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IMS

( IP MULTIMEDIA SUBSYSTEM )

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Mc lc
Danh mc cc bng.............................................................................................................. 5 Danh mc cc hnh .............................................................................................................. 6 Danh sch cc t vit tt ...................................................................................................... 8 Phn I: gii thiu v h thng IMS.................................................................................... 13 1. Tng quan v h thng IMS .................................................................................... 13 1.1 1.2 1.3 IMS l g ........................................................................................................... 13 i nt v qu trnh chun ha IMS ................................................................. 15 Li ch IMS mang li ........................................................................................ 17

Phn II: cc thnh phn trong h thng IMS ..................................................................... 19 2. Thit b u cui UE ............................................................................................... 19 2.1 2.2 Nhn dng ngi dng ..................................................................................... 19 Nhn dng thit b............................................................................................. 23

Phn III: Chc nng cc thnh phn trong h thng IMS ................................................. 26 3. Chc nng iu khin cuc gi CSCF .................................................................... 26 3.1 3.2 3.3 P-CSCF ............................................................................................................. 26 I-CSCF .............................................................................................................. 33 S-CSCF ............................................................................................................. 36

4. C s d liu HSS, SLF .......................................................................................... 38 4.1 4.2 HSS ................................................................................................................... 38 SLF ................................................................................................................... 39

5. Chc nng quyt nh chnh sch PDF ................................................................... 40 6. Chc nng d tr ti nguyn MRF.......................................................................... 41 7. Chc nng kt hp vi mng CS CN ...................................................................... 42 7.1 7.2 BGCF ................................................................................................................ 42 MGCF ............................................................................................................... 43 2

IP Multimedia Subsystem
7.3 7.4 IMS- MGW....................................................................................................... 43 SGW ................................................................................................................. 44

8. Chc nng kt hp vi mng PS ............................................................................. 45 8.1 8.2 SGSN ................................................................................................................ 45 GGSN ............................................................................................................... 45 im tham chiu Gm ........................................................................................ 46 im tham chiu Go ......................................................................................... 46 im tham chiu Mw ....................................................................................... 47 im tham chiu Mp ........................................................................................ 48 im tham chiu Mn ........................................................................................ 48 im tham chiu Dx ......................................................................................... 49 im tham chiu Cx ......................................................................................... 50 im tham chiu ISC ....................................................................................... 51 Th tc lin quan n ng k ............................................................................. 53

9. im tham chiu trong h thng IMS ..................................................................... 45 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8

Phn IV: Mt s th tc thit lp phin trong IMS ........................................................... 53 10. 10.1 Th tc ng k ................................................................................................ 53 10.2 Th tc ng k li ........................................................................................... 55 11. Th tc xa ng k ............................................................................................. 56 11.1 Xa ng k khi to bi UE ........................................................................... 56 11.2 Xa ng k khi to bi nh khai thc mng ................................................. 58 12. Th tc thit lp phin trong mng IMS .............................................................. 62 12.1 Th tc thit lp phin gia 2 mng IMS ......................................................... 62 12.2 Th tc thit lp cuc gi gia mng IMS v mng PSTN.............................. 65 Phn VI: Cc giao thc s dng trong h thng IMS ...................................................... 69 13. SIP ........................................................................................................................ 69 13.1 Tng quan v SIP ............................................................................................. 69 13.2 Cc thnh phn chnh ....................................................................................... 71 13.3 Cu trc bn tin SIP .......................................................................................... 76 3

IP Multimedia Subsystem
14. DIAMETER ......................................................................................................... 86

14.1 Tng quan v DIAMETER............................................................................... 86 14.2 Cc thnh phn chnh ....................................................................................... 87 14.3 Cu trc bn tin Diameter ................................................................................. 91 14.4 Bo mt trong bn tin Diameter ....................................................................... 97 14.5 Kim sot li ..................................................................................................... 98 14.6 Kt ni v phin trong Diameter .................................................................... 100 14.7 Dch v trong Diameter .................................................................................. 101 15. COPS .................................................................................................................. 103 15.1 Gii thiu v COPS ........................................................................................ 103 15.2 Chc nng chnh ca COPS ........................................................................... 105 15.3 Bn tin COPS .................................................................................................. 105 16. MEGACO/H.248 ............................................................................................... 109 16.1 Tng quan v MEGACO/H.248 ..................................................................... 109 16.2 Cu trc Gateway trong MEGACO/H.248 .................................................... 111 16.3 Termination v Context .................................................................................. 112 16.4 Mt s lnh trong MEGACO/H.248 .............................................................. 113 16.5 Hot ng ca MEGACO/H.248.................................................................... 115 Phn VII: Tng kt .......................................................................................................... 117

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Danh mc cc bng
Bng 3-1 Bng nn mt s bn tin SIP.............................................................................. 31 Bng 12-1 Trng method trong bn tin SIP Request ...................................................... 77 Bng 12-2 Bng v d cc SIP URL .................................................................................. 78 Bng 12-3 Trng Status Code trong bn tin SIP Response ............................................ 79 Bng 12-4 Cc Response-Phrase tng ng vi cc loi status code ............................... 79 Bng 12-5 Cc Header trong bn tin SIP .......................................................................... 82 Bng 12-6 Trng m t phin trong phn thn ca bn tin SIP ...................................... 83 Bng 12-7 Trng thi gian trong phn thn ca bn tin SIP .......................................... 84 Bng 12-8 Trng truyn dn trong phn thn bn tin SIP .............................................. 84 Bng 13-1 Command Code trong Diameter ...................................................................... 93 Bng 13-2 Bn tin p ng trong trng hp c li xy ra .............................................. 99 Bng 13-3 So snh giao thc Diameter v giao thc RADIUS ...................................... 102 Bng 14-1 Cc loi Op code trong COPS header............................................................ 106 Bng 14-2 Trng C-Num trong Object format ca bn tin COPS ................................ 108 Bng 15-1 Mt s lnh trong giao thc MEGACO ........................................................ 113

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Danh mc cc hnh
Hnh 1-1S hi t mng .................................................................................................... 15 Hnh 1-2 IMS tch bit chc nng iu khin vi cc chc nng khc ............................ 17 Hnh 2-1Cu trc IMSI ...................................................................................................... 21 Hnh 2-2 Cu trc UICC .................................................................................................... 23 Hnh 3-1 P-CSCF............................................................................................................... 27 Hnh 3-2 Th tc tm a ch IP ca P-CSCF t mng GPRS........................................... 27 Hnh 3-3 Tm a ch IP ca P-CSCF bng cch dng DHCP v DNS Server ................. 29 Hnh 3-4 ng k c yu cu bo mt .............................................................................. 32 Hnh 3-5 V d cch xc nh S-CSCF ............................................................................. 34 Hnh 3-6 M t vai tr nh tuyn ca S-CSCF ................................................................ 38 Hnh 4-1 SLF ch nh HSS ph hp ................................................................................ 40 Hnh 6-1 Chc nng iu khin thng tin a phng tin MRF ....................................... 41 Hnh 7-1 Qu trnh thit lp cuc gi t mng IMS ra mng CS CN v ngc li .......... 44 Hnh 8-1 im tham chiu Gm ......................................................................................... 46 Hnh 8-2 im tham chiu Go .......................................................................................... 46 Hnh 8-3 im tham chiu Mw ......................................................................................... 47 Hnh 8-4 im tham chiu Dx .......................................................................................... 49 Hnh 8-5 im tham chiu Cx........................................................................................... 50 Hnh 8-6 im tham chiu ISC ......................................................................................... 52 Hnh 9-1 M hnh ng k ca UE ................................................................................... 53 Hnh 9-2 Cc bc thc hin vic ng k ....................................................................... 54 Hnh 9-3 Th tc ng k li ca UE ................................................................................ 56 Hnh 10-1 Th tc xa ng k thc hin bi UE ............................................................ 57 Hnh 10-2 Th tc xa ng k khi ht thi gian ng k. ............................................... 59 Hnh 10-3 Th tc xa ng k khi to bi HSS ............................................................ 60 Hnh 10-4 Th tc xa ng k thc hin bi S-CSCF .................................................... 61 Hnh 11-1 Cc bc thc hin vic xa ng k c thc hin bi S-CSCF................. 63 6

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Hnh 11-2 M hnh thit lp cuc gi gia UE (IMS) v UE (PSTN) .............................. 65 Hnh 11-3 Cc bc thit lp cuc gi gia UE (IMS) v UE (PSTN) ............................ 66 Hnh 12-1 Proxy Server ..................................................................................................... 72 Hnh 12-2 Hot ng ca Proxy Server ............................................................................ 72 Hnh 12-3 Redirect Server ................................................................................................. 74 Hnh 12-4 Hot ng ca Redirect Server ........................................................................ 75 Hnh 12-5 Cu trc bn tin SIP ......................................................................................... 77 Hnh 12-6 Cu trc phn start line trong bn tin SIP ........................................................ 77 Hnh 12-7 Cu trc phn thn bn tin SIP ......................................................................... 83 Hnh 12-8 Bn tin SIP Request ......................................................................................... 85 Hnh 12-9 Bn tin SIP Response ....................................................................................... 86 Hnh 13-1 Diameter Proxy Agent nh tuyn cc bn tin da vo bng nh tuyn......... 89 Hnh 13-2 Diameter Redirect Agent .................................................................................. 90 Hnh 13-3 Diameter Translation Agent ............................................................................. 91 Hnh 13-4 Cu trc bn tin Diameter ................................................................................ 91 Hnh 13-5 Cu trc header ca Diameter .......................................................................... 92 Hnh 13-6 Cu trc AVP ................................................................................................... 96 Hnh 13-7 Li giao thc trong Diameter ........................................................................... 98 Hnh 13-8 Li ng dng trong giao thc Diameter ........................................................... 99 Hnh 13-9 Lung lu lng kt ni cc thc th Diameter ............................................ 100 Hnh 14-1 M hnh cops .................................................................................................. 104 Hnh 14-2 COPS gia PDF v GGSN/SBC .................................................................... 105 Hnh 14-3 Cu trc bn tin COPS ................................................................................... 106 Hnh 14-4 COPS header .................................................................................................. 106 Hnh 14-5 Object format ca bn tin COPS .................................................................... 108 Hnh 15-1 Qu trnh chun ha MEGACO/H248 ........................................................... 110 Hnh 15-2 MEGACO/H248 kt ni iu khin Gateway ............................................... 111 Hnh 15-3 Cu trc Gateway trong MEGACO/H248 ..................................................... 111 Hnh 15-4 Lung giao thc ca MEGACO/H248 .......................................................... 115 7

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Danh sch cc t vit tt


T vit tt ADSL AVP BGCF Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Attribute Value Pairs Breakout gateway control function ng dy thu bao s bt i xng Cp gi tr thuc tnh Chc nng iu khin cng truyn thng BICC Bearer Independent Call Control Giao thc iu khin cuc gi c lp vi knh sng mang BSC CCF CGI COPS CPL CS DHCP Base Station Controller Charging Collection Function Common Gateway Interface Common Open Policy Services Call Processing Language Circuit Switched Dynamic Host Conguration Protocol DNS EAP ETSI Domain Name System Extensible Authentication Protocol European Telecommunication Standards Institute FQDN FTTH GGSN GPRS GSM Fully qualified domain name Fiber To The Home Gateway GPRS Support Node General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile Tn min y Cp quang n nh dn Nt h tr cng GPRS Dch v v tuyn gi chung H thng thng tin di ng ton cu H thng phn gii tn min Giao thc chng thc m rng Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u Chc nng iu khin trm gc Chc nng tnh ph tng hp Cng giao din chung Dch v chnh sch m chung Ngn ng x l cuc gi Chuyn mch mch Giao thc cu hnh ng my ch Ting Anh Ngha

IP Multimedia Subsystem
communications HSS HTTP IANA Home Subscriber Server Hypertext Transfer Protocol Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICID IMS Charging ID M tnh ph trong IMS Lc Lng Qun L K Thut Kha nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t Mng dch v s tch hp im quyt nh chnh sch cc b m di ng quc gia Cng truyn thng iu khin cng truyn thng Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin MGW MINE Media gateway Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension MMS MNC MRFC Multimedia Message Service Mobile Network Code Multimedia Resource Function Controller Cng phng tin Mng th in t a mc ch m rng Dch v tin nhn a phng tin M mng di ng Chc nng iu khin ngun ti nguyn Chc nng x l ngun ti nguyn Trung tm chuyn mch di ng My ch thu bao thng tr Giao thc truyn siu vn bn T chc cp pht s hiu Internet

IETF IMSI

Internet Engineering Task Force International Mobile Subscriber Identier

ISDN LPDP MCC MG MGC MGCF

Integrated Services Digital Network Local Policy Decision Point Mobile Country Code Media gateway Media gateway controller Media gateway control function

MRFP MSC

Media Resource Function Processor Mobile Switching Center

IP Multimedia Subsystem
MSIN Mobile Subscriber Identification Number NASREQ Network Access Server Application Truy cp my ch ng dng Phn h mng b sung Nhn dng trm di ng quc gia Chc nng tnh ph trc tuyn Lin minh di ng m Giao thc thanh ton m Chc nng quyt nh chnh sch Giao thc d liu gi im thc hin chnh sch B m Chuyn mch gi Mng in thoi cng cng ton cu Chc nng xc nhn v iu khin ti nguyn Dch v chng thc ngi dng quay s t xa Cng bo hiu chuyn vng Giao thc lu tr ti nguyn mng. Giao thc iu khin lung d liu thi gian thc RTSP Real Time Streaming Protocol Giao thc lung d liu thi gian thc SAP Session Advertisement Protocol Giao thc qung co trong phin kt ni SBC Session Border Controller 10 Cng ngh iu khin ng bin S xc nh thu bao di ng

NASS NMSI OCF OMA OSP PDF PDP PEP PoC PS PSTN RACS

Network Attachment Subsystem National Mobile Station Identity Online Charging Function Open Mobile Alliance Open Settlement Protocol Policy Decision Function Packet Data Protocol Policy enforcement point Push-to-Talk over Cellular Packet Switched Public Switched Telephone Network Resource Admission Control Functionality

RADIUS

Remote Authentication Dial In User Service

R-SGW RSVP RTP

Roaming Signaling Gateway Resource Reservation Protocol Realtime Transport Protocol

IP Multimedia Subsystem
ca phin SBLP SCIP Service Based Local Policy Simple Conference Invitation Protocol SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol SDP SGSN A-RACF Session Description Protocol Signaling GPRS support nt Access Resource and admission Control Function S-PDF Serving Policy Decision Function giao thc iu khin truyn dng phng tin Giao thc m t phin Nt bo hiu h tr GPRS Chc nng iu v khin chp nhn truy cp ti nguyn Chc nng quyt nh chnh sch dch v SGW SIP SNTP Signaling gateway Session Initial Protocol Simple Network Time Protocol Cng bo hiu Giao thc khi to phin Giao thc n gin thi gian trong mng TACACS Terminal Access Controller Access Control System H thng truy cp v iu khin t xa Giao thc iu khin truyn T chc tch hp giao thc, dch v mng v vin thng Bo mt lp vn chuyn Cng truyn bo hiu Ngi s dng Thnh phn ngi s dng Thnh phn my ch 11 Chnh sch dch v cc b c bn Giao thc thit lp hi ngh n gin

TCP TISPAN

Transmission Control Protocol Telecoms and Internet converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networking

TLS T-SGW UA UAC UAS

Transport layer Security Transport Singnalling Gateway User Agent User Agent Client User Agent Server

IP Multimedia Subsystem
UE UICC URL USIM User Equipment Universal Integrated Circuit Card Universal Resource Locator Universal Subscriber Identity Module VoIP XML Voice over Internet Protocol Extensible Markup Language Thoi trn nn giao thc Internet Ngn ng nh du m rng Thit b ngi dng Th tch hp ton cu B nh v ti nguyn ton cu Module nhn dng thu bao ton cu

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

Phn I: gii thiu v h thng IMS


1. Tng quan v h thng IMS
1.1 IMS l g

Trong hai thp k qua, cc mng c nh v di ng c mt s chuyn i ln, ng vai tr khng th thiu trong cuc sng con ngi.Trong lnh vc di ng, th h u tin (1G) c gii thiu vo thp nin 1980.Cc mng ny cung cp cc dch v c bn cho ngi dng, quan trng nht l truyn thoi v dch v lin quan n truyn thoi. Th h di ng th 2 (2G) c ra i vo nhng nm 1990 a ra mt s dch v d liu v cc dch v ngi dng tinh vi hn. Th h di ng th 3 (3G) (va c trin khai ti Vit Nam khng lu) cho php tc truyn d liu cao hn v cung cp cc dch v a phng tin.Trong lnh vc in thoi c nh, mng in thoi truyn thng PSTN v mng dch v s tch hp ISDN chim lnh th trng v thoi v truyn thng video.Trong nhng nm gn y, Internet pht trin nhanh chng v ngy cng nhiu ngi dng thy c li ch ca kt ni ny. Internet ngy cng nhanh hn, mnh hn v gi thnh thp hn nh dch v ADSL, FTTH, Cc kt ni ny lun c m bo thng sut, gip ngi dng c th s dng cc dch v yu cu thi gian thc nh chat, chi game trc tuyn, VoIP, Ti thi im hin ti, s hi t gia mng di ng v mng c nh l mt xu th tt yu. Nhu cu s dng cng nh s pht trin vt bt ca cng ngh thc y s gia tng nhanh chng ca cc thit b di ng. Cc thit b ngy cng tch hp nhiu tnh nng tin tin v kiu dng, mu sc ph hp vi hu ht mi i tng nh: mn hnh hin th chnh xc hn, to hn, my nh, my nghe nhc v nhiu ti nguyn cho cc ng dng khc. Th h tip sau ca nhiu thit b khng ch p ng cc nhu cu client-server c bn, m cn cc dch v peer-to-peer, thun li cho vic chia s trnh duyt, chia s bng, kinh nghim chi games, tr chuyn hai chiu nh b m (Push to talk Over Cellular) .

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IP Multimedia Subsystem
c th truyn thng vi nhau, cc ng dng trn nn IP phi c mt c ch t c s ph hp vi h thng mng hin c.Mng in thoi hin ti cung cp nhim v chnh l thit lp kt ni.Trong mng IP, khi c mt yu cu thit lp phin, mng c th thit lp mt mng ad-hoc kt ni hai im.iu ny dn n tnh trng cc nh cung cp dch v v khai thc mng to ra mt mi trng c lp, cc dch v n l, khng c tnh cnh tranh v nht l ngi dng khng th ng thi s dng cc dch v khc nhau t cc nh khai thc khc nhau trn mt thit b.Thm vo , cc mng truyn ti d liu khng cn thi gian thc c s dng ch yu trong th h Internet u tin th ngy nay cc dch v thi gian thc (hoc gn thc) vi cht lng dch v QoS cao ngy cng c pht trin rng ri.Hn na, ngi dng trong tng lai mong mun c cc dch v a phng tin cht lng cao, mang tnh c nhn, c kh nng tng tc thi gian thc mi lc mi ni trn mi thit b s dng.iu ny t ra nhng yu cu mi cho kin trc h tng mng vin thng.Trong bi cnh , IMS c xem nh l mt gii php ha hn tha mn c cc yu cu v hi t, tch hp cc dch v trn mt kt ni cho mt th h mng tng lai.

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

Hnh1-1S h i t m ng IMS l mt kin trc mng nhm to s thun tin cho vic pht trin v phn phi cc dch v a phng tin n ngi dng, bt k l h ang kt ni thng qua mng truy nhp no. IMS h tr nhiu phng thc truy nhp nh GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000, truy nhp hu tuyn bng rng nh cp xDSL, cp quang, cp truyn hnh, cng nh truy nhp v tuyn bng rng WLAN, WiMAX. IMS to iu kin cho cc h thng mng khc nhau c th vn hnh cng vi nhau.IMS ha hn mang li nhiu li ch cho c ngi dng ln nh cung cp dch v. IMS v ang c tp trung nghin cu cng nh thu ht c s quan tm ln ca gii cng nghip ..

1.2

i nt v qu trnh chun ha IMS

IMS c nh hnh v pht trin bi din n cng nghip 3GPP, thnh lp nm 1999. Kin trc ban u ca IMS c xy dng bi 3GPP v sau c chun ha bi 3GPP trong Release 5 cng b thng 3 nm 2003. Trong phin bn u tin ny, mc 15

IP Multimedia Subsystem
ch ca IMS l to thun li cho vic pht trin v trin khai dch v mi trn mng thng tin di ng.Tip n, t chc chun ha 3GPP2 xy dng h thng CDMA2000 Multimedia Domain (MMD) nhm h tr cc dch v a phng tin trong mng CDMA2000 da trn nn 3GPP IMS.Trong Release 6 ca 3GPP IMS, cng vi khuynh hng tch hp gia mng t bo v mng WLAN, mng truy nhp WLAN c a vo nh mt mng truy nhp bn cnh mng truy nhp t bo. IMS khi u nh mt chun cho mng v tuyn. Tuy nhin, cng ng mng hu tuyn, trong qu trnh tm kim mt chun thng nht, sm nhn thy th mnh ca IMS cho truyn thng hu tuyn. Khi ETSI m rng chun IMS thnh mt phn ca kin trc mng th h tip theo NGN m h ang xy dng. T chc chun ha TISPAN trc thuc ETSI, vi mc ch hi t mng thng tin di ng v Internet, chun ha IMS nh mt h thng con ca NGN. Kt hp vi TISPAN, trong Release 7 ca IMS, vic cung cp dch v IMS qua mng c nh c b sung. Nm 2005, phin bn Release 1 ca TISPAN v NGN c coi nh mt s khi u cho hi t c nh-di ng trong IMS. Gn y, 3GPP v TISPAN c c mt tha thun cho ra phin bn Release 8 ca IMS vi mt kin trc IMS chung, c th h tr cc kt ni c nh v cc dch v nh IPTV. a phn cc giao thc s dng trong IMS c chun ha bi IETF, in hnh nht l giao thc khi to phin SIP. Rt nhiu cc pht trin v ci tin ca SIP ra i h tr cc chc nng theo yu cu ca h thng IMS c ngh v chun ha bi IETF nh SIP h tr tnh cc, bo mt v.v Bn cnh IETF v TISPAN, mt t chc chun ha khc m 3GPP hp tc cht ch trong vic pht trin IMS l Lin minh di ng m OMA nhm pht trin cc dch v trn nn IMS. Mt trong nhng dch v do OMA pht trin l Push-to-Talk over Cellular (PoC) hay OMA SIMPLE Instant Messaging.

16

IP Multimedia Subsystem 1.3 Li ch IMS mang li

Mt trong nhng mc ch u tin ca IMS l gip cho vic qun l mng tr nn d dng hn bng cch tch bit chc nng iu khin v chc nng vn ti thng tin.Mt cch c th, IMS l mt mng ph, phn phi dch v trn nn h tng chuyn mch gi. IMS cho php chuyn dn t mng chuyn mch mch sang chuyn mch gi trn nn IP, to thun li cho vic qun l mng thng tin di ng. Vic kt ni gia mng c nh v di ng gp phn vo tin trnh hi t mng vin thng trong tng lai. IMS cho php ngi dng c th s dng mt hay nhiu loi thit b khc nhau, di chuyn t mng ny sang mng khc m vn c th dng cng mt dch v.

Hnh 1-2IMS tch bi t ch c nng i u khi n v i cc ch c nng khc

17

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Kin trc IMS cung cp nhiu dch v gia tng cho nh cung cp mng, ngi pht trin ng dng, ngi cung cp dch v cng nh ngi s dng cc thit b u cui. Kin trc IMS gip cc dch v mi c trin khai mt cch nhanh chng vi chi ph thp. IMS cung cp kh nng tnh cc phc tp hn nhiu so vi h thng ti khon tr trc hay tr sau, v d nh vic tnh cc theo tng dch v s dng hay phn chia cc gia cc nh cung cp dch v v nh cung cp mng. Khch hng s ch nhn mt bng tnh cc ph duy nht t mt nh cung cp mng. IMS ha hn mang n nhiu dch v a phng tin theo yu cu v s thch ca tng khch hng. Vi IMS, nh cung cp mng s khng ch lm cng tc truyn ti thng tin mt cch n thun m tr thnh tm im trong vic phn phi dung lng thng tin trong mng, ng vai tr quan trng trong vic m bo cht lng dch v (QoS) cng nh kp thi thay i p ng cc tnh hung khc nhau ca khch hng. Tm li, IMS to thun li cho cc nh cung cp dch v trong vic xy dng v trin khai cc ng dng mi, gip nh cung cp mng gim chi ph trin khai, vn hnh v qun l, ng thi tng li nhun nh cc dch v mi v nhng dch v mi hng n s tin li cho khch hng.

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

Phn II: cc thnh phn trong h thng IMS


2. Thit b u cui UE
L thit b u cui thc hin cc yu cu dch v.Ngi dng s dng cc thit b ny giao tip vi mng v thc hin cc dch v. trng thi bnh thng, UE cha thng tin v: a ch ca P-CSCF, tn min Home Network, thut ton m ha, bo mt, kha nhn dang thu bao chung v kha nhn dng thu bao ring. Phn a ch P-CSCF v thut ton m ha, bo mt s c trnh by nhng phn sau. Chng ta s tm hiu v kha nhn dng ngi dng

2.1
2.1.1

Nhn dng ngi dng


Kha nhn dng ngi dng ring

Mi ngi dng trong phn h IMS u c mt kha nhn dng ngi dng ring.Kha ny c cung cp bi nh iu hnh mng, c s dng trong th tc ng k, chng thc, qun l thu bao v tnh cc. Kha nhn dng ngi dng ring c nhng c tnh sau: Khng c s dng nh tuyn cc bn tin SIP. Kha nhn dng ngi dng ring cha cc thng tin phc v cho vic ng k (bao gm c ng k li v xa ng k) ngi dng vo IMS Home Network. Kha nhn dng ngi dng ring c cha trong ISIM v HSS. L m nhn dng ton cu duy nht v c nh ng vi UE. Do , kha ny dng xc nh UE, khng phi xc nh thu bao. Kha ny ging nh IMSI trong mng GSM

2.1.2

Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung

Mi ngi dng trong phn h IMS c th c mt hoc nhiu kha nhn dng ngi dng chung. Kha ny c ngi dng s dng khi truyn thng vi cc ngi dng khc.Kha ny c cng khai v c th trao i vi ngi dng khc thng qua danh 19

IP Multimedia Subsystem
b, trang web hoc business card. Trong giai on u trin khai IMS, vn cn tn ti nhng mng khc nhau nh PSTN/ISDN, GSM, Internet,.Do , ngi dng IMS phi truyn thng c vi ngi dng cc mng ny. p ng nhu cu ny, mi ngi dng IMS s c thm mt s vin thng, v d: +840975975975 lin lc vi min CS v c a ch URL giao tip vi ngi dng Internet, v d: abc@cdf.zyz. Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung c cc c im sau: Kha ny c th c to nn t s in thoi hoc tn min trn internet, do nh khai thc mng qui nh.Kha ny c th c s dng nh SIP URL, c nh ngha trong IETF RFC 3261 v IETF RFC 2396. Mt ISIM lu tr t nht mt kha nhn dng ngi dng chung. Kha ny khng c s dng trong qu trnh chng thc thu bao. Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung phi c ng k trc khi khi to phin IMS v nhng phin khng lin quan th tc nh bn tin: MESSAGE, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY,. C th ng k nhiu kha nhn dng ngi dng chung trong cng mt yu cu ng k t UE. ng k kha nhn dng ngi dng chung ca mt ngi dng, ta phi mt mt khong thi gian. Do , nu ngi dng c 4 kha nhn dng ngi dng chung th phi mt khong thi gian nhiu hn 4 ln. khc phc iu ny, t chc 3GPP pht trin phng php ng k nhiu kha nhn dng ngi dng chung trong cng mt yu cu ng k gi l ng k n. thc hin ng k n, UE gi bn tin SUBSCRIBE yu cu ng k n n SCSCF. Khi S-CSCF nhn c bn tin ny, n s p ng li bng bn tin NOTIFY chp nhn ng k n.

2.1.3

To kha nhn dng ngi dng truyn thng vi mng khc

Trong phn trn ta cp n khi nim kha nhn dng ngi dng.Cc kha ny c lu trong IMSI ca UE.Khi h thng IMS c trin khai, c rt nhiu UE v 20

IP Multimedia Subsystem
ang s dng thuc cc min CS v PS khc nhau m khng h tr ng dng IMSI. Do vy, mt c ch truy cp vo IMS m khng cn IMSI c pht trin. Trong m hnh ny, kha nhn dng ngi dng chung, kha nhn dng ngi dng ring, tn min s c to ra t cc thng s ca IMSI. C ch ny thch hp vi nhng UE c USIM. 2.1.3.1 To ra kha kha nhn dng ngi dng ring Theo 3GPP [TS 23.003] IMSI c cu trc nh sau:

Hnh 2-1C u trc IMSI Cc thng s bao gm: MCC: m di ng quc gia, gm 3 s Vd: MCC ca vit nam l 452 MNC: m mng di ng, ti a 3 s Vd: mobifone: 01, vinaphone 02, viettel 04 MSIN: s xc nh thu bao di ng 21

IP Multimedia Subsystem
NMSI: nhn dng trm di ng quc gia IMSI l thng s duy nht m ngay c ch thu bao cng khng bit s ny. Khi chuyn sang mng IMS, thng s IMSI ca cc thu bao min PS, CS khc s c thay i theo nh dng sau: sIMSI.@MCC.MNC.IMSI.IMSdomainname. V d: IMSI : 234150999999999 Vi: MCC: 234; MNC: 15; MSIN: 0999999999 Domain name ca min IMS l abc.xyz Kha nhn dng ngi dng ring l: 234150999999999@234.15.IMSI.abc.xyz 2.1.3.2 To ra kha kha nhn dng ngi dng chung tm thi Nu trong ISIM khng c kha nhn dng ngi dng chung th mt kha nhn dng ngi dng tm thi s c to ra da trn thng tin ca IMSI. Kha ny c dng mt a ch SIP: user@domain. Phng php to ra kha ny tng t nh kha nhn dng ngi dng ring. Vi thng s IMSI nh phn trn, th kha nhn dng ngi dng ring tm thi l: Sip: 234150999999999@234.15.IMSI.abc.xyz Kin trc IMS t ra cc yu cu sau i vi kha nhn dng ngi dng tm thi: Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung tm thi khng c s dng truyn thng trong mng IMS cng nh khng hin th cho ngi s dng bit. N ch c s dng trong qu trnh ng k vi hnh thc ng k n nh l mt kha nhn dng ngi dng chung.

22

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Sau khi ng k n, kha ny c gi l kha nhn dng ngi dng chung ng k n. N s c s dng x l phin, trong bn tin SIP v trong cc th tc tip sau. Ch c UE s dng kha nhn dng ngi dng ng k n Kha nhn dng ngi dng tm thi ch c ngha ti HSS v S-CSCF.

2.2
2.2.1

Nhn dng thit b


Module nhn dng dch v a phng tin IP (ISIM)

UICC l mt thit b bo mt vt l c th gn vo hoc tho ra khi UE mt cch d dng.Trong UICC cha mt hoc nhiu ng dng.Mt trong nhng ng dng l ISIM. Thng tin trong ISIM dng ch yu vi mc ch ng k, c th chia thnh 6 nhm ch yu sau:

Hnh 2-2C u trc UICC 23

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Key bo mt Cha cc kha, cc thut ton ton vn, m ha v nhn dng.Kha ton vn dng bo v tnh ton vn ca bo hiu SIP, m bo bo hiu khng b thay i khi truyn qua cc nt trn mng. Kha m ha dng bo mt bo hiu SIP, m bo s b mt ca bo hiu, khng c mt nt khc c th bit ni dung ca bn tin ny. Kha nhn dng dng m bo ch c ng ngi dng ny mi c th bit ni dung bo hiu. Kha nhn dng ngi dng ring Cha kha nhn dng ngi dng ring ca mt US, dng thc hin yu cu ng k. Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung Cha mt hoc nhiu kha nhn dng ngi dng chung ca US. Nhng kha ny dng trong yu cu ng k ngi dng c th s dng truyn thng vi nhau. Chnh sch truy cp Lu tr nhng thng tin v s nhn dng c nhn.S ny phi c xc minh c th truy cp vo ng dng mng. Tn min Home network a ch tn min ni UE ng k, dng trong bn tin yu cu ng k v nh tuyn bn tin yu cu n Home network. D liu qun tr Cha cc d liu khc nhau ca nh sn xut hoc nh iu hnh mng IMS, nhm m bo qun l thit b cng nh m bo thit b c th giao tip vi i tng khc.

24

IP Multimedia Subsystem
2.2.2 Module nhn dng thu bao ton cu (USIM)

USIM cn thit truy cp vo min PS nh GPRS v xc nh mt thu bao c th.Tng t nh ISIM, USIM cng nm trong UICC.N c th bao gm cc ng dng s dng tnh nng c a ra trong USIM Application Toolkit. USIM cha cc thng s bo mt cho vic truy cp vo min PS, s IMSI, danh sch tn cc im cho php truy cp, dch v tin nhn a phng tin MMS

25

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Phn III: Chc nng cc thnh phn trong h thng IMS


Trong phn ny s gii thiu v chc nng cc thnh phn trong IMS. Cc thnh phn ny c th phn chia thnh 6 nhm chnh: Chc nng iu khin cuc gi (CSCF) C s d liu (HSS, SLF) Chc nng quyt nh chnh sch PDF Chc nng d tr ti nguyn MRF Chc nng giao tip vi mng chuyn mch knh: BGCF, MGCF, IMS-MGW, SGW Chc nng giao tip vi mng chuyn mch gi GGSN v SGSN

3. Chc nng iu khin cuc gi CSCF


CSCF c 3 loi: Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF), Serving- CSCF (S-CSCF) v InterrogatingCSCF (I-CSCF). Mi CSCF c chc nng ring. Chc nng chung ca CSCF l ng vi tr trong sut qu trnh ng k v thit lp phin gia cc thc th SIP. Hn na, nhng chc nng ny c th gi d liu tnh cc n mt Server tnh cc. C mt vi chc nng chung gia P-CSCF v S-CSCF trong hot ng. C hai c th i din cho user kt thc phin (v d nh khi S-CSCF xc nh c tnh trng phin b treo hoc PCSCF nhn c khai bo v mt sng mang) v c th kim tra ni dung ca bn tin trong giao thc SDP.

3.1

P-CSCF

L im tip xc u tin gia UE vi mng IMS.Tt c nhng tn hiu SIP c gi gia mng IMS v UE u i qua P-CSCF. Do , nhim v chnh ca P-CSCF l chuyn tip bn tin SIP da vo tn domain. Ngoi ra, P-CSCF cn thc hin: nn bn tin SIP, bo mt, tng tc vi PDF, tham gia vo qu trnh tnh cc, v xc nh phin khn cp. 26

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Hnh 3-1P-CSCF 3.1.1 Cch UE xc nh a ch P-CSCF

truyn thng vi mng IMS th UE phi bit t nht mt a ch IP ca P-CSCF. Vic xc nh a ch IP ca P-CSCF c 3GPP chun ha theo 3 cch: th tc GPRS, dng DHCP DNS v cch gn tnh a ch IP hoc tn ca P-CSCF cho UE. Th tc GPRS UE c c a ch ca P-CSCF thc hin nh sau:

Hnh 3-2Th t c tm a ch IP c a P-CSCF t m ng GPRS 27

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Bc 1: UE gi yu cu kch hot PDP Context n SGSN to ra mt phin giao dch. Bc 2: Bn tin yu cu c gi t SGSN ti GGSN trong th tc kch hot mt phin giao dch GPRS PDP context. a ch IP ca GGSN c SGSN gi n l a ch IP u tin trong bng cc a ch IP do DNS Server cung cp. Bc 3: Trong khi ch nhn p ng, SGSN c th nhn cc G-PDU t GGSN nhng khng chuyn cc G-PDU ny ti MS. Nu yu cu c chp nhn th mt tunnel c khi to gia PDP context trong SGSN v PDP context trong GGSN. Nu khng thnh cng, SGSN s gi li bn tin ny ti a ch IP tip theo trong bn a ch. Cng trong giai on ny, GGSN s truy vn trc tip n PCSCF bit a ch IP ca P-CSCF. Bc 4: Bn tin p ng c gi li t GGSN ti SGSN. Khi SGSN nhn c bn tin p ng vi gi tr Cause l Request Accepted (chp nhn yu cu), SGSN s kch hot PDP context Bc 5: SGSN gi bn tin chp nhn kch hot PDP context n UE. Trong bn tin ny cha cc thng tin cn thit cho vic thit lp kt ni bao gm a ch IP ca P-CSCF. n thi im hin ti, th tc ny cha c 3GPP chun ha ch c nu ra trong Pre-release 5 Th tc tm a ch IP ca P-CSCF bng cch dng DHCP v DNS Server c thc hin nh sau:

28

IP Multimedia Subsystem

Hnh 3-3 Tm a ch IP c a P-CSCF b ng cch dng DHCP v DNS Server Bc 1: UE gi broadcast gi DHCP Discover. Khi mt UE tham gia vo mng (bt my, khi ng li...), n s gi broadcast gi tin DHCP Discover yu cu mt a ch IP t cc DHCP SERVER trong mng. Bc 2: Cc DHCP trong mng gi broadcast (c ti liu ghi Unicast) gi DHCP OFFER. Mi DHCP Server s d tr IP ny n khi nhn c bn tin ACK t UE.Ti cng mt thi im, c th c nhiu DHCP Server gi bn tin ny.UE s nhn IP ca DHCP Server gi n UE sm nht.Nu sau bn ln gi DHCP Dicover m UE khng nhn c DHCP Offer no th n s t nhn IP bt k.

29

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Bc 3: UE la chn mt Offer (Offer u tin m n nhn c) v gi broadcast bn tin DHCP Request cha IP ca DHCP m n chp nhn. Request ny va nhm mc ch thng bo ti mt DHCP Server rng n nhn IP ca DHCP , va thng bo vi cc DHCP server khc rng n khng nhn IP ca chng cc DHCP Server gii phng IP v cp cho UE khc khi c yu cu. Bc 4: DHCP Server gi broadcast gi DHCP ACK cha a ch IP v cu hnh a ch IP ti UE thng bo cho UE bit rng qu trnh cp a ch hon thnh. Lc ny, UE c IP v bit a ch ca DNS Server, a ch IP hoc FQDN ca P-CSCF.Trong mt s trng hp DHCP SERVER cng c th gi bn tin DHCP NACK bo rng khng thnh cng th UE phi thc hin li vic xin IP. Bc 5: Trong trng hp UE nhn c FQDN ca P-CSCF th n s truy vn DNS Server phn gii tn ny ra IP ca P-CSCF. Do c th c nhiu P-CSCF nn vic DHCP gn mt FQDN ca P-CSCF l cn thit, gip gim ti ln mt PCSCF c th. Bc 6: DNS Server p ng li mt a ch IP ca P-CSCF. UE s dng IP ny truyn thng vi mng IMS

3.1.2

Nn bn tin SIP

SIP l giao thc bo hiu da trn text nn dung lng bn tin ln hn rt nhiu so vi bn tin c m ha nh phn. V th, tng tc thit lp phin, 3GPP da ra cch thc nn bn tin SIP gia UE vi P-CSCF trong RFC3486.P-CSCF cn phi nn bn tin nu UE xc nh rng mun nhn bn tin c nn. Thng s th hin yu cu nn c nh ngha nh l mt tham s SIP URI v c t tn l comp.Hin nay ch c mt gi tr c nh ngha cho tham s ny l sigComp. Khi mt thc th SIP gi bn tin n mt thc th khc m trong SIP URI cha thng s comp=SigComp th bn tin s c nn. 30

IP Multimedia Subsystem
V d: sip:abc@yahoo.com;comp=sigcomp Bng 3-1Bng nn m t s bn tin SIP
Bn tin Chiu di khng nn Chiu di nn INVITE 100 Trying 183 Session Progress PRACK 200 OK UPDATE 180 Ringing 1470 254 1440 1318 904 1291 865 750 21 520 110 44 51 47 0,522 0,083 0,361 0,083 0,049 0,040 0,054 T l nn

Thng thng, khi mt UA gi bn tin yu cu cha thng s comp=SigComp trong header Via. Nu c mt header Contract, thng s ny cng c thm vo header Contract URI. P- CSCF s chuyn tip yu cu nn cng nh chn thng s trong header Via ca chnh n. Nu Proxy thc hin chc nng nh tuyn, n s thm thng s vo trong header Route. 3.1.3 P-CSCF tng tc vi PDF v tham gia tnh cc

P-CSCF c nhim v sp t theo trnh t nhng phin v nhng thng tin lin quan n truyn dn theo PDF khi m ngi iu hnh mng mun p dng SBLP. Thng qua PDF, IMS c th phn phi nhng thng tin lin quan n tnh ph n mng GPRS v ngc li, IMS cng nhn c nhng thng tin v tnh ph t mng GPRS. Khi P-CSCF nhn c bn tin ng k ca UE, n s to ra mt IMS Charging ID (ICID) lm c s trong qu trnh tnh cc.P-CSCF s lu tr li v chuyn ICID ny n cc khi chc nng c tham gia vo qu trnh tnh cc.Khi UE bt u s dng mt dch v c tnh cc th ti nhng nt mng c tham gia vo qu trnh tnh cc s c mt b

31

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Timer bt ln. Khi UE kt thc dch v th b Timer ny dng li v gi thng tin v thi gian v dch v s dng n khi chc nng tnh cc 3.1.4 Bo mt

P-CSCF c vai tr chnh trong s lin kt bo mt v p dng s bo v m bo ton vn v ring t cho tn hiu SIP.iu t c trong sut qu trnh ng k SIP khi UE v P-CSCF thng lng IPSec. Sau ln ng k u tin, P-CSCF c th p dng vic bo v ton vn v ring t cho bn tin SIP. Trong ln ng k u tin, nu chnh sch mng IMS a ra yu cu bo mt th bn tin REGISTER khng c bo mt s b P-CSCF gi bn tin 401Unauthorized t chi ng k.UE s tip tc gi bn tin REGISTER c cha thng tin v bo mt. Khi , UE v PCSCF s thng lng vi nhau v chn thut ton m ha dng m ha phin, qu trnh c hon tt khi UE nhn c p ng 200 OK

Hnh 3-4 ng k c yu c u b o m t

32

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Khi 2 bn trao i cc bn tin vi nhau, mt thut ton m ha s c s dng m ha cc bn tin m ch 2 bn mi c th gii m c. Trong trng hp ny, UE s khng s dng port mc inh 5060/5061 trao i d liu vi P-CSCF na, m s dng mt port m 2 bn thng lng 3.1.5 Phin khn cp

Nhng phin khn cp IMS th khng c xc nh y .V th, iu quang trng nht l mng IMS phi pht hin ra nhng phin khn cp v hng dn cho UMTS UE s dng mng CS cho nhng phin khn cp.Vic kim tra l nhim v ca P-CSCF.Khi nhn c yu cu phin khn cp th P-CSCF c th nh mt S-CSCF bt k x l phin ny.iu ny rt cn thit nht l lc UE chuyn vng.

3.2

I-CSCF

I-CSCF l im giao tip trong phm vi mng ca nh khai thc thc cho tt c cc kt ni ti thu bao ca nh khai thc mng, hoc mt thu bao chuyn mng hin ti nm trong phm vi vng phc v ca nh khai thc mng. Trong mt mng c th c nhiu ICSCF. I-CSCF c t ng bin ca mng IMS, I-CSCF c bn chc nng chnh l: Lin lc vi HSS bit thng tin ca chng tip theo khi nhn c yu cu t UE. Xc nh S-CSCF cho UE khi nhn thng tin v UE t HSS, s xc nh S-CSCF thc hin khi UE ng k hoc xa ng k. Ba trng hp xc nh S-CSCF: Khi UE ng k vi mng: UE gi bn tin yu cu ng k (Register) pht hin P-CSCF, P-CSCF tm thc th home network (I-CSCF). I-CSCF s trao i thng tin vi HSS bit S-CSCF ph hp do UE yu cu, nu S-CSCF khng c n nh trc th I-CSCF s gn S-CSCF ph hp cho UE da trn nhng thng tin nhn c t HSS. Nhng thng tin c th c trao i gia 33

IP Multimedia Subsystem
HSS v I-CSCF cha trong cc thuc tnh AVP ca giao thc Diameter. Thuc tnh ny cha ng: Mandatory-Capability AVP: loi ny th khng c xc nh v cha nhng kh nng bt buc ca S-CSCF. Mi mandatory capability AVP c th s dng c trong mng nh khai thc mng s c gn mt gi tr duy nht. Optional-Capability AVP: loi AVP ny khng c n nh v cha nhng kh nng ty chn ca S-CSCF. Mi kh nng ty chn c th c s dng trong mng nh khai thc ban u s c xc nh mt gi tr duy nht.Server-Name AVP: AVP cha SIP URI dng xc nh my ch SIP. Da trn nhng the Mandatory Capability AVP and Optional Capability AVP, nh khai thc mng c th phn phi ngi dng cho cc S-CSCF ty thuc vo kh nng c th ca S-CSCF.u tin, I-CSCF s chn S-CSCF c kh nng bt buc v ty chn cho ngi dng.Nu khng chn c S-CSCF th I-CSCF s p dng thut ton best-fit n nh S-CSCF cho ngi dng. Thut ton ny khng c chun ha, v d nh ta c 3 S-CSCF 1, 2, 3 v ICSCF s to ra mt cch tnh bt k tm S-CSCF ph hp

Hnh 3-5V d cch xc nh S-CSCF

34

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Khi nhn yu cu SIP ca ngi dng cha ng k: nu HSS khng c thng tin v SCSCF ca ngi dng th n s gi bn tin yu cu I-CSCF xc nh S-CSCF theo cc bc trnh by nh trng hp trn. Khi yu cu xc nh S-CSCF trc khng c p ng: I-CSCF s gi lnh UAR n HSS yu cu mt s y quyn. Sau I-CSCF nhn c S-CSCF c kh nng v qu trnh xc nh S-CSCF c thc hin nh lc ng k. Cung cp chc nng n cu hnh mng: nh khai thc c th s dng chc nng cng lin mng n cu hnh (THIG) trong I-CSCF hoc k thut khc n cu hnh, kh nng v cu trc ca mng khi cc mng ngoi. Nu nh khai thc mun n cu hnh th nh khai thc phi t chc nng n cu hnh mng trn ng nh tuyn khi nhn hoc gi yu cu hay p ng t mt mng IMS khc. THIG thc hin vic m ha v gii m tt c cc header lin quan n thng tin v cu trc ca nh khai thc mng IMS. Khi mt mng thc hin vic n cu hnh mng th vic lin lc vi mng khc phi thng qua I-CSCF (nu mng IMS khng thc hin vic n cu hnh mng th khi c s lin lc vi mng khc, yu cu kt ni t mng s c a thng ti S-CSCF m khng thng qua I-CSCF) nh tuyn yu cu SIP nhn c t mng khc ti S-CSCF hoc mt server ng dng. I-CSCF xc nh S-CSCF cho UE da trn cc iu kin sau: Yu cu v dch v ca UE (HSS cung cp) S u tin ca nh khai thc mng i vi mi UE (HSS cung cp) Kh nng ca tng S-CSCF ring bit trong mng nh khai thc Thng tin v m hnh mng ti ni nh v ca UE Thng tin v m hnh mng ti ni nh v ca S-CSCF Tnh sn sng phc v ca S-CSCF

35

IP Multimedia Subsystem 3.3 S-CSCF

S-CSCF l im chnh ca IMS v n chu trch nhim thc hin qu trnh ng k, quyt nh nh tuyn, duy tr tnh trng phin v lu tr h s thng tin v dch v.S-CSCF thc hin dch v iu khin phin cho UE. Trong phm vi mng ca nh khai thc cc S-CSCF khc nhau c th c cc chc nng khc nhau. S-CSCF thc hin cc chc nng nh sau: ng k: c th x l nh mt REGISTRAR SIP Server, S-CSCF tip nhn yu cu ng k v thit lp thng tin kh dng ca UE khi truy vn HSS. Khi UE thc hin ng k th yu cu ca n c nh tuyn ti S-CSCF, lc S-CSCF s ly thng tin chng thc t HSS v da trn thng tin chng thc S-CSCF s pht ra nhng yu cu th thch I-CSCF. Sau khi nhn c p ng v kim tra li, S-CSCF chp nhn s ng k v bt u phc v cho phin ng k ny.Sau th tc ny UE c th khi to v nhn cc dch v IMS.Hn na, vic S-CSCF ti thng tin h s dch v cng c xem nh mt phn ca qu trnh ng k. iu khin phin cho cc u cui ng k. Sau khi hon thnh cc th tc ng k, n s t chi truyn thng IMS vi nhng UE c kha nhn dng ngi dng chung b ngn chn khi IMS. S-CSCF c th x l nh mt Proxy Server, n tip nhn cc yu cu v phc v ti ch nu bn tip nhn yu cu cng mng nh khai thc vi bn gi yu cu hoc gi chng i nu bn tip nhn yu cu kt ni n h thng mng khc. S-CSCF c th x l nh mt UA.N c th kt thc m khng ph thuc vo phin giao dch SIP. Tng tc vi mt bng dch v h tr cc loi dch v. Cung cp cc thng tin lin quan cho cc im u cui (nh thng bo tnh ph, kiu chung, ) Thay mt cho mt im u cui khi to yu cu Nhn a ch ca I-CSCF t c s d liu nh khai thc mng phc v thu bao ch t tn ngi dng ch (s in thoi c quay hoc URL SIP), khi thu bao 36

IP Multimedia Subsystem
ch l khch t mt nh khai thc mng khc gi yu cu hoc p ng SIP ti ICSCF . Khi tn ca thu bao ch (s in thoi c quay hoc URL SIP) v thu bao khi to l khch ca cng mt nh khai thc mng gi yu cu hoc p ng SIP ti mt I-CSCF trong phm vi mng ca nh khai thc. Ph thuc vo chnh sch ca nh khai thc m yu cu hoc p ng SIP gi ti server SIP khc t trong phm vi mt min ISP bn ngoi phn h IM CN. Gi yu cu hoc p ng SIP ti BGCF nh tuyn cuc gi ti min PSTN hoc min chuyn mch knh. Thay mt im u cui ch (thu bao kt cui hoc UE): gi p ng hoc yu cu SIP ti mt P-CSCF cho th tc MT ti mt thu bao nh trong phm vi mng nh, hoc cho mt thu bao chuyn mng trong phm vi mng khch m mng nh khng c mt I-CSCF trong tuyn. Gi p ng hoc yu cu SIP ti mt I-CSCF trong th tc MT cho thu bao chuyn mng trong phm vi mt mng khch m mng nh khng c I-CSCF trong tuyn ny. Gi p ng hoc yu cu SIP ti mt BGCF nh tuyn cuc gi ti PSTN hoc min chuyn mch knh. Pht ra cc CDR dng trong tnh ph Phn phi cc dch v cho UE: h s v dch v ca UE c S-CSCF ti v t HSS khi UE ng k vo mng IMS. S-CSCF s dng thng tin ny phn phi dch v ph hp cho UE khi c yu cu. Hn na, S-CSCF cn phi p dng cc loi chnh sch truyn dn trong h s dch v ca UE, v d nh UE ny ch s dng thoi v m khng s dng video, S-CSCF chu trch nhim nh tuyn n mng khc khi n nhn nhng phin kt ni v s giao dch gia UE u v UE cui.Khi S-CSCF nhn yu cu ca UE khi to thng qua P-CSCF th n phi quyt nh nhng AS ph hp cho UE.Sau khi tng tc vi AS th S-CSCF tip tc phc v cho phin kt ni ca UE trong mng IMS hoc ti mng khc (CS hay mng IP khc).Hn na, nu UE s dng 37

IP Multimedia Subsystem
MSISDN lm a ch cho cuc gi th S-CSCF s chuyn i s MSISDN thnh a ch SIP ri sau mi chuyn tip cc yu cu ca UE. inh tuyn trong mng IMS: mc d S-CSCF bit c a ch ca UE lc UE ng k nhng n khng nh tuyn cc yu cu ti UE m gi thng qua P-CSCF v P-CSCF c chc nng m ha v bo mt

Hnh 3-6M t vai tr nh tuy n c a S-CSCF

4. C s d liu HSS, SLF


4.1 HSS

My ch qun l thu bao thng tr HSS c th xem nh l mt ci tin ca b ng k nh v thng tr HLR v AuC trong mng GSM.HSS l mt c s d liu lu tr thng tin ca tt c thu bao v nhng thng tin dch v lin quan n thu bao. N cha ng cc thng tin nh nhn dng ngi dng, tn ca S-CSCF gn cho ngi dng, h s chuyn vng, thng s chng thc cng nh thng tin v dch v thu bao.Thng tin 38

IP Multimedia Subsystem
nhn dng ngi dng gm kha nhn dng ring v kha nhn dng chung. Kha nhn dng ring c to ra bi nh khai thc mng v c dng vi mc ch ng k v chng thc. Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung c s dng truyn thng gia cc ngi dng. HSS cng p ng a ch mt S-CSCF nu c yu cu trong th tc ng k.Hn na, HSS cn thc hin nhng chnh sch h thng nh lu tr thng tin hoc xa thng tin nhng UE khng hp l. HSS phi h tr nhng thnh phn ca min PS nh SGSN v GGSN.iu ny gip cc thu bao ca IMS c th s dng dch v ca min PS v ngc li. Tng t, do HSS ng vai tr nh HLR nn cng h tr cc thnh phn ca min CS nh MSC, BSC. iu ny cho php cc thu bao IMS c th truy cp n cc dch v ca min CS v h tr chuyn vng trn ton h thng GSM/UMTS.Nh mt AuC, HSS lu tr kha b mt ca mi thu bao, ci m dng chng thc khi ng k vo mng v m ha d liu cho mi thu bao di ng.Ty thuc vo s lng thu bao m c th c nhiu HSS trong mt mng IMS.HSS tip xc vi CSCF thng qua im tham chiu Cx v tip xc vi AS thng qua im tham chiu Sh.

4.2

SLF

Trong trng hp c nhiu HSS trong cng mt mng, chc nng nh v SLF s c thit lp nhm xc nh HSS no ang cha h s ca ngi dng tng ng.

39

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Hnh 4-1SLF ch nh HSS ph h p tm c a ch ca HSS, I-CSCF hoc S-CSCF phi gi n SLF bn tin yu cu LIR. Hnh trn m t qu trnh tm ra a ch HSS ph hp khi I-CSCF nhn c bn tin INVITE m trong mng c 3 HSS.

5. Chc nng quyt nh chnh sch PDF


PDF chu trch nhim to ra nhng quyt nh ng li l da vo phin v thng tin phng tin lin quan thu c t P-CSCF. N hnh ng nh mt im quyt nh ng li i vi s iu chnh SBLP. Trong mng IMS, mt phin c thit lp bng cch UE u cui trao i cc bn tin s dng giao thc SDP v SIP. Trong qu trnh ny, UE v mng thng lng nhng c tnh truyn thng, quan trng nht l codec. Nu nh khai thc mng c p dng SBLP th P-CSCF s chuyn cc thng tin SDP ca phin n PDF.Tng ng, PDF s cp pht v tr v mt th y quyn. Sau , P-CSCF s chuyn th ny n UE Sau y l chc nng ca n i vi SBLP l: Cha phin v thng tin phng tin lin quan (a ch IP, s cng, bng thng) Pht th cho php nhn ra PDF v phin Cung cp quyt nh cho php tuy theo phin c tch tr v thng tin phng tin lin quan da vo vic nhn yu cu nhn thc vt mang t GGSN Cp nht quyt nh nhn thc ti nhng sa i phin m lm thay i phin v thng tin phng tin lin quan Kh nng thu hi quyt nh nhn thc bt k thi im no Kh nng cho php s dng vn mng nhn thc (v d: giao thc gi, hoc PDP, context)

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

6. Chc nng d tr ti nguyn MRF


MRF c phn tch thnh b iu khin chc nng ti nguyn a phng tin MRFC v b x l chc nng ti nguyn a phng tin MRFP.MRFC l khi trc tip giao tip vi AS qua giao thc SIP v vi S-CSCF qua giao thc MEGACO/H.248.MRFP nhn thng tin iu khin t MRFC v giao tip vi cc thnh phn ca mng truyn dn. MRF c vai tr quan trng trong hi ngh a im phn b ti nguyn hp l

Hnh 6-1Ch c nng i u khi n thng tin a phng ti n MRF MRFC nhn bo hiu iu khin cuc gi qua giao thc SIP (v d nh thit lp cu truyn hnh gia mt s nt mng khc nhau).MRFC cn thit cho vic h tr nhng dch v, nh hi ngh, nhng thng bo ti ngi dng hoc chuyn m knh mang. MRFC chuyn bo hiu SIP nhn c t S-CSCF qua im tham chiu Mr v s dng nhng ch dn MEGACO/H.248 iu khin MRFP. MRFC c th gi thng tin thanh ton ti CCF v OCS.

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IP Multimedia Subsystem
MRFP cung cp nhng ti nguyn mt phng ngi dng m c yu cu v ch dn bi MRFC. MRFP thc hin nhng chc nng lin quan n media nh pht v trn media, thch ng ni dung dch v, chuyn i nh dng ni dung

7. Chc nng kt hp vi mng CS CN


Bn khi chc nng thc s cn thit cho vic trao i tn hiu v truyn dn gi IMS v mng li chuyn mch knh (CS CN)

7.1

BGCF

Chc nng iu khin cng chuyn mng (BGCF) la chn mng PSTN hoc mng chuyn mch knh (CSN) m lu lng s c nh tuyn sang. Nu BGCF xc nh c rng lu lng chuyn mng s ti mng PSTN hay CSN nm trong cng mng vi BGCF th n s la chn mt MGCF p ng cho lin mng vi PSTN hay CSN. Nu lu lng chuyn sang mng khng nm cng vi BGCF th BGCF s gi bo hiu phin ny ti BGCF ang qun l mng ch . BGCF thc hin cc chc nng nh sau: Nhn yu cu t S-CSCF la chn mt im chuyn lu lng ph hp sang PSTN hay CS CN. La chn mng ang tng tc vi PSTN hay CS CN. Nu nh s tng tc trong mt mng khc th BGCF s gi bo hiu SIP ti BGCF ca mng . Nu nh s tng tc nm trong mt mng khc v nh khai thc yu cu n cu hnh mng th BGCF gi bo hiu SIP thng qua mt I-CSCF (THIG) v pha BGCF ca mng . La chn MGCF trong mng ang tng tc vi PSTN hoc CS CN v gi bo hiu SIP ti MGCF .iu ny khng th s dng khi tng tc nm trong mt mng khc. a ra cc CDR phc v vic tnh cc

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IP Multimedia Subsystem 7.2 MGCF

MGCF l thnh phn gateway ca PSTN/CS v mng IMS.Nt ny c nhim v qun l cc cng a phng tin, tng tc vi S-CSCF qun l cc cuc gi trn knh a phng tin. N thc hin chuyn i giao thc v nh x SIP thnh ISUP hoc BICC. Ngoi ra, MGCF cn iu khin ngun ti nguyn trong MGW.Giao thc s dng gia MGCF v MGW l H.248.

7.3

IMS- MGW

IMS-MGW cung cp lin kt mt phng ngi dng gia CS CN v IMS.N xc nh knh truyn t CS CN v dng truyn dn t mng trc (v d nh lung RTP trong mng IP hoc kt ni AAL2/ATM trong mng trc ATM), thc hin vic chuyn i gia nhng u cui v thc hin gii m v x l tn hiu cho mt phng ngi dng khi cn thit.Hn na, IMS-MGW cn c chc nng cung cp m chung v nhng thng bo cho ngi dng CS. Tng t, tt c cc cuc gi t CS vo mng IMS u c a n MGCF v n thc hin vic chuyn i giao thc cn thit v gi nhng yu cu SIP n I-CSCF cho vic thit lp phin. Trong cng thi im MGCF kt ni vi IMS-MGW dnh sn ngun ti nguyn cn thit mt phng ngi dng.

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

Hnh 7-1Qu trnh thi t l p cu c g i t m ng IMS ra m ng CS CN v ng c l i

7.4

SGW

Chc nng cng bo hiu c s dng kt ni cc mng bo hiu khc nhau v d mng bo hiu SCTP/IP v mng bo hiu SS7.Chc nng cng bo hiu c th trin khai nh mt thc th ng mt mnh hoc bn trong mt thc th khc. Cc lung phin trong c t ny khng th hin SGW nhng khi lm vic vi PSTN hay min chuyn mch knh th cn c mt SGW chuyn i truyn ti bo hiu. SGW c trin khai nh hai nt logic sau: Cng bo hiu chuyn mng R-SGW Vai tr ca R-SGW lin quan n chuyn mng gia min chuyn mch knh 2G v min GPRS n min dch v thoi MUTS R00 v min GPRS UMTS. chuyn mng ng cch R-SGW thc hin chuyn i bo hiu ti lp transport. Cng bo hiu truyn ti T-SGW

44

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Thnh phn ny trong mng R4/5 l cc im kt cui PSTN/ PLMN trong mt mng xc nh.N nh x bo hiu cuc gi t/ ti PSTN/ PLMN ln mng mang IP v gi n t/ ti MGCF.

8. Chc nng kt hp vi mng PS


8.1 SGSN

SGSN l thnh phn lin kt gia mng IMS v mng chuyn mch gi hin c. N c th hot ng, iu khin v x l lu lng cho min PS. Phn iu khin c hai chc nng chnh: qun l di ng v qun l phin. Qun l di ng s qun l v tr v trng thi ca UE; chng thc c ngi dng ln UE. Qun l phin cho php v iu khin kt ni.Khi ny cng c s dng trong mng 3G.Chc nng x l lu lng l mt phn ca chc nng iu khin phin.SGSN hot ng nh mt Gateway cho nhng lung lu lng ca ngi dng truy cp vo mng.

8.2

GGSN

Khi chc nng ny cung cp kh nng tng tc vi nhng mng PS khc nhau nh mng IMS hoc Internet. N chuyn i nhng gi GPRS n t SGSN thnh nh dng PDP tng ng v gi chng ra ngoi trn mng ngoi tng ng. Trong hng ngc li, a ch PDP ca gi d liu n c chuyn i thnh a ch IMS ca ngi dng ch. GGSN cha a ch SGSN hin ti v h s thng tin ca nhng ngi dng ng k vo thanh ghi nh v ca n.GGSN c kh nng tp trung thng tin tnh cc cho cc mc ch thanh ton. Ni chung, c mi quan h nhiu - nhiu gia SGSN v GGSN: Mt GGSN giao din vi mt mng ngoi cn mt vi SGSN; mt SGSN c th nh tuyn nhiu gi ti nhiu GGSN khc nhau.

9. im tham chiu trong h thng IMS

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IP Multimedia Subsystem 9.1 im tham chiu Gm

Gm l im tham chiu gia UE v P-CSCF.N c dng truyn nhng bo hiu SIP gia UE v mng IMS. Th tc qua giao din Gm c th chia thnh 3 th tc chnh:

Hnh 9-1 i m tham chi u Gm Th tc ng k: UE s dng giao din ny gi bn tin ng k v thng lng cc thut ton bo mt vi P-CSCF. Trong sut qu trnh ny, c UE v mng s trao i cc thng s phc v cho vic chng thc, m ha v nn d liu. Thng qua giao din ny, UE s c nh khai thc mng cung cp nhng thng tin v ku cu ng k li hoc hy ng k. Th tc iu khin phin: chuyn tip cc bn tin iu khin phin gia cc UE. Th tc giao dch: Gm c dng gi nhng yu cu c lp v nhn nhng p ng c lp.

9.2

im tham chiu Go

Hnh 9-2 i m tham chi u Go Nh khai thc mng lun mun rng c s ph hp nhng yu cu v gia QoS, a ch ngun v ch vi mc dch v ng k. Do , cn c s giao tip gia mng IMS 46

IP Multimedia Subsystem
(mt phng iu khin) v mng GPRS (mt phng ngi dng). im tham chiu Go c tao ra vi mc ch ny. Sau , chc nng phc v cho vic tnh ph c thm vo. Giao thc c dng cho vic ny l COPS. Th tc qua Go c th chia thnh 2 th tc chnh: Th tc cp quyn truyn thng: ngi s dng dng giao din ny yu cu kch hot thnh phn sng mang. Yu cu ny c th chp nhn nu p ng c cc chnh sch ca nh khai thc mng a ra. Th tc tnh ph: thng qua im tham chiu Go, mng IMS c th chuyn thng s ICID dng cho vic tnh ph n GPRS (mt phng ngi dng). Tng t nh vy, mng GPRS cng c th chuyn nhng thng tin chng thc vic tnh ph n mng IMS.

9.3

im tham chiu Mw

Hnh 9-3 i m tham chi u Mw Mw l im tham chiu gia P-CSCF, I-CSCF v S-CSCF.Bn tin SIP s c truyn qua giao din ny gia cc thnh phn CSCF vi nhau. Th tc qua giao din Gm c th chia thnh 3 th tc chnh: Th tc ng k Trong th tc ny, P-CSCF s dng im tham chiu Mw chuyn tip yu cu ng k t UE n I-CSCF.Sau , I-CSCF s dng giao din ny gi tip bn tin n S47

IP Multimedia Subsystem
CSCF. Cui cng, bn tin p ng c tr v cho UE cng qua giao din ny. Hn na, giao din ny cn dng thng bo cho UE th tc xa ng k v th tc chng thc li khi to mi nh khai thc mng. Th tc iu khin phin Cha cc thit lp ca c bn gi v bn b gi.i vi thit lp bn gi, im tham chiu Mw c dng chuyn yu cu t P-CSCF n S-CSCF v t S-CSCF n I-CSCF. i vi thit lp bn b gi, bn tin yu cu c gi t I-CSCF n S-CSCF v t SCSCF n P-CSCF. Giao din ny cn s dng trong trng hp mng khi to vic kt thc phin, v d nh: khi P-CSCF khi to vic kt thc phin khi nhn c thng bo ch dn ca PDF l mt thnh phn sng mang. Hn na, thng tin v tnh ph cng c chuyn qua giao din ny. Th tc giao dch Dng chuyn cc bn tin yu cu c lp nh Message v nhn tt c p ng nh 200 OK, S khc bit gia th tc iu khin phin v th tc giao dch l mt hp thoi ghi nhn s kin khng c to ra.

9.4

im tham chiu Mp

Khi MRFC iu khin dng thng tin phng tin nh kt ni cho mt hi ngh truyn thng hoc dng vic truyn thng vi MRFP th n s s dng im tham chiu Mp. Giao thc H.248 c thc hin trn im tham chiu ny. Tuy nhin, cc dch v ca IMS c s yu cu m rng khng ngng. Do , im tham chiu ny cha c mt chun c th trong Release 5 hoc Release 6.

9.5

im tham chiu Mn

Mn l im tham chiu iu khin gia MGCF v IMS-MGW.Giao din ny iu khin mt phng ngi dng gia truy cp mng IP v IMS-MGW.Hn na, giao din ny cng iu khin mt phng ngi dng gia mng CS v IMS-MGW. Giao din ny da 48

IP Multimedia Subsystem
trn giao thc H.248 thc hin cc tc v nh: kt ni, kh ting vng (echo), cung cp chung v cc thng bao n u cui,

9.6

im tham chiu Dx

Hnh 9-4 i m tham chi u Dx Khi c nhiu a ch HSS c trin khai trong mng IMS, c I-CSCF v S-CSCF u khng th bit HSS no cn tip xc. Do , I-CSCF v S-CSCF cn lin h vi SLF trc. im tham chiu Dx ra i phc v mc ch ny.im tham chiu Dx lun kt hp hot ng vi im tham chiu Cx. Giao thc c bn hot ng trn im tham chiu ny l Diameter.Nhim v ca n l thc thi cc nh tuyn nhn c t Diameter Redirect Agent. nhn c ia ch ca HSS, I-CSCF hoc S-CSCF gi yu cu Cx n SLF qua im tham chiu Dx. Khi nhn c a ch ca HSS, I-CSCF hoc S-CSCF s gi yu cu Cx n HSS.

49

IP Multimedia Subsystem 9.7 im tham chiu Cx

Hnh 9-5 i m tham chi u Cx Thng tin v thu bao v dch v c lu tr thng tr trong HSS.V th, I-CSCF v S-CSCF s phi tip xc vi HSS khi c ngi dng ng k hoc s dng dch v.im tham chiu Cx ra i p ng mc ch ny.Cx l im tham chiu gia HSS v CSCF v hot ng da trn giao thc Diameter. Th tc trn im tham chiu Cx c th chia ra 3 th tc chnh: Qun l v tr, kim sot d liu ngi dng v chng thc ngi dng. Qun l v tr Th tc qun l v tr c th chia ra thnh 2 nhm: Nhm ng k v xa ng k v nhm cp nht li v tr. Khi I-CSCF nhn c bn tin SIP Register yu cu ng k t P-CSCf qua im tham chiu Mw, n s truy vn kim tra trng thi ng k ca UE bng cch gi bn tin UAR n HSS. Sau khi nhn c UAR, HSS gi p ng UAA.N cha tn ca S-CSCF nu UE c gn mt S-SCCF hoc tn v kh nng ca S-CSCF nu UE cha c c gn mt S-CSCF no.Sau , I-CSCF s tin hnh lin lc vi S-CSCf thc hin hon tt th tc ng k. Khi S-CSCF nhn c bn tin yu cu ng k t I-CSCF n s dng bn tin SAR( bn tin Diameter) truyn thng vi HSS. Lnh SAR c dng truy vn HSS v tn ca S-CSCF c phc v khi thi gian ht hn ng k khc 0.Trong trng hp thi gian ng k ht, bn tin SAR c dng thng bo S-CSCF khng cn phc v cho UE 50

IP Multimedia Subsystem
.iu kin tin quyt gi lnh SAR l UE c chng thc y .Sau khi nhn c SAR, HSS s p ng li bng mt lnh SAA cha thng tin c bn v UE. Kim sot d liu ngi dng Trong sut qu trnh ng k, d liu v ngi dng v cc dch v c lin quan s c ti t HSS n S-CSCF qua im tham chiu Cx s dng lnh ca giao thc Diameter l SAR v SAA. Tuy nhin, nhng d liu ny c th b thay i ti HSS sau khi S-CSCF nhn c d liu v vn dang phc v UE theo d liu c. cp nht nhng d liu mi, HSS s gi lnh PPR. Thng tin mi s c S-CSCF cp nht ngay tr trng hp S-CSCF ang phc v mt UE cha ng k. Trng hp cha ng k cp y ny xy ra khi UE ang s dng m ht thi gian ng k nhng nh khai thc mng vn quyt nh gi li tn S-CSCF phc v cho UE ny phc v ngay khi UE ng k li. Chng thc ngi dng Chng thc ngi dng IMS ph thuc chnh vo vic trao i thng tin b mt.Thng tin ny bao gm kha mt m v sequence number, IMSI c lu tr trong SIM ca UE v trong HSS. S-CSCF cn nhng thng tin v chng thc ngi dng nn phi ti nhng thng tin ny v t HSS qua giao din Cx. Khi S-CSCF cn chng thc mt ngi dng, n gi MAR n HSS. HSS p ng li bng lnh MAA. Trong bn tin tr li ny cha nhng thng tin chng thc: thut ton m ha (v d: Digest-AKAv1-MD5 ), thng tin chng thc (s RAND vth AUTN), thng tin cp quyn,

9.8

im tham chiu ISC

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IP Multimedia Subsystem
Hnh 9-6 i m tham chi u ISC ISC l im tham chiu gia I-CSCF, S-CSCF v AS dng truyn bn tin iu khin ca giao thc SIP. Th tc qua giao din ny c th chia ra lm hai th tc chnh: Th tc nh tuyn cc bn tin yu cu thit lp SIP: Khi S-CSCF nhn c cc yu cu thit lp, n s phn tch yu cu ny. Ty thuc vo kt qu phn tch m S-CSCF s nh tuyn cc bn tin n AS x l. Th tc AS khi to yu cu thit lp phin SIP.

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

Phn IV: Mt s th tc thit lp phin trong IMS


10. Th tc lin quan n ng k
10.1 Th tc ng k
Khi ngi dng mi kch hot ti khon th u tin phi thc hin ng k mng lu tr thng tin v cung cp cc dch v ph hp ngi dng.

Hnh 10-1 M hnh ng k c a UE

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

Hnh 10-2 Cc b c th c hi n vi c ng k Bc 1: UE gi lung thng tin ng k ti Proxy (Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung, kha nhn dng ngi dng ring, tn min Home Network, a ch IP ca ngi dng,...) Bc 2: Khi nhn thng tin ng k, P-CSCF thc hin kim tra tn min Home Network tm thc th mng nh v Proxy s gi lung thng tin ng k ti ICSCF (a ch hoc tn ca P-CSCF, kha nhn dng ngi dng chung, kha nhn dng ngi dng ring, nhn dng mng ca P-CSCF, a ch IP ca UE) Bc 3: I-CSCF s gi Cx-Query hoc Cx-Select-Pull ln giao din Cx truy vn HSS (Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung, kha nhn dng ngi dng ring, nhn dng mng ca P-CSCF) Bc 4: HSS s gi Cx-Query Resp hoc Cx-Select-Pull Resp cho I-CSCF Bc 5: I-CSCF gi thng tin ng k ln S-CSCF Bc 6: S-CSCF gi Cx-Put hoc Cx-Pull (Kha nhn dng ngi dng chung, kha nhn dng ngi dng ring, tn S-CSCF) n HSS. 54

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Bc 7: HSS lu tr tn S-CSCF cho UE v gi Cx-Put Resp hoc Cx-Pull Resp cha thng tin ca UE n S CSCF Bc 8:Da trn b lc tiu chun, S-CSCF s gi thng tin ng k ti mt phng iu khin dch v v thc hin bt c th tc iu khin dch v thch hp no. Bc 9: S-CSCF gi bn tin chp nhn 200 OK cho I-CSCF (thng tin UE tip xc vi mng nh) Bc 10: I-CSCF gi bn tin chp nhn 200 OK cho P-CSCF (thng tin UE tip xc vi mng nh) Bc 11: P-CSCF gi bn tin chp nhn 200 OK cho UE

10.2 Th tc ng k li
ng k li l mt hot ng nh k ca UE nhm cp nht li mt s ng k tn ti hoc cp nht nhng thay i v trng thi ng k ca UE. Cc bc trong qu trnh ng k li c thc hin tng lc ng k, nhng v c mt S-CSCF c n nh cho UE trong lc ng k nn I-CSCF s khng gi bn tin Cx-SELECT PULL yu cu S-CSCF.

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IP Multimedia Subsystem

Hnh 10-3Th t c ng k l i c a UE

11. Th tc xa ng k
11.1 Xa ng k khi to bi UE
Khi UE mun xa ng k khi mng IMS th UE phi thc hin mt th tc xa ng k mc ng dng.Th tc ny phi c thc hin khi ht thi gian ng k.Cc bc thc hin th tc xa ng k cng ging nh th th tc ng k vi thi gian ng k l 0 giy.

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Hnh 11-1Th t c xa ng k th c hi n b i UE Cc bc thc hin nh sau: Bc 1: Gi yu cu REGISTER mi vi yu cu thi gian l 0 giy. UE gi thng tin ng k n P-CSCF (nhn dng ngi dng chung, nhn dng ngi dng ring, tn min Home network, a ch IP ca UE ) Bc 2: P-CSCF kim tra tn min mng nh, chuyn tip bn tin REGISTER n I-CSCF (nhn dng thu bao chung, nhn dng thu bao ring, nhn dng mng Proxy, a ch IP ca UE). Bc 3: I-CSCF s gi lung thng tin Cx-Query ti HSS (nhn dng thu bao chung, nhn dng thu bao ring, nhn dng mng P-CSCF) Bc 4: HSS s xc nh ngi dng ny hin ng k cha. HSS s gi CxQuery Resp (cha tn S-CSCF) ti I-CSCF. Bc 5: I-CSCF s dng tn ca S-CSCF xc nh a ch ca S-CSCF. ICSCF gi bn tin REGISTER n S-CSCF (tn hoc a ch P-CSCF, kha nhn

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dng chung, kha nhn dng ring, a ch IP ca UE, I-CSCF trong trng hp mng mun n cu hnh) Bc 6: Da vo b lc tiu chun, S-CSCF s gi thng tin xa ng k ti mt phng iu khin dch v v bt k mt phng no cha cc th tc iu khin dch v cn thit. Mt phng iu khin dch v s xa tt c cc thng tin thu bao lin quan n thu bao ny. Bc 7: Ty thuc vo nh khai thc la chn S-CSCF c th gi Cx-Put (nhn dng ngi dng chung, nhn dng ngi dng ring, xa tn S-CSCF) hoc CxPut (kha nhn dng ngi dng chung, kha nhn dng ngi dng ring, gi tn S-CSCF), vi nhng thu bao khng c coi l ng k lu S-CSCF. Sau HSS s xa b hoc gi li tn S-CSCF cho thu bao theo yu cu. Trong c hai trng hp, trng thi ca nhn dng thu bao khng c lu tr v khng c ng k HSS. Nu nh tn ca S-CSCF c gi li th HSS s cho php xa b s phc v S-CSCF bt c lc no. Bc 8: HSS s gi p ng Cx-Put Resp ti S-CSCF bo nhn Cx-Put Bc 9:S-CSCF s p ng li bng bn tin 200 OK ti I-CSCF. S-CSCF s xa tt c cc thng tin ca thu bao sau khi gi bn tin 200 OK Bc 10: I-CSCF s gi bn tin 200 OK ti P-CSCF. Bc 11: P-CSCF s gi bn tin 200 OK ti UE v thc hin vic xa thng tin lin quan n thu bao ny.

11.2 Xa ng k khi to bi nh khai thc mng


Th tc xa ng k thc hin bi nh khai thc mng thc hin khi: Ht thi hn ng k Bo dng mng: khng tng thch d liu nt li, mt SIM, kt thc phin khng tt (pin UE yu, thu bao di chuyn qu nhanh, ) Ngn chn ng k hai ln hoc lu tr thng tin tri ngc nhau. Trng hp ny s xy ra lc trao i cc tham s chuyn vng gia hai nh vn hnh. 58

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Qun l thu bao: hp ng ht hn, pht hin s gian ln, thay i dch v m S-CSCF ch nh khng c kh nng p ng Th tc xa ng k do bo dng mng c th thc hin bi HSS hoc S-CSCF. 11.2.1 Xa ng k khi ht thi gian

UE

P-CSCF 1. Timer Expires

S-CSCF 1. Timer Expires 2. Service Control 3. Cx-Put

HSS

4. Cx-Put-Resp

Hnh 11-2Th t c xa ng k khi h t th i gian ng k. Khi UE ng k thnh cng, c mt b Timer c bt ln. Khi Timer ny ht hn, m UE khng thc hin th tc xa ng k th th tc xa ng k c tin hnh bi nh khai thc mng.Cc bc thc hin nh sau: Bc 1: P-CSCF cp nht c s d liu bn trong ca n xa kha nhn dng thu bao chung c ng k Bc 2: Da vo b lc tiu chun, S-CSCF s gi thng tin xa ng k ti mt phng iu khin dch v v mt phng ny xa cc thng tin lin quan n thu bao ny.

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Bc 3: Ty thuc vo nh khai thc, S-CSCF c th gi l bn tin Cx-put ( nhn dng thu bao chung, nhn dng thu bao ring, xa tn S-CSCF) hoc Cx-Put (nhn dng thu bao chung, nhn dng thu bao ring, gi tn S-CSCF) vi thu bao khng ng k di lu S-CSCF. Sau HSS s xa hoc gi li tn ca SCSCF cho thu bao ty theo yu cu. Trong c hai trung hp , trng thi nhn dng thu bao c lu tr nh cha c ng k HSS. Nu nh tn ca S-CSCF c gi li th HSS s cho php xa s phc v ca S-CSCF bt c lc no. Bc 4: HSS s gi Cx-Put Resp ti S-CSCF bo nhn s gi Cx-Put. 11.2.2 Xa ng k khi to bi HSS
UE P-CSCF S-CSCF HSS

1. Cx-Deregister

2. Service Control
3. Deregister 4. UE Inform 5. OK 200 6. OK 200 7. Cx-Deregister Resp.

Hnh 11-3Th t c xa ng k kh i t o b i HSS Cc bc thc hin: Bc 1: HSS khi to xa ng k, gi mt bn tin Cx-Deregister cha l do xa ng k. 60

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Bc 2: S-CSCF s gi thng tin xa ng k ti mt phng iu khin dch v. Bc 3: Chuyn tip bn tin De-register cha l do xa ng k n P-CSCF v P-CSCF cp nht c s d liu bn trong n xa UE. Bc 4: P-CSCF s thng bo cho UE l do xa ng k tr khi khng kt ni c vi UE Bc 5: P-CSCF gi p ng ti S-CSCF v cp nht c s d liu bn trong ca n xa ng k ca UE. Bc 6: Khi c th, UE gi mt p ng ti P-CSCF bo nhn xa ng k. Mt UE khng c kh nng giao tip hoc nm ngoi P-CSCF s khng th tr li cho yu cu xa ng k. P-CSCF s thc hin xa ng k trong bt k trng hp Bc 7: S-CSCF p tr cc thc th khi to x l. 11.2.3 Xa ng k khi to bi S-CSCF
UE P-CSCF S-CSCF HSS

1. Service Control
2. Deregister 3. UE Inform 4. OK 200 5. OK 200 6. Cx-Put 7. Cx-Put resp

Hnh 11-4Th t c xa ng k th c hi n b i S-CSCF

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Cc bc thc hin nh sau: Bc 1: S-CSCF nhn thng tin xa ng k t mt phng iu khin dch v v thc hin bt k cc th tc iu khin dch v hp l no. Thng tin ny c th bao gm c l do xa ng k. Bc 2: S-CSCF gi bn tin Deregister xa ng k v pha P-CSCF v cp nht c s d liu bn trong ca n xa ng k UE. L do xa ng k cng c truyn i nu c th Bc 3: P-CSCF s thng bo cho UE l do xa ng k tr khi khng kt ni c vi UE Bc 4: P-CSCF gi p ng ti S-CSCF v cp nht c s d liu bn trong ca n xa ng k ca UE. Bc 5: Khi c th, UE gi mt p ng ti P-CSCF bo nhn xa ng k. Mt UE khng c kh nng giao tip hoc nm ngoi P-CSCF s khng th tr li cho yu cu xa ng k. P-CSCF s thc hin xa ng k trong bt k trng hp Bc 6: Ty thuc vo nh khai thc, S-CSCF c th gi l bn tin Cx-put (nhn dng thu bao chung, nhn dng thu bao ring, xa tn S-CSCF) hoc Cx-Put (nhn dng thu bao chung, nhn dng thu bao ring, gi tn S-CSCF) vi thu bao khng ng k di lu S-CSCF. Sau HSS s xa hoc gi li tn ca SCSCF cho thu bao ty theo yu cu. Trong c hai trung hp , trng thi nhn dng thu bao c lu tr nh cha c ng k HSS. Nu nh tn ca S-CSCF c gi li th HSS s cho php xa s phc v ca S-CSCF bt c lc no. Bc 7: HSS s gi Cx-Put Resp ti S-CSCF bo nhn s gi Cx-Put.

12. Th tc thit lp phin trong mng IMS


12.1 Th tc thit lp phin gia 2 mng IMS
Khi mt thu bao IMS (UE#1) cn thit lp phin n mt thu bao IMS khc (UE#2) th qu trnh thit lp phin c thc hin nh sau: 62

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Originating Network UE#1 P-CSCF#1 Originating Home Network S-CSCF#1 Terminating Home Network I-CSCF#2 S-CSCF#2 Terminating Network P-CSCF#2 UE#2

1. INVITE (SDP offer) 2. Media Component Policy Check 3. INVITE (SDP offer) 4. Service Control

5. INVITE (SDP offer)

6. HSS query 7. INVITE (SDP of fer)

8. Service Control 9. INVITE (SDP offer) 10. Media Component Policy Check 11. INVITE (SDP offer) 12. Ringing 13. Ringing 14. Ringing 15. Ringing 16. Ringing 17. Ringing 18. Reserve IP-CAN bearer for media 19. 200 OK (Offer response) 20. Authorize QoS resources 21. 200 OK (Offer response)

24. 200 OK (Offer response) 25. Authorize QoS resources 26. 200 OK (Offer response) 27. ACK 28. ACK 32. Reserve IP-CAN bearer for media

23. 200 OK (Offer response)

22. 200 OK (Offer response)

29. ACK 30. ACK 31. ACK

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Hnh 12-1 Cc b c th c hi n vi c xa ng k c th c hi n b i SCSCF Bc 1: Sau khi bit c a ch ca P-CSCF#1, UE#1 gi bn tin INVITE n P-CSCF Bc 2: P-CSCF#1 kim tra cc thng s truyn thng. Nu cc thng s khng ph hp vi chnh sch mng IMS a ra, P-CSCF#1 s loi b vic khi to phin. Bc 3: P-CSCF#1 chuyn tip bn tin INVITE n S-CSCF#1 m UE#1 bit khi ng k. Bc 4: S-CSCF#1 c th truy cp AS kim tra v p ng yu cu v dch v cho UE Bc 5: S-CSCF chuyn tip bn tin n I-CSCF#2 Bc 6: I-CSCF#2 truy vn HSS tm a ch ca S-CSCF#2 ng vi UE#2 Bc 7: I-CSCF#2 chuyn tip bn tin INVITE n S-CSCF#2 Bc 8: S-CSCF c th truy cp AS kim tra v p ng cc dch v m bn tin INVITE yu cu Bc 9: S-CSCF chuyn bn tin INVITE n P-CSCF#2 theo a ch thit lp khi UE#2 ng k Bc 10: P-CSCF#2 s kim tra cc thng s trong bn tin INVITE. Nu nhng thng s khng ph hp vi chnh sch t ra th s t chi thit lp phin Bc 11: P-CSCF#2 chuyn bn tin INVITE n UE#2 Bc 12-17: tn hiu chung c chuyn t UE#2 n UE#1 Bc 18: thit lp cc thng s d tr ti nguyn Bc 19: UE#2 chp nhn thit lp phin bng cch gi bn tin 200 OK n PCSCF#2 Bc 20: Ty thuc vo chnh sch ca nh khai thc dch v m P-CSCF#2 s cho php ti nguyn cn thit Bc 21-24: bn tin 200 OK c chuyn v UE#1 64

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Bc 25: Ty thuc vo chnh sch ca nh khai thc dch v m P-CSCF#1 s cho php ti nguyn cn thit Bc 26: Bn tin 200 OK c gi t P-CSCF n UE#1 Bc 27-31: Bn tin ACK c gi t UE#1 n UE#2 xc nhn thit lp phin Bc 32: Cuc gi c thit lp, lung thng tin a phng tin truyn gia UE#1 v UE#2

12.2 Th tc thit lp cuc gi gia mng IMS v mng PSTN

Hnh 12-2M hnh thi t l p cu c g i gi a UE (IMS) v UE (PSTN) Cc bc thc hin

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Originating Network Originating Home Network Terminating Network

S-CSCF
1. Invite (Initial SDP Offer) 2. Service Control

BGCF

3. Invite (Initial SDP Offer) 4. Invite (Initial SDP Offer) 5. Offer Response 6. Offer Response 7. Offer Response 8. Response Conf (Opt SDP) 9. Response Conf (Opt SDP) 10. Response Conf (Opt SDP) 11. Conf Ack (Opt SDP) 12. Conf Ack (Opt SDP) 13. Conf Ack (Opt SDP) 14. Reservation Conf 15. Reservation Conf 16. Reservation Conf 17. Reservation Conf 18. Reservation Conf 19. Reservation Conf 20. Ringing 21. Ringing 22. Ringing 23. 200 OK 24. 200 OK 25. 200 OK 26. ACK 27. ACK 28. ACK

Hnh 12-3 Cc b c thi t l p cu c g i gi a UE (IMS) v UE (PSTN) Bc 1:UE gi bn tin INVITE n P-CSCF khi to phin, sau P-CSCF da vo tn S-CSCF c gn cho UE trong bn tin m s chuyn tip bn tin n S-CSCF tng ng. Bc 2: S-CSCF thc hin bt k mt logic iu khin dch v no ph hp thit lp phin Bc 3: S-CSCF thc hin phn tch a ch ch xc nh c rng thu bao ch thuc PSTN v phi chuyn yu cu ti BGCF.

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Bc 4: BGCF xc nh MGCF cng mng, v vy cn phi la chn mt MGCF ph hp. Yu cu INVITE c chuyn ti MGCF. Thng tin kt cui PSTN c chuyn i sau. Bc 5-7: Cc kh nng truyn thng ca thu bao ch c phn hi theo tuyn bo hiu nh tr li SDP, nh cc th tc kt cui PSTN. Bc 8: Ngi khi to quyt nh a ra cc phng tin truyn thng v chuyn tip thng tin ny ti S-CSCF bng cc th tc khi to. Bc 9-10: S-CSCF chuyn tip SDP c a ra ti cc im u cui pha kt cui nh cc th tc kt cui PSTN thng qua phin thit lp. Bc 11-13: Cc im u cui pha kt cui tr li SDP a ra v bn tin thng bo ny c chuyn qua phin thit lp ti cc im u cui pha khi to. Bc 14-16: Khi im u cui pha khi to hon thnh th tc t trc ti nguyn, n s gi thng bo t trc ti nguyn thnh cng ti S-CSCF bng cc th tc khi to v c chuyn ti im u cui pha kt cui thng qua tuyn phin. Bc 17-19: im u cui pha kt cui bao nhn kt qu v thng bo ny c chuyn ti im u cui pha khi to thng qua tuyn phin. Bc 20-21: im u cui pha kt cui pht ra bn tin bo hiu chung v chuyn tip n ti BGCF, sau BGCF chuyn tip bn tin ti S-CSCF. Bc 22: S-CSCF chuyn tip bn tin bo hiu chung ti ngi khi to bng cc th tc khi to. Bc 23: Khi ngi dng ch tr li, cc kt qu ca th tc kt cui c cha trong p ng SIP 200 OK ti BGCF. Bc 24-25: BGCF chuyn thng tin ny ti S-CSCF v sau n c chuyn tip ti im u cui pha khi to. Bc 26: Bn tin 200 OK c p tr li in u cui khi to bng cc th tc khi to t im u cui kt cui.

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Bc 27: im u cui pha khi to gi bo nhn cui cng ti S-CSCF bng cc th tc khi to.

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Phn VI: Cc giao thc s dng trong h thng IMS


13. SIP
13.1 Tng quan v SIP
13.1.1 nh ngha SIP

Theo nh ngha ca IETF, SIP l giao thc bo hiu lp ng dng m t vic khi to, thay i v hu cc phin kt ni tng tc a phng tin gia nhng ngi s dng. SIP c th s dng cho rt nhiu cc dch v khc nhau trong mng IP nh dch v thng ip, thoi, hi ngh, email, dy hc t xa, qung b, SIP s dng khun dng text, mt khun dng thng gp trong mng IP. N k tha cc cc nguyn l v khi nim ca cc giao thc Internet nh HTTP v SMTP.N c nh ngha nh mt giao thc client-server, trong cc yu cu c pha client a ra v cc p ng c server tr li. SIP s dng mt s kiu bn tin v cc trng header ca HTTP, xc nh ni dung lung thng tin theo header. 13.1.2 c im SIP

n gin v c kh nng m rng SIP c rt t bn tin, khng c cc chc nng tha nhng SIP c th s dng thit lp nhng phin kt ni phc tp nh hi ngh. n gin, gn nh, da trn khun dng text, SIP l giao thc ra i sau khc phc c nhc im ca cc giao thc trc y. Cc thc th proxy server, registrar server, redirect server, location server, l cc thc th logic, hay n gin chng l cc phn mm c th chy trn cc my ch khc nhau. Do h thng SIP rt d dng nng cp. H tr ti a s di ng ca u cui

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Do c Proxy server, Registrar server v Redirect server, h thng lun nm c v tr chnh xc ca thu bao. Mt ngi s dng c th ng nhp vo bt k h thng u cui no (my tnh bn, my tnh xch tay, PDA, in thoi SIP) ti bt k a im no u c kh nng hot ng nh nhau. D dng to tnh nng mi v dch v mi L giao thc khi to phin trong mng chuyn mch gi, SIP cho php to ra nhng tnh nng mi hay dch v mi mt cch nhanh chng.CPL v CGI l mt s cng c thc hin iu ny. SIP h tr cc dch v thoi nh call waiting, call forwarding, call blocking, . SIP l mt cng c h tr hp dn i vi in thoi IP SIP c th hot ng v trng thi hoc c trng thi. V vy, s hot ng v trang thi cung cp s m rng tt do cc server khng phi duy tr thng tin v trng thi cuc gi mt khi s giao dch c x l. SIP c th s dng nhiu dng hoc c php giao thc chuyn siu vn bn HTTP, v vy, n c th hot ng trn cc trnh duyt mt cch thun li. Bn tin SIP c phn ni dung bn tin th c th linh ng thay i, n c th l bt c c php no. V vy, n c th c m t theo nhiu cch. Chng hn, n c th c m t vi s m rng nh Internet a mc ch MINE hoc ngn ng nh du m rng XML. SIP nhn dng mt ngi dng vi b nh v ti nguyn ng nht URL, v vy n cung cp cho ngi dng kh nng khi to cuc gi bng cch nhp vo mt lin kt trn trang web. 13.1.3 Chc nng chnh

User location: xc nh h thng kt cui s dng cho vic truyn thng.

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User availability: xc nh trng thi tnh sn sng ca thu bao b gi bt u thit lp ng truyn. User capabilities: xc nh phng tin v cc thng s truyn dn c s dng. Call setup: thit lp cc thng s ca phin cho c thu bao gi v thu bao b gi. Call handling: to, kt thc, v sa i phin.

13.2 Cc thnh phn chnh


Mt kha cnh khc bit ca SIP i vi cc giao thc x l cuc gi IP khc l khng dng khi nim Gateway hay b iu khin Gateway m da vo m hnh server/client. 13.2.1 UA

UA l mt im cui giao tip vi ngi dng v hot ng i din cho ngi dng.UA l mt ng dng cha c UAC v UAS. UAC l phn ngi s dng c dng khi to mt yu cu SIP ti server SIP hoc UAS. UAS l mt ng dng server giao tip vi ngi dng khi yu cu SIP c chp nhn v tr li mt p ng i din cho ngi dng. 13.2.2 Server

L mt chng trnh ng dng chp nhn cc bn tin yu cu t Client phc v cc yu cu ny v gi tr cc p ng cho cc yu cu . Ta c cc loi server sau: Proxy server L thnh phn trung gian, hot ng nh l mt server khi nhn cc yu cu SIP t Client hoc vi vai tr l mt Client khi n gi cc bn tin yu cu thay mt cho cc Client n cc Server k tip trong mng (c th l mt proxy server khc hoc l mt UAS ). Mt proxy c th dch bn tin v nu cn thit n c th to li bn tin yu cu SIP trc khi chuyn chng n server khc hoc mt UA. Trong trng hp ny trng Via trong bn tin p ng, yu cu ch ra cc proxy trung gian tham gia vo tin trnh x l yu cu. Proxy server nhn mt yu cu t client v quyt nh server k tip m yu cu s i 71

IP Multimedia Subsystem
n.Proxy ny c th gi yu cu n mt server khc, mt Redirect server hoc UAS. p ng s c truyn cng ng vi yu cu nhng theo chiu ngc li.

Hnh 13-1Proxy Server V d hot ng ca Proxy server:

Hnh 13-2Ho t ng c a Proxy Server 72

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Hot ng ca Proxy server c trnh by nh trong hnh.Client SIP userA@yahoo.com gi bn tin INVITE cho userB@hotmail.com mi tham gia cuc gi. Tng bc c m t nh sau: Bc 1: userA@yahoo.com gi bn tin INVITE cho UserB min hotmail.com, bn tin ny n proxy server SIP ca min hotmail.com (Bn tin INVITE c th i t Proxy server SIP ca min yahoo.com v c Proxy ny chuyn n Proxy server ca min hotmail.com). Bc 2: Proxy server ca min hotmail.com s tham kho server nh v (Location server) quyt nh v tr hin ti ca UserB. Bc 3: Server nh v tr li v tr hin ti ca UserB (gi s l UserB@hotmail.com). Bc 4: Proxy server gi bn tin INVITE ti userB@hotmail.com. Proxy server thm a ch ca n trong mt trng ca bn tin INVITE. Bc 5: UAS ca UserB p ng cho server Proxy vi bn tin 200 OK. Bc 6: Proxy server gi p ng 200 OK tr v userA@yahoo.com. Bc 7: userA@yahoo.com gi bn tin ACK cho UserB thng qua proxy server. Bc 8: Proxy server chuyn bn tin ACK cho userB@work. Bc 9: Sau khi c hai bn ng tham gia cuc gi, mt knh RTP/RTCP c m gia hai im u cui truyn tn hiu thoi. Bc 10: Sau khi qu trnh truyn dn hon tt, phin lm vic b xa bng cch s dng bn tin BYE v ACK gia hai im u cui.

Redirect server L mt server chp nhn mt yu cu SIP, nh x a ch trong yu cu thnh mt a ch mi v tr li a ch ny tr v client.Khng ging nh Proxy server, n khng khi to mt yu cu SIP v khng chuyn cc yu cu n cc Server khc. Redirect server 73

IP Multimedia Subsystem
khng chuyn yu cu nhng s ch nh client tip xc trc tip vi server k tip, p ng gi li client cha a ch ca server k tip. N khng hot ng c nh l mt client, n khng chp nhn cuc gi.

Hnh 13-3Redirect Server Hot ng ca Redirect Server

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Hnh 13-4Ho t ng c a Redirect Server Cc bc c th c trnh by nh sau: Bc 1: Redirect server nhn c yu cu INVITE t ngi gi (Yu cu ny c th i t mt proxy server khc). Bc 2: Redirect server truy vn server nh v a ch ca B. Bc 3: Server nh v tr li a ch ca B cho Redirect server. Bc 4: Redirect server tr li a ch ca B n ngi gi A. N khng pht yu cu INVITE nh proxy server. Bc 5: User Agent bn A gi li bn tin ACK n Redirect server xc nhn s trao i thnh cng. Bc 6: Ngi gi A gi yu cu INVITE trc tip n a ch c tr li bi Redirect server (n B). Ngi b gi B p ng vi ch th thnh cng (200 OK), v ngi gi p tr bn tin ACK xc nhn. Cuc gi c thit lp. 75

IP Multimedia Subsystem
Ngoi ra SIP cn c cc m hnh hot ng lin mng vi SS7 (n PSTN) hoc l lin mng vi chng giao thc H.323. Registrar L mt server chp nhn yu cu ng k.Mt Registrar c xp t vi mt Proxy hoc mt server gi li v c th a ra cc dch v nh v.Registrar c dng ng k cc i tng SIP trong min SIP v cp nht v tr hin ti ca chng.Loi server ny thng nm gn hoc nm trong nhng loi server khc nh l location server. Location server Cung cp chc nng phn gii tn cho SIP Proxy hoc Redirect Server. Sever ny c thut ton phn gii tn. Cc c ch ny bao gm mt database ca nh ng k hoc truy nhp n nhng cng c phn gii tn c s dng ph bin nh whois, LDAP, hoc cc h thng hot ng c lp khc. Registrar server c th l mt thnh phn con ca location server; registrar server chu trch nhim mt phn trong vic populating database m c lin kt vi location server

13.3 Cu trc bn tin SIP


Bn tin SIP c ba phn: startline, header, v message body

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Hnh 13-5C u trc b n tin SIP 13.3.1 Start line

Startline c 2 loi: Request v Response


Start Line Request Response Syntax Method Request URI SIP - Version SIP-Version Status-Code Response-Phrase

Hnh 13-6C u trc ph n start line trong b n tin SIP 12.3.1.1 Cc trng trong bn tin Request Trng method Bng 13-1Trng method trong b n tin SIP Request

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Trng Method Chc nng

INVITE ACK OPTIONS BYE CANCEL REGISTER SUBSCRIBE

Khi to mt phin (client gi thng ip n Server) Khng nh rng client nhn c bn tin p ng cho bn tin INVITE S dng xc nh nng lc ca server Yu cu kt thc phin Hu yu cu ang nm trong hng i u cui SIP ng k vi Register server The calling party requests an update regarding the presence information of the called party.

NOTIFY

a ra trng thi cp nht nhng m t v thu bao

MESSAGE

S dng gi bn tin tc thi

SIP-URI a ch SIP hay cn c gi l b nh v ti nguyn chung URL, tn ti di dng user@host. Phn user trong phn a ch c th l tn ngi dng hoc s in thoi. Phn host c th l tn min hoc a ch mng. v d cc a ch SIP Bng 13-2Bng v d cc SIP URL
SIP URL Format

sip:user@reskit.com sip:user@reskit.com;transport=TCP

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sip:user@172.16.20.54 sip:+1-425-707-9796@reskit.com;user=phone sip:marketing@reskit.com;maddr=225.0.2.1;ttl=64

12.3.1.2 Bn tin SIP Respone c cc trng Status code (c 6 loi) Bng 13-3Trng Status Code trong b n tin SIP Response
Status code 1xx 2xx 3xx 4xx Response category Informational Success Redirection Client Error ngha Thng bo cho bit yu cu ang c tin hnh M thng bo yu cu hon tt v thnh cng M nh hng li M thng bo yu cu ca client b sai hoc h thng khng hon tt c 5xx 6xx Server Error Global Failures M cho bit yu cu hp l nhng server khng th hon tt c Bo hiu rng yu cu khng c thi hnh bi bt c server no

Cc Response-Phrase tng ng vi cc loi status code Bng 13-4Cc Response-Phrase tng ng vi cc lo i status code Status Response Code 100 180 Category Informational Informational Trying Ringing 79 ang th ang chung Response Phrase
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181 Informational Call is being forwarded Cuc gi ang c chuyn hng 182 200 300 301 302 303 305 380 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 Informational Success Redirection Redirection Redirection Redirection Redirection Redirection Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Queued OK Multiple choices Moved permanently Moved temporarily See other Use proxy Alternative service Bad request Unauthorized Payment required Forbidden Not found Method not allowed Not acceptable Proxy required 408 409 410 Client Error Client Error Client Error Request timeout Conflict Gone Yu cu b ht gi Xung t Ngi dng tng tn ti, nhng khng cn y na 411 413 414 415 Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Length required Request entity too large Request-URI too large Unsupported media type n v yu cu qu ln URI ca yu cu qu di Kiu phng tin khng c h ang xp hng i thnh cng C nhiu la chn di i vnh vin tm thi di i xem phn khc Dng Proxy Dch v thay th Yu cu sai Khng c quyn Yu cu tr tin Cm Khng tm thy Phng thc khng c php Khng c chp nhn

authentication Cn c s cp php cho proxy

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tr 420 480 481 Client Error Client Error Client Error Bad extension Temporarily not available Phn m rng khng ng Tm thi khng hot ng

Call leg/transaction does Cuc gi/Giao dch khng tn ti not exist Pht hin thy lp Qu nhiu chng trung chuyn a ch khng hon chnh Ti ngha ang bn Li bn trong my ch Phng thc yu cu SIP ny cha c khai bo y

482 483 484 485 486 500 501

Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Client Error Server Error Server Error

Loop detected Too many hops Address incomplete Ambiguous Busy here Internal server error Not implemented

502 503 504 505

Server Error Server Error Server Error Server Error

Bad gateway Service unavailable Gateway time-out SIP version not supported

Gateway sai Dch v khng c My ch b ht gi Phin bn khng c h tr: my ch khng h tr phin bn giao thc SIP ny Tt c mi ni u bn T chi Khng tn ti bt c u Khng c chp nhn

600 603 604 606

Global Failures Global Failures Global Failures Global Failures

Busy everywhere Decline Does not exist anywhere Not acceptable

13.3.2

Header

SIP c 4 loi header: general header, entity header, request header, v respone header. 2 loi u xut hin trong c 2 loi bn tin, 2 ci sau xut hin trong loi bn tin l request 81

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hoc response. Mt start line cho php i km vi mt hoc nhiu header. Ty theo bn tin l request hay response m ta dng header cho ph hp. Bng 13-5 Cc Header trong b n tin SIP
General Accept Accept-encoding Accept-language Call-ID Contact Cseq Date Encryption Expires From Record-route Time stamp To Via Entity Content-encoding Content-length Content-type Request Authorization Contact Hide Max-forwards Organization Priority Proxy-authorization Proxy-require Route Require Response-key Subject User-agent Allow Proxy-authenticate Retry-after Server Unsupported Warning WWW-authenticate Response

13.3.3

Message Body

SIP message body: Phn thn (body) ca bn tin SIP cha nhng m t phin ging nh phn m t trong SDP. Mt m t phin gm c 3 phn: m t phin (a single session description), m t thi gian (zero or more time descriptions), and m t v truyn dn (zero or more media descriptions)

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Session Description
Session Time Media Description Description Description

Hnh 13-7C u trc ph n thn b n tin SIP Session (phin) Bng 13-6Trng m t phin trong ph n thn ca bn tin SIP
Type v o s i u e p c b z Protocol version Owner/creator and session identifier Session name Session information Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) of description E-mail address Phone number Connection information Bandwidth information Time zone adjustments Value

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a Zero or more session attribute lines

Time (thi gian) Bng 13-7Trng th i gian trong ph n thn c a bn tin SIP
Type t r Value Time the session is active Zero or more repeat times

Media (truyn dn) Bng 13-8Trng truy n dn trong ph n thn bn tin SIP
Type m i c b k a Value Media name and transport address Media title Connection information Bandwidth information Encryption key Zero or more media attribute lines

13.3.4

V d bn tin SIP

Bn tin yu cu (request)

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Hnh 13-8B n tin SIP Request Bn tin p ng (response)

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Hnh 13-9B n tin SIP Response

14. DIAMETER
14.1 Tng quan v DIAMETER
Ban u, con ngi mun truy cp vo internet n mt Server c th no , ngi phi cung cp thng tin v user name v password. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, thng tin v user name v password khng c lu my ch p ng truy cp m c lu mt ni khc, c th l Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). Do ny sinh vn cn mt giao thc truyn thng ng tin cy trao i thng tin gia my ch truy cp v my lu thng tin v user name v password. V th, vo 1995 RADIUS ra

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i, c dng chng thc, qun l quyn truy cp dch v, thng tin ti khon ngi dng. Khi cng ngh di ng ngy cng pht trin th RADIUS khng p ng c yu cu v QoS v khng h tr chuyn vng.iu ny l mt tr ngi ln trong s pht trin dch v.Mt yu cu t ra l tm ra mt cng ngh mi khng ch p ng c tnh nng ca RADIUS m cn khc phc c nhng nhc im ca giao thc ny.n 1996, IETF chun ha Diameter trong RFC 3588.Giao thc ny tha mn cc yu cu t ra trn. Giao thc Diameter chia ra 2 phn: Diameter Base Protocol v Diameter Application. Diameter Base Protocol cn thit cho vic phn phi cc n v d liu, kh nng thng lng, kim sot li v kh nng m rng. Diameter Application nh ngha nhng ng dng d liu ring. Ti thi im ny, ngoi ng dng chun trong RFC3588, mt s ng dng c nh ngha nh: Mobile IP, NASREQ, EAP, Diameter iu khin tnh ph v ng dng Diameter trong giao thc SIP, Diameter Base Protocol s dng c Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [RFC0793] v Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP)[RFC2960] truyn d liu. Tuy nhinSCTP thng c s dng hn trong cc kt ni c nh hng gia cc thnh phn Diameter.SCTP cng l mt giao thc da trn nn IP khng khc nhiu so vi TCP.SCTP c pht trin sau v c cu trc phc tp hn TCP.SCTP c thit k s dng trong iu kin yu cu tin cy v gn thi gian thc.Tuy nhin, ti thi im hin ti, SCTP cha c s dng rng ri trong mng truyn ti ca cc mng.Diameter s dng Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) [RFC2401] v Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC2246] bo mt kt ni.

14.2 Cc thnh phn chnh


Diameter l giao thc ngang hng peer-to-peer, ti bt k mt thnh phn no cng c th thit lp mt yu cu.Trong Diameter c 3 thnh phn chnh l Server, Client v Agent.Client l mt thit b bin, thc hin cc truy vn v s dng dch v. Mt

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Diameter Agent thc hin chc nng nh mt Proxy, Relay,Redirect Agent va dch cc bn tin. Diameter Server qun l cc yu cu v AAA cho mt h thng. 14.2.1 Diameter Replay Agent

Diameter Relay Agent l mt thc th chp nhn cc yu cu v nh tuyn cc bn tin n mt thc th khc da trn thng tin tm c trong bn tin nh tn min ch n ca bn tin.Thng tin nh tuyn ny c thc hin da vo bng nh tuyn c lu tr ti cc nt mng. Bng nh tuyn ny cha cc trng sau: tn min, m ng dng, hot ng cc b, nhn dng Server, cu hnh tnh hoc ng, thi gian ht hn. Thng tin tn min c cha trong bn tin UE gi n v l trng u tin UE s dng tm kim mt entry. M ng dng ng trng vendor ID trong bn tin Diameter. M ny c nh ngha bi IANA, mi ng dng c mt ID khc nhau. V d: 0 1 2 3 bn tin Diameter NASREQ Mobile-IP Chc nng ti khon

M ng dng c dng nh trng quan trng th 2 tm kim mt entry. Trng hot ng cc b cha mt trong bn gi tr: Local, Relay, Proxy, Redirect. Da vo trng ny m Diamter Relay s bit x l gi tin hay chuyn tip gi tin.Trng nhn dng Server xc nh nt mng k tip cn i n. Cu hnh tnh hay ng cho bit entry ny c cu hnh tnh hoc t ng tm ra nt kt tip. Nu l cu hnh ng th c thi gian ht hn m entry phi c cp nht li. Tng hp nhng yu cu n cc min khc nhau v phn b gi tin n ch thch hp gip gim nh cu hnh my ch truy cp cng nh thun tin cho vic thay th, thm hoc b my ch truy cp.

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Diameter Relay Agent thay i bn tin bng cch chn vo hoc b cc thng tin nh tuyn m khng thay i bt k phn no khc ca bn tin. Relay Agent s khng duy tr trng thi phin m ch duy tr trng thi giao dch thc hin chc nng Accouting. 14.2.2 Diameter Proxy Agent

Ging nh Relay, Proxy Agent nh tuyn cc bn tin Diameter s dng bng nh tuyt. Tuy nhin, gia hai thnh phn c s khc nhau v cch thay i bn tin thc hin chnh sch. They are similar to relay agents in that message routing is based on a Diameter routing table, but dierent in that they also modify the messages by implementing policy enforcement (e.g., resource usage enforcement, admission control or provisioning). Since policy enforcement always requires an understanding of the oered service, proxy agents need to support specic Diameter applications as well as the Diameter Base Protocol.

Hnh 14-1 Diameter Proxy Agent nh tuy n cc b n tin d a vo b ng nh tuy n

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14.2.3 Diameter Redirect Agent

Hnh 14-2Diameter Redirect Agent Diameter Reditect Agent thc hin vic inh tuyn cc bn tin sang tn min khc. N cng s dng bng nh tuyn xc nh chng tip theo ca ng i n ch c yu cu. Thay t v nh tuyn nhng yu cu, Redirect Agent s p ng li a ch ca chng kt tip Proxy Agent nh tuyn.

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14.2.4 Diameter Translation Agent

Hnh 14-3Diameter Translation Agent Diameter Translation Agent l thnh phn thc hin vic chuyn i dch v gia Diameter v mt giao thc thc hin chc nng AAA khc. Translation Agent s dng tng thch vi cc dch v trn c s h tng mng sn c ph bin nh RADIUS, TACACS, .

14.3 Cu trc bn tin Diameter


Bn tin Diameter cha mt header v mt s cp gi tr thuc tnh AVP.Header gm nhiu trng vi d liu dng nh phn ging header ca giao thc IP.

Hnh 14-4C u trc b n tin Diameter

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14.3.1 Cu trc header ca Diameter c m t trong hnh sau:

Hnh 14-5C u trc header c a Diameter

Version: c thit lp bng 1 ng vi phin bn hin nay ca giao thc Diameter l 1. Command Flags: trng ny di 8 bit. C dng RPETrrrr, c ngha nh sau: R (request): nu bng 1, y l bn tin yu cu. Nu bng 0 l bn tin p ng. P (proxiable): nu bng 1, bn tin c th chuyn tip bi Proxy, Relay hoc Redirect. Nu bng 0 th bn tin s c x l ti nt E (error): Nu bng 1, bn tin p ng cha li giao thc, v bn tin s khng ph hp vi m t ABNF. Nu bng 0 trong bn tin yu cu v khng li. T (potentially re-transmitted masage): Bit ny bng 1 khi lin kt b t, bn tin yu cu b trng hoc khng c tr li t Server r: d tr, lun bng 0 Command Code: trng ny di 24 bit, c qun l bi IANA, gi tr t 0- 24 dng ring cho RADIUS, 16777214 v16777215 dng th nghim, cc s cn li dng trong giao thcDIAMETER. Mt s Command Code c lit k trong bng sau:

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Bng 14-1Command Code trong Diameter

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Application-ID: di 32 bit, dng xc nh tn ng dng do IANA qun l. ng dng c th l mt ng dng dnh cho vic chng thc, mt ng dng qun l ti khon ngi dng hoc mt ng dng c th ca mt nh sn xut no . N l mt dy s t 0x00000001 n 0x00ffffff. Sau y l mt s Application-ID: Bn tin Diameter chung NASREQ Mobile-IP Chc nng Accounting trong Diameter Relay 0 1 2 3 255

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Application ID trong header phi ging vi ni dung cha trong AVP. Hop-by-Hop Identifier: di 32 bit, gip ph hp gia bn tin yu cu v p ng trong 1 kt ni trong 1 thi gian End-to-end Identifier: xc nh bn tin b trng 14.3.2 AVP

AVP cha thng tin chng thc, y quyn, v thng tin v ti khon ngi dng nh tuyn, bo mt, thng tin cu hnh c lin quan n yu cu v p ng bn tin. Mi AVP cha AVP header v AVP data.

Hnh 14-6C u trc AVP 14.3.2.1 AVP header Trng AVP Code: di 32 bit, c qun l bi IANA, dng xc nhn cc thuc tnh vi trng Vendor-ID. Gi tr t 0-255 dng tng thch vi RADIUS, cc gi tr cn li dng trong DIAMETER Trng AVP Flag di 8 bit, c dng VMPrrrrr, mi bit c ngha nh sau: Bit V (vendor -ID): nu bng mt th thng tin s c cp trong trng Vendor-ID, ngc li trng Vendor-ID rng. Bit M (Mandatory): UE s khng nhn bn tin ny nu bit ny bng 0. Bit P (Protect): nu bng 1 th bn tin c yu cu m ha end-to-end. Bit r: d tr Trng AVP length: chiu di AVP data.

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14.3.2.2 AVP data Trng AVP data c th l rng hoc nhiu octet cha thng tin v thuc tnh c th.nh dng v chiu di ca trng ny c xc nh bi trng AVP Code v AVP Length. nh dng ca trng ny l mt trong nhng dng d liu chun sau y: OctetString, Interger32, Interger64, Unsigned32, Unsigned64, Float32, Float64, Grouped tm hiu k v cc dng d liu ny, ngi xem c th tham kho [RFC 3588]. Trong trng hp cn c mt dng d liu c bn mi cho AVP Data th mt phin bn RFC mi hn phi c to ra. Ngoi vic s dng cc dng d liu c bn, trng ny cn c th s dng cc nh dng d liu khc nhau theo ng dng. C mt s dng d liu theo ng dng nh sau: Address: dng d liu ny c to ra t dng OctetString ( dng d liu c bn). N c th l dng a ch 32 bit (Ipv4) hoc 128 bit (IPv6). Time: dng d liu ny c to ra t OctetString. Chui (string) phi di bn octet. Dng d liu ny ging nh dng ca SNTP [RFC 2030] Diameter Identity: dng d liu ny c to ra t OctetString, dng xc nh s duy nht ca mt nt trong mng, trnh trng hp c nhiu ng kt ni n mt nt dn n trnh trng b lp trong nh tuyn. Ni dung chui d liu trong kiu ny l FQDN ca mt nt Diameter. Ngoi ra cn c cc dng d liu khc nh: UTF8String, DiameterURI, Enumerated, IPFilterRule, QoSFilterRule, [RFC 3588]

14.4 Bo mt trong bn tin Diameter


Client trong giao thc Diameter phi h tr chun IPSec v c th h tr TLS.Server phi h tr c 2 chun trn. bo mt, khuyn ngh rng nn s dng IPSec cc nt trong cng mt min nh gia Client v Proxy v s dng TSL bo mt khi c giao dch gia cc min vi nhau. Khi s dng TSL, hai pha phi thng lng mt Cipher key theo mt trong cc thut ton sau:

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RC4_128_MD5 RC4_128_SHA 3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA AES_128_CBC_SHA

14.5 Kim sot li


Li trong giao thc Diameter chia thnh 2 loi: li giao thc v li ng dng Li giao thc Xy ra cp giao thc c bn nh li nh tuyn. Khi xut hin li, bit E trong trng Command Flag ca Diameter Header trong bn tin p ng s c bt ln 1 v gi tr li theo ng n.

Hnh 14-7L i giao th c trong Diameter Li ng dng Xy ra cc ng dng ca Diameter nh chng thc User, mt gi AVP. Khi xut hin li, bit R trong Command Flag trong bn tin p ng c bt ln 1 v gi li cho User khi to khng thng qua Agent

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Hnh 14-8L i ng d ng trong giao th c Diameter

Cc bn tin p ng li trong trng hp c li: Bng 14-2Bn tin p ng trong trng hp c li xy ra

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Hnh 14-9Lu ng lu l ng k t n i cc th c th Diameter Qu trnh thit lp n kt thc mt giao dch trong Diameter thc hin qua cc bc sau: Bc 1: Client gi bn tin Capabilities-Exchange-Request (CER) yu cu thit lp kt ni bng cch s dng giao thc truyn TCP hoc SCTP. Bc 2: Server p ng li bi bn tin Capabilities-Exchange-Answer (CEA). Trong qu trnh, giao thc bo mt (IPSec ho TSL) c thng lng chn la 100

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Bc 3: Kt ni sn sng cho vic truyn thng bn tin gia Client v Server. Bc 4, 5: Nu khng c bn tin no c gi th n mt khong thi gian, Client s gi DWR v ch p ng DWA. Bc 6, 7: Hy kt ni c th c mt trong hai bn thc hin bng cch gi DPR v nhn v p ng DPA.

14.7 Dch v trong Diameter


DIAMETER l giao thc c lp, khng thit k hot ng trn mt ng dng c th no.Ty thuc vo ng dng m cc bn tin v dch v c t nhiu thay i. Tuy vy, Diameter c ba dch v chnh l: chng thc, y quyn v ti khon. Chng thc v y quyn l hai dch v kt hp vi nhau trong giao thc Diameter. Client l pha khi to yu cu hai dch v trn, ph thuc vo ni dung yu cu trong AVP m Server s p ng theo nhng cch khc nhau. Hai dch v ny cung cp ch bo mt v thng s cho qu trnh bo mt thng tin chng thc. Client v Server s dng hai dch v trn hiu uc cc thng tin c m ho ca nhau nh mt khu chng hn. Chng thc v y quyn cng gip Client pht hin s gi mo ca gi tin p ng. Thm vo , n c s dng chuyn mt khu thnh mt dng no , ngn chn vic lm l mt khu ca ngi dng trong cc bn tin Diameter. Nhng dch v ny cn to ra thng s ngu nhin gi n Client. Client dng thng s chng thc ca minh( mt khu, kha nhn dng ring) bm vi s ny qua thut ton MD5. Sau gi gi tin cha kt qu sau khi bm ti Server so snh hai kt qu sau khi bm. Chng thc th ch c thnh cng hoc tht bi, trong khi dch v y quyn cn da vo trng thi dch v l Statefull hoc Stateless. Vi trng thi Statefull th Server s gi li trng thi ca phin v c s gii hn v thi gian ca phin y quyn. Thi gian ny khng c vt qu thi gian phin y quyn v thi gian m rng thm.Khi ht thi 101

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gian ny, hoc Client, hoc Server s hy kt ni v bt buc Client phi nhn s y quyn li.Ngc li, trong trng thi Stateless, Server ch duy tr trng thi dch v m khng duy tr trng thi phin. Diameter Base Protocol cung cp dch v ti khon n Diameter Application.Khi mt Accouting Session cha c kch hot, s khng c ngun ti nguyn no c d tr sn cho c Client v Server. Khi mt bn tin Accounting Request kch hot Accouting Session thnh cng, mt Accounting Record ri vo mt trong 2 danh sch: Dch v tnh theo thi gian: c thi gian bt u v kt thc r rng. i vi dch v ny, cc ph c tnh khi dch v bt u v ngng tnh khi dch v kt thc. Dch v tnh theo ln: tnh ph theo s ln s dng dch v, khng quan tm n thi gian. So snh giao thc Diameter v giao thc RADIUS Bng 14-3So snh giao th c Diameter v giao th c RADIUS

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15. COPS
15.1 Gii thiu v COPS
COPS l giao thc c IETF chun ha nhm thc hin vic qun l, cu hnh v p t chnh sch. Giao thc ny hot ng theo m hnh Client/Server. N nh ngha mt giao thc yu cu v p ng mt cch n gin trong vic trao i thng tin chnh sch gia server quyt nh chnh sch v Client ca n. Trong im thc hin chnh sch (PEP) c xem l Client v server l im quyt nh chnh sch (PDP).V mt thnh phn c bit l im quyt nh chnh sch cc b (LPDP), n thay th cho PDP trong vic lin lc vi PEP khi PDP khng c tm thy. COPS iu khin chnh sch theo 2 m hnh chnh: Outsourcing PEP ch nh mt PDP bn ngoi chu trch nhim x l nhng s kin gi ra t PEP. M hnh ny cho thy s tng quan one-to-one gia nhng s kin (events) PEP v nhng quyt nh t mt PDP. Configuration Khng ging nh m hnh trc, l khng c s nh x trc tip nhng s kin ti PEP v nhng quyt nh t PDP.PDP c th cu hnh nhng s kin bn ngoi c khi to bi mt PEP bt k v s kin gi t PEP c th c x l bi PDP cng khi vi n hoc PDP thuc khi khc.Xt v mt thi gian th m hnh ny linh ng hn m hnh outsourcing.

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Hnh 15-1M hnh cops Cops s dng phng thc truyn TCP truyn nhng bn tin ng tin cy gia PEP v PDP.Khng ging nh giao thc client/server khc, cp bn tin yu cu/p ng ny phi ph hp vi cp bn tin yu cu/p ng khc. y, server c th p p t chnh sch cho client v xa nhng chnh sch trn client nu chnh sch khng cn gi tr na. PEP khi to kt ni TCP n PDP, PEP gi yu cu v nhn nhng quyt nh chnh sch t PDP v s lin lc gia PEP v PDP l s trao i yu cu, p ng. Tuy nhin PDP/PEP c th gi i nhng bn tin c lp, v d nh PDP gi nhng quyt nh ti PEP bt buc PEP thay i nhng chnh sch c PDP chp nhn trc (khng phi bn tin p ng cho nhng yu cu ca PEP) v PEP c th gi nhng bn tin bo co v trng thi cho PDP,... S m rng c th c m t trong phn nh dng bn tin v nhng phn t mang d liu v chnh sch khng cn yu cu bt k thay i no trong giao thc. COPS c s dng trong lin lc gia khi PDF v GGSN, to s kt ni gia mng IMS v mng GPRS 104

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Hnh 15-2COPS gi a PDF v GGSN/SBC

15.2 Chc nng chnh ca COPS


Giao thc ny giao vic cho Client h tr cho m hnh Client/Server. Trong Client s gi nhng bn tin: yu cu, cp nht, v xa ti PDP v PDP gi tr nhng quyt nh cho PEP. COPS s dng phng thc TCP trao i bn tin gia Server v Client nn ta khng cn b sung thm chc nng h tr vic lin lc c m bo gia Server v Clients. COPS thc hin vic qun l, cu hnh, v thc thi cc chnh sch COPS cung cp mc bo mt cc bn tin cho vic xc thc, pht li bo v, v ton vn bn tin.COPS cng c th ti s dng giao thc v bo mt nh IPSEC hoc TLS xc thc v bo v knh truyn gia PEP v PDP. COPS cho php Server p dng chnh sch cho Client hoc xa chnh sch ang thc thi trn Client nu n khng cn c s dng na.

15.3 Bn tin COPS


Bn tin COPS gm c mt header v cc thc th theo sau.

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COPS Header

Object Format

COPS Message

Hnh 15-3C u trc b n tin COPS 15.3.1 COPS header

Hnh 15-4COPS header Version (4bits): ch phin bn ca giao thc COPS ang c dng, hin nay ang s dng COPS version 1 Flags (4bits): mc nh l 0, c flag t ln 1 khi bn tin gi i l bn tin DEC, khi PDP gi bn tin DEC p ng li yu cu ca bn tin REQ do PEP gi ra. Op Code (8 bits): cho bit hot ng ca COPS. Bng 15-1Cc loi Op code trong COPS header

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Gi tr 1 REQ Loi Ni chn (where) PEPPDP Request Yu cu quyt nh t PDP v thit lp mt client handle nhm xc nh tnh trng ph hp cho PEP 2 DEC PDPPEP PEPPDP Decision Tr li mt hoc nhiu quyt nh (p ng) cho mt yu cu 3 RPT Report state Bo co li cho PDP bit l PEP nhn c p ng ca PEP hay cha v thng bo s thay i trng thi ca PEP 4 DRQ PEPPDP PDPPEP PEPPDP PDPPEP PEPPDP PDPPEP 9 KA PEPPDP PDPPEP 10 SSC PEPPDP Synchronize complete Thng bo s ng b thnh cng Keep-Alive Kim tra s tn ti ca PDP/PEP Delete state 5 SSQ Synchronize state PDP gi cho PEP ng b d liu request 6 7 8 OPN CAT CC Client-Open Client- Accept Client-Close Cho bit phn t Client-type khng c h tr request Thng bo cho PDP bit l Tn M t

Client-type (16 bits): cho bit chnh sch p dng cho Client v determines the interpretation of the accompanying typed objects C gi tr trong khong 0x8000 - 0xFFFF i vi bn tin KA th Client-type phi t l 0 Message Length (32 bits): bao gm header chun v phn t rt gn v di ch trong 4bytes.

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15.3.2 Object format

Hnh 15-5Object format c a b n tin COPS Length (16bits) C-num (8 bits): cho bit lp thng tin cha ng trong object Bng 15-2Trng C-Num trong Object format c a bn tin COPS
C-num 1 Tn Handle Ni chn Most M t Gi tr duy nht xc nh trng thi c ci t 2 Context REQ, DEC Cho bit phn t no to ra nhng truy vn 3 4 In interface Out interface REQ REQ a ch v giao tip bn trong ca PEP a ch v giao tip bn bn ngoi ca PEP 5 6 7 8 9 Reason code Decision LPDP decision Error Client-specific info DRQ DEC DEC CC Cho bit l do cc yu cu b xa Quyt nh do PDP to ra Quyt nh do LPDP to ra Xc nh giao thc b li

REQ, DEC, RPT, Thng tin v Client OPN Gi tr b m thi gian Xc nh PEP cho PDP Loi bo co v trng thi yu cu, n phi tng ng vi handle c th

10 11 12

Keep-Alive timer PEP identication Report type

CAT OPN RPT

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13 PDP redirect address CC PDP c th chuyn tip trc tip PEP n PDP khc 14 15 16 Last PDP address Accounting timer Message integrity OPN CAT Any a ch ca PDP m PEP kt ni ln cui Xc nh thi gian cho vic tnh ph Chui s v s kim bn tin chng thc nhm m bo s bo mt cho nhng yu cu

C-type (8 bits): c gi tr c t da trn C-num, typically identies the subtype or version of the information contained in the object.

16. MEGACO/H.248
16.1 Tng quan v MEGACO/H.248
Megaco c pht trin bi IETF (a ra vo cui nm 1998), cn H.248 c a ra vo thng 5/1999 bi ITU-T.Sau c IETF v ITU-T cng hp tc thng nht giao thc iu khin MG, kt qu l vo thng 6/2000 chun Megaco/H.248 ra i.

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Hnh 16-1Qu trnh chu n ha MEGACO/H248

MEGACO/H248 cung cp mt gii php ton din cho vic iu khin cc MG. Giao thc ny h tr a phng tin v cc dch v hi thoi nng cao a im cc c php lp trnh c nng cao nhm tng hiu qu cho cc tin trnh m thoi, h tr c vic m ho text v binary v thm vo vic m rng cc nh ngha cho cc packets. Megaco/H.248 l giao thc bo hiu gia Softswitch/MGC vi MG (Trunking Media Gateway, Lines Media Gateway hoc IP Phone Media Gateway).Megaco/H.248 iu khin MG kt ni cc lung t ngoi. Megaco/H.248 tng t vi MGCP v mt cu trc v mi lin h gia b iu khin v cng gateway, tuy nhin Megaco/H248 h tr a dng hn cc loi mng (v d ATM).

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Hnh 16-2MEGACO/H248 k t n i i u khi n Gateway

16.2 Cu trc Gateway trong MEGACO/H.248

Hnh 16-3C u trc Gateway trong MEGACO/H248 MGC (Media Gateway Control): cung cp bo hiu SIP hoc H.323 v thc hin nh x gia cc giao thc bo hiu mng chuyn mch knh truyn thng v giao thc bo hiu IP. MG (Media Gateway): cung cp s nh x Media v chc nng chuyn m. N kt thc tn hiu chuyn mch knh v tn hiu Media gi v thc hin chuyn a ch,..

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SG (Signalling Gateway): cung cp mi trng bo hiu gia min IP v min chuyn mch knh truyn thng.

16.3 Termination v Context


Megaco c hai khi nim mang tnh tru tng l: Termination v Context 16.3.1 Termination

Termination l mt thc th lun l trn MG nh l cc ngun hoc cc lung iu khin,Termination c duy nht mt s nhn dng (Termination ID) c phn phi bi MG thi im chng c to ra. Termication cn biu hin cho cc thc th vt l c thi gian tn ti bn thng tr nh mt knh TDM Termination cng biu din cho cc lung thng tin ngn hn nh l cc lung RTP,thng tn ti trong thi gian chng c s dng.Cc Termination ngn hn c to bi lnh Add v c hy b bi lnh Subtract.Ngc li, mt Termination vt l c thm vo v b ra khi mt Context bng cch chng c ly ra hoc a vo mt Context rng tng ng. Cc tn hiu c th p dng ln cc Termination, cc tn hiu ny nh l cc thng bo.Cc Termination cng c th c lp trnh pht hin cc s kin. 16.3.2 Context

Context l mt s kt hp gia mt s Termination.C mt Context c bit c gi l Context rng.N cha cc Termination khng kt hp vi cc Termination khc. Cc Termination rng c th c cc tham s c kho st hoc sa i v c th c cc s kin xy ra trn chng. Lnh Add dng thm Termination vo Context.Nu MGC khng ch nh mt Context tn ti Termination c thm vo th MG s to mt Context mi.Lnh Subtract dng xa b Termination ra khi mt Context. Termination cng c th c di 112

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chuyn t Context ny sang mt Context khc vi lnh Move. Mt Termination ch tn ti trong mt Context mt thi im. S lng Termination ln nht trong mt Context ph thuc vo MG. Chng hn, MG ch a ra kt ni im im th c th ch cho php hai Termination trn mt Context. Cc MG h tr cc cuc hi ngh a im c th cho php 3 hoc nhiu Termination trn mt Context. MEGACO c th c dng to Context v sa i cc gi tr tham s ca Context ang tn ti.MEGACO c cc lnh thm Termination vo Context, b Termination ra khi Context v di chuyn Termination gia cc Context.Context b xa hon ton khi Termianation cn li sau cng b xa b hoc di chuyn khi context. Cc thuc tnh ca Context: ContextID: gi tr duy nht trong mi MG Topology: m t cc lung truyn thng gia cc Termination v ng vo ra ca MG Priority: u tin, u tin cho lu lng trong MG khi c nhiu Context phi c iu khin ng thi Gi khn cp: cung cp kh nng iu khin u tin cho cuc gi khn cp

16.4 Mt s lnh trong MEGACO/H.248


Bng 16-1Mt s lnh trong giao th c MEGACO

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IP Multimedia Subsystem 16.5 Hot ng ca MEGACO/H.248

Hnh 16-4Lu ng giao th c c a MEGACO/H248 Qu trnh hot ng ca lung giao thc MEGACO/H.248 nh sau: Bc 1: MGC gi bn tin Modify n MG A v MG B yu cu Termination pht hin nhc my. Bc 2: Lnh Modify c cng nhn Bc 3: GW A pht hin s nhc my v gi cho MGC. Bc 4: Xc nhn vic nhc my Bc 5: MGC ghi nhn s kin v gi bn tin n MG xc nhn s kin ny. 115

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Bc 6, 7: GW A tch ly cc ch s c quay t ngi dng v gi cc s ny n MGC trong lnh Notify. Bc 8: MGC cng nhn vic nhn cc ch s. Bc 9: MGC quyt nh chui s ng v to cuc gi. N gi lnh Add n MGA to Context. Bc 10: GW A tr li MGC v t tn Context, nh b nhn dng Termination RTP (RTP/ID). Bc 11: da vo thng tin nhn c t GWA, MGC gi lnh Add cha thng tin v s bn gi, b m ha, n GWB. Bc 12: GWB tr li li lnh Add vi mt Context mi gi n MGC Bc 14: MGC dng lnh Modify yu cu chung. Bn tin cng yu cu GWA tm kim s nhc my. Bc 15: User B nhc my, cuc gi c thit lp, RTP Streaming c truyn 2 chiu t A sang B. Bc 16: Khi mt trong 2 bn gc my ( y v d l bn A), bn tin Modify yu cu kt thc cuc gi c gi n MGC Bc 17: MGC nhn c yu cu v gi bn tin Rely p ng Bc 18, 19: Lnh Subtract c gi t MGC n 2 GW yu cu hy kt ni (hy Termination t mt Context). Sau khi nhn c bn tin Rely t 2 Gateway th kt thc hon ton mt phin gi.

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Phn VII: Tng kt


Vi ni dung a ra l tm hiu kin trc IMS trn nn mng NGN, bi tm hiu ny a ra c kin trc tng qut nht ca mt phn h IMS theo tiu chun ca t chc 3GPP. Bi vit cng l gii vai tr, nhim v, chc nng ca cc thnh phn, giao din, v mt s th tc thc hin trong phn h IMS.Hn na, bi tm hiu cn trnh by cc giao thc truyn thng s dng trong phn h ny, c bit l giao thc SIP.y l giao thc c 3GPP chn l giao thc bo hiu chnh trong mng li IMS. IMS l mt ti ang c s quan tm tm hiu ca cc t chc chun ha vin thng v cc cng ty in t tin hc. Phn h IMS s l mt xu hng pht trin tt yu ca nn vin thng trong nc ni ring v trn th gii ni chung. Xy dng thnh cng h thng ny s mang li li ch ln cho c nh khai thc mng v ngi dng. Trong phm vi bi tm hiu ny, chng ti ch a ra ci nhn tng qut nht v phng thc hot ng ca IMS trn nn mng NGN. Chng ti s tip tc pht trin bi tm hiu ny thnh mt ti hon chnh km theo sn phm l mt m hnh lab c tnh ng dng cao.

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Ti liu tham kho


1. The IMS: IP Multimedia Concepts and Services, Second Edition Miikka Poikselk, Georg Mayer Hisham Khartabil and Aki Niemi 2006 John Wiley & Sons 2. 3. 4. 3GPP TS 23.228 v9.0.0 (06/2009): IP Multimedia Subsystem 3GPP TS 23.002 V9.1.0 (2009-09): Network Architecture Performance of Signalling Compression in the Third Generation Mobile Network,

Jouni Menp, 7.6.2005 5. 6. 7. IMS over NGN, Nguyn Vn Qun, D2001VT RFC 3261: "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol" 3GPP TS 29. 229: "Cx and Dx Interfaces based on the Diameter protocol, Protocol

details". 8. IMS AAA Server Administration Guide, Juniper Networks SRC-AAA Engine,

Release 1.0, December 2007 9. 10. Tch hp mng di ng v c nh theo hng NGN, Trn Trung Hiu 3GPP TS 29. 228: "IP Multimedia (IM) Subsystem Cx and Dx Interfaces,

Signalling flows and message contents" 11. 12. 13. RFC 2543: SIP: Session Initial Protocol RFC 3588: Diameter Base Protocol UMTS Networks Architecture, Mobility and Services, Second Edition, Heikki

Kaaranen Oy Aqua Records Ltd, Finland, Ari Ahtiainen Nokia Research Center, Finland, Lauri Laitinen Nokia Research Center, Finland, Siama k Naghian Nokia Networks, Finland, Valtteri Niemi Nokia Research Center, Finland, John Wiley & Sons Ltd

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14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Giao thc H.248, Trung tm ng dng cng ngh mi - Vin KHKT Bu in http://www.itu.int/ net/home/index.aspx http://www.3gpp.org http://www.3gpp2.org http://www.ietf.org http://www.imsforum.org http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GPRS

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