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Bolt Manufacture: Process Selection

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ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

How would you make a bolt?

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Questions you might ask in response:


Make it out of what (material)? ( ) Make how many (volume)? (quality, y, tolerance)? ) Make it how well (q Make how fast (rate or time)? Make it how cheaply (cost)? Make it how large (size, dimensions)? Make it for what (function)?

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Possible Manufacturing g Methods for Metal Bolts


Casting C ti Powder processing Rolling / Heading Machining Welding head to threads R id prototyping Rapid t t i

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Casting
Sand Shell Expendable mold Plaster Ceramic Investment Slush Pressure Die Centrifugal Squeeze Semi-solid g crystal y Single Directional solidification

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Sand Casting
Risers Sprue Gate Parting Line Drag Casting

Cope

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Powder Processing
Cold compaction p and sintering g
Pressing Rolling g Extrusion Injection molding Isostatic pressing

Hot Isostatic Pressing

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Powder Pressing g and Sintering g


Punch

Die

Part

Punch

Dual action press


ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 8

Cold Isostatic Pressing

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

Hot Isostatic Pressing

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Rolling / Heading
Roll the threads Upset forge g the head

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Thread Rolling g Machine

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Thread Rolling g Die

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Heading Process
Punch Blank

Kickout pin

Die

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Forge g for Heading g

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Machining
Cut threads on a lathe from hexagonal stock

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Weld Head to Threads


Threads :
rolled ll d machined

Head:
cut from barstock

Welding:
arc oxyacetylene y y
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 17

Rapid Prototyping - Powder Processing


Direct fabrication from a CAD file Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) 3-D 3DP Printing i ti Light Engineered Net Shaping (LENS)
ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009 18

Layered y Manufacturing g
Mirror Layered Object Laser

Vat Platform

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Selective Laser Sintering g


(3D Systems)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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3D Printing Process (Soligen)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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3D Printing Head (Soligen)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Light Engineered Net Shaping (1)


(S di N (Sandia National ti lL Lab) b)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Light Engineered Net Shaping (2)


(Sandia National Lab)
Laser Powder delivery tube

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Light Engineered Net Shaping Parts


(Sandia National Lab)

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Organize Processes
Casting Powder
Compaction Rapid Prototyping

Deformation D f ti Machining

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Material Properties Limits


Process Casting P d Powder Effect on thread strength Brittle, due to grain structure Can be C b b brittle ittl due d to t sintering process (voids, incomplete fusion) Good strength strength, due to cold working and grain deformation Reduced educed due to s sharp ap corners, and cutting through grains

Deformation

Machining ac g

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Problems due to grain structure


Cast objects j have g grains that grow together. Cast objects are not cold worked worked. Therefore, Th f fracture f t can occur along grain boundaries more easily. il

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Si t i P Sintering Problems bl
Voids Incomplete fusion

vs.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Grain Deformation vs vs. Cutting (rolling vs. machining)

Rolled

Machined

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Mass Production
Process Casting Powder D f Deformation i Machining g Mass Production Yes Yes for compaction; No for Rapid Prototyping Y Yes Yes

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Cost
Process Casting Powder D f Deformation ti Machining g Cost Low Can be high; especially rapid prototyping L Low Low

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Flexibility
Process Casting Powder Deformation Machining Flexibility Low High for Rapid Prototyping Low High

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Tolerance
Process Casting Powder D f Deformation i Machining g Tolerance Low Good G d Good High g

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Which process to pick?


Normal sized bolts, mass produced, d d good d strength: t th Rolling and heading Small bolts, mass produced: Machining on screw machine Large bolts, small numbers: M hi i Machining

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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Summary
Choice depends on what you are trying to accomplish. Choosing Ch i i is not t a simple i l t task. k Lots of thought and calculations are needed.

ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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ME 6222: Manufacturing Processes and Systems Prof. J.S. Colton GIT 2009

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