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What is Maintainability ?
The U.S. Department of Defense publication, MIL-HDBK-470A, dated 4 August 1997, “The ability of an item to be retained in, or restored to, a specified condition when maintenance is performed by personnel having specified skill levels, using prescribed procedures and resources, at each prescribed level of maintenance and repair” Wikipedia (for telecommunications) • “A characteristic of design and installation, expressed as the probability that an item will be retained or restored to a specified condition within a given period of time, when maintenance is performed in accordance with prescribed procedures and resources. • The ease with which maintenance of a functional unit can be performed in accordance with prescribed requirements.”

Time of Failure
Run- Preparation down and/or delay Active Maintenance time Waiting and Ramp/or delay up





Maintainability is About …
• Design • Leadership • Skill • Logistic • Communication • Location / Space • Technology • Work Process • Policy • Work Scope

Maintainability Metrics
Mean Time to Repair (MTTR) The arithmetic average of the maintenance cycle times for the individual maintenance actions of a system (excludes preventive maintenance) The mean or average time that a system is not operational due to repair or preventive maintenance. This includes logistics and administrative delays.

Mean Down Time (MDT)


Planning and Scheduling

Total Maintenance Cost Ratio
Planned Maintenance Unplanned Maintenance Breakdown Maintenance Minimum Cost 1.5 Times Minimum Cost 3-9 Times Minimum Cost

You can hear unplanned maintenance by listening to craftspeople …  Who’s available ?  Where’s the parts?  How did they do it last time ?  Where’s the lock-out?  How late is the order now ?

Planning and Scheduling improve Productivity
13% Personal 10% Clerical 15% Waiting for Jobs 22% Travel time and Stores 10% Waiting for Instructions 30% Production Work

Reduce by 30%

Before Controlled Maintenance

50% Production Work

60% Increase in Productivity

After Controlled Maintenance


Planning and Scheduling
A poll of planner/schedulers taken over a 10 year period indicated the following breakdown of an average workday
Planning and Estimating Jobs Scheduling Purchasing and Expediting Parts Other Duties 20-30% 15-25% 20-30% 25-35%


•Inspection •Predictive •Preventive •CBM •Corrective •Lubrication •Repair

Work identification

Requisition Specify Equipment Control Equipment Arrangement Bills of Material

Work Planning



Work Assignment

Receiving Report


Control Repairables

Work Execution

Delivery of Materials to Specific Drop site


Work Analysis




Work Scheduling


is the allocation of needed resources and the sequence in which they are needed, to allow an essential activity to be performed in the shortest time or at the least cost. Purpose To ensure that all the resources and information necessary to do the job are accounted for

Failing to Plan = Planning to Fail


• • • • • • Labor & Crew Size & Skill Materials , Parts & Supplies Tools Support Equipment Contracted (Outside) Services Time


What does a job plan contain ?


Work Planning
• A Process in which work is
– Estimated – Assigned resources – Given detailed safety procedures – Given work procedures – Documented and interfaced with the scheduling element


Planning and Estimating Methods
• • • • Construction Planning and Estimating Method Time Measurement Planning Thought Process Estimates Based on Past Performance


Planning Thought Process
Inspect the equipment and site What must happen first on this job ? Who must do this step ? What must happen next on this job ? What safety /environmental precaution are required ? What Parts , Material , or Supplies will be needed ?

How many people are required ?

How long will it take ?

Is any support equipment required ?


Estimating using past performance
• Problem • Completed hours charged to historical records may be inaccurate • History records may not document all parts used on the job • History records do not capture other resources • Historical record may not capture outside services • Closure notes on historical records do not clarify actual work performed

Improving the History Record
• • • • Write WO for all maintenance activities Charge parts and materials to WO only Charge outside services to a WO Provide a means to capture undocumented resources • Enlist meaningful comments on the work performed • Use WO to update equipment database information

Standard Job Plan

A Planner should never have to plan the same job twice


• Is the assignment of many planned jobs into a defined period of time in order to optimize the use of the resources within their constraints • placing an identified need for work on a formal work list at least two days prior to the day that the work is to begin
A Backlog of work is required


Resource Constraints
• • • • • • Fixed Amount of Labor Limited or Special Skills Space Physical Properties Rules and Regulations Money


• Can be based on a work order backlog of jobs that are not linked to each other but have different importance (entity criticality , WO priority and WO class) • Can be based on activities or work orders from a project , turnaround or shutdown where job importance and the timing of when they are done in relation to each other is critical

The Criteria utilized
• Work group net capacity / Calendar • Work order priority and cycle time of the work order • Opportunities of an equipment shutdown +


Priority System
The Drawbacks of not Clearly Defining Priorities • Wasted maintenance man-hours on tasks of low relative importance • Critical tasks being lost in maintenance backlog • Dissatisfied operations customers • Lack of faith in the effectiveness of the maintenance delivery functions



• A Schedule is a communication document
– Operation – Store – Supervisor – Contractors


To Schedule Work
• Identify Preventive maintenance and corrective backlog by: – Equipment – Priority – Due Date • Determine Availability of skills and resources • Look at production’s equipment operating Schedules for the period and attempt to match their plan • Balance the work list against the resources – (both internal & external) • Agree to schedule with operations , modify as required prior to issue to the work shop

Weekly Schedule
Developed at the weekly scheduling meeting

Input from
– Maintenance first-line supervision – Scheduler – Planner – Maintenance Manager – Operations Representatives Provide maintenance supervision with work orders The work orders selected are based on cycle time and priority

Schedule Development
• Planner/Scheduler distributes backlog
– Operations reviews list – picks work – Maintenance reviews list picks work

• • • •

Engineering provides list of work required Maintenance provides craft availability Planner triggers PM’s List returned to Planner/Scheduler with selection

• Planner/Scheduler builds tentative schedule
– PM’s due – Operations’ picks – Maintenance picks – Engineering requirements

• Planner/Scheduler adds activities from backlog until craft availability is full
– Highest priority – oldest cycle time

• Reviewed and agreed to at weekly meeting (Friday Afternoon)

Weekly Schedules


Daily Schedule
• Built by maintenance first-line supervisors • Uses the work orders identified on the weekly schedule • Includes assigned crafts personnel • Urgent work orders placed on schedule for the following day


Daily schedule review meeting
10 minute meeting held daily in the afternoon Attended by – Maintenance first line supervision – Maintenance scheduler – Engineering Review the status of the work scheduled for that day Review the work scheduled for the following day Insert any urgent work requests that ready for scheduling

• Fixed agenda
– Safety issues – Past 24 hours – Next 24 hours – including any urgent work added

• All problem solving off-line


Daily Schedules


Contractors are generally brought in for maintenance on 3 occasions – Special skills are required that are not represented in the normal maintenance work force. – The maintenance backlog is excessive and critical work is not being completed on time. Contractors are used to work the backlog down – A unique situation (Shutdown or turnaround) requires crewing levels far above the facility maintenance work force.


Best Practice
There is a well defined , comprehensive schedule of maintenance activities for all areas of the facility • Compliance to Pm/PdM schedule is > 95% • Overall schedule compliance is >90% • A minimum of 45% of available personnel are scheduled for planned • 80% of available manpower is scheduled on a weekly basis

• Weekly meetings for creating the upcoming week’s work schedule • All meetings attended by Maintenance , Operations and Engineering department representatives for the area. • 100% available manpower is scheduled on a daily basis • Daily schedule review meeting held to confirm upcoming day’s work


Performance Measurement
Indicator Backlog Planned & Schedule Compliance % Emergency Work Overtime Formula Backlog hours Hours in a work week x No. of Available Craftspeople Schedule hours actually worked Total Hours Scheduled Total Emergency worked (hours) Total hours worked Total overtime worked (hours) Total hours worked


Key Roles and Relationships • Planner = what to do • Scheduler = when to do it • Supervisor = who to do it • Craftsperson = How to do it