh gia
cc k t thu c ti b c lng, cc p ng xung h(n) ca nhng knh con
c c lng. Cc biu thc xc nh mi quan h gia hai k t thu c ti hai
thi im lin tip nhau v k t hun luyn pht i l :
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
r
1
(n) = h(n) x(n) + w
1
(n) (2.30)
r
2
(n) = h(n) x(n) + w
2
(n) (2.31)
Trong hai cng thc (2.30), (2.31) ta thy u xut hin tng chp trong
min thi gian. Gi L l chiu di p ng xung ln nht m c th c lng trn
cc knh con, L nh hn rt nhiu so vi chiu di N ca tn hiu vo x(n), tn hiu
ra y(n). Theo cng thc tnh tng chp v cng thc (2.23), suy ra p ng xung
ca cc knh con c dng l mt ma trn ( 1 N ), v cc mu tn hiu x(n) c t
chc thnh ma trn ch nht ( L N ) c dng nh sau :
1
1
1
1
1
]
1



+
+

) ( ) 2 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 (
) 2 ( .... ) 0 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ... ) 1 ( ) 0 (
L N x N x N x
L N x N x N x
L N x x x
L N x N x x
X
(2.32)
V dng ca ma trn h l:
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

) 1 (
) 3 (
) 2 (
) 1 (
L h
h
h
h
h

(2.33)
Cc cng thc (2.30), (2.31) c vit li:
r
1
(n) = Xh + w
1
(n) (2.34)
r
2
(n) = Xh + w
2
(n) (2.35)
T (2.34) v (2.35), b c lng s xc nh:
)) ( ) ( ( ) (
2 1
1
2
1
n r n r X n h +


+

Xh X (
1
2
1
)) ( ) (
2 1
n w Xh n w + +

(
1
2
1
1
+ X Xh X )) ( ) (
2 1
n w n w +
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.

(
1
2
1

+ X h )) ( ) (
2 1
n w n w +

(2.36)
T cng thc (2.36), nu xc nh trc ma trn X v cc mu nhiu cng
w
1
(n), w
2
(n) th c th xc nh c p ng xung h(n) ca cc knh con.
Ch :
+ Nu s dng php iu ch vi sai kt hp FFT th khng cn c lng
knh.
+ Ngoi cc k thut c bn cn phi c trn trong h thng OFDM th
nng cao cht lng hn na ngi ta cn thc hin ng b trong OFDM; gim
PAPR (t s cng sut nh trung bnh) ln.
2.6. So snh phc tp gia k thut OFDM vi iu ch n sng mang.
Mt trong nhng l do chnh s dng OFDM l kh nng gii quyt vn
delay spread vi mt phc tp hp l. Trong h thng n sng mang (single
carrier), phc tp ca h thng c quyt nh bi b cn bng (equalizer), h
thng phi lp t cc b cn bng khi delay spread ln hn 10% chu k symbol.
OFDM khng i hi phi c b cn bng. Thay vo , phc tp ca mt h
thng OFDM b chi phi bi b bin i FFT dng gii iu ch cc subcarrier.
Cc v d sau y s chng t phc tp ca modem OFDM t hn ng k so vi
modem dng trong h thng n sng mang trong trng hp c hai cng gii
quyt mt lng delay spread nh nhau. Ch rng, mt s bi bo cp n vic
s dng 1 b single-tap equalizer sa pha trong trng hp s dng b thu
OFDM kt hp. Chng ta s khng s dng thut ng ny bi v thut ng
equalization c mun ni n mt n lc c thc hin nghch o (invert)
knh truyn (tm ra mt b lc nghch o, invert filter, b cho hin tng ISI,
mc ch lm cho cc tn hiu a ng, multipath signal, b dch i v n ng
thi im, thay v b tri ra). Trong khi , b thu OFDM thc hin ngc li, cc
subcarrier b suy yu khng c khuch i thm cn bng knh truyn nhng
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
thay vo cc subcarrier s mang t thng tin hn. Theo cch ny, OFDM s
trnh c vn thng mc phi trong k thut cn bng tuyn tnh l nhiu tng
ln.
R rng OFDM hp dn hn so vi h thng n sng mang vi b cn bng
cho cc tch s di thng-delay spread ln. Nn ch rng, s khc bit v mc
phc tp gia FFT v b cn bng s gim nu vic cn bng c thc hin trong
min tn s. Trong trng hp ny, vic cn bng s phc tp hn gp 2 ln v c
hai FFT v IFFT phi thc hin vic cn bng trong min tn s cho mt khi tn
hiu. Mt li ch khc v mc phc tp ca OFDM l FFT khng tht s i hi
cc php nhn y (full multication), nhng thay vo l cc php xoay pha.
iu ny c th thc hin mt cch hiu qu bi thut ton CORDIC. Bi v s
xoay pha khng lm thay i bin , tc chng khng lm thay i di ng ca
tn hiu, do lm n gin ha vic thit k im lm vic.
Ngoi vn v mc phc tp, OFDM cn c mt li ch khc so vi h
thng n sng mang vi b cn bng. i vi h thng n sng mang, cht lng
h thng s gim mt cch nhanh chng nu delay spread vt qu kh nng cho
php ca b cn bng. Bi v vic truyn dn b li, xc sut li bit th (cha x l)
tng nhanh n ni vic p dng cc phng php m ha t l thp hn hoc kch
thc chm sao thp hn khng ci thin ng k cht lng h thng. Tuy nhin,
i vi OFDM, khng c hiu ng phi tuyn xy ra khi vic truyn dn b li. Do
, cc phng php m ha v cc chm sao c kch thc thp hn c th c
s dng ci thin cht lng h thng. y l mt vn quan trng bi v n
gip tng din tch hot ng ca h thng (coverage-area) v trnh c cc tnh
hung cc user trong cc v tr xu (bad spot) khng th kt ni.
2.7. Kt lun chng.
K thut OFDM hn ch nhiu, tit kim bng thng trong truyn thng di
ng. Mc d c vi khuych im nhng c khc phc nh trnh by
N TT NGHIP.
LI NI U.
trn. Nn cng ngh ny c p dng rng ri trong cc h thng nh Wimax,
Vowifi, trong cc tiu chun IEEE. K thut ny s l c s cho cc th h di ng
th 3, th t v cc th h khc na trong tng lai.
N TT NGHIP.
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Chng 3
K THUT MIMO.
3.1. Gii thiu.
K thut MIMO l k thut s dng nhiu anten pht v nhiu anten thu.
H
ij
l h s c tnh knh truyn, truyn t anten j n anten i.
Hnh 3.1: M hnh mt h thng MIMO tiu biu.
Cc k thut MIMO thng gp: phn tp theo khng gian, phn tp theo
thi gian, phn tp theo tn s, m ha khi khng gian_thi gian, m ho li
khng gian_thi gian, ghp knh khng gian.
3.1.1. u im ca k thut MIMO.
Tng li mng, lm tng t s tn hiu trn nhiu, t lm tng khong
cch truyn dn m khng cn tng cng sut pht.
Tng li phn tp: lm gim hin tng fading thng qua vic s dng
h thng anten phn tp, nng cao cht lng h thng.
Tng hiu qu ph: bng cch s dng ghp knh khng gian.
Tng dung lng knh m khng cn tng cng sut pht v bng thng.
B chuyn
i MIMO
B gii
chuyn i
MIMO
*
*
*
d liu
vo
d liu
ra
Anten pht Anten thu
H
ij
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
3.1.2. Khuyt im ca h thng MIMO.
Tng phc tp trong x l tn hiu pht v thu.
Kch thc ca thit b di ng tng ln.
Nhiu ng knh: do s dng nhiu anten truyn d liu vi cng mt
bng tn.
Nhiu lin knh: do nhiu ngi dng s dng cng h thng MIMO.
3.2. Dung lng knh truyn ca h thng MIMO.
Xt dung lng knh MIMO c Fading Rayleigh chm trong trng hp kt
hp c phn tp thu v pht nh Hnh (3.1):
Gii hn di:

,
_

+ >
T
T
n
) 1 ( n i
2
2
2
2
) ( 1 log W
R
n
i
T
n
P
C

, n
T

n
R
Gii hn trn :

,
_

+ <
T
n
1 i
2
2
2
2
) ( 1 log W
i n
T
R
n
P
C

, n
T


n
R
Vi



R R
R
n
i
n
i
i i n
z h
1
2
1
2
2
2
2

, P l cng sut pht, W l bng thng, n


R
, n
T
ln
lt l s anten thu, pht, h
i
l h s ca ma trn truyn H.
Ta thy rng, dung lng h thng MIMO c ci thin ng k so vi
trng hp ch c mt cp anten thu pht truyn thng
) 1 ( Wlog
2
2

P
C +
(3.1)
3.3. S lc phn tp.
Phn tp l k thut ci thin tin cy ca tn hiu bng cch s dng hai
hay nhiu knh thng tin lin lc vi cc tnh cht khc nhau. Phn tp c vai tr
quan trng trong chng fading, nhiu ng knh, li chm. K thut phn tp c th
s dng tt trong truyn a ng, cho kt qu li phn tp. li phn tp l
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
s tng ca t s tn hiu trn nhiu khi c phn tp hoc c th tnh l s rt gn
ca cng sut pht khi c phn tp.
3.3.1. Phn tp thi gian.
L s truyn cng mt tn hiu hai thi im khc nhau.
T: chu k truyn tn hiu.
nT l thi im truyn tn hiu; n

N.
Ta c:
Gi x(nT), y(nT), h(nT), x%
(nT) l tn hiu truyn, nhn, tham s knh truyn,
tn hiu c lng ca tn hiu truyn.
Tn hiu truyn i:
x(n
1
T) = x(n
2
T) (3.2)
Tn hiu nhn c:
y(n
1
T) = h(n
1
T)*(n
1
T) + b(n
1
T) (3.3)
y(n
2
T) = h(n
2
T)*(n
2
T) + b(n
2
T) (3.4)
Tn hiu c lng thu c:
x%
(n
1
T) = y(n
1
T)h(n
1
T)
*
+ y(n
2
T)h(n
2
T)
*
= [h(n
1
T)(n
1
T) + b(n
1
T)] h(n
1
T)
*
+ [h(n
2
T)(n
2
T) + b(n
2
T)]h(n
2
T)
*
]
2 2
* *
1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2
( ) ( )( ( ) ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x n T x n T h n T h n T b n T h nT b n T h n T + + + % (3.5)
Nhn xt:
- li phn tp tng ln.
- Tc ng ca knh truyn ln tn hiu c ci thin.
- Tuy nhin, phn tp thi gian lm gim tc d liu.
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
3.3.2. Phn tp tn s.
y l k thut s dng nhiu tn s khc nhau cng pht mt tin. Cc tn
s cn dng phi c khong cch ln gi s c lp nh hng ca fading vi
cc tn s cn li. Khong tn s mc vi ln bng thng kt hp knh s m
bo c tnh thng k fading ca cc tn s khc nhau s c lp nhau. Trong thng
tin di ng, cc bn sao ca tn hiu pht c a ti my thu dng d tha
trong min tn s to ra tri ph ging nh tri ph chui trc tip, iu ch a
sng mang, nhy tn. K thut tri ph c tc dng khi bng thng kt hp ca knh
nh. Tuy nhin khi bng thng kt hp ca knh ln hn bng thng tri ph, th
tri tr a ng s nh hn chu k symbol. Trong trng hp ny, tri ph s
khng hiu qu to ra phn tp tn s. Tng t nh phn tp thi gian, phn tp
tn s gy ra tn tht hiu qu bng tn do s d tha trong min tn s.
3.3.3. Phn tp khng gian.
Phn tp khng gian l k thut s dng nhiu anten hay cc mng anten
c sp xp vi cc khong cch ph hp tn hiu trn cc anten c lp.
Khong cch yu cu thay i ty theo cao anten, mi trng truyn v tn s.
Khong cch in hnh khong vi bc sng.
Phn tp khng gian khng gy tn tht trong s dng hiu qu bng tn nh
phn tp thi gian.
Hnh 3.2: M hnh phn tp khng gian.
Phn tp khng gian cn c gi l phn tp anten.
Tn
hiu
vo
x(nT)
x(nT)
x(nT)
combination
(nT)
Y
1
(nT)
Y
2
(nT)
H
11
H
12
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Phn tp khng gian gm c:
Phn tp phn cc
Trong phn tp phn cc, tn hiu phn cc ng v phn cc ngang c
pht bng hai anten phn cc khc nhau v cng thu bng 2 anten phn cc khc
nhau. iu m bo to ra 2 tn hiu khng tng quan m vn khng cn t
hai anten cch xa nhau.
Phn tp anten pht
Trong phn tp pht, nhiu anten c trin khai v tr my pht. Tin c
x l my pht v sau c truyn cho qua cc anten.
Phn tp anten thu
Trong phn tp thu, nhiu anten c s dng my thu thu cc bn sao
c lp ca tn hiu pht. Cc bn sao ca tn hiu pht c kt hp tng SNR
v gim fading nhiu ng.
3.3.4. Cc phng php kt hp phn tp.
3.3.4.1. B t hp theo kiu qut v la chn (SC).
a) B t hp la chn.
Trong b t hp la chn, t mt tp hp M phn t anten, nhnh c t s tn
hiu trn nhiu SNR ln nht c chn ra v kt ni trc tip vi my thu. Nh
vy s anten cng ln hoc s phn t cng ln ca anten mng th kh nng c
c t l tn hiu trn nhiu cng ln. Trong thc t, tn hiu c nng lng (tn
hiu + nhiu) ln nht s c chn. V th ti u ra, d liu s thu c c cht
lng tt nht.
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Hnh 3.3: M hnh b t hp kiu la chn.
b)B t hp kiu qut
Trong b t hp kiu qut, mt b qut s qut tt c cc nhnh nhn c t
anten nhn v la chn nhnh c t s SNR ln hn mt ngng c cho trc.
n khi no nhnh ra ny c SNR nh hn mc ngng th b qut s qut li tt c
cc nhnh chn ra nhnh c SNR ln hn mc ngng cho.
Hnh 3.4: B t hp kiu qut.
3.3.4.2. B t hp cng li (EGC).
L k thut chuyn i tt c cc gi tr li ca cc nhnh u bng nhau
v khng thay i trong qu trnh hot ng. u ra l tng ca cc tn hiu ng
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
pha ca tt c cc nhnh. L mt trng hp ca phng php t hp vi t s ti
a.
3.3.4.3. B t hp vi t s ti a (MRC).
Phng php t hp t s ti a tn dng tt nht kh nng ca cc nhnh
phn tp trong h thng. Tt c M nhnh c nhn trng s vi cc t s tn hiu
tc thi trn nhiu tng ng. Sau tn hiu t cc nhnh c ng pha trc khi
ly tng tn hiu sao cho tt c cc nhnh c gp vo nhau theo pha sao cho tn
hiu u ra c tng ch phn tp ln nht. Tn hiu tng chnh l tn hiu ra thu
c.
Phng php t hp t s ti a c nhiu u im so vi phng php phn
tp la chn nhng phc tp hn; do phi m bo tn hiu t cc nhnh l hon
ton ng pha vi nhau v cc trng s phi c cp nht chnh xc.
Hnh 3.5: Phng php kt hp t s cc i.
Gi r
i
, r, i

l tn hiu ng vo nhnh i, tn hiu ng ra cui cng b nhn


tn hiu, h s i trng ca tn hiu vo nhnh i.

r
n
i
i i
r r
1
.
(3.2)
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Gi A
i
v i

l pha ca tn hiu nhnh i (r


i
).
Lc gi tr i

l:
i
j
i i
e A


(3.3)
Suy ra, gi tr ca r l:

r
n
i
i
A r
1
2
(3.3)
Trong kt hp t s cc i (MRC), tn hiu cc nhnh c ly trng s v
kt hp sao cho t c CNR tc thi cao nht c th vi cc k thut kt hp
tuyn tnh.
* Minh ho trng hp n gin
Qui tc MRC cho 1 anten pht v 2 anten thu
Hnh 3.6: Phng php t s cc i vi 1Tx v 2Rx.
Trong trng hp t hp t s cc i nh hnh trn, cc tn hiu ti my thu s l:
r
1
= h
1
.

c
0
+ n
1
(3.4)
r
2
= h
2
. c
0
+ n
2
(3.5)
c lng
knh
c lng
knh
B tch
ML
T
x
R
x
h
1
h
2
n
2
n
1
h
1
h
2
r
1
r
2
0
c%
c
0
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Tn hiu thu t hp s l:
0
c%
= h
1
*
. r
1
+ h
2
*
. r
2
=
2 2 * *
1 2 0 1 1 2 2
( )c h n h n + + +
(3.6)
B tch hp l ti u (ML) quyt nh bng thut ton sau:
Gi s:
h
1
=
1 1
exp(j )
(3.7)
h
2
=
2 2
exp(j )
(3.8)
B ML s cc tiu ma trn quyt nh:
2 2
1 1 0 2 2 0
r h c r h c + (3.9)
Trin khai biu thc trn v loi b cc thnh phn c lp vi cc t m, th vic
ti gin trn s l:
2
* * 2 2 2
1 1 2 2 0 1 2 0
( 1) h r h r c c + + + (3.10)
Ta t:
2
2 * *
( , ) ( )( ) d x y x y x y x y (3.11)
Qui tc quyt nh cho mi tn hiu t hp, c
i
c chn l c
0
khi v ch khi:
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 0 1 2 0
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
i i k k
c d c c c d c c + + + + % %
; i k (3.12)
Trong c
i
, c
k
l 2 k t thuc chm sao k t m ho cho trc, v d: 16QAM.
Nh vy ta thu c k t c
0
.
3.4. M ha khng gian_thi gian.
Ting Anh l Space time Coding, vit tt STC. STC l phng php ci thin
tin cy ca tn hiu truyn trong h thng lin lc khng dy bng cch s dng
a anten. M ho khng gian-thi gian dng nhiu ng truyn v nhiu phin bn
ca tn hiu truyn, gi chng n b thu vi mong mun khi truyn qua knh
khng gian vt l th t nht mt trong cc tn hiu thu c s trng thi tt
thc hin gii m ti my thu vi tin cy cao.
M ho khng gian thi gian c 2 loi chnh:
M ho khi khng gian-thi gian.Ting Anh l Space Time Block Code (STBC).
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
M ho li khng gian-thi gian. Ting Anh l Space Time Trellis Code(STTC).
Trong ti ny em ch trnh by v m ho khi khng gian-thi gian.
3.4.1. M ha khi khng gian thi gian (Space time block Codes).
STBC l mt k thut c s dng trong truyn thng khng dy truyn
nhiu phin bn ca dng d liu qua nhiu anten v s dng cc phin bn ca d
liu nhn khc nhau nng cao cht lng tn hiu nhn. Thc t th cc tn hiu
truyn b thay i trong mi trng truyn nh tn x, nhiu x, khc x, v nhiu
nhit ti b thu, do vy cht lng ca vi phin bn d liu s tt hn s cn li.
STBC th d liu s c truyn trong cc khi c m ho v chng
c phn phi qua cc anten khng gian theo thi gian.
STBC c biu din di dng ma trn. Mi hng l mt khe thi gian, mi
ct l cc tn hiu truyn ca mt anten theo thi gian.

S
ij
l k t trn khe thi gian i, c truyn t anten j.
T l s khe thi gian, n
T
l s anten truyn.
T l m ho (R) ca STBC c tnh bng s k t c m ho trong mt
khi (k) trn s khe thi gian (T):
T
k
R
(3.13)

s
11
s
12
.....s
1nT
s
21
s
22
.s
2nT
. . .
. . .
. . .
s
T1
s
T2
s
TnT
Cc anten truyn
Cc khe thi gian
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
STBC s dng phng php sp xp trc giao li th t cc tn hiu ti cc
anten pht. Ngha l hai vect ca hai ct bt k trong ma trn l trc giao vi nhau.
3.4.1.1. M ha Alamouti.
y l m ho khi khng gian-thi gian vi 2 anten pht.
Hnh 3.7: S m ho Alamouti.
Block Matrix tn hiu c dng (vi s1 v s2 l 2 symbol tn hiu lin tip
nhau).
Tn hiu ti anten thu:
Tn hiu c lng ca s1 v s2 s c tng hp theo khng gian-thi gian
t tn hiu y1 v y2:
Thng tin
ngun
iu ch
M ho

[s
1
s
2
]
Tx2
Tx1
(3.14)
(3.15)
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Kt lun:
- Sau khi tng hp trc giao khng gian-thi gian, nng lng nhiu khng thay i
nhng nng lng tn hiu tng (Space Time diversity gain).
- Vi Space-Time Block Code Alamouti, tc d liu khng b suy gim (full
rate) nhng ta vn t c li phn cc tng ng vi trng hp 2 anten
thu (phn cc 2 anten pht < phn cc 2 anten thu).
- Vi s lng anten thu > 1, tn hiu tng anten thu s c tng hp nh trn,
sau s c tng hp li vi nhau (ta s c thm li phn cc thu).
3.4.1.2 Orthogonal STBC Tarokh cho s anten pht bt k
a) M ho
Tarokh tng qut ha matrix STBC cho s anten pht bt k (Tx =
3,4,5,6,8 ...) cho tn hiu thc (BPSK, PAM ...). Tuy nhin i vi tn hiu phc
(modulation QPSK, M-PSK, M-QAM ...), m bo full-diversity, Tarokh chng
minh khng tn ti ma trn pht cho trng hp s anten pht ln hn 4 v i vi
s anten pht 3 v 4 th khng tn ti full-rate matrix, maximun rate = 3/4. Ma trn
tn hiu trc giao cho 3, 4 anten pht cho tn hiu thc v phc:
Full-rate matrix cho 3 anten pht (3 Tx)
Full-rate matrix cho 4 anten pht (4 Tx)
(3.16)
(3.17)
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Rate 3/4 matrix for complex symbol:
3 anten Tx
4 anten Tx
b) Gii m STBC trong my thu.
B gii m trc giao STBC l gii m ti u (maximum likelihood decoding)
c thc hin ti b thu vi qu trnh x l tuyn tnh.
Hnh 3.8: S gii m ca h thng STBC.
Nhm lm r phng php m ho ny, mt h thng lin lc khng dy mu
c xy dng nh sau:
Ti thi im t, tn hiu
j
t
r
, nhn ti anten j, c cho bi:
ij
1
n
j i j
t t t
i
r c

(3.18)
B
kt
hp
B
tch
ti
u.
.
.
.
i
t
c
Anten thu
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
Trong ij

l li ng t anten truyn n anten nhn j, c


t
i
l tn hiu
c truyn ti anten i v n
t
j
l nhiu Gaussian trng cng (AWGN).
Gi s rng thng tin trng thi knh l hon ho, b thu s tnh thng
sut quyt nh:
2
ij
1 1 1
l m n
j i
t t
t j i
r c


Thng qua tt c cc t m :
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
... ... ... ...
n n n
l l l
c c c c c c c c c
V quyt nh chn t m thch hp sao cho tng trn l nh nht.
V d: Gii m vi ma trn khi trong min s thc.
Ma trn 4x4 Ma trn 8x8
Trong ma trn m ho, tn hiu cc hng sau l s hon v ca hng u tin vi
s thay i du. V cc ct ca ma trn trc giao vi nhau tng i mt nn tng s
cc nhnh c rt gn n mc nh nht:

n
i
i
S
1
(3.19)
Trong :

,
_

,
_

+ +
1
]
1



2
,
2
,
2
1 1
*
) ( i
1 ) ( r S
i
l k
l k i
n
i
m
j
t j i
j
t
s s i
t

(3.20)
*
) ( j i
t

l lin hp phc ca
j i
t
) (

.
Gi tr S
i
ch ph thuc vo k t m s
i
, k t nhn {r
j
t
}, h s ng { j i,

}, v
cu trc trc giao ca ma trn, n l s anten pht n= n
T
, m l s anten thu m= n
R
. N
cho php tng trong cng thc (3.19) t gi tr nh nht trong (3.20) vi 1 i n.
Chng 3: K THUT MIMO.
V vy nh lut tch sng ti u l to mt bin nht nh:
*
( )
1 1
r ( )
t
n m
j
i t i j t
t j
R i


(3.21)
Trong
) (i
k

l du ca s
i
hng th k ca ma trn m ho, k

l xc nh s
hon v tng ng gia cc hng,
k
(p) = q ch ra rng s
p
l hon v c th khc du
ca

thnh phn (k, q) ca ma trn m ho, cho i=1, 2,n
T
v sau quyt nh
chn k t s
i
trong chm sao s [chm sao l tp hp cc k t trong gin s
phc, tu theo kiu iu ch m ta c cc gin khc nhau] sao cho tho mn:
2
,
2 2
1 min arg s s R s
l k
kl i
A s
i

,
_

+ +


(3.22)
vi A l chm sao Alphabet (Constellation Alphabet). D s c mt ca n, iu
ny tht n gin, m ho tuyn tnh s cung cp phn tp ti u.
3.5. Kt lun chng.
K thut MIMO trong thng tin di ng c nhiu u im nh hiu sut ph
v tin cy ca knh truyn. Chng 3 ny trnh by cc vi k thut MIMO
thng gp, mi k thut c nhng u im v khuyt im ring nn cc nh khoa
hc thng kt hp k thut MIMO vi cc k thut khc to ra h thng MIMO
hon chnh nht, c nhiu u im nht. Nh s kt hp STBC vi b m ngoi
(TCM hay Turbo) c li m ho, hay s kt hp k thut MIMO vi k thut
ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDM). Chng sau s trnh by chi tit
v k thut v h thng MIMO-OFDM ny.
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
Chng 4
K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
4.1. Gii thiu.
Chng ny trnh by tng quan v phn tch h thng h thng MIMO. C
nhiu loi h thng MIMO-OFDM, ty vo tng k thut MIMO m chng ta c
cc h thng khc nhau, nh: h thng MIMO-OFDM m ho khng gian_thi
gian, h thng MIMO-OFDM ghp knh khng gian. Mi h thng c nhng u
im v hn ch ring, ty theo mc ch s dng v yu cu kinh t m ta s dng
cc h thng thch hp.
Phn cui ca chng l trnh by v h thng STBC-MIMO-OFDM 2x2
nh l mt h thng tiu biu.
4.2. M t tng quan v h thng MIMO_OFDM.
Hnh 4.1: S pht v thu ca h thng MIMO-OFDM.
Chng ta xt h thng STC-OFDM vi K sng mang con, n
T
anten pht v
n
R
anten thu. Tng bng thng ca h thng l W Hz. N c chia thnh K bng
con trng ln nhau.
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
4.2.1. MIMO-OFDM Tx.
Hnh 4.2: S khi ca b pht ca h thng MIMO_OFDM.
Lung d liu c m ho bi b m ho FEC.
Lung d liu m ho c nh x qua b constellation bi b iu ch
v m ho MIMO.
Mi lung symbol u ra tng ng vi mt anten pht Tx v chu s x l
OFDM ca anten :
Chn thm chui pilot vo.
iu ch bi b IFFT.
Cui cng lung d liu c chuyn n IF/RF cho anten pht.
4.2.2. MIMO_OFDM Rx.
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
Hnh 4.3: S khi ca b thu ca h thng MIMO_OFDM.
u tin, cc lung d liu nhn c t anten thu Rx c ng b.
Sau Preambles v CP c tch ra t lung Rx nhn c. Phn tn
hiu cn li sau khi tch ra l mt k t OFDM c gii iu ch bng b FFT.
Pilot tn s c c tch ra t symbol OFDM gii iu ch v c s
dng cho vic c lng knh. Ma trn c lng knh c thm vo trong b
gii m MIMO.
Cc symbol c tng hp, gii iu ch v gii m to ra lung d liu
pht ban u.
4.2.3. Cu trc ca khung (frame) ca h thng MIMO-OFDM.
Hnh 4.4: Cu trc khung d liu MIMO-OFDM.
Trong mi trng thi gian thc, frame l n v vn chuyn nh nht bao
gm 10 khe. Mi khe bao gm 1 khe preamble v 8 symbols OFDM. Preamble
c s dng cho mc ch ng b thi gian. Mi OFDM symbol c gn thm
1 CP. CP c s dng gim nhiu symbol ISI v cn bng knh mt cch n
gin hn. Mi frame c vn chuyn qua sng mang ph (nh thi pha, nh thi
tn s v c lng tn s offset).
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
4.3. Phn tch h thng MIMO-OFDM.
4.3.1. M hnh h thng MIMO-OFDM.
ng lng bng tn c s phc ca mt p ng xung knh fadinh c
vit di dng:


l
l l
t t h ) ( ) ( ) , (
(4.1)
Trong
) (t
l

l qui trnh Gaussian phc bng tn hp tnh wide_sense v


c gi s l c lp gia cc knh khc nhau. Hn na chng ta gi s rng hm
tng quan trong min thi gian l ging nhau cho tt c cc ng truyn, l:
( ) { }
( )

'


+
m l
m l t r
t t t E
t l
m l
, 0
,
) (
2
*


(4.2)
Khng mt tnh tng qut, chng ta gi s rng tng cng sut trung bnh ca
p ng xung knh l mt n v:


l
l H
1
2 2

(4.3)
Cho h thng MIMO-OFDM vi N
t
anten pht v N
r
anten thu (N
r

N
t
), tn
hiu nhn ti anten thu th j trn sng mang con k v khi th n c dng nh sau:
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] k n w k n b k n H k n x
j
N
i
i ij j
t
, , , ,
1
+

(4.4)
Cho j=1,, N
r
v k=0,, K-1
Trong : b
i
[n,k] l k t c truyn t anten pht th i trn sng mang
th k ca khi th n.
H
ij
[n,k] l p ng tn s ca knh truyn t anten pht th i n
anten thu th j ti sng mang th k ca khi n.
K l tng s sng mang.
w
j
[n,k] l nhiu Gaussian vi s thay i

.
B qua s tn hao, p ng tn s knh c th c vit nh sau:
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
[ ] ( ) [ ]


0
0
, , ,
K
l
kl
K ij f ij
W l n h f k nT H k n H (4.5)
Trong h
ij
[n,l] = h
ij
(nT
f
,lt
s
), K
0
=[t
d
/t
s
], W
k
=
K
j
e
2

, T
f
v
f
l chiu di k
t cng khong bo v v khong cch gia cc sng mang con, t
s
l chu k ly
mu, n bng vi
f K
1
, t
d
l tri tr ti a.
Phng trnh (4.4) c th vit li di dng ma trn nh sau:
[ ] [ ] [ ] ] , [ , , , k n w k n b k n H k n x +
(4.6)
Trong :
[ ]
[ ]

,
_

] , [
...
,
,
1
k n x
k n x
k n x
r
N
,
[ ]

,
_

] , [ ... ] , [ ,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
] , [ ... ] , [ ] , [
] , [ ... ] , [ ] , [
] , [
2 1
2 22 21
1 12 11
k n H k n H k n H
k n H k n H k n H
k n H k n H k n H
k n H
t r r r
t
t
N N N N
N
N
;
[ ]
1
[ , ]
, ...
[ , ]
t
N
b n k
b n k
b n k
_



,
, [ ]
1
[ , ]
, ...
[ , ]
r
N
w n k
w n k
w n k
_



,
.
4.3.2. Space-Time Block-Coded OFDM.
4.3.2.1. H thng STBC-OFDM.
Chng ta xt h thng STC-OFDM vi K sng mang con ,2 anten pht v 2
anten thu. Tng bng thng ca h thng l W Hz. N c chia thnh K bng con
trng ln nhau. Gin khi ca h thng c cho nh hnh 4.5.
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
Hnh 4.5: M hnh h thng STBC-OFDM 2x2.
TC: Turbo convolutional code.
RS: Reed-Solomon code.
STT : Space Time Trellis.
STB : Space Time Block.
Ti mi thi im t, mt khi bit thng tin c m ho pht ra mt t m
khng gian thi gian m n bao gm 2
*
M k t c iu ch. T m khng gian-
thi gian c cho bi:
1 1 1
,1 ,2 ,
2 2 2
,1 ,2 ,
...
...
t t t M
t
t t t M
x x x
X
x x x
1

1
]
Trong hng th i x
t
i
= x
i
t,1
, x
i
t,2
, ,x
i
t,M
, i= 1,2 l dy d liu cho anten pht
th i. n gian chng ta xt di t m bng s sng mang con OFDM, M=K.
Cc tn hiu x
i
t,1
, x
i
t,2
,,x
i
t,M
l OFDM c iu ch trn K sng mang con OFDM
khc nhau v c truyn t anten pht th i ng thi trong mt khung OFDM,
trong x
i
t,k
c truyn trn sng mang con OFDM th k.
Trong phn tch hot ng, chng ta gi s khung v k t ng b gia
truyn v nhn l l tng. Mt knh con c ly mu bi fading Rayleigh. Tin
trnh fading xem nh khng i trong khung OFDM. Gi s rng knh gia cc
anten khc nhau l khng tng quan vi nhau.
4.3.2.2. B pht STBC-OFDM.
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
S khi STBC-OFDM c cho trong Hnh 4.5. Dng tn hiu nh phn
c iu ch v nh x thnh chui k t phc. B chuyn i Inverse Discrete
Fourier Transform (IDFT) M im thc hin trn tng dng d liu ni tip. Ng ra
ca khi IDFT l M mu tn hiu trong min thi gian, tng ng vi mt khung
OFDM.
trnh tc ng ca nhiu xuyn k t, mt cyclic prefix (CP) vi chiu di
v c thm vo cc mu ng ra, kt qu l to ra mt khung c chiu di M+v.
Cc khung OFDM c truyn ng thi t anten th nht v anten th hai,
nh sau:
+ Khung OFDM th n:
Anten 1:
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
,0 , 1 , , 1 ,0 , 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x


Anten 2:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
,0 , 1 , , 1 ,0 , 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x


+ Khung OFDM th (n + 1) :
Anten 1:
( ) ( ) ( )
2* 2* 1 1 1 1 1 1
1,0 1, 1 1, 1, 1 1,0 1, 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x
+ + + + + +

Anten 2:
( ) ( ) ( )
1* 1* 2 2 2 2 2 2
1,0 1, 1 1, 1, 1 1,0 1, 1
(0)... ( 1) ... ... , ...
IDFT CP
n n n n M n M v n M n n M
X X M x x x x x x
+ + + + + +

Trong (.)
*
l ch i lng lin hp phc v n = 2u-1, u=1,2
Trong m hnh, chng ta cho tng knh t hai anten pht n anten nhn
bng b lc p ng xung gii hn vi h s nh v.
4.3.2.3. B thu STBC-OFDM.
Ti b thu, sau khi lc, cc tn hiu ti mi anten thu c, tin t c loi
b trong mi khung. Sau cc mu c a n b gii iu ch OFDM. Tn
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
hiu ra ca b gii iu ch cho sng mang con th k, k=1,2,,K, ti anten nhn
c cho bi:
2
ij
, , , ,
1
j i j
n k n k n k n k
i
R H X N

(4.7)
Trong H
,
ij
n k
l p ng tn s knh cho ng truyn t anten pht th i
n anten thu j trn knh con OFDM th k thuc khung th n, v N
,
j
n k
l ng ra gii
iu ch ca nhiu ti anten nhn ca knh con th k vi nng lng ph cng
N
0
; j=1,2.
Tn hiu thu ca tng cp (
, 1,
,
j j
n k n k
R R
+
) s c x l ging nh trong h thng
MIMO thu c tn hiu
1
( )
n
X k
v

2
( )
n
X k
. l (
, 1,
,
j j
n k n k
R R
+
) s c a qua b
kt hp thu c tn hiu c lng
1
( )
n
X k
%
,
2
( )
n
X k
%
, sau a qua b tch ti
u tch ra tn hiu
1
( )
n
X k
v

2
( )
n
X k
.
Tn hiu nhn c ti anten thu:
,
j
n k
R
=
1
,
j
n k
H
X
1
, n k
+
2
,
j
n k
H
X
2
, n k
+
,
j
n k
N
(4.8)
1 1 2 2 1 2* 2 1*
1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, , 1, , 1,
j j j j j j j
n k n k n k n k n k n k n k n k n k n k n k
R H X H X N H X H X N
+ + + + + + + + +
+ + + +
(4.9)
thun tin tnh ton, ta t:
,
j
n k
R
=
1
j
R
;
1,
j
n k
R
+
=
2
j
R
;
, 1, ij
ij ij
n k n k
H H H
+

;
,
j
n k j
X X
;
, 1
j j
n k
N N
;
1, 2
j j
n k
N N
+

Biu thc trn ta c th vit li nh sau:
1 1 1 2 2 1
j j
j j
R H X H X N + +
(4.10)
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
* *
2 1 2 2 1 2
j j
j j
R H X H X N + +
(4.11)
Tn hiu trn qua b kt hp ta c:
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
* * * *
1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
1 1
j j j j
j j j j j j
j j
X H R H R H H X H N H N

1
+ + + +
1
]

%
(4.12)
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
* *
2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2
1 1
j j j j
j j j j j j
j j
X H R H R H H X H N H N

1
+ +
1
]

%
(4.13)
B tch ti u s cc tiu thng sut quyt nh:
( )
2
2 2
* *
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1
2
j j
j j j j
j
R H X H X R H X H X

+ +
(4.14)
Thng qua tt c cc gi tr ca X
1
, X
2
trong chm sao X.
Ta m rng biu thc trn, b cc thnh phn c lp vi cc t m, sp xp
li th cc tiu biu thc trn tng ng vi cc tiu biu thc sau:
2
* * * * * * * * *
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
1
( ) ( ) ( )
j j j j j j
j j j j j j
j
R H X R H X R H X R H X R H X R H X

+ + +

* * *
2 2 1 2 2 1
( ) ]
j j
j j
R H X R H X + +
2 2
2
2 2
1 2
1 1
( )
ij
j i
X X H

+ +

(4.15)
Sp xp biu thc cc tiu thng sut trn thnh hai phn:
2
* * * * * *
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1
1
[ ( ) ( ) ]
j j j j
j j j j
j
R H X R H X R H X R H X

+ + +

2 2
2
2
1
1 1
ij
j i
X H

+

(4.16)
(4.16) l biu thc ch theo bin X
1
.
2
* * * * * *
2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2
1
[ ( ) ( ) ]
j j j j
j j j j
j
R H X R H X R H X R H X

2 2
2
2
2
1 1
ij
j i
X H

+

(4.17)
(4.17) l biu thc theo bin X
2
.
V vy cc tiu biu thc (4.14) l tng ng vi cc tiu ring r hai biu
thc trn. Ta ln lt thc hin cc tiu thng sut quyt nh nh sau:
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
( )
2
2 2 2
2
2
* *
1 1 2 2 1 ij 1
1 1 1
( ) 1
j j
j j
j j i
R H R H X H X

1 _
+ + +
1
] ,

(4.18)
gii m X
1
.
( )
2
2 2 2
2
2
* *
1 2 2 1 2 ij 2
1 1 1
( ) 1
j j
j j
j j i
R H R H X H X

1 _
+ +
1
] ,

(4.19)
gii m X
2
.
Gi
2
2 * *
( , ) ( )( ) d x y x y x y x y , qui tc quyt nh cho mi tn hiu t
hp
j
X
%
, j=1,2 tr thnh: Chn X
i
nu v ch nu:
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
ij ij
1 1 1 1
1 ( , ) 1 ( , )
i j i k j k
j i j i
H X d X X H X d X X

_ _
+ + + +

, ,

% %
; i k (4.20)
Trong X
i
v X
k
l 2 k t thuc chm sao k t m phn m ho thc
hin.
Nh vy l ta thu c tn hiu X
1
, n k
= X
1
; X
2
, n k
= X
2
.
Kt lun:
Trn y l m hnh h thng STBC_OFDM vi tc ng l knh fading la
chn tn s. B thu thc hin mt s tin trnh x l c h tr bi thut ton
Viterbi, mi phn c gn cho mt tn s ring trong m hnh OFDM.
4.4. Kt lun chng.
Trong chng ny trnh by k thut MIMO-OFDM. y l k thut
ang c ng dng trong nhiu h thng thng tin di ng v n m rng bng
thng v tng tc d liu ln nhiu ln, nng cao cht lng tn hiu. Hin nay,
MIMO-OFDM ang l c s cho chun IEEE 802.11n, y l chun mi cho h
thng WIFI va h tr cc chun c va c tnh nng u vit hn hn, nh h tr
lin lc ging ni, trao i hnh nh, video vi cht lng cao.
Chng 4: K THUT MIMO-OFDM.
MIMO-OFDM cn c p dng trong h thng WIMAX, hin nay v trong
mt tng lai khng xa na cng ngh ny s c p dng rng ri v em li cc
tin b vt bc trong thng tin lin lc khng dy ca nhn loi.
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
Chng 5
M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM
V NH GI CHT LNG H THNG.
5.1. Gii thiu ni dung m phng.
Trong phn m phng ny, thc hin nh gi cht lng ca h thng
MIMO-OFDM thng qua so snh t l li bit (BER) theo t s tn hiu trn nhiu
(SNR). Ta nh gi bng cch so snh vi h thng OFDM, mt trong nhng h
thng c cht lng tt nht trong h thng thng tin di ng hin nay.
thc hin so snh ta xy dng 2 m hnh h thng MIMO-OFDM v h
thng OFDM. Tn hiu truyn c to ngu nhin, c a vo khung v truyn
i vi dung lng ln m bo s nh gi c chnh xc cao.
Cc bc m phng c thc hin ging vi thc t. my pht, cc bc
m ho, iu ch, IFFT, m ho khng gian-thi gian c m phng y v chi
tit. my pht th cc qu trnh ngc li nh gii iu ch, gii m, c lng
gn cc i, thut ton kt hp cng c thc hin mt cch chi tit. Knh truyn
th nh hng ca cc tri tr, fading Rayleigh, nhiu gi ngu nhin c to ra
ging vi thc t nht.
Cui cng l kt qu BER theo SNR ca hai h thng c v trn cng mt
gin d dng so snh v thy r u im ca h thng MIMO-OFDM.
5.2. Cc thng s m phng.
5.2.1. H thng OFDM.
S khung m phng : 110
S sng mang con : 16
iu ch : 4QAM; tu chn
Chiu di FFT : 512
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
S k t trn mt khung : 6
Kch thc CP : 128
Bng thng h thng : 5MHz
SNR : 0; 3; 6; 9; 12; 15
5.2.2. H thng MIMO-OFDM.
M hnh m phng: Space time block code OFDM; 2 anten pht v 2 anten
nhn.
S khung m phng : 110
S sng mang con : 16
iu ch : 4QAM; tu chn
Chiu di FFT : 512
S k t trn mt khung : 6
Kch thc CP : 128
Bng thng h thng : 5MHz
SNR : 0; 3; 6; 9; 12; 15
5.2.3. Thng s knh truyn.
p ng tn s knh (h
ij
): c to ra ngu nhin
Nhiu cng ngu nhin.
Tn s Doppler fd (Hz) : 0; 10; 20; 30 ; tu chn
tri tr t
rms
(us) : 0; 1
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
5.3. Lu v s thut ton ca chng trnh m phng.
5.3.1. Truyn tn hiu.
5.3.2. Knh truyn.
Tn hiu gc
M ho Trellis
convolution
Ghp xen
iu ch
M ho khi khng gian-thi gian.
Thc hin IFFT, bin i tn hiu t min tn s
sang min thi gian.
Tn hiu iu ch c truyn i.
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
5.3.3. Nhn tn hiu.
Tn hiu t anten pht
To tc ng ca hin
tng Doppler v tri tr
To tc ng ca nhiu cng ngu nhin
Anten nhn
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
5.3.4. Thut ton tnh BER.
Anten nhn
Thc hin FFT
Kt hp tn hiu
Gii iu ch
Gii ghp xen
Gii m trellis convolution
Tnh BER ca h thng OFDM
v STBC-MIMO-OFDM
V gin BER theo SNR ca
c hai h thng.
So snh v nh gi cht lng
cc h thng
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
5.4. Kt qu m phng v nh gi.
k<=SNR(end)
end
False
True
true
False s(i)= =s(i)
leng=length(s);berr=0;i=0;
i <= leng
Tn hiu thu c sau khi
x l s(i)
Tn hiu gc
ban u s(i)
i=i+1
berr=berr+1;
BER(k)=berr/leng;
False
k = SNR(begin)
k=k+step;
begin
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
Giao din chnh ca chng trnh
a) Trng hp knh truyn cha c tc ng ca tri tr v rayleigh fading
fd=0 t
rms
= 0
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
b) Trng hp c tc ng ca tri tr v Fading Rayleigh
Trng hp :
fd =10Hz t
rms
= 1us
Trng hp:
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
fd=20Hz t
rms
= 1us
Trng hp:
fd=30Hz t
rms
= 1us
Nhn xt:
Chng 5: M PHNG H THNG MIMO-OFDM & NH GI CHT
LNG H THNG.
Truyn tn hiu cng BER th k thut MIMO-OFDM s dng SNR
thp hn OFDM. T c th chng minh cho nhn nh, s dng k thut MIMO-
OFDM chng ta dng cng sut pht thp hn m cht lng li cao hn.
Khi nhiu mi trng tng, th yu cu SNR tng, hay phi tng cng sut
pht.
SNR cng cao th BER cng nh. Nh vy khi pht vi cng sut ln th
cht lng tn hiu tt nhng yu cu tiu th nng lng tng nn gi thnh tng.
V vy cng ngy, ngi ta cng hng n s dng cc cng ngh trong thng tin
di ng m c th truyn tn hiu ng tin cy vi mc cng sut pht nh.
5.5. Kt lun chng.
Phn m phng cn hn ch l cha thc hin c lng knh, m xem nh
phn c lng l hon ho. Tuy nhin vi mc ch nh gi cht lng h thng
th m hnh trn l chp nhn c v ta cng xem phn c lng knh ca h
thng OFDM l hon ho. H thng s dng k thut OFDM cng l mt trong
nhng h thng cht lng cao; ang v s c p dng trong cc th h mng di
ng mi nh 3G v 4G.
Vi kt qu nhn c, l trong h thng thng tin di ng, k thut ny cho
BER nh vi SNR thp. N cn tt hn c k thut OFDM. iu ny chng t k
thut ny cn c nghin cu v p dng trong tng lai cho cc th h mng di
ng sau ny. M bc u, MIMO-OFDM c ng dng vo tiu chun
802.11n trong WIFI, n to ra s m rng bng thng v ci thin cht lng tn
hiu mt cch ng k so vi cc tiu chun khc trc y.
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI.
KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI.
ti K thut MIMO_OFDM trnh by mt cch tng quan v cng
ngh MIMO_OFDM. Thng qua h thng STBC_OFDM 2x2, cng gii thiu
mt cch chi tit v cng ngh MIMO_OFDM n gin. Trong ti cn trnh by
v k thut OFDM, MIMO, c lng knh.
Hin nay, cng ngh MIMO_OFDM c ng dng vo chun IEEE
802.11n trong h thng WIFI v IEEE 802.16 trong h thng WIMAX. Mc d
bc u cn trong giai on ng dng th nghim vi qui m nh nhng n
mang li nhng bc tin vt bc trong lnh vc thng tin di ng, nh s m
rng bng thng, nng cao cht lng tn hiu trao i. Mng WIFI s dng
802.11n trao i c cc d liu dung lng ln nh m thanh, hnh nh m
cc mng WIFI trc khng thc hin c.
ti gii thiu cng ngh STBC_OFDM, cng ngh ny cho s ci
thin ng k v cht lng tn hiu. Pht trin ti ny, c th nghin cu thm
cc h thng MIMO_OFDM vi s anten pht v thu ln hn; nh h thng 3x4,
4x4, 8x8,Nhng s anten tng cng ny sinh vn cn gii quyt l: s phc
tp trong b thu tn hiu, lm cho cc php tnh c kh cao, thit b th cng
knh, gi thnh cao. Tuy nhin gn y, vi cc pht minh b x l tn hiu s gi
r, cc b x l a nng, cc thut ton x l tn hiu mi, iu ny s gip thit b
MIMO_OFDM gn gng hn v s c a vo p dng rng ri trong thc t.
Vi nhng u im v mt k thut v s h tr ca cc pht minh mi, cng ngh
MIMO_OFDM s l mt trong nhng cng ngh hng u s c p dng trong
h thng thng tin di ng th h mi nh NGN, 4G.
TI LIU THAM KHO.
TI LIU THAM KHO.
[1] TS.Phan Hng Phng, KS.Lm Chi Thng, K thut phn tp anten trong
ci thin dung lng h thng MIMO.
[2] Phm Hng Lin, ng Ngc Khoa, Trn Thanh Phng, Matlab v ng dng
trong Vin Thng, Nh xut bn i Hc quc gia thnh ph H Ch Minh-2006.
[3] Ths Nguyn Anh Tun, Phng php m ha khng gian thi gian trong cc
h thng MIMO v mt s hng nghin cu, bi bo trnh ti hi ngh khoa
hc ln th VI.
[4] ThS.L Vn Ninh, TS.Nguyn Vit Knh, ng b tn s trong min tn s
cho OFDM, bi bo khoa hc.
[5] Ths.Nguyn Ngc Tin, Mt s vn k thut trong h thng OFDM, Tp
ch bu chnh Vin Thng v Cng ngh thng tin, 29/09/2003.
[6] Brank Vucetic, Jinhong Yuan, John Wily& Son, Space Time Coding, 2003.
[7] Lisa Meilhac, Alian Chiodini, Clement Boudesocque, Crislin Lele, Anil
Gercekei, MIMO-OFDM modem for WLAN- Newlogic Technology S.A.R.L, 07-
2004 .
[8] John R.Barry, Broadband MIMO OFDM wireless communications, 2004
[9] Vahid Tarokh, Hamid Jafarkhani, and A. R. Calderbank. "Spacetime block
codes from orthogonal designs". IEEE Transactions on Information Theory : 744
765, July 1999.
[10] Vahid Tarokh, A.Robert Calderbank, Space-Time Block Coding for Wireless
Communications. IEEE journal on selected areas in communication, March 1999
PH LC.
PH LC.
CHNG TRNH MATLAB THC HIN M PHNG.
1) Chng trnh chnh
function varargout = MIMO_OFDM(varargin)
% MIMO_OFDM M-file for MIMO_OFDM.fig
gui_Singleton = 1;
gui_State = struct('gui_Name', mfilename, ...
'gui_Singleton', gui_Singleton, ...
'gui_OpeningFcn', @MIMO_OFDM_OpeningFcn, ...
'gui_OutputFcn', @MIMO_OFDM_OutputFcn, ...
'gui_LayoutFcn', [] , ...
'gui_Callback', []);
if nargin == 0 % LAUNCH GUI
fig = openfig(mfilename,'reuse');
% Use system color scheme for figure:
set(fig,'Color',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
% Generate a structure of handles to pass to callbacks, and store it.
handles = guihandles(fig);
guidata(fig, handles);
if nargout > 0
varargout{1} = fig;
end
elseif ischar(varargin{1})
try
if (nargout)
[varargout{1:nargout}] = feval(varargin{:});
else
feval(varargin{:}); % FEVAL switchyard
end
catch
disp(lasterr);
end
end
% End initialization code - DO NOT EDIT
% --- Executes just before MIMO_OFDM is made visible.
% --- Executes on button press in start.
function varargout = start_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
Nfram1=str2double(get(handles.frames,'String'))
fft1=str2double(get(handles.fft_size,'String'))
Nsub1=str2double(get(handles.Nsubcarriers,'String'))
Dopler_freq1=str2double(get(handles.fd,'String'))
SNR1=eval(get(handles.snr,'String'))
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
M_qam1=str2double(get(handles.M,'String'));
M1 = M_qam1(get(handles.M,'Value'),1)
Delay1=str2double(get(handles.t_rms,'String'));
t_rms1=Delay1(get(handles.t_rms,'Value'),1);
%*****************************************************************
**
%state=1:OFDM ; state=2:STBC_OFDM 2x2
state1=1;
state2=2;
fd = Dopler_freq1;%fd1;%20; % Doppler frequency in Hz
t_rms = 1;%t_rms1;%1; % Delay spread in mu s
subN = Nsub1;%16; % No. of sub-carriers in each sub-channel
F_LA = 1; % Link Adaptation Resolusion, useless here.
Nframe = Nfram1;%110; % Total No. of frames to be simulated
cdrt = 1/2; % Coding rate
M = M1; % M-QAM
misnr = SNR1(1); % minimum simulated SNR in dB
stp = SNR1(2); % SNR simulation step
mxsnr = SNR1(end); % maximum simulated SNR in dB
chnums = 1000; % No. of channel realizations, should be larger than the total
simulated symbols (frames * 6)
sampling_rate = 1.08; % over-sampling rate, 1.08 for wimax?, and 1.536 for 3gpp
flg_offset = 0; % no Carrier-frequency offset
flg_csi_err = 0; % no Channel state information error
N = fft1%512; % FFT size & total No. of sub-carriers
cp_l = 128; % CP length
BW = 5e6; % system bandwidth, 5MHz
Nsymbol = 6; % 6 symbols within each frame
dirname1 = 'yynew1'; % where the result is stored
dirname2 = 'yynew2'; % where the result is stored
allow_load_oldres = 1; % allow to load previous result
Root_path = '.'; % where the path starts
addpath('../comm_funcs');
DELAY=0; % no feedback delay
stbc = 1; % useful only for alamouti (MISO)
T_Symbol = (N+cp_l)/(BW*sampling_rate); % OFDM symbol duration
sys = {'SISO','MRC1x2','Alt2x1','EGC1x2','AS2x1','ALT2x2','AS2x2'}; %
supported MIMO schemes
T_n=[1,2]; %Transmitter diversity branches [SIMO,MRC,MISO,EGC,MISO-AS]
R_n=[1,2]; %Receiver diversity branches [SIMO,MRC,MISO,EGC,MISO-AS]
T_div1=T_n(state1); %Specify transmitter diversity branches
R_div1=R_n(state1); %specify receiver diversity branches
T_div2=T_n(state2);
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
R_div2=R_n(state2);
[ch1,ch2] = channelgenerator2(t_rms,fd,sampling_rate,N,cp_l,BW,chnums + F_LA
* Nsymbol + DELAY,T_div1*R_div1,T_div2*R_div2); %%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%%%%%%%%
filename =
['f',num2str(fd),'_t',num2str(t_rms),'_N',num2str(subN),'_L',num2str(F_LA),...
'_M',num2str(M),'F',num2str(round(10*cdrt)),'_E',num2str(flg_csi_err),...
'c',num2str(flg_offset),'D',num2str(DELAY),'.mat'];
dirname1 = [Root_path,'/',dirname1];
filepath1 = [dirname1,'/',filename];
dirname2 = [Root_path,'/',dirname2];
filepath2 = [dirname2,'/',filename];
if allow_load_oldres && exist(filepath1,'file') && exist(filepath2,'file'),
load(filepath1);
load(filepath2);
else
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%
rdstate = 4831;
snr_ix = 0;
Num_grp=floor(N/subN);
blk_err_c=nan(length(misnr:stp:mxsnr),floor(Nframe/F_LA),Num_grp);
bit_err_u=nan(length(misnr:stp:mxsnr),floor(Nframe/F_LA),Num_grp);
bit_tot_u=nan(length(misnr:stp:mxsnr),floor(Nframe/F_LA),Num_grp);
bit_err_c=nan(length(misnr:stp:mxsnr),floor(Nframe/F_LA),Num_grp);
bit_tot_c=nan(length(misnr:stp:mxsnr),floor(Nframe/F_LA),Num_grp);
for snr=misnr:stp:mxsnr
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
snr_ix=snr_ix+1; frame_ix = 0;
noisePowPerSubC = 1/10^(snr/10)/N;
for la_ix=1:floor(Nframe/F_LA)
rnd = randint(1,1,chnums) + 1; % randmize channel index for different LA
intervals, avoid high time-correlation
index = (rnd: rnd + F_LA * Nsymbol-1 ) + DELAY;
h1 = ch1(:,index,:);
h2 = ch2(:,index,:);
H1 = func_add_csi_err(h1,N,flg_csi_err); % add CSI error
H2 = func_add_csi_err(h2,N,flg_csi_err); % add CSI error
[H1_comb,H1_LA,ps1]=selectAntenna2(H1,N,subN,state1,T_div1);
% tx antenna selection
[H2_comb,H2_LA,ps2]=selectAntenna2(H2,N,subN,state2,T_div2);
% tx antenna selection
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
B=log2(M)*ones(floor(N/subN),1); % loaded bits per sub-carrier
P1 = 1/N/T_div1*ones(floor(N/subN),1); % power per subCarrier
P2 = 1/N/T_div2*ones(floor(N/subN),1); % power per subCarrier
code_rate = cdrt*ones(floor(N/subN),1);
[T_mod1,T_mod2,T_sent,coded,intleav,fact1,fact2,real_len,raw_len,t] = ...
T_mod_cod_intlv(N,subN,B,P1,P2,Nsymbol,code_rate,rdstate,T_div1,T_div2,ps1,p
s2,state1,state2); % modulator & encoder & interleaver
tf(snr_ix,la_ix) = sum(B~=0)*F_LA;%length(find(B~=0))*F_LA; %
should be N/subN * F_LA
tb_u(snr_ix,la_ix) = sum(B)*subN*Nsymbol*F_LA;
tb_c(snr_ix,la_ix) = sum(raw_len)*F_LA;
if stbc == 1,
T_trans1=BT_alamouti(T_mod1,Nsymbol,state1);
%doan chuong trinh thuc hien MIMO
T_trans2=BT_alamouti(T_mod2,Nsymbol,state2);
end
for nf = 1:F_LA%F_PA % frame index within each PA window
frame_ix = frame_ix + 1;
index3 = ((nf-1)*Nsymbol+1:nf*Nsymbol);
h2_1=h1(:,index3+DELAY,:); % only in the channel part, and combining
part, no delay
h2_2=h2(:,index3+DELAY,:);
R_dfs1=BTR_ofdm(h2_1,N,cp_l,T_trans1,snr,T_div1,R_div1,Nsymbol,flg_offset,f
d,BW,sampling_rate,noisePowPerSubC); % ofdm transiver
R_dfs2=BTR_ofdm(h2_2,N,cp_l,T_trans2,snr,T_div2,R_div2,Nsymbol,fl
g_offset,fd,BW,sampling_rate,noisePowPerSubC); % ofdm transiver

H2_1 = H1_comb(:,index3+DELAY,:); % here, use H at the receiver, no
delay
H2_2 = H2_comb(:,index3+DELAY,:);
if stbc == 1,
R_comb1=BR_combiner(R_dfs1,H2_1,state1);
R_comb2=BR_combiner(R_dfs2,H2_2,state2);
end
[blk_err_c(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),blk_tot_c(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_
err_u(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_tot_u(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_err_c
(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_tot_c(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),wb_u1(snr_ix,
frame_ix),wb_c1(snr_ix,frame_ix),tp_uu1(snr_ix,frame_ix),tp_cc1(snr_ix,frame_ix
),wf_u1(snr_ix,frame_ix),wf_c1(snr_ix,frame_ix)]...
=
R_mod_cod_intlv(N,subN,R_comb1,fact1,B,rdstate,code_rate,real_len,t,coded,T_s
ent,intleav); % de-interleaver & de-coder & de-modulator
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
[blk_err_c(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),blk_tot_c(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_
err_u(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_tot_u(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_err_c
(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),bit_tot_c(snr_ix,frame_ix,1:Num_grp),wb_u2(snr_ix,
frame_ix),wb_c2(snr_ix,frame_ix),tp_uu2(snr_ix,frame_ix),tp_cc2(snr_ix,frame_ix
),wf_u2(snr_ix,frame_ix),wf_c2(snr_ix,frame_ix)]...
=
R_mod_cod_intlv(N,subN,R_comb2,fact2,B,rdstate,code_rate,real_len,t,coded,T_s
ent,intleav); % de-interleaver & de-coder & de-modulator
end
end
disp(['SNR= ',num2str(snr),'dB finished']);
end
%% calculate results
% truong hop state1=1
ber_c1 = sum(wb_c1,2)./sum(tb_c,2)% avaible store ber of OFDM
% save results
if ~exist(dirname1,'dir'),
mkdir(dirname1);
end;
desp1 = [sys{state1},filename];
save(filepath1,'desp1','ber_c1','misnr','stp','mxsnr','t_rms','fd','state1','M','cdrt','subN')
;
%truong hop state2=2
ber_c2 = sum(wb_c2,2)./sum(tb_c,2)%avaible store ber of MIMO_OFDM
% save results
if ~exist(dirname2,'dir'),
mkdir(dirname2);
end;
desp2 = [sys{state2},filename];
save(filepath2,'desp2','ber_c2','misnr','stp','mxsnr','t_rms','fd','state2','M','cdrt','sub
N');
end
% plot results
%**************figure;
%*****************************************************************
***
axes(handles.axes1)
semilogy(misnr:stp:mxsnr,ber_c1,'-.r*',misnr:stp:mxsnr,ber_c2,':bs','linewidth',2);
legend('OFDM 1x1','STBCOFDM 2x2');
xlabel('SNR [dB]');
ylabel('BER');
set(handles.axes1,'XminorTick','on')
grid on
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
clear all;clc;
function MIMO_OFDM_OpeningFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles, varargin)
handles.output = hObject;
% Update handles structure
guidata(hObject, handles);
function varargout = MIMO_OFDM_OutputFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
varargout{1} = handles.output;
function varargout = frames_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% --- Executes during object creation, after setting all properties.
function frames_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% See ISPC and COMPUTER.
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
function varargout = fft_size_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% hObject handle to fft_size (see GCBO)
% --- Executes during object creation, after setting all properties.
function fft_size_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% hObject handle to fft_size (see GCBO)
% See ISPC and COMPUTER.
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
function varargout = Nsubcarriers_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% hObject handle to Nsubcarriers (see GCBO)
% Hints: get(hObject,'String') returns contents of Nsubcarriers as text
% str2double(get(hObject,'String')) returns contents of Nsubcarriers as a double
% --- Executes during object creation, after setting all properties.
function Nsubcarriers_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% hObject handle to Nsubcarriers (see GCBO)
% eventdata reserved - to be defined in a future version of MATLAB
% handles empty - handles not created until after all CreateFcns called
% Hint: edit controls usually have a white background on Windows.
% See ISPC and COMPUTER.
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
function M_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% --- Executes during object creation, after setting all properties.
function M_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
function varargout = fd_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
function fd_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
function varargout = t_rms_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
function t_rms_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
function varargout = snr_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
function snr_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
% --- Executes on selection change in M.
function popupmenu2_Callback(hObject, eventdata, handles)
function popupmenu2_CreateFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
if ispc
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor','white');
else
set(hObject,'BackgroundColor',get(0,'defaultUicontrolBackgroundColor'));
end
2) Interleaving,Coding and Mod received signal
function [T_mod1,T_mod2,T_sent,coded,intleav,fact1,fact2,real_len,raw_len,t] = ...
T_mod_cod_intlv(N,subN,B,P1,P2,Nsymbol,code_rate,rdstate,T_div1,T_div2,ps1,p
s2,state1,state2)
T_sent = cell(1,floor(N/subN)); coded = cell(1,floor(N/subN));
intleav = cell(1,floor(N/subN));T_mod1 = []; T_mod2 = [];
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
t = cell(1,floor(N/subN));
for k = 1:floor(N/subN)
lens = subN*B(k)*Nsymbol;
if code_rate(k) == 2/3&&mod(floor(lens*code_rate(k)),2)~=0
raw_len(k) = floor(lens*code_rate(k))-1;%lenh nay se rut gon chieu dai lens
theo ti le k
else
raw_len(k) = floor(lens*code_rate(k));
end
raw_bits = randint(1,raw_len(k));
T_sent{k} = raw_bits;%dua mang "raw_bits" vao 1 vi tri "T_sent{k}"
[coded{k},t{k},real_len(k)] = N_encoder(code_rate(k),raw_bits,lens);%ma hoa
raw_bit theo trellis k=1/2
if length(coded{k})==0
intleav{k} = [];
mod1 = zeros(1,subN*Nsymbol);
fact1(k) = 0;
fact2(k) = 0;
else
intleav{k}=randintrlv(coded{k},rdstate);
mod1 = qmodulator2(intleav{k},2^B(k));
fact1(k) = sqrt(P1(k)/pv(mod1));%P1 la nang luong tren mot song mang con;
pv la tinh gia tri trung binh
fact2(k) = sqrt(P2(k)/pv(mod1));
end
tp = reshape(mod1,[],subN);
%sap xep lai ma tran mod1 thanh ma tran co subN cot
mod2 = tp.';
mod3 = tp.';
mod2 = mod2 *fact1(k);
mod3 = mod3 *fact2(k);
T_mod1 = [T_mod1;mod2];
T_mod2 = [T_mod2;mod3];
End
3) Deinterleaving,decoding and demod received signal
function
[blk_err_c,blk_tot_c,bit_err_u,bit_tot_u,bit_err_c,bit_tot_c,bnum2_u,bnum2_c,tpb_
u,tpb_c,fnum_u,fnum_c] = ...
R_mod_cod_intlv(N,subN,R_comb,fact1,B,rdstate,code_rate,real_len,t,coded,T_
sent,intleav)
fnum_u = zeros(1,floor(N/subN)); fnum_c = zeros(1,floor(N/subN));
blk_err_c=zeros(1,floor(N/subN));
% stores whether the particular block is in error or not
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
% if the block is in error, a '1' will be put in
% the place, if it is not in error '0' will used.
blk_tot_c=zeros(1,floor(N/subN));% whether the block is loaded or not
bit_err_u=zeros(1,floor(N/subN));
% stores the number of bits in error for uncoded
% configuration, for each block
bit_tot_u=zeros(1,floor(N/subN));
% total number of uncoded bits loaded in each block
bit_err_c=zeros(1,floor(N/subN)); % stores the number of bits in error for coded
% configuration, for each block
bit_tot_c=zeros(1,floor(N/subN)); % stores the total number of coded bits loaded in
each block
for k = 1:floor(N/subN) % 1:512 % for each block
tp = R_comb((k-1)*subN+1:k*subN,:).';
tp2 = tp(:).';
if fact1(k)~=0
r_dmd = qdemodulator(tp2/fact1(k),2^B(k));
dintlv=randdeintrlv(r_dmd,rdstate);
%r_dcd = BR_decode2(code_rate(k),dintlv(1:real_len(k)),t(k));
r_dcd = BR_decode2(code_rate(k),dintlv(1:real_len(k)),t{k});
bnum2_u(k) = biterr(dintlv,coded{k}); % uncoded wrong bits
bnum2_c(k) = biterr(r_dcd,T_sent{k}); % coded wrong bits
blk_tot_c(k)=blk_tot_c(k)+1;
% increase the count for the loaded blocks
bit_tot_u(k)=bit_tot_u(k)+length(dintlv);%
bit_tot_c(k)=bit_tot_c(k)+length(r_dcd);%
else
r_dmd = []; dintlv = [];
bnum2_u(k) = 0; bnum2_c(k) = 0;
end
tpb_u(k) = length(intleav{k}); % throughput for uncoded, if no error
tpb_c(k) = length(T_sent{k}); % throughput for coded, if error
if bnum2_u(k)>0 % with error
fnum_u(k) = fnum_u(k) +1; % fer + 1
tpb_u(k) = 0; % throughput set to 0
end
if bnum2_c(k)>0 % with error
fnum_c(k) = fnum_c(k) +1; % fer + 1
tpb_c(k) = 0; % throughput set to 0
end
end
% store data for each block
blk_err_c=fnum_c; % whether the block is in error or not
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
bit_err_u=bnum2_u;% total number of bits in error in each block for uncoded
system
bit_err_c=bnum2_c;% total number of bits in error in each block for coded system
%% yy's new part
bnum2_u = sum(bnum2_u);
bnum2_c = sum(bnum2_c);
tpb_u = sum(tpb_u);
tpb_c = sum(tpb_c);
fnum_u = sum(fnum_u);
fnum_c = sum(fnum_c);
4) The multipath channel matrix generator
%Using rayleighchan function in MATLAB
%chnums is the number of channel realizations
%fd is the Doppler frequency
%divn is the number of diversity branches
%t_rms is the delay spread in us
%The output is matrix ch, for channel impulse response
%clear all;close all;
%clc;
%bug fixed for AWGN
function[ch1,ch2]=channelgenerator2(t_rms,fd,sampling_rate,N,cp_l,BW,chnums,d
ivn1,divn2)
if t_rms==0 && fd ==0,
ch1 = ones(1,chnums,divn1);
ch2 = ones(1,chnums,divn2);
else
Ch1=raych2(chnums*divn1,fd,t_rms,sampling_rate,N,cp_l,BW);
Ch2=raych2(chnums*divn2,fd,t_rms,sampling_rate,N,cp_l,BW);
for i=1:divn1
ch1(:,:,i)=Ch1(:,(i-1)*chnums+1:i*chnums);
%save (sprintf('ch%d',i),'ch');
end
for i=1:divn2
ch2(:,:,i)=Ch2(:,(i-1)*chnums+1:i*chnums);
%save (sprintf('ch%d',i),'ch');
end
end
5)SelectAnten2
function [H_comb,H_LA,ps]=selectAntenna2(H,N,subN,state,T_div)
%H_comb = H(:,DELAY+1:end,:); ps = [];
H_comb = H; ps = [];
H_LA = squeeze(H(:,1,:));
6)BT_alamouti
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
%Alamouti-STBC scheme for MISO-Alamouti
%return if not MISO system
%T_mod is the modulated signal
%Nsymbol is the No. of symbols within each frame
%state can be 1,2,3,4 or 5, indicates different systems
(1=SISO,2=MRC,3=MISO,4=EGC,5=AS)
function T_trans=BT_alamouti(T_mod,Nsymbol,state)
% if state~=3
% T_trans=T_mod;
% return;
% end
if state == 2 || state == 6
for k=1:2:Nsymbol
Ant0(:,k:k+1) = [T_mod(:,k) -conj(T_mod(:,k+1))];
Ant1(:,k:k+1) = [T_mod(:,k+1) conj(T_mod(:,k))];
end
T_trans(:,:,1)=Ant0;T_trans(:,:,2)=Ant1;
else
T_trans = T_mod;
End
7) BTR_ofdm
%OFDM transiver plus channel
%B and P contains bits number and power for each subcarrier
%ch is the channel matrix, chnums is the No. of channel realizations
%N is the No. of subcarriers
%T_div and R_div are transmitter/receiver diversity branches
%pn is the normalized noise power
%T_trans is the modulated signal (After Alamouti for MISO-Alamouti)
%cp_l is the length of CP
%R_dfs is the received signal, without CP
%H is the freqneucy response of channel impulse response
function
[R_dfs]=BTR_ofdm(h2,N,cp_l,T_trans,snr,T_div,R_div,Nsymbol,flg_offset,fd,BW
,sampling_rate,noisePowPerSubC)
%% offset part
%BW = 5e6;
% F_Sampling = BW*sampling_rate;
% T_Sampling = 1/F_Sampling;
% T_Symbol = (N+cp_l)*T_Sampling;
global use_HPA_flg;
T_Sampling = 1/(BW*sampling_rate);
T_Symbol = (N+cp_l)/(BW*sampling_rate);
if flg_offset==1 % Simulation Including Carrier ofset
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
t=0:T_Sampling:T_Symbol-T_Sampling;
offset=exp(-j*2*pi*fd*t)';
else
offset=1;
end
pn=noisePowPerSubC;%1/10^(snr/10)/N; %Noise power in each subcarrier
fss = ifft(T_trans,N,1);
fs1=[fss(N-cp_l+1:end,:,:);fss];
fs1_before_PA=fs1;
% sdnr_lin_mean_beforHPA=(mean(sum(abs(fs1(1:N,:)).^2)))/( pn);
% if sdnr_lin_mean_beforHPA>0
% SNR_beforePowerAmp=10*log10(sdnr_lin_mean_beforHPA);
% Calculation of new SNR taking Backoff into account.
% else
% SNR_beforePowerAmp=nan;
% end
% % PASS THROUGH THE HIGH POWER AMPLIFIER
if use_HPA_flg
fs1_HPA =Rapps_model(fs1,'');%Amplifying the signal with Rapps model
else
fs1_HPA =fs1;
end
fst3 = zeros(N+cp_l,Nsymbol,T_div);
fs3 = zeros(N+cp_l,Nsymbol,R_div);
for rx = 1:R_div
for tx = 1:T_div
for k=1:Nsymbol
fst3(:,k,tx)=filter(h2(:,k,(rx-1)*T_div+tx),1,fs1_HPA(:,k,tx)).*offset;
end
end
fs3(:,:,rx) = sum(fst3,3);
end
% clear i;
noise=randn(size(fs3))+i*randn(size(fs3));
noise=noise/sqrt(pv(noise))*sqrt(pn)/sqrt(N);
splusn=fs3+noise;
rcp=splusn(cp_l+1:end,:,:);
R_dfs=fft(rcp,N,1);
8)BR_combiner
%Combine received signal
%R_dfs is the output signal of FFT, without CP
%H is the channel frequency response
N TT NGHIP.
PH LC.
%state can be 1,2,3 or 4, indicates different systems
(1=SISO,2=MRC,3=MISO,4=EGC)
%R_comb will be demodulated later to recover the transmitted bits
function R_comb=BR_combiner(R_dfs,H,state)
[N,Nsymbol,R_div]=size(R_dfs);
if state==1
for k=1:Nsymbol
R_comb(:,k)=R_dfs(:,k)./H(:,k);
end
R_comb(:,k)=(conj(H1(:,1)).*R_dfs(:,k)+H1(:,2).*conj(R_dfs(:,k+1))).*scale4;
% R_comb(:,k+1)=(conj(H1(:,2)).*R_dfs(:,k)-
H1(:,1).*conj(R_dfs(:,k+1))).*scale4;
elseif state == 6||state==2
for k = 1:2:Nsymbol
scale4=1./sum(abs(squeeze(H(:,k,:))).^2,2);
r0 = R_dfs(:,k,1); r1 = R_dfs(:,k+1,1);
r2 = R_dfs(:,k,2); r3 = R_dfs(:,k+1,2);
h0 = H(:,k,1); h1 = H(:,k,2);
h2 = H(:,k,3); h3 = H(:,k,4);
R_comb(:,k) = (conj(h0).*r0 + h1.*conj(r1) + conj(h2).*r2 +
h3.*conj(r3)).*scale4;%lay du lieu thu giong alamouti 2x1
R_comb(:,k+1) = (conj(h1).*r0 - h0.*conj(r1) + conj(h3).*r2 -
h2.*conj(r3)).*scale4;
end
end
N TT NGHIP.