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TOWARDS EVOLVING A BRTDGE I'TANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR JKR

By: Ir.

Ir.

Tham Kum Weng+ Leong .;

Khoo Chin Ir.

Ng See King *

TOWARDS EVOLVING A BRIDGE I.I.ANAGEMENT SYSTEU FOR JKR

By: Ir.

Ir.

Tham Kum Weng+

Khoo Chin Leong'a Ir. Ng See King *

ABSTRACT: structures over 2300 bridge are well there Although in network roads Federal the major over scattered b r i d g e p r o p e r o r s y s t e m a t i c to Malaysia, Peninsular the to coordinate to-date exists management system related and maintenance activities construction design, out under the Malaysian Recent work carried to biidges. (l-986-1988) has discovered Load Study Nati_ona1 Axle of the The najority d.amages to many bridges. serious than rather factors bridges were damaged by environmental be not the damages could Although loadings. by vehicle they cou1d, however, be rninimised eliminated., entirety to factors attention proper care in detailing, with and proper stage design during durability affecting a proper Finally, construction. quality during control inspection on regular maintenance system which stresses at an early stage and thus prevent distress would arrest repairswid.espread damage and consequent costly the development towards evolving This paper highlights bridge manag:ement systern for JKR Malaysia a systematic (tha Public Works Department of Malaysia) . This is i-n need to pay of the vital the realisation with Iine and consolidation greater to the preservation attention days built during pre-independence structures of bridge Planspast Development Malaysian five and over the

Roads Branch, Ft{D Malaysia Ilighway PLanning Unit, PWDMalaysia

1.O 1.1

INTRODUCTION Backgrouud In Malaysia, it is the conventional role of Bridge Unit of JKR (Public Works Department) to carry out design works and offer technical services with respect to problerns arising from construction of bridges or poor performance of existing bridges as reported fron time to time. Traditionally, brid.ge problems are dealt with on a case-by-case basis in an ad-hoc manner. Decisions are being made by individual bridge eng'ineers based on their heuristic knowledge. As such, they are subjective and not uniform. The National Axle Load Study in it3 bridge inspection exercise has made observations on the structural integrity of some Malaysian bridges. A large number of bridges need imlrediate attention of the Bridge Unit, due to structural inadequacy or functional obsolescence either as a result of deterioration or increase vehicular present load of day traffic. What is more worrying'is the observation that most Malaysian bridges are suffering from premature failure brought about by the various factors to be highlighted later in this paper. This calls for an overall bridge management systen (BMS) that will provide a comprehensive system from the point of design, construction and rnaintenance. A microconputer-based infornation system shall be created to provide decision supports to the Bridge Managers in the Bridge Unit. The need to inventorise the nationrs bridges was first realised when KAMSAX A/C, Denrnark in association with SSP, K.L. was engaged to prepare a bridge inventory in 1972-74. This inventory was partially updated around t979. The data contained in the Kamsax fnventory is somewhat lirnited. There is, for exarnple, no data to support an analysis to assess the load carrying capacity of a bridge structure. An attenpt to initiate a systematic bridge inspection and sirength assessment was made UV Bridge Unit in L984. Bridge inspection forns were designed to gather field bridge data sb that some sirnple analyses could be perfomed to rate the

. 'terms bridges in capacities t1l. of their load-carrying

Dj-rector of In April L987, the-senior Assistant paper entitled Bridge Unit his working in t'Establishing and maintenance a bridge inspection the need systern for JKRrr has again highlighted the to systematically and maintain inspect on a nationrs bridges. The paper elaborated proposed organisational set-up of an tinspection and maintenancer section within the Bridge Unit. The National AxIe Load Study (Phase I) started 1-987, in Decernber 1985 and completed in october of some has helped to create a bridge inventory 956 bridges on a few main Federal routes 12). The comprises which second phase of the study, Federal on major basically bridge inspection routes not covered under the Phase I Study is present underway at.the moment. The inventory prepared i-n many by the study, though helpful a constitute ways, does not itself in vast The system. comprehensive bridge manaqement amount of data collected during the study however would be useful if a bridge management system j-s to be developed. A/S and the In June L987, Kamsax International presented to the JKR Danish Road Directorate had proposal naintenance a project a bridge for management system. The proposal was not accepted a few owing to the high cost involved. Besides, been of the proposed items of work had already undertaken AxIe Load Study. in the National At the same tine, the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has also proposed to conduct a rMaster Plan Studyr on the naintenance Malaysia. and rehabilitation in of bridges by To-date the rnatter is still being discussed The the Malaysian and Japanese Governments. Master Plan Study shall be programmed and carried out in three phases, viz; l) Phase f: reviewing existing data; 2) Phase II: systernatic inspection and evaluation of existing bridges and preparing a bridge inspeetion manual and 3) Phase fII: of budgeting and feasibility study on packaging the within rehabilitation or works repair particular of the chosen route. The emphasis study is on the identification of deteriorated of or deficient bridges and .the preparation docurnents to repair them. or rehabilitate

L.2

The Trigger:

The National

Axle

Load Study

the inspection, In the course of bridge-by-bridge a Axle Load Study team had discovered National from severe suffering number of bridges large in the form of cracking/ disLress, t1pical1y and concrete structures; in reinforced spalling structures. steel case of the corrosion in beyond the legal overloading Although vehicular is common p1ace, damage due to such factor lirnits is extremely rare. the damages afe' caused by of The rnajofity chloride Carbonation, factors. environmental could sulphate attack etc-, corrosion, ingress, In the agentsto external all be attributed by a are exacerbated scene, such factors Iocal durability affecting to details of attention lack such as type of cenent and cover reguirernents, at the site. poor qualitl and supervision control of the many that fett it is of this, In spite prevented from been could have structures had encountered the leve1 of distress reaching rehabilitation and a systen of regular inspection AxIe Load Study, in The National been available. of all bridge coming up with a complete inventory has set study, under structures in the network overall an of the frarnework for the establishrnent of stock existing system to manage the nationrs bridges:

2.O 2.L

TEE APPROACE fN

SYSTEI.i DE.IrELOPUENT

Systen

requirenents

A JKR BMS System Development Tearn was fornred to study and dJvelop a bridge management system for JKR. management system, the the bridge In developing into taken points been have following consideration: i. ii. iii. iv. v. boundary of the system a well-defined a systerns approach in systern development to ensure user acceptabilitY system to be simple but complete possible expansion of the system future of is

the objectives To define the system boundary, This established. be the system nust first discussed in item 4.1.3.

A systems approach is imperative in the systerns 'rhydra development process in oider to avoid the effectr common among progranmers who wriLe progranmes before {frei plan and lroperly structure the algoiittrms effectr:eriminating one defect leading tJ tne creation of many nore). A systgqs a_pproach is just more than being systematic. A seven-process system development life cycte (based on tech-niques .'=-"d-'-i., Management rnformation systen) is recommended i3l. It consists of: iii. iii. iv. v. . vi. vii. 2.2 Conduct initial study Analyse current systirn propose systen solution Detail chosen d.esign Design.new physical systern Construct nLw-system Install and non-itor systern

System Developneut The seven-process methodology as discussed been transrated into tne forrowing !3= phases: above three

2.2.r This phase incrudes literature research on systems used by other countries especially the U .s.; co l l e cti o n of systen data; stir aies on thd practice in the Bridge Unir; :yt.:T!. rqenErrLcation of systen objectives etc.
2.2.2 This phase involves prototlping the man-machine systen based on the fogicif iodel created in Phase f. The activities to be perforned by man .I" laid down in procedures work or _being standard manuals/guides. The operalions that can be performed- by a computer are transformed. l":t into computer prograrmes. 2.2.3 This phase is the implementation of the proposed system. It shall include the acguisition of hardware and software needed by the system and the training of staff.

: :
2.3

Strateg'y The users of the management system are basically engineers usei from the niiage To afford Unit. aiceptability, and technical the engineers assistants of and Highway the Unit Bridge Planning Unit are in the directly involved development of the systen. with is in line This the JKR|s decision acquiring an against rroff-the-shelftt system. The strategy now is to cone up with a simple but complete system with a provision for refinement in future when the need arises. To be conplete means that the systen barest must have the rninirnum components of a bridge management systen (for e.9r a prioritisation model, a prediction model and a data bank). For a complete system to be simple, only few parameters in a model needs parameters may be to be considered. Additional included later when the system is expanded. The system should now ain only at bridges the federal routes. extension to Future roads must be considered. along state

The need and possibility the of integrating proposed bridge managenenC systern to i,rre existing . pavement management system, BS(M) to effect an overall road rnanagement system has also been a consideration in tne systJrn development. The BMS Systern Development Team shall detail the system design to whatever leve1 it is capable. Private consultants more may be engaged for detailed system design.

3.0

THE CURRENT PRACTTCE As a first step to proposing a logical.nodeI for the JKR BMS, the current practice of managing our existing bridges in the Bridge Unit is reviewed to identify weaknesses that have to be overcome in the proposed.system. in a data It is depicted flow diagran in Fig. f. This semblance of tsystenr was only established after L.4.1-986 with the re-organisation in Public Works Departrnent whereby the Bridge Unit was transferred frorn the Design & Research Branch to the Roads Branch. With such re-structuring the objective and role of the Bridge Unit was

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expanded for it to be management of bridges

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By studying the f lovr data shortcomings of the current identified. They are: i. system The current Bridge Manager to proj ects .

-diagram, systen

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a11ow the bridge

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it is only The current system is passive; Generally triggers. reactive to outside in than preventive it is remedial rather nature. There is no efficient about the information public to the The current information way of providing safety of bridges

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provide not systen does purposes. for budgeting

way to update the There is no systenatic Cards. bridge information in the Inventory unifora and There no is consistent criteria for decision and no rational improvement works; like whether to repair or replace. Data in the Inventory card is insufficient to support bridge management deeisions. There is no standard a bridge inspection. format for reporting data

vii. viii. ix. x.


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There are too many physical storage.

media for

from Retrieval of information media of storaqe is difficult.

existing

with Current systen not deal does rnaintenance at all (naintenance here refer to activities, rouLine rnaintenance preventive in nature). No feedback mechanism to identify in current design practice. weakness

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4.0 4.1 4.1.1_

THE

PROPOSED

SYSTEiI{ IN

CONCEPTS

Systen

Requirenents Obi ectives

orqanisation

The organisation objective of the Bridge Unit is clearly spelt out in Bridge Unit Design cuide I ]
dS,

rrTo plan and improve the development of the infrastructure and public facilities in the transportation system such as bridges, flyovers and cuLverts for roads; so that they are safe, of high quality and econornical so as to promote the countryrs social and economic developrnent. tl To achieve such an objective, not only are new bridges to be constructed stock but also existing properly of bridges in the country has to be rnanaged. 4.1.2 Organisation Tactics

With regard to existing organisation bridges, tactics to achieve the organisation objectives mentioned above are:i. Do nothinq but routine maintenance

In cases where the deficiency in a bridge structure is to cause any not Iikely severe effect, Do course of action shall be taken. sha1I Routine naintenance proceed

ii.

Post

a bridcre with

a weiqht

tinit

In cases where only very light vehicles (in terms of and weight) are volume expected to be using the facility, a bridge may be posted permanently with a weight liurit.
Il_.t_.

Closure

and Demolition

For reasons such as obsolescence or severe deterioration, may be closed a bridge perrnanently. Dernolition may follow.

rv.

Bridqe

Repair

This consists of corrective of works nature to restore danages or deterioration ' on a structure or its menber(s) . v. Bridcre Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation an extensive involves repair, inclusive upgrading and of restoration. of Upgrading is the raising a structurers capacity or standard to a level above that of the original design. Restoration a structure or is to return its mernber(s) original to their conditions.
vL.

Bridoe

Reolacement.

This is the construction of a new br:idge in lieu of a previously bridge existing at or near the sarne location. Bridge repair is often recognised as an essential activity in a routine and has thus maintenance been collectively & repair called maintenance (M&R). Routine carried M&R should be out regularly in accordance with a certain policy maintenance to be established by the Bridge Unit. In many bridge managiement systems, such as that used in the Pennsylvania Department of Transport, U.S, the M&R decision is often separated from the rehabilitation/ bridge replacement decision. Bridge rehabilitation/ decision replacement is concerned if should a bridge structure be rehabilitated or replaced. on the M&R decision, other hand, is concerned about when to intenrene a certain maintenance activity. It is helpful to note that the distinction between rehabilitation and M&R is on their Rehabilitation extent. involves extensive restoration or upgrbding work. Very often, it is due to the lack of M&R that a rehabilitation .work becomes necessary. post Decision to a bridge or to close and demolish a bridge is more a subjective matter depending on the severity of the structural deficiency. They are nade independent of the M&R decision or bridge rehabilitation/ replacement decision; and as such are excluded in the prioritisation rnodel to be discussed later.

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4.2

Basic

Components of

the

BMS

To-date the JKR BMS System Development Team has developed a logical model for the proposed system and work is underway to create a prototlpe based on it. The logical model of the proposed system is as shown j-n a data flow diagrarn in Fig. 3. The proposed BMS concentrates on providing information to aid Bridge Managers with regard. to irnprovement works on existing bridges. It consists of three basic components:l_. LL. lLl_.

The Prioritisation Model The Prediction Model The Data Bank Model provides Model Manager by:decision in their known as Levelil;

4.2.L

The Prioritisation The Prioritisation supports to Bridge i.

ranking the bridge projects orders of priority. This is t'Prioritisation at the Network deciding the alternatives. ttPrioritisation

ii.

rbestt improvement This is known as at the project Levelil.

The output is a list of bridges needing irnprovement in their orders of priory. Beside each bri{.ge entry is the scope of inprovement work recc/nmended and its cost estimate. At the Network Level, the prioritisation Model helps the Bridge Manager to decide which bridge(s) in the network to take action. The attributes affecting the prioritisation decision are laid down in a tthierarchy (fig. of valuesil 4). Values of the attributes are to be collected in a regular bridge inspection for each structure in the network. A priority point shal1 be norked out for every bridge. priority Higher of improvement action shall given be to structures with high priority points At the Project Level it helps the Bridge Manager to decide what action to take for each selecied project. After a detailed bridge inspection, the Bridge Engineer shal1 prepare a few feasible improvement alternatives based on the severity of the deterioration as well as the site

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conditions. The alternative with present cost sha11 be recommended. 4.2.2 The predictipn Model

the

nrinimum

'

. The prediction Model supports the prioritisation Moder by predicting or Lrtirnating -in the irnpacts of each improvement alternati"" teruns of costs and extended service fives.Besides, the Prediction Moder -i"o forecasts future needs far in advance for the purpose of proper planning and budgeting; and tire requisilion for special fundingr. fn order to ao a conceptual cost estimate, th: quantities ina unit or-in" proposed work must f irst "6=J be d.etermined. tn" estimated of work for one or more .quantity improvemelt option! sha11 be made by the Bridge Engineer a detail.a-i"=p"ction. standard .during unit costs are established i'n- a database of bridge costs based on bid rin" itern prices subnitted by contractor= o., p."-nions contracts. The Data Bank The Data Bank is the core of the overall bridge manaqement system. It, store= ,r="f.rf bridge data -ana needed to. support the prioritiEtion u"d"r. prediction the Model. ri--;i;" stores and. manipulates data to proviae . basic Uridge inforrnation to the users - The bridge d.ata are stored in three formats; ,,.r"fy ir, data bases, f iles and n l c r o f "orpoter ilms. A nicrocornputer-based database nanagenent system dBASE rv is used for the data bases. rig. 5 shows the data erernents to be storeain these data bases. Fi1es are used to feep records of old. correspondence and design-cornipt"tio".*".a=. As-built structural ara'wi-ngs---ua" stored i_n microfilrns.

4.2.3

5.0

RELATED DE.\rELOPUEIITS While the JKR BMS when fu11y developed and successfullv lrnplenented wiff 'the evintually elirninate n6st of ;;-u;.=ses. in the current practice in mainta.ining uri-ag"=, it cannot be over-enphasis;a "xi=ti1g-tne irp6.i"-""" of the Bridge unit lookiig into two other rnajor areas engineering i.e. planning and design,. :j,O.i9_n1 and construction of bridges. Tha followiigs summarise the status of frogr"== in these two areas: -

INVENITORY DATABASE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. t4. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 2L. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.
JL).

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

: Route No. Structure No. Name of Structure Name of River Name of District State Year of Construction CorrespondenceFile Ref Tlpe of Material Type of System Crossing Degree of Skewness Maximum Span Length No. Of Spans Total Length of Structures Carriageway Width Overall Width Load-Carrying Capacity Discounted Capacity Deck Tlpe Abutment Type Pier Type Foundation Type Vertical Clearance Horizontal Clearance Environment Condition ADT Voof Heavy Vehicles Modified ADT Navigable or Not Any Electrical Services Any Telecom Sevices Any Lighting Services Any Water Mains Highest Flood Clearance Foundation Cond. Rating Abutment Cond. Rating Pier Cond. Rating Bearing Cond. Rating

40. Girder Cond. Rating Deck Cond. Rating 4t. 42. Surfacing Cond. Rating 43. Joint Cond. Rating Parapet Cond. Rating M. 45. Approach Slab Cond. Rating 46. Slope Cond. Rating 4 7 . Weighted Cond. Rating 48. Proposed Maintenance Cost 49. Equivalent Age 50. Remark 51. Date of Entry HISTORY DATABASE
Route No. Structure No. Project No. Nature of Work Year of Improvement Designer Contractor Total Cost Design File Ref.

COST DATABASE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ProjectNo. Contract Sum Tenderer State Date of Tender Job No. Job Description Quatity of Work Amount Unit Cost

Fig. 5 Data Elements of Databases

5.1

Planning

and Design

of New Bridges

of the existing inspections Based on the field' and design planning. the y"tt=:-.t t""",tJ bridges upgraded of new brid'ges hav-e been toitittoouify of c h oice d e t a i l i n g s ' in- areas of especially a of ' As a result =il"lti"ttiott= materials the years r.n recent' -b""" continuous ""a programme achieved:have followings
5. l-. L

Bridoe

Desiqn Guide

in l-9.85' This A Bridge Design Guide.vias publi'*hed and guides J"=ig" lirocedures' book containilt was design bridge on siinple exarnples worked f ices ' diitli"-t-:f and stale JKR aII to circulated' awareness of a greater This served to create of JKR spectrum arnong u iia"r engi-neering bridge healthy a cultivate to n&p"a engineers besides providing ""JengLneers the among interest basic grrides. 5 .)-.2

was for bridge construction A new specification was Part of the new specification drafted.. Road Standard the into incorporated L989 while the July in -Jp"citications r"""Ln"a specifications be fully witl .serves balance of in" to implementea ny-19t0' The specificationconstruction controi auring improve the guality tne . material irnpr-ving arso and "t s p e c i f i c a t i . o n"'i;-s-.i.''tn"ri^entofcurren t f i n d i nstandard gs rhe deteriorition' ;;:-^;;t;;i;ibe iropllmented' country-wide' specif ications tiir
5. 1.3

wa-s being specif ication loading A new bridge standardisation t'o ichieve ir,' f ormulated the "tJ"t to as so bridges future for all :1t-"^1'fot (LTAL) of the Long Term Axle Load irnplementatj-on could of the poricv policy. FulL ;.;r";+*itl of stock existing the all not be ettected-until are ful'1Y uPgraded' briages
5. L.4

Bridoe

Desiqn

Criteria

incorporating Criteria -dePartrnental of Bridge Design A draft requirements f indi'ngs ana the latest 1 9 9 0 ' This wiII in i"t i'turication was drafted enable a and Design Guide complement th-J-B;id;"

uniform private
5. 1.5

criteria in design of bridges by JKR and consultants doin! JxR proj-ects ] Bridqe Beans

Standard

A new series of standard prestressed concrete beams will be developed i; line with the new bridge loading specification. This will replace the existing series of standard beams developed over the years since 1970rs.
5.1.6

Detailinq Attention to detailings and structural interaction of the various Lridge components wirl be continuously upgraded.

5.2

Construction

of New Bridges

In order to ensure the proper translation of design into the construction and completion of new bridgs, the Bridge unit has comrnenlcedtaking a more active rolg in providing technical support to the construction and supervision teams. Frequent interaction between design engineers and fierd engineers has afforded the p-rop"i of neer.bridges in recent years-. S-ite "x""ution problems settled y"l".guick1y and wea-knesses in ae-sign and. detailings could be read.ily overcome and r61ayed. to the design engineers fof further improvement.

6.0

CONCLUSTON paper outlines the basic process involved fhis tle development of a Bridge lt-anagement systern 1n for JKR. rt deals in some aeptrr witf, the various 'problems and aspects to be considered in the elaboration of maintenance policy and some important factors necessary for th; successful implementation of an overall systen. Arthough this management system is stirl in its -tnat infancy stage, 'it is hoped as more and more rnronnation and data becorne available in the course oi its. inprementaiion, any deficiencies or weaknesses in the systern can be identified and rectified. At the current rate of progress, it is envisaged that the BMS wilr be i"-"p"ration by L992.

7.O

ACKNOwT,EDGEI{'ENT The autlrors members of for theit thanks to otLrer rvish to express their Team Development tlr" JfcR gMS System efforts' and good "o"p"ttiion Hock' Pil' Rohani A' C h e w S w e e - -Ir' They are: zin ' Tr_' shamsudin -ij 'f,;' -;;;" r"ra.' Po- ;;";--Lot Razak, a==n"a' En' Stramran rsmair, Er. Ert' Hisham Mohd Yassin' llohamed l{ashim, Eil' I'Iohd Abd' Err' Heng' Jasmani, Err' Leovr Choon Zainudin cik Wahab' efa' Salmaft-PD' Moklrtar, Latif and' En' She Tian Hock' sabariah e".hii -uo Pn' Siti Hafsalr Kusni for Thanks are also due manuscript '' and En ' and. n;;n*"g typ ing -tl? ad'vice on dBASE Iv' l,lohd. Suha:-ni nif i" ior his kind the thanks acknowled'ge with The authors Tan JKR' General of of tne oirettor per:nission this f or Talha r ' ltona' Haslrim r;. Dato' sri and presented' Daper to be puriisned

REFERENCE 1. Mansfield', for Bridge JIG' Jourial

rrThe Need and-Ng' S' K'' Robertf S" Assessmentrr ' and' Strength Inspection , (Dec ' 1984 ) '

2.

Government of Malaysia' Economic Planning Unit' DraftFinalneport'o;-;"i"Load'Stud'ybynendel P a l m e r & T r i t t o t ' - i t J ' i n a s s o c i l t i o n w i t hw i t h Kementerian sdn. eha. jointry Minccnsurt (1987) ' Kerjaraya

llr-fgr-mati-gltSvstens Kozar, Kenneth, A' , Hulnani-zPd Fvstems tor enatvsis ana o!s-i'Jl@ngN'Y' (1988)' Peoot-e, Mc Crffifrco.,
4. Brid'ge lJnit' -p"ffic Brj-dge Design Guid'e of Works o? Branch Research MalaYsia (Nov' 1985) ' Design and Department'