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The Jangir World Times (JWT): A few words about you, your early life and career?

Shmshad Ahmad: I was born in Maler Kotla, a Muslim princely state in East Punjab and after partition my family migrated to Pakistan. I grew up in Lahore, and was educated at Government College, Lahore where I did my B.A (Honours) in 1960 securing first position in the University and Masters in Political Science from the University of Punjab in 1962 again with singular distinction. I started my public service career as a lecturer in the same institution till 1964 teaching postgraduate classes in political science and international relations.

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Shamshad Ahmad, Pakistan's former foreign secretary and veteran diplomat, is now a leading political analyst, who through his writings and lectures frequently expresses his views about the problems and challenges facing our country. In a recent interview with the Jahangirs World Times he expressed his observations and views on Pakistan's foreign policy and relations with foreign world.

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Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Foreign Policy Special

Peace Loving Country Determined to Live at Peace with Itself and with the Rest of the World

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My vision for Pakistan is to Make it Strong and a Responsible,

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Jahangir World Times Published: January, 2012

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CSSForum.com.pk Content Copyright jWorldTimes.com

Actually, there are many misconceptions about foreign policy making in Pakistan. We often misunderstand the realities of foreign policy, and tend to overplay the role of military or so-called 'establishment in its formulation and execution. Foreign policy of every country is inextricably linked to its national security, and no foreign policy is complete without the involvement of its national security agencies' input. For example, in our case, on issues of national security, our GHQ and intelligence agencies have an indispensable role. This is the case with every country. Even in

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JWT: Who determines the Foreign Policy of Pakistan the GHQ, the presidency or the United States? S A: Actually, foreign policy of a country is always predicated on where it wants to go as an independent and sovereign stare.Individuals are not important as far as the making of foreign policy is concerned. In fact, foreign policy is not a manuscript with a set of written points; it is the sum total of a country's values that must guide its conduct in the comity of nations and also represents a set of political, economic and strategic goals that a country seeks to pursue, bilaterally or multilaterally, in its relations with other countries of the world.

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As Secretary General of the Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO), I was instrumental in its transformation from a trilateral entity (Iran, Pakistan and Turkey) into a large 10-mmber regional cooperation organization with the induction of seven new members (Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmen-istan, and Uzbekistan, and developed several regional cooperation plans and projects including ECO Trade & Development Bank, ECO Reinsurance Company, ECO Shipping Company, ECO Air, ECO Science Foundation, and ECO Cultural Institute, as well as conclusion of two regional agreements, one on transit trade and the other on simplification of visa procedure for businessmen of ECO countries. I played key role in development of regional infrastructure plans to link member states with each other and with the outside world, including the Quetta Plan of Action and the Almaty Plan of Action.

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After South Asia's overt nuclearization in May 1998, I had an eight- round dialogue with my US counterpart, Strobe Talbott on 'nuclear restraint and stabilization' in South Asia. During my tenure as Ambassador to the UN, I co-chaired UN's Prep Com on Financing for Development (Ffd) and UN General Assembly's Working Group on Conflict Resolution and Sustainable Development in Africa (2000-2002).

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I was Pakistan's Foreign Secretary (1997-2000). In this capacity, I played a key role in stabilization of the regional situation by negotiating in June 1997 an India-Pakistan peace process familiarly known as 'Composite Dialogue.' I was also associated with the finalization of the Lahore Declaration (February, 1999) on the occasion of the India-Pakistan Lahore Summit on improving India-Pakistan relations and on mutual CBMs in areas of peace and security.

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I joined Pakistan Foreign Service in 1965 through the All-Pakistan Civil services Examination. At professional level, I served in various posts at headquarters in Islamabad as well as in Pakistan Missions at Tehran, Dakar, Paris, Washington, and New York. (1967-1987). My ambassadorial assignments included as Pakistan's Ambassador to South Korea (1987-1990), to Iran (1990-1992), as Secretary-General, Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) (1992-1996), and as Pakistan's Ambassador and Permanent Representative to the UN (2000-2002).

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As a student I was actively involved in the College debating team and won several individual prizes and trophies in inter-collegiate and inter-university contests. I am also recipient of Rolls of Honour for academic distinctions and for services to the College Union as President, and as a member of the College debating teams. I was elected President of Government College Students Union in 1961-62.

the United States, their State department cannot operate without the support of their intelligence network. JWT: What is your impression about the Foreign Policy of Pakistan since the beginning till today? S A: When we became independent in 1947, we were a house divided not against itself but by more than 1000 miles of hostile India's territory. The world itself was divided in two rival and mutually hostile blocs presenting our foreign policy with a difficult choice; either align with the free world represented at that time by Western democracies or accept subservience to the authoritarian and monolithic Communist system. We were also confronted with the stark reality of our geo-political environment that made Pakistan's relations with India the centre-point of our foreign policy. This equation, with all its ramifications, has had a fundamental impact on our domestic matters, on our security policy, on our international relations, and indeed, on the course of our entire post-independence history. In June 1949, our acceptance of Stalin's invitation to our prime minister to visit Moscow was quickly matched with a similar invitation for Liaquat Ali Khan to visit Washington. We immediately got sucked into the cold war struggle, and thanks to the old imperial connections at the civilmilitary official level, Liaquat Ali Khan set aside the invitation to visit Moscow and chose instead to go to Washington in May 1950. What followed that fateful decision is history. In the early 50s, with growing concern about India's designs against our independence, we entered into a mutual defense agreement with the US (1954) and by 1955 we had joined two major Western alliances, SEATO and CENTO in the hope that they will provide strength to us in our quest for survival. This is how we started our long association with the free world in pursuit of what we thought were common goals and shared values. This policy decision did not emanate from any institutional process. A personalized approach by the then prime minister with the support of pro-American civil-military establishment in Pakistan led by Ghulam Mohammad laid the foundation of Pakistan's policy of long association with the free world. This was no doubt a clear expression of our choice for freedom and for security. Our experience, however, did not match our expectations. The reason is, when it came to defending ourselves against India in 1965 and then again in 1971, we were left all alone, and in the process lost half the country. That was the worst that could happen to any independent country in contemporary history. In the early 50s, with growing concern about India's designs against our independence, we entered into a mutual defense agreement with the US (1954) and by 1955 we had joined two major Western alliances, SEATO and CENTO in the hope that they will provide strength to us in our quest for survival. This is how we started our long association with the free world in pursuit of what we thought were common goals and shared values. Following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979, Pakistan again became a key ally of the US and also the front-line state in the last and decisive battle of the Cold War which hastened the collapse of the Soviet Union and its symbol the Berlin Wall. Once the war was over and the Soviets pulled out, the US just walked away, leaving Afghanistan and its people at the mercy of their fate. We were also left in the lurch, with a painful legacy in terms of a massive refugee influx and a culture of drugs and guns, commonly known as the "Kalashnikov" culture, which has almost torn apart our social and political fabric. Furthermore, the events of 9/11 represented a critical threshold in Pakistan's foreign policy. Gen Musharraf was among the first foreign leaders to have received a clarion call from Washington. "You're either with us or against us," was the message. Pakistan faced the worst dilemma of its life.

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In fact, the UN Secretary General's reform panel proposed two alternatives in this context both of which sought to expand the membership of the Security Council from fifteen to twenty four. One which involves six new permanent members without veto and three new non-permanent members, and the other one suggests eight new four-year-term renewable seats. However, a deadlock situation now prevails with a large number of UN member-states (including Pakistan) opposing any expansion in the permanent category while calling for increase only in non-permanent seats.

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JWT: What would you say on the issue of reforms in the security council of United Nations? S A: Well, the reform of Security Council is a complex issue and has been the subject of protracted discussions at the UN for over a decade. Now actually, the vast majority of the UN members would like to see the Security Council democratized through comprehensive reform encompassing its enlargement, process of decision-making including the question of the veto and the working methods of the council.

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From any standard in world diplomacy, we fought an unusual and a very difficult diplomatic war trying to convince the world that there will be eruption of more Kargils if the Kashmir dispute was not urgently addressed through a just and fair settlement. I think, in the ultimate analysis, we played an appropriate role in defusing the situation, and averting the risk of a larger conflict. A perception that the military victory was turned into a diplomatic defeat by ineffective diplomacy was only a distortion of the realities and represented the mindset that is devoid of any strategic thinking and thrives on finding scapegoats.

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JWT: What was the role of the Foreign office during Kargil crisis? S A: I think, no Foreign Office in the world had a more challenging task to perform during that critical time. We did our utmost on the diplomatic front to counter the adverse reaction from the world community. The world saw it as a Pakistan-sponsored act of deliberate intrusion of the internationally acknowledged line of control. Major Powers, blamed us for the intrusion and were getting restless over the prospect of a wider conflict in a nuclear environment. It was no longer an India-Pakistan affair. The major powers were worried and asked us to back off.

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Thus, the sum-total of Pakistan's post-9/11 foreign policy is its new identity on the global radar screen as the hotbed of religious. extremism and terrorism, and its frontline role as the ground zero of the war on terror, which has not only made it the focus of world attention and anxiety but also forced it to make difficult choices in its perennial struggle for security and survival as an independent state.

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It is obvious that Pakistan's post-9/11 turnaround was not the result of any considered institutional policy review. There was no parliament in place at that time. There were no consultations at any level, nor did the military government make any visible effort to build a political or quasi-political consensus on abandoning its policy which for more than two decades had constituted the mainstay of its strategic end-game in the region.

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It did not know which way to go, and which way not to. Its options were limited and bleak. Since then, Pakistan is once again a frontline state, and a pivotal partner of the United States in its war on terror. As a battleground of this war, Pakistan could not escape the fall out of the crisis in the form of a heavy toll on its already volatile socio-economic environment.

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My vision of the future of Pakistan is one in which democracy, not dictatorship will endure. My vision for Pakistan is to make it strong and a responsible, peace loving country determined to live at peace with itself and with the rest of the world. No wars, no militancy under any name or on any pretext. We need a Pakistan in which economic growth and social justice reinforce each other, a Pakistan where hunger, disease, illiteracy, violence, obscurantism, crime and corruption are banished for ever. Governance in the new Pakistan must be based on institutionalised decision-making, rule of law,

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In the ultimate analysis, our problems are not external. Our problems are domestic. Our foremost priority is to fix the fundamentals of our state. The country must return to genuine democracy rooted in the will of the people and based on constitutional supremacy, independence of judiciary, and the rule of law. We need a Pakistan in which economic growth and social justice reinforce each other, a Pakistan where hunger, disease, illiteracy, violence, obscurantism, crime and corruption are banished for ever. JWT: Finally, we often hear you speak of the need to remake Pakistan. What is your vision of a new Pakistan? S A: My vision of a new Pakistan is one the Quaid-e-Azam had envisioned for us, a Pakistan where strict adherence to the Constitution shall be ensured as a solemn 'social contract' enabling the citizens of Pakistan to live their lives and raise their children in dignity, free from fear, want, hunger, disease, illiteracy, corruption, violence, oppression and injustice.

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But like the rest of the civil bureaucracy, the Foreign office too was sucked into the policy vacuum. It was a pity because it did have, and continues to have, outstanding professionals, and yet it became a faint voice in a political landscape crowded by personalities running autonomous and maverick foreign policy establishments sanctioned or unrestrained by politically weak governments.

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However, the Foreign Office on its part has been making its own professional contributions as an input in policy-formulation. It has also been providing the requisite professional expertise and diplomatic skills in its execution. In my view, our conventional diplomacy functioned well in the stable international environment and a period of relative internal calm and economic certainty but the world has changed and so have we.

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Furthermore, on vital aspects of these issues, policy-formulation and management has by and large remained the concern of those who wield military power in the country. In many cases, noninstitutional processes bypassing elected leaders and bodies were instrumental in laying down policies that did not stand the test of time, and had to be re-adjusted or reversed altogether. History alone will judge why and how we adopted those policies.

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JWT: To which extent complex equation of Civil-Military relations affects foreign policy of Pakistan. S A: Well, for much of our history, Pakistan's foreign policy agenda has been shaped by a civilmilitary complex of power reflecting the preferences and interests of our ruling elite and special interest groups. The balance of power between the civil and military bureaucracy kept changing but it was they who invariably controlled our policies on such crucial issues as relations with India, China, US, the Gulf States and the nuclear issue.

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The present five permanent members known as P-5, with the exception of China, are not opposed to the creation of new permanent seats but are not ready to share their veto power.

The country must return to genuine democracy rooted in the will of the people and based on constitutional supremacy, independence of judiciary, and the rule of law.

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Also, our political parties need to be remade through mandatory democratization involving intraparty elections by secret ballot and elimination of hereditary succession of leadership, strict adherence to their constitutions and programs as well as observance of party discipline, codes of conduct, ethical standards and integrity.

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No piece of land in any part of the country shall be gifted or leased for any purpose to foreign rulers and countries. The sanctity of Pakistan's territorial integrity shall be observed with no relaxation or exemption. No more Shamsi Bases.

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Governance of the country needs to be based on institutinalised decision-making, rule of law, justice, equality and property rights for all .There shall be zero tolerance for militancy under any name or on any pretext.

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We need many more sweeping changes in our privilege-based culture. Lavish spending in civil and military establishments must be curbed. The system of provision of official transport (vehicles of any type) at government expense to public officials at all levels and parliamentarians to be abolished by monetizing the facility in appropriate terms. The system of staff cars shall be rationalized to prevent abuse of this facility.

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We also need restructuring of the federal system and basic changes in the country's administrative infrastructure ensuring provincial harmony through redressal of systemic aberrations and removal of the underlying causes of injustice and inequality in terms of economic resources and political power.

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We, like most developing countries, are not fit for a parliamentary system. Britain struggled for centuries to reach its current parliamentary status. For us, it would be too long and too arduous a journey to be in definitely chasing illusory goals. Temperamentally, we are a 'presidential' nation. It is time we abandoned the system that we have never been able to practice, and explored an adult franchise-based 'presidential system' suitably designed for and tailored to Pakistan's needs.

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justice, equality and property rights for all without regard to an individual's family background, religious beliefs, official position or economic status; and safeguarding of contracts, economic transactions and property rights.

No one with foreign or dual nationality shall be eligible to hold elected or non-elected public office in Pakistan or seek election to elected assemblies and local councils or be appointed in the civil and military services of the country. Gender equality and empowerment of women as well as employment opportunities for the country's youth will be promoted as an essential means of combating poverty and stimulating sustainable development. Adeel Niaz

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Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Americans gathered the courage to indulge in such an activity due to the timidity shown by our Government over and over again. Has the evil been nipped in the bud when first such incident occurred, there would not have been any repetitions.

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Attack on Slalah Post: The 26/11 of Pakistan

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Self-reliance, simplicity and austerity should be the cardinal principles. Loans are not capital; they are a liability. We must stop depending on this liability as a matter of state policy.

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National priorities must be rationalised and reordered to focus on socio-economic wellbeing of the people through sustainable economic growth and poverty eradication as well as maximum allocation of resources to the social sector including health, education and basic infrastructures.

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It was a calculated attack. Well thought out about the consequences. NATO has the best possible war technology available. They did not come to support the Pakistan Army unit when militants attacked. They attacked Slalah by passing the wrong information to Pakistan Army. The place indicated was 15 miles away from Slalah Post. Such mistakes do not occur in the presence of the precision guided munitions and the latest GPRS technology where the single hit probability is guaranteed. This attack was in fact to open the route for their cronies and help them to create disturbance and distraught in Pakistan area and at the same time pave the way for its own forces to have a reason to go out of Afghanistan. Chronology of events as thought out before the attack must have been:1. Pakistan would retaliate to the attack which Pakistan did. 2. Pakistan would block the routes of supply and Pakistan did. 3. This would give reason to bring in India in Afghanistan and hand over the control of events.

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Slalah is occupied by Pakistan Army's regular troops. All those in knowledge of military deployment, know that regular troops are deployed on the posts of significance. Mere fact that army infantry battalion deployed there, indicated the importance of area. Presence of infantry blocked the route of militants or, in other words, the American paid mercenaries. It is, therefore, one of the main reasons of attack to remove the thorn from the foot.

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Geographically this post is in Mohmand Agency. Right across the border is the Kunar Valley. It is the same area where Hikmat Yar inflicted heavy causalities on the Russian Army. Difference this time is that Americans and its allies are occupying the vantage points. It is the place where Molvi Fazalullah and Molvi Faqir Muhammad along with their bunch of bandits are living. It is from this area that they infiltrate into Pakistan and carry out their nefarious activities in Swat and Dir. A few months ago, 200-250 so called 'Taliban' attacked this post. A pitched battle ensued; miscreants retreated to the safe havens of Kunar Valley in Afghanistan, after suffering causalities. Most interesting part of this skirmish is that the NATO forces albeit the Americans kept silent about it. They did not take any action despite having information. Why?

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Was it a coincidence or was it intentional to attack the Pakistan Army post at Slalah on 26/11? Coincidents do occur but this time it was a blatant attack with intentional mischief. It may well be to appease its strategic ally, India, and send a message to its own stooge in Afghanistan. Americans gathered the courage to indulge in such an activity due to the timidity shown by our Government over and over again. Has the evil been nipped in the bud when first such incident occurred, there would not have been any repetitions. Let us analyze the reasons of this attack on Slalah Post.

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Col (R) Khawar Munir Haroon, SI (M)

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Kashmir: UN Resolutions and their Validity

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All said and done, the ground realities are against such thoughts. Americans will have to withdraw at all costs. American situation is getting worse. Any economic turmoil in Europe in near future will be catastrophic for America in itself. Year 2012 is election year in U.S. Democrats need to show strength and fulfill its promises to the nation. They cannot afford black bags anymore. Ten years in Afghanistan have not yielded the results as desired. Strategic folly committed by Bush has to be corrected forthwith. Banking on India would not yield the results either; they are in itself sitting on a volcano of around 33 active secessionist movements in their country. China has emerged as the major economic power as well as has a substantial military might. They are clear about their strategic goals and would not allow any hindrance in achieving those. The Chinese has the budget surplus of over trillions of dollars as against the American budget deficit of trillions of dollars. The miserable state of American economy is touching the dangerous levels. The dooms day scenario looms high over America. Presence of infantry blocked the route of militants or, in other words, the American paid mercenaries. It is, therefore, one of the main reasons of attack to remove the thorn from the foot. Will our so called leaders be steadfast at this moment of importance? Author, retired as Colonel from Pakistan Army, is Sitara-a-Imtiaz (Military), presently doing as Principal, Garrison Post Graduate College for Men, Lahore.

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4. Americans and their allies would withdraw according to the time frame already planned. General Dempsey's latest uttering support it. He had said, Goals have been achieved in Afghanistan. 5. Afghanistan will remain in the state of turmoil thereby keeping the Pakistan Army deployed and engaged on the northern frontier. This will help India keep its pressure on the eastern side forcing Pakistan to a stage where, it either accepts Indian hedgemoney or some sort of subjugation to Indian designs. 6. This would also keep China at bay and access to Arabian Sea denied.

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Sunday, January 01, 2012

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The significant attempt to resolve the dispute came in the form of resolution 47 (21 April) that envisioned holding of plebiscite 'on the question of the accession of the State to India or Pakistan' after 'withdrawal of tribesmen from Kashmir' followed by withdrawal of 'bulk of Indian forces'. Moreover, it also enjoined upon Indian nationals, other than those who were normally resident in Kashmir, to withdraw as well. The obligations that it contained were reinforced by another resolution 51 that was adopted in June 1948. A Military Observer Group (UNMOGIP) was deputed to supervise the ceasefire agreement on 24 Jan 1949. The UN appointed Judge Owen Dixon of Australia as UN Administrator to discuss arrangements for the plebiscite but the Indian Government was not ready to concede authority to the UN Administrator. He tried to be creative in proposing practical solution that could achieve the holding

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The UN Security Council adopted resolutions 38 and 39 in January 1948 and a commission UN Commission on India and Pakistan (UNCIP) - was established to investigate the dispute under the mandate of article 34 of the Charter that allows the UNSC to do so in order to determine the gravity of the dispute and its volcanic potential to erupt, to exercise its (UNSC's) mediatory influence.

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On 1st January 1948, India filed a complaint with the UNSC under article 35 of the Charter. Here the interesting fact is that India, by virtue of resorting to this article, has itself established that Pakistan is a legitimate party to this dispute. According to article 35, any member of the United Nations of which it is a party, can bring into the notice of the UNSC or UNGA, any dispute that is likely to endanger international peace and security. Therefore, Indian claim that Kashmir is the integral part of India is not true on this account as well.

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Kashmir issue first gained global attention in the aftermath of fighting that erupted when the Mujahedeen and the tribesmen from Tirah and Waziristan, in order to liberate Kashmir, formed a Lashkar and entered Kashmir on 22 October, and India on the other hand ordered her forces to occupy Kashmir on the pretext of defending it on the request of its ruler.

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Foreign Policy Special

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Much has been written on the issue of Kashmir and unless this issue is resolved, as per the wishes of the people of Kashmir, peace, stability and security in the region will remain illusionary. These resolutions are as valid now as they ever were for the reason being that the right of self-determination is and never was, subject to a timeline!

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However, the claim is deficient on the following accounts:

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Firstly, the first clause (i) clearly stipulates that 'the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the two countries'. Secondly, the article 103 of the charter clearly stipulates that the commitments to the charter will supersede any other commitments between the states in case any conflict arises to that effect.

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India claims that Pakistan had committed itself to resolve all the disputes bilaterally with reference to clause (ii) which states that: The two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon

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There is no doubt that following Israel's lead, which has been brutally suppressing the right of selfdetermination of Palestinians for more or less the same period of time 64 Years India is doing the same in Kashmir. Draw an analogy and you will find striking resemblance between both. For instance, India has used every moment to create new facts just to legitimize its hold on Kashmir. From Shimla in 1972 to to-date, India doesn't seem to be in a mood to follow the UN resolutions. It tried to use the POWs (Prisoners of War) as a duress to pressurize Pakistan to ditch the resolutions of the UNSC and to make Pakistan to commit that both the countries would 'settle all issues between them bilaterally and exclusively by peaceful means.' "There is no doubt that following Israel's lead, which has been brutally suppressing the right of selfdetermination of Palestinians for more or less the same period of time 64 Years India is doing the same in Kashmir. Draw an analogy and you will find striking resemblance between both." Shimla agreement was the most crucial stage in which India tried to squeeze Pakistan to almost surrender its claim to the Kashmir by making it to agree that it would settle all the outstanding issues bilaterally a euphemism of not invoking the resolutions of the Security Council. However, Pakistan, to its credit, managed to checkmate Indian designs by incorporating salutary changes to the proposed text of Shimla Agreement. But it doesn't mean that it managed to escape unscathed from the agreement. It is because Pakistan was obviously in a position of disadvantage vis--vis India. Pakistan could never have accepted those terms had it been any better situation than what it was after the 1971 debacle. But India was also not entirely successful in dictating terms as were mentioned initially in the Draft Agreement.

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In 1957, the resolution 122 reaffirmed that the final solution of Kashmir would be made in accordance with the will of the people, expressed through free and impartial plebiscite and conducted under the auspices of the UN. It came in the context of India's attempt to legitimize Maharaja's accession to India through the endorsement of so-called 'Constituent Assembly' in Srinagar.

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In this resolution, a successor of Mr Dixon was appointed with a mandate to proceed to the subcontinent and to give effect to demilitarization. It also called upon both the parties to resolve their mutual disagreement through arbitration of UN Administrator.

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of plebiscite such as his suggestion to give some areas to Pakistan and some to India and to hold plebiscite in the valley of Jammu and Kashmir. However, since the stakes were too high for all the parties therefore Pakistan did not evince willingness for departing from the resolutions of the Security Council. When Mr Dixon presented his report to the UNSC, resolution 91 was adopted in 1951. Mr Dixon in his report highlighted two problems that were hampering any progress: Disagreement over the extent of demilitarization and the procedure to ensure it. And disagreement over the devolution of Government control for holding plebiscite that is free and fair.

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In the end, the bottom-line is till the time the Kashmiris are willing to offer sacrifices in the face of Indian suppression, the day is not far when they will realize their dream of getting independence and the outcome will be not much different as promised by the UNSC resolutions. I would like to mention an episode of exchange of views between US Assistance Secretary of State, Mr Talbot and Mr Zafrullah in the backdrop of Mr. Kennedy's interest to resolve the dispute. Mr Talbot asked Mr Zafrullah if Pakistan would rely on the UN Security Council resolutions when India was of the view that implementation of those resolutions was not feasible as a lot of time had elapsed. Mr Zafrullah replied, is the right of self-determination subject to a time limit?' Waleed Farooq

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A deep analysis will show that application of these resolutions depend upon the political and economic changes that are shaping our world. The reason is simple: UNSC is a Political body and the decisions take place through active political lobbying; use of right to Veto also needs to be considered. The hard fact is that National interest dictates the policy options and not stilted moral principles. The members of the Security Council both permanent and non-permanent have their own interests and with the growing importance of India in region in the light of current socioeconomic and political changes that are defining the region such as rise of China and its containment through India, the Kashmir issue is being viewed in the light of vested interests and not on its merit. Moreover, Pakistan the staunch supporter of the Kashmir struggle is also mired in deep internal and external problems.

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At present, if we analyze the Kashmir issue in the light of UN resolutions, no one could disagree that the UNSC resolutions are not applicable as they were in 1950s. However, with the passage of time and with the socio-politico and economic changes in the entire globe in general and in the region in particularly, a question arises if the UNSC resolutions, which were under Chapter 6 of the Charter that is they cannot be enforced will ever be able to see their implementation as envisioned by their framers?

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Thirdly, in practice too, Pakistan never demonstrated that resorting to any international organization for resolving its differences with India was debarred by Shimla Agreement. For instance, Pakistan filed a complaint against India for not releasing its POWs in ICJ and Shimla Agreement did not debar the admission of that petition.

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

The Quran is loud in its conde-mnation of Jews and narrates numerous episodes of their repeated disobedience and colossal crimes, which robbed them of their prestigious status in the world and invited perpetual Divine Curse for them. The sinful past of the Jews has been permanently preserved in the Quran to serve as a reminder for us that if we too indulged in such malpractices, we would also deserve severest penalty. Had we ever studied the Quran from this particular angle, our eyes would surely have been opened to the grim and shameful reality that our own actions are by no means better than those of the accursed Jews. In fact, in many cases, we have surpassed them in sin and transgression. Let us go through some of the Quranic verses critical of Jews and apply them to our own state of affairs. But it is ironical that religion which is said to be the basis of this state, has now become a source of

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When nations are on the verge of extinction, among the many things they are deprived of, is the capability of honestly assessing the real causes of their decline and deterioration. Considering themselves to be perfect and flawless, blind to their own faults and weaknesses, they are always found blaming others. Same is the case with us, who are boiling with the Anti-Jewish sentiments, but never bother to undertake an objective analysis of our present miserable plight.

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It has become a common practice throughout the Muslim world that whenever some unpleasant or undesirable incident takes place, it is at once described as a part of the sinister global Jewish conspiracy, sponsored by Israel and backed by its staunchest ally: the United States. On all such occasions, violent crowds of infuriated Muslims take to the streets, chanting Death to Israel! and Death to America! and hurling abuses and curses on the Jews, holding them responsible for all their woes and sorrows, sufferings and ordeals.

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When nations are on the verge of extinction, among the many things they are deprived of, is the capability of honestly assessing the real causes of their decline and deterioration. Considering themselves to be perfect and flawless, blind to their own faults and weaknesses, they are always found blaming others.

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Are We Really Better than the Jews?

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If Jews were the worshippers of gold (a symbol of wealth), we are the worshippers of the dollar, for whose sake, we are always ready to sell our blood, our honour, our dignity, our religion, our country and even our mothers (As an American once publicly stated.)

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In the absence of Moses, the Israelites began worshipping a calf made from gold. There came to you Moses with clear (Signs); yet ye worshipped the calf (Even) after that, and ye did behave wrongfully. (Al-Baqara, 92)

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Fortunately, we cannot alter the text of the Quran, but to promote their own worldly interests, some of our so-called religious scholars make such interpretations of its verses, which have nothing to do with the spirit of the Quran and Islam. Moreover, instead of studying the Quran as a book of practical guidance, we use it for swearing, finding out the names of our children and arranging its marriage with girls, to protect the family property. The concept of such marriages was not found even among the Jews whom we hate so bitterly.

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Allah bitterly condemns the Jews for deliberately altering the text of their Scriptures and describing their own writings as the Word of God, to suit their own materialistic interests. Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say: "This is from Allah," to traffic with it for miserable price!- Woe to them for what their hands do write, and for the gain they make thereby. (Al-Baqara, 79)

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The creation of Pakistan was also a miracle, aimed at protecting the Muslim minority of India from the exploitation and persecution of the Hindu Majority. But it is ironical that religion which is said to be the basis of this state, has now become a source of the rapid growth of extremism, militancy, terrorism and bloodshed in the form of suicide attacks and bomb blasts. On account of their bitter internal rivalries and wrongdoings, the Jews were driven out of the Holy Land. In the same way, our mutual quarrels and sinful activities led to the dismemberment of our country. With half of the country already gone, one wonders for how long the remaining country can survive.

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the rapid growth of extremism, militancy, terrorism and bloodshed in the form of suicide attacks and bomb blasts. When Jews (Israelites) had under-gone immense torture and persecution at the hands of the Pharaoh, God had mercy on them; and under the leadership of Moses, they miraculously escaped from Egypt towards the Holy Land, where they were expected to lead a life of peace, piety and obedience to God. As Allah says, remember, We delivered you from the people of Pharaoh: They set you hard tasks and punishments, slaughtered your sons and let your women-folk live; therein was a tremendous trial from your Lord. And remember We divided the sea for you and saved you and drowned Pharaoh's people within your very sight. (Al-Baqara, 49-50)

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Multiple crimes and heaps of sins have hardened our hearts to such an extent that even the deadliest earthquakes, worst floods and other dreadful forms of divine punishment are unable to remove their rust and reduce their hardness. Standing on the brink of utter destruction, unrepentant and remorseless, we still believe that all is well with us and God is pleased with us. God can still shower His infinite Mercy on us, if we really make earnest endeavours to shun the path of evil, otherwise, we should be prepared for the kind of treatment which the Jews received from God, although they considered themselves to be His beloveds. Professor Abdul Rauf

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As the Jews plunged deeper into the quagmire of sin, their hearts became harder than the stones, confirming their doom and destruction. Thenceforth were your hearts hardened: They became like a rock and even worse in hardness. For among rocks there are some from which rivers gush forth; others there are which when split asunder send forth water; and others which sink for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do. (Al-Baqara, 74)

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Although the list of our heinous crimes is much longer than that of the Jews, yet we continue to believe that being the members of Prophet Muhammad's Ummah, Paradise with all its joys and comforts has been created only for us and is eager to open its doors for us as soon as we die.

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In spite of their appalling crimes and cardinal sins, Jews regarded themselves as Sons of God, who would go straight to heaven after death. They believed that if at all they went to Hell, it would be for a very short period. they say: "The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days": For their forgeries deceive them as to their own religion. (Aale Imran, 124)

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Same is the case with us, who always like to refer to only those Quranic verses and sayings of the Prophet (SAW) which can bring some worldly benefits for us. Thus, husbands like to recite only those verses which confirm their domination and superiority over their wives; and parents always like to repeat those verses which explain their rights and the duties of their children towards them. In the same way, those who go on increasing the number of their children, have only one verse in mind in which Allah has promised to provide sustenance to all the people. But they never bother to study those Islamic teachings which emphasize on proper upbringing, training and education of all the children and providing them with all the facilities of life. Despite this behaviour, they believe that the disgrace in this life and most grievous punishment on the Day of Judgment mentioned in the above quoted verse are only meant for Jews.

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The Jews had a selective approach towards religion and acted upon only those injunctions which helped them in getting some worldly benefits. Then is it only a part of the Book that ye believe in, and do ye reject the rest? but what is the reward for those among you who behave like this but disgrace in this life?- and on the Day of Judgment they shall be consigned to the most grievous penalty. For Allah is not unmindful of what ye do. (Al-Baqara, 85).

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Despite the dire punishment mentioned in the Quran for those who take usury, we are still not willing to purge our economy of this curse. Instead of promoting interest-free banking, our economic planners are compelling the common people to invest more and more money in the interest-based ventures.

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The Jews were cursed for taking usury and involving in financial corruption. That they took usury, though they were forbidden; and that they devoured men's substance wrongfully; - we have prepared for those among them who reject faith a grievous punishment. (Al-Nisa, 161)

Pak-China Strategic Partnership

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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For Pakistan, there were two key facts that necessitated its strategic partnership with China: the fragile security environment resulting from the complicated equation between Pakistan and India and the challenges posed by the support system that India managed to fetch from the major powers in the wake of Pakistan-India crisis following the partition. As the Kashmir Question arosebetween Pakistan and India, the former sought China's support to its stance on the Kashmir issue in particular.

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Although, Pakistan-China relationship was not smooth and friendly in true terms in the initial years, it was the changing regional and to some extent global security that gradually brought them closer. Despite some major dissimilarity, for instance ideological and cultural, there were a few realities such as absence of territorial or political conflict, no clash of interests and no competition which helped both to establish a strong bond. The foremost concern for establishing diplomatic ties was to seek strategic support.

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Having established their diplomatic relations in 1951, Pakistan and China have come a long way in terms of their bilateral relationship. Some critics emphasize the 'asymmetric' nature of PakistanChina relations terming it an 'odd relationship' where Pakistan has been considered on the receiving end. However, it is the mutual interests that have strengthened the equation between Pakistan and China over the years. Apparently, the two countries have developed multidimensional bond but the underlying factor in this multidimensional bilateral connection is the strategic partnership i.e., the military and defense ties.

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Despite some major dissimilarity, for instance ideological and cultural, there were a few realities such as absence of territorial or political conflict, no clash of interests and no competition which helped both to establish a strong bond. The foremost concern for establishing diplomatic ties was to seek strategic support.

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The most intriguing aspect of the assistance that Pakistan has received from China in all the years is the deep-sea port at Pakistan's naval base in Gwadar in the province of Balochistan. The port has been constructed at the apex of the Arabian Sea. The Gwadar Port translates China's long-term interests and makes it a major stakeholder in the region extending its influence to the Indian Ocean politics. The port will further enable China to gain access to the oil and gas that is regularly traded

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Source: As quoted in Lisa Curtis, 'China's Military and Security Relationship with Pakistan', 26 May 2009, http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony

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Weapons and aircrafts possessed by the Pakistan military which are transferred by China or developed through Chinese assistance include: Short-range ballistic M-11 missiles JF-17 aircraft F-22P frigates with helicopters K-8 jet trainers T-85 tanks F-7 aircraft Shaheen-1 ballistic missile

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Pakistan has a history of troubled relations with its two immediate neighbours-India and Afghanistan. There have been periodic upheavals as well in Pakistan. Keeping in view the challenges this scenario poses to Pakistan's strategic and security system, China has always been considered a security guarantor. China has not only supported Pakistan in its wars with India but also helped the country develop a strong defense mechanism. The key feature of the Pakistan-China robust strategic partnership is the technological and material assistance that China has extended to Pakistan military over the years. China is Pakistan's largest defense supplier. The two important nuclear reactors that Pakistan has at Chashma, were built with Chinese support and assistance. Regular joint military exercises have also been a prominent feature of their strategic alliance. "China has not only supported Pakistan in its wars with India but also helped the country develop a strong defense mechanism. The key feature of the Pakistan-China robust strategic partnership is the technological and material assistance that China has extended to Pakistan military over the years." China's unconditional support to Pakistan began with the conclusion of border agreement between the two countries in 1963 and the same year the two countries signed the first bilateral trade agreement. Earlier, Pakistan had voted for China's legitimate rights in the United Nations in 1961. Their relationship grew with the changing international and regional security dynamics and Pakistan and China developed an 'all weather friendship' from 1960s-1980s. Following the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the emergence of the US as the sole super power, in the early 1990s, China reportedly equipped Pakistan's military with more sophisticated weapons' technology, including missiles.

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For China, the geostrategic location of Pakistan and the foreign policy challenge in South Asia that China developed with India in early 1960s are the basis of its interests towards Pakistan. Over the years, along with other considerations, the foreign policy challenges to China have also multiplied. The regional security environment posed a number of challenges emanating from the economic and political advancement of China's immediate or peripheral neighbours. On the one hand, there are India and Russia as strategic competitors, Japan and South Korea and ASEAN (Association of South-East Asian Nations) as economic competitors and on the other hand the strategic and economic alliances between the US and India exerts constant pressure on China's foreign policy moves. China has largely pursued a policy of easing out the US from the South Asian security arena ever since the end of the cold war. To this end, Pakistan has been presented as a strategic pressure point against the US.

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through the Indian Ocean from the Persian Gulf. The strategic and defense ties have complimented with robust economic cooperation and promotion of cultural understanding between two nations. China has not only extended unrelenting support to Pakistan through its thick and thin, including the aid and assistance after the 2005 earthquake in Pakistan, but has also facilitated people-to-people contact in many ways. For instance, Urdu is being taught at one of the best universities in China-the Peking University. There has been a profound interest among Chinese people in learning Urdu language. The long-term strategic and economic partnership between Pakistan and China was further consolidated with the signing of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Good Neighbourly Relations, during the Chinese Premier's visit to Islamabad in 2005. The joint statement termed the treaty a step forward in promoting the strategic ties between China and Pakistan in future. Lately, the two countries have celebrated the 60th anniversary of their diplomatic ties in 2011. Both the countries conducted a range of joint military exercises which were evident of their continued strategic and defense partnership. From a rudimentary revolutionary communist state in 1949, China has gradually emerged as a promising economic and strategic giant in today's politics. The country is following a global agenda and has always managed to pursue a balanced foreign policy. It is in the wake of changing regional and global concerns after 9/11 that country began a rapprochement with India. China has also managed profitable economic relations with the US. The country is also sensitive to the criticism and concerns that have generated in the international community due to its unrelenting support to Pakistan, especially after 9/11. The Pakistan-China relations have undertaken changes in post-9/11 scenario, for instance from backing Pakistan in its stance on Kashmir, China now has adopted a neutral policy on Kashmir. On the other hand, the presence of US forces in South Asian region and the influence the country seems to exert in regional politics, pose even a greater challenge to Chinese foreign policy in one way or the other and for that maintaining the momentum of its longterm ties with Pakistan is still a priority foreign policy option for China. A range of agreements and joint ventures undertaken by China with Pakistan are not only a step towards further cementing their multidimensional relationship but also are the manifestation of China's inexhaustible interest in maintaining its ties with Pakistan. Nabiha Gul is Cooperative Lecturer at the Department of International Relations, University of Karachi, Karachi. Email: coldpath1@gmail.com Nabiha Gul

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you have no evidence at all that this man [Jinnah's assailant] is a member of that movement [Khaksar Tehrik]you have no evidence that he [the culprit] is a member of the movement, still less that he holds any particular position in it. [1] Justice Blagden Bombay High Court, 1943
Foreign Policy Special

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Assault on the Founder of Pakistan: The Untold Conspiracy

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Sunday, January 01, 2012

In order to understand why a conspiracy against the Khaksar Tehrik was deemed necessary, it is first important to provide some context. By the early 1940s, the Khaksar Tehrik (founded by Mashriqi in 1930 to bring freedom to British India) had become a force to be reckoned with. A private army with nearly 5 million highly disciplined members (photos of the movement can be found on Facebook under Khaksar Movement in British India), the Tehrik was the only party capable of overthrowing British rule; in fact it had already nearly toppled British rule in 1940 (until Mashriqi was arrested). Nearly three years later, following Mashriqi's release from prison and the removal of restrictions on his movements in December 1942, Mashriqi again aggressively moved to end imperial rule. Government agencies were carefully watching Mashriqi and were quite nervous about the Khaksar threat, which was apparent from the warnings they issued to Mashriqi. It was clear that Mashriqi and the Khaksars were getting close to achieving their ultimate goal. But the British Government was not the only one who felt threatened by the Khaksars' march towards freedom. If the Khaksars were the ones to obtain freedom, this would mean the demise of all other political parties, including the All-India Muslim League, which was headed by Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah; India's rule would then be in the hands of Allama Mashriqi. A conspiracy was thus hatched - in the form of an attack on Jinnah - to undermine the power of Allama Mashriqi and the Khaksar Tehrik. A number of peculiarities regarding the attack on Jinnah support the point that there was in fact a conspiracy. First, Mazangavi came to Jinnah's house in broad daylight armed

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The above narrative of the attack on Jinnah has been cited in many books and articles, with these works unequivocally claiming that Jinnah's assailant was a member of the Khaksar Tehrik. But historical papers, interviews (with Mashriqi's family, Khaksars, and others), and the political realities of the time reveal that the true nature of this assault was much different than what is reported in the literature. In fact, the truth is that the assailant had no connection with the Khaksar Tehrik, and rather had ties to Jinnah's own All-India Muslim League. But why would a former member of Jinnah's own organization attack him? And why would Jinnah be so adamant in attempting to implicate the Khaksar Tehrik? The answers to these questions reveal a deep-rooted conspiracy against the Khaksar Movement.

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On July 26, 1943, at approximately 1:30 pm, Rafiq Sabir Mazangavi arrived at Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah's (Founder of Pakistan) house in Bombay and asked to meet with him. When informed of the arrival of this stranger, Jinnah emerged from the upper story of his house and came down to meet Mazangavi. Rafiq Mazangavi proceeded to attack Jinnah, and inflicted minor injuries on his chin and hand. [2] Immediately following the incident, the assailant was alleged to be a member of the Khaksar Tehrik, a powerful movement founded by Allama Mashriqi.

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(In an interview with the Bombay Chronicle on July 28, 1943): The culprit must be brought to book, but I would appeal Qaide Azam as well as everyone in India not to give this incident the slightest political tinge for the sake of the most important things that are happening and the most immense results involved. I would have taken it as a mere accident if the thing had happened with me, and perhaps would not cared to give it to the press or even get the culprit arrested, on account of the vital issues before the country. [6]

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As regards the assailant being a Khaksar, it is unthinkable that Khaksars who spared Sir Sikandar Hayat Khan for three years after his massacre of them [Sir Sikandar's men had butchered two hundred Khaksars on March 19, 1940] and were the only organisation who attended his funeral after his death, could conspire to attack Quaid-e-Azam for whom they have the greatest reverence and respect. [5]

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In the aftermath of the incident, other details surfaced that supported that there was a conspiracy against Mashriqi. One day after the incident, the Viceroy of India (Lord Linlithgow) informed the Secretary of State for India (Lord Amery) in a secret letter (on July 27, 1943) that Jinnah was only slightly injured and that the Viceroy had at once sent him a telegram of sympathy. The Viceroy's immediate sympathy and sense of relief for Jinnah, a supposed political opponent, raised many questions regarding their working relationship behind the scenes. While the Government's exact role in a conspiracy is unclear, Jinnah's side must shoulder much of the blame, as it made deliberate, direct attempts to try to implicate Mashriqi and the Khaksars. In fact, the truth is that the assailant had no connection with the Khaksar Tehrik, and rather had ties to Jinnah's own All-India Muslim League. But why would a former member of Jinnah's own organization attack him? And why would Jinnah be so adamant in attempting to implicate the Khaksar Tehrik? The answers to these questions reveal a deep-rooted conspiracy against the Khaksar Movement. To reiterate, there was absolutely no evidence to substantiate that Mazangavi was a Khaksar. In fact, the Khaksars had met with Jinnah a mere one hour after the attack to show their support. According to the Khaksars, Jinnah was in perfect mental and physical condition and showed no signs of nervousness in meeting them (which was later communicated to Allama Mashriqi). When Allama Mashriqi first heard the news of the attack, he recognized that this was a ploy by agents of imperialism (whether Muslim or non-Muslim) to damage the Khaksar Tehrik's popularity. He was concerned that the incident could divide Muslims and derail the broader efforts toward independence. He condemned the attack, but also reminded Jinnah to maintain focus on the larger issues at hand:

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with only a tiny knife. Second, it was highly unusual for Jinnah to meet with an unknown stranger without an appointment, yet he came down and met with Mazangavi. And perhaps most suspicious of all, Mazangavi was labeled to be a Khaksar immediately following the incident and without any proof this allegation was promptly released to the news media. Jinnah did not refute the false allegation nor did he reject the wide publicity the incident was being given. Indeed, shortly after the incident, Jinnah met with the Commissioner of Police in Bombay and stated that the idea [for the assault] had been planted there [in Mazangavi's mind] by Allama Mashriqi. He further referred to Mashriqi as a very indiscreet gentleman and also extremely pig-headed and obstinate. [3] Sir Reginald Maxwell (Member of Viceroy's Executive Council) would later remark in a revealing note on August 03, 1943, I think Jinnah is anxious to make the most of this attack by representing it as part of a premeditated deep plot and thus rallying Muslim support to himself. [4]

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Despite the overwhelming evidence to the contrary, anti-Khaksar speakers, writers and even many known historians continue to cite Mazangavi as a Khaksar and completely ignore Justice Blagen's decision. This can only be viewed as a deliberate attempt to alter history for vested reasons and must be corrected. Nasim Yousaf, a grandson of Allama Mashriqi, is a scholar and historian who has presented papers at U.S. conferences and written many articles and books. He has also contributed articles to the Harvard Asia Quarterly and the World History Encyclopedia (USA). His forthcoming book

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Nearly three years after the incident, Mazangavi came forward to reveal the truth, in letters he sent from jail to the editor of Al-Islah (weekly newspaper of the Khaksar Tehrik, his letters appeared on March 22, 1946 and May 10, 1946 respectively). In the first letter, Mazangavi wrote, [translation]all possible effort was made to crush your organization [Khaksar Tehrik]Despite the fact thatI have never been a regular member of the Khaksar Tehrik, however, mendacious and fabricated stories were associated [with the Khaksar Tehrik] in an effort to bring a bad name to the reputation of the servants of God [Khaksars], every atrocity was inflicted upon them and continued to be meted out to ensure crushing of the Khaksar Tehrik. In his second letter, the assassin further wrote that Jinnah's side made desperate efforts to prove Jinnah innocent and Mazangavi a member of the Khaksar Tehrik.

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Thus, the facts unquestionably indicate that the attack on Jinnah was a farce and that Mazangavi was not a member of the Khaksar Tehrik. In order to cover up the truth, Justice Blagden's court verdict was neither published nor publicized. Following the verdict, Jinnah again tried to damage the Khaksar Tehrik by calling a meeting of the All-India Muslim League, where he had a resolution passed banning Muslim Leaguers from joining the Khaksar Tehrik. This came as a blow to Muslim unity and served only to benefit the rulers and anti-Muslim elements. Meanwhile, the Khaksar Tehrik never passed any resolution banning its members from joining the Muslim League.

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Mashriqi knew that the nation was at a critical moment in its quest for independence, and that unity between the Khaksars and the Muslim League was essential; it was important not to let the attack on Jinnah jeopardize the broader mission. But Jinnah ignored Mashriqi's advice and instead opted to capitalize on the incident; he filed a lawsuit against the assassin in an attempt to prove that the assassin was a Khaksar. During the trial, Jinnah's side tried to present any sort of evidence or argument that could implicate Mazangavi as a Khaksar. But its arguments did not hold any water. In fact, in a bombshell revelation during the trial, the assassin admitted that he had actually been the Propaganda Secretary of the All-India Muslim League (Lahore branch) in 1939. [7] Ultimately, Justice Blagden of the Bombay High Court did not find any validity in Jinnah's testimony; in his decision, Justice Blagden pointed out twice that Mazangavi was not a Khaksar, stating, Actually, you have no evidence at all that this man [Mazangavi] is a member of that movement [Khaksar Tehrik]you have no evidence that he [Mazangavi] is a member of the movement, still less that he holds any particular position in it. [8] Jinnah's nephew, Barrister Akbar Peerbhoy, recounted this judgment in his book entitled Jinnah Faces An Assassin.

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entitled Mahatma Gandhi & My Grandfather, Allama Mashriqi uncovers many hidden realities behind the freedom of British India. [1] Peerbhoy, Akbar A. [1943] 1986. Jinnah Faces An Assassin. Karachi, Pakistan: East and West Publishing Company, 91-92. [2] The Tribune (Daily) of July 27, 1943. [3] Letter from Commissioner of Police, Bombay to Director of Intelligence Bureau, Delhi, July 31, 1943 in PHD file No. 17/4/43 Poll (I), p. 11. Also see History of the Khaksar Movement in India, p. 188. [4] PHD file No. 17/4/43 Poll (I), p. 10. Also see History of the Khaksar Movement in India, p. 189. [5] Hussain, Syed Shabbir. 1991. Al-Mashriqi: The Disowned Genius. Lahore, Pakistan: Jang Publishers, 193 [6] Bombay Chronicle, July 28, 1943. [7] Akhtar, Jamna Das. Political Conspiracies in Pakistan: Liaquat Ali's Murder to Ayub Khan's Exit, 149 [8] Peerbhoy, Akbar A. [1943] 1986. Jinnah Faces An Assassin. Karachi, Pakistan: East and West Publishing Company, 91-92. Nasim Yousuf

The Aftermath of NATO Attack


Pakistan's loss of over thirty five thousand people in the war on terrorism for the security of international peace has little impact on the NATO. The economic and financial losses made by Pakistan in the war against terrorism have been rendered useless by such moves.
Foreign Policy Special
Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Second, Pakistan's loss of over thirty five thousand people in the war on terrorism for the security of international peace has little impact on the NATO. The economic and financial losses made by Pakistan in the war against terrorism have been rendered useless by such moves. The United States and its NATO allies are not ready to treat Pakistan as an ally in the War on Terrorism. Therefore, it is highly important that our government should seriously review its war on terrorism policy and its alliance with the United States. Though, one cannot recommend bringing an end to relations with USA completely, yet one expects dignity and mutual respect in the bilateral relations. The facts indicate that the attack was deliberate. The US claim that NATO forces were chasing the Taliban

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The May 2, 2011 violation of Pakistan's sovereignty by the American helicopters near Abbottabad, necessitated that Pakistan air force should have contingency plan to counter hostile movements in the North Western part of the country. Sadly, despite two hours response time, not even a single fighter reached the border to challenge or warn the NATO helicopters. This indifference, therefore, needs a serious inquiry and revision about our armed forces capability to respond at the time of emergency. The entire nation has been protesting. Though the government immediately announced the ban on NATO's supplies and ordered the American forces to vacate the Shamsi airbase to satisfy the anger of the people. However one needs to wait for understanding the real response of the government. Indeed, Pakistan cannot afford the violation of its sovereignty and killing of its troops by United States, NATO-led ISAF and Afghanistan forces. The tragedy not only exposed Pakistani forces' vulnerability to the partners in the war on terrorism, but also highlighted the gaps existing in its defense arrangements on the Pak-Afghan borders. The NATO's air attack on the post on the Pak-Afghan border underscored two factors. First, there exists grave mistrust between Pakistan and NATO. The latter believe that Pakistani troops support the militants who traverse border to attack them, hence the Pakistani troops are the legitimate target.

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The NATO helicopters and jets attacked Pakistani check post located inside Pakistan on the PakAfghan border for nearly two hours on November 26, 2011. These strikes martyred 26 Pakistani soldiers and injured more than 250. This unprovoked move would be having lasting impact on the Pakistan's foreign and strategic policies in relation to America. The tragedy not only exposed Pakistani forces' vulnerability to the partners in the war on terrorism, but also highlighted the gaps existing in its defense arrangements on the Pak-Afghan borders. It raised a serious question about the supporting capability of Pakistani armed forces to its troops deployed on the Pak-Afghan border.

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This is not true. They are making up excuses. What are their losses, casualties? Pakistani Army spokesman Maj-Gen. Athar Abbas responded to NATO's claim. He said the NATO attack lasted for almost two hours, adding that Pakistani Army's requests to NATO to bring an end to the fire were ignored. The Pakistan Army spokesman also stated that NATO and Afghanistan knew the exact border outpost locations provided by Pakistan and that the particular area in Mohmand Agency had recently been cleared of militants with Pakistani soldiers rendering so many sacrifices. A year ago, three Pakistani soldiers were killed in a NATO strike on a similar border post. However, after an investigation by the US Defence Department held NATO responsible for the attack and the alliance's Secretary General subsequently apologised for the tragic loss, Pakistan opened the NATO supply route through the Torkham border crossing, which had remained close for over a week for security reasons. This time again, both US and NATO promptly issued words of regret and condolences in order to mitigate the crisis. White House spokesman Jay Carney said Obama believed the attack was a tragedy adding that we mourn those brave Pakistani soldiers that lost their lives. In a joint statement issued the same day the incident occurred, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta offered their deepest condolences. NATO also called the incident as tragic and unintended. Moreover, the US Central Command and NATO-led ISAF began their independent inquiries into the incident. However, Pakistan does not seem to be satisfied in either apologetic mode or investigative course adopted by the US and NATO commanders or leaders. It has decided not to participate in the investigation process. While Pakistan's political leadership has expressed rhetorical outburst after the tragedy. Prime Minister Yusaf Raza Gilani said that there would be no more business as usual with Washington until it respected Pakistani sovereignty. Pakistan has taken three tangible steps to punish NATO and US for killing its soldiers. The first such step was the sealing of Pakistani border with Afghanistan for NATO supplies for roughly 140,000 foreign troops, including about 97,000 American forces, waging the war in

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The tragic incident has led to a tug of war between Pakistan and NATO, especially the US, with each side offering its own version of events. NATO claimed that a team of Afghan troops conducting an operation in southern Kunar province came under attack from inside Pakistan, and that it only retaliated upon receiving the call for help from these Afghan forces.

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was dubbed by the Pakistani armed forces spokesperson as ill-logical. Therefore the situation, in the days to come, would be dangerous for the NATO forces in Afghanistan and very challenging for the Pakistani government as well.

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Yet, hours before November 26 tragic incident, US and NATO commander in Afghanistan, General John Allen was reportedly conversing with Pakistani army chief, General Ashfaq Kayani at the Army Headquarters in Rawalpindi about what the two countries can do for each other. Following the incident, General Allen and US military's top-ranking officer in Afghanistan, General Martin Dempsey, did reportedly call General Kayani to express their regrets, while assuring him to investigate the matter.

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The alleged presence of insurgent safe havens in Pakistan's tribal areas has been a lingering issue in recent years, and it has often caused bitterness in Pakistan's ties with the US and NATO in Afghanistan. In the past, whenever such tensions surfaced between the two sides, their sources were tackled by their respective top civilian and military leaders through enhanced interaction. The alleged presence of insurgent safe havens in Pakistan's tribal areas has been a lingering issue in recent years, and it has often caused bitterness in Pakistan's ties with the US and NATO in Afghanistan. However, since the start of this year, US-Pakistan relations have experienced one crisis after another the Raymond Davis issue was followed by the incident of Bin Laden's killing, and much else in between and ever since. Admiral Mike Mullen's allegation in a September Senate hearing regarding the ISI acting as a veritable arm of the Haqqani Network in North Waziristan, whom he accused of orchestrating a couple of major attacks on US Embassy and NATO Headquarters in Kabul earlier in the month, brought their relationship to a new low in subsequent months.

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A third step Pakistan has taken since the tragedy is to boycott the International Conference on Afghanistan in Bonn. The decision not to attend this conference principally means that Pakistan has withdrawn its offer of facilitating the Afghan reconciliation process by using its influence over the forces of Afghan insurgency. The Bonn conference was held in the backdrop of US and NATO's decision to withdraw their combat troops from Afghanistan by 2014 and hand over security responsibility to Afghanistan by 2015. Since political resolution of the Afghan conflict constitute the most important agenda item at the conference necessitated by NATO's decision to withdraw its forces by 2014.The absence of the principal regional actor that can secure this goal will hurt this significant event's peace-making credibility.

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A second tangible step Pakistan took after the incident was the decision by the Defence Committee of its Cabinet, in an emergency session on November 26, to issue a 15-day notice to Washington to vacate the Shamsi air base. The United States has been using this airbase since 2001 and, in recent years, allegedly for its drone operations inside the country's tribal areas. The Obama Administration has intensified this campaign. If at all the said air base was connected to the US drone effort, then its denial should hurt the US counter-terrorism campaign, even though not as much as the cut-off of NATO supplies through Pakistan.

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The United States will face this compulsion and all the negative repercussions it entails as long as the war in Afghanistan continuesnot withstanding Pentagon spokesman George Little's November 28 statement that the US military will press ahead with its war effort in Afghanistan, despite Pakistan's decision to cut off supplies to NATO-led forces. It is only a matter of time when the stockpiles of these supplies run out, frustrating the US and NATO to reach out to Pakistan for a compromise settlement, whereby the country's security and sovereignty concerns are duly recognised and respected.

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Afghanistan. Almost half of such supplies, which include fuel, military vehicles, spare parts, clothing and other non-lethal items, pass through Pakistan. Daily some 580 truckloads of NATO supplies reportedly pass through Torkham. This puts the US and NATO in a quandary, as they are still considerably dependent upon Pakistan for the essential supplies for their troops in Afghanistan.

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The US and NATO would make a serious error of judgment by perceiving Pakistan as another Afghanistan or Somalia. It should make complete sense on their part to take Pakistan's legitimate security interests and sovereignty concerns into consideration and re-engage it constructively offering public apologies for the recent tragedy. After all, the price Pakistan has paid for fighting terrorism in the past over ten years, both in human and material terms, is massive and deserves due recognition and appreciation from not just the US and NATO but from the entire world. As for the future course of action, The US and NATO urgently need to fundamentally agree to a clearly-defined body of new rules of engagement and cooperation with Pakistan for combating terrorism in the region in a way that its sovereignty is not compromised. Being an important player in the region Pakistan deserves due respect by its allies and The US and NATO should avoid any

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As for Pakistan, it is undoubtedly South Asia's important player and Muslim world's only nuclear power. The country is lived, by and large, by a very dynamic and hospitable people who come together in times of national crises even if they seem to constitute a divisive nation on so many counts. Its concerns regarding sovereignty are perfectly legitimate and the United States of America and NATO should act in a mature way by giving due respect to all the stakeholders.

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It goes without saying that at this crucial juncture when Western forces have started to withdraw from Afghanistan, which necessitates that the conflict in Afghanistan be resolved politically sooner than later, the old allies in the War on Terror should stick together rather than drifting apart over counter-terrorism issues that can be mutually resolved. Pakistani preferences in this war may be different from those of the US and NATO, but the goal of combating terrorism is surely a collective one.

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It can at least expect China to stand by it in this hour of need. The Chinese were also quite prompt in condemning the incident. China is deeply shocked at the incident and expressed its strong concerns and deep condolences to the victims in Pakistan, said Hong Lei, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman, the same day the tragedy occurred. This is despite the fact that Pakistan cannot afford to isolate itself from the Westthe US, the UK, the EU and the rest in the longer run, if not for anything else but for crucial economic and military assistance, trade ties and international financial help.

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However, in this particular case, given its gravity in terms of the loss of life and severity of Pakistani public response to it, the United States and NATO would perhaps have to go an extra mile in publicly pronouncing their unconditional commitment to respect Pakistani sovereignty in future. In the absence of that, we can expect Pakistan which supposedly is a non-NATO ally of the US in the War on Terror to continue its hardened stance for some time to come.

misadventure in future. For peaceful withdrawal, sensitivity of the volatile region should be taken great care of.

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

The working of the state institutions was explained through two models: the organisational process model and the bureaucratic process model. RAM assumed that foreign policy was a rational exercise (rationality, in essence, being 100% achievable) and that a good foreign policy was a rational foreign policy. A rational foreign policy simply took account of a state's national interest and objectives, outlined a plethora of options in order to deal with a foreign policy issue, engaged in cost-benefit analysis of each option in order to maximize the element of rationality and finally

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In a pioneering study of the foreign policy making process, Graham T. Ellison in 1970 laid claim to two models. Lambasting the Rational Actor Model (RAM) and with it the realist school of thought with its emphasis on heads of states or to use Morgenthau's phrase 'statesmen' formulating foreign policy, Ellison showed how foreign policy making was a complicated task. In the initial instance, Ellison opened up the 'black box' of the state to argue that the state was in actuality an amalgam of institutions which are responsible for policy making. The leader or statesmen, in essence, is dependent on such institutions (specifically the bureaucracy and military) for the execution of foreign policy. In a nutshell, the statesman proclaims policy while the institutions of the state implement it.

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The task of foreign policy making is complicated and is best executed when professional diplomats are recruited and then assigned to design long-term foreign policy strategies and goals.

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Foreign Policy Making Process in Pakistan

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Muhammad Shahid Rafique

The military establishment's role as the major formulator of Pakistan's foreign policy gained impetus with the concretization of the alliance with the United States in the 1950s. Since the 1950s, the military has instituted major changes in the foreign policy making machinery of the Pakistani state, which has tended to undermine the role of the Foreign Office while exaggerating that of military officers and intelligence/security agencies. General Zia, for example, inducted several serving or retired military officers in the Foreign Office without them going through any competitive examination, a practice which was instituted during the time of Ayub Khan. Furthermore, General Zia's decision to align with the United States against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan exalted the role of the security and intelligence agencies in the proclamation as well as the execution of foreign policy. The Foreign Office was further sidelined and in fact made useless when General Musharraf almost unilaterally decided to abandon the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and again join hands with the United States in its global War on Terror without consultation with the Foreign Office whatsoever! Furthermore, General Musharraf introduced the practice of having senior diplomatic appointments, especially those of out Heads of Mission, cleared by the intelligence agencies as well as his directive to Defence Attachs in our diplomatic missions to report regularly on their colleagues including the Ambassadors! Tariq Fatemi reasons that such measures had an adverse impact on the morale of our professional diplomats. Pakistan's foreign policy has been tainted with the problematic of ad hocism 'or the tendency to take decisions to tide over an immediate exigency without any long-term planning. Though the military establishment has been the most profound institution in foreign policy making, this does not imply that civilians or civilian leaders have been largely inconsequential in the proclamation and implementation of foreign policy. The role of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, for example, was crucial in changing the general direction of Pakistan's foreign policy both in the 1960s (when he was the Foreign Minister) and the 1970s as Prime Minister of Pakistan. During both decades, Bhutto orchestrated important developments in Pakistan's foreign policy including alliance with China, the 1965 War with India as well as consolidating Pakistan's relationship with the Muslim world. Similarly, Mohammad Khan Junejo under General Zia was instrumental in the signing of the Geneva Accords despite the reluctance of the all-powerful latter. That Junejo was able to convene an All Parties Conference on the issue and lead on this very important Afghanistan foreign policy front speaks volume of how the military establishment was undermined during this crucial time. During the 1990s, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif was instrumental in laying the basis of peaceful

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Ironically, Allison's model was not applied to case studies from other states primarily due to methodological constraints (lack of access to official government documents and cabinet meetings, for example) but it remains a potentially useful theory in order to determine the processes through which foreign policy is made.

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implemented the policy. This simple characterization of foreign policy was challenged by Ellison for he reasoned that bureaucracies, which implement foreign policy, do not always ensure comprehensive rationality but that bounded rationality is the essential element in foreign policy making. Allison applied his model to the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 and effectively demonstrated the utility of his model in explaining foreign policy making and out comes.

relations with India through his Bus Diplomacy. The task of foreign policy making is complicated and is best executed when professional diplomats are recruited and then assigned to design long-term foreign policy strategies and goals. Shahid Amin contends that Pakistan's foreign policy has been tainted with the problematic of ad hocism 'or the tendency to take decisions to tide over an immediate exigency without any long-term planning.' Amin further contends that though a Research Wing has long been in existence at the Foreign Office it has rarely served its purpose and in fact is a 'dumping ground for officers for whom no other posting could be found.' Where does all of this leaves foreign policy decision making and the Pakistani state? Like other institutions of the state, the foreign policy machinery needs to be resuscitated with the best brains in the country so that its general health improves to provide longterm strength and stability to the Pakistani state. The writer is Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, University of Karachi. Dr. Farhan Hanif Siddiqi

There are the challenges of the deeper structural and environmental type that both India and Pakistan face, but which can only be dealt effectively if they work together.
Foreign Policy Special
Sunday, January 01, 2012

The ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah finally reached to the conclusion that Muslims cannot prosper in United India so he got a separate homeland (Pakistan) for Muslims. India's behaviour, after partition was very cold and unjustified. India refused to turn over Pakistan's share of the military and financial assets inherited from British India, exacerbated the distrust and ill will. Indian actions in Kashmir to block access to the waters of the Indus in early 1948 forcing Pakistan to sign an agreement heightened such fears that India did not accept its neighbour's existence and intended through bullying tactics to drive it to collapse quickly.

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Pak-India Relations: Challenges and Opportunities

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The Agra Summit in 2001 between Musharraf and Vajpayee broke the ice that had frozen relations for two years after Kargil. This summit did not produce any result. Musharraf indicated a solution of Kashmir which was contrary to traditional Pakistani stand on this issue. In November 2008, coordinated terrorist attacks were committed in Mumbai. In these attacks, 173 people were killed including 35 foreigners and 35 were wounded. India blamed Lashkar-e-Taiba and ISI for those attacks. One of the terrorists Ajmal Kasab was arrested alive who admitted that he is Pakistani. This tragic incident injured severally Pak-India relations. India is dreaming for the status of big world power. It must understand that it cannot be fulfilled until or unless the Kshmir Issue is resolved according to the aspirations of the people of both countries. The new chapter has already commenced with Pakistan announcing MFN status for India and the latter reciprocating by withdrawing its objections within the WTO to Pakistan getting preferential access to the EU market and also supporting its bid for a UNSC seat. The public opinion is divided about offering MFN status to India. India is rapidly constructing several dams on Indus river which may convert Pakistan lands into desert. Water issue is also major irritant between

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Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee decided to change the tone of relationship and instigate rapprochement due to different domestic reasons. Vajpayee travelled on the first bus to visit Lahore in February 1999. This led to a summit meeting which, for a few months was considered a breakthrough and turning point in the historic hostility between the two countries. This era of good feeling lasted only about three months. In May 1999, Pakistani troops were discovered to have occupied, since November of the previous years it turned out, the remote heights of a part of Indian-held Kashmir above Kargil. The Pakistan army initiated this adventure, on the behest of General Pervez Musharraf to force India to negotiating table and solve Kashmir issue from a position of weakness. Kargil adventure deteriorated Pak-India relations. The Pakistani and Indian prime ministers were stunned to know about Kargil episode.

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The 1971 war between Pakistan and India deteriorated Pak-India relations. Indian army, with the help of Russia, entered into Dhaka, which was a naked aggression. Pakistan army was forced to surrender. President Bhutto won back the West Pakistan territory and release of 90,000 POWs through Shimla Agreement.

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Pakistan missed the historical opportunity to get Kashmir during Indo-China war in 1962. General Ayub Khan came under US pressure and Pakistan remained neutral. The US promised to help Pakistan and use its influence over India to give people of Kashmir their right of self-determination. The US changed his mind after the war between India and China and Ayub Khan termed US a cheat. The Pakistan army prepared a secret plan to enter its forces into Indian-held Kashmir. India reacted and declared war against Pakistan. Indian army attacked Lahore from three sides. But by the grace of Allah, Pakistan army repulsed this attack. Pakistan and India secured agreement through Tashkent Declaration. The US betrayed its old ally Pakistan and stopped the defence supplies during 1965 war. Field Marshal General Ayub Khan wrote his famous book Friends Not Masters.

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The core issue is Kashmir which controls the waters of the rivers that Pakistan needs to irrigate the field of Punjab and Sindh as well as for energy. The fact is that the loss of Muslim majority Kashmir undercuts the rationale for a separate Muslim state in South Asia and, thus, Pakistani identity.

India and Pakistan. There are the challenges of the deeper structural and environmental type that both India and Pakistan face, but which can only be dealt effectively if they work together. The increasing gap between poor and rich, environmental degradation, sinking water levels, unbridled population growth all pose immediate and long-term challenges that cannot be ignored and need attention right now.

Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Foreign Policy Special

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foreign policy makers are the ones who drive media attention towards certain foreign events, and even determine the way those events are being framed (manufacturing consent

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Foreign Policy and Media: A General Perspective

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The writer is a renowned columnist. Email: qayyumnizami@gmail.com Qayyum Nizami

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And, above all, after a very long time if not for the first time, the power elites on both sides are talking peace and taking necessary measures to evolve friendly visa and trade regimes. When nations seize the historical moment they reap great benefits. Fear, hatred, terrorism, war all have been tried and the results are there to see and feel.

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If India and Pakistan can establish a trade regime that ensures mutual benefit, the dividends can be enormous. Bangladesh and India have recently agreed to establish joint industrial ventures, most notably in the jute industry. Similar enterprises can be established between India and Pakistan, which ensure a fair share to Pakistan.

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However, 2012 is also a year of opportunities for both nations. Pakistan can miss a golden opportunity if we do not jump onto the bandwagon of economic growth that originated in East Asia, then moved towards Southeast Asia and then continued westwards to India. Bangladesh very wisely decided to hitch its future to it and is reaping impressive benefits. Pakistan becomes the automatic candidate to be on the fast-moving bandwagon of economic growth and development. A vast market exists that extends from Afghanistan into Central Asia for Indian and Pakistani goods.

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These days live news coverage provided information to the audiences 24 hours a day from anywhere in the world, with no regards for diplomatic secrecy. These contextual changes redefine the relationship between the media and foreign policy decision-making process, though there is a great debate about its accomplishments and limitations. Previous research studies on foreign policy decision-making portrays media mainly as a tool for delivering messages only during the course of action, but the last decades exposed that this point-ofview minimizes actual role of media, which is much more complex.

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Capability of keeping the situation in secret kept foreign policy makers from dealing with "public hysteria" or media pressures. However, perspective has changed significantly due to the changed world scenario with the end of the 'Cold War' and technological developments in the field of communication.

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In order to demonstrate how media have revolutionized foreign policy construction process, the image of the Soviet missile crisis in Bay of Pigs, during John F. Kennedy's government is often mentioned. During first six days of the crisis, Kennedy and his advisers had the chance to deliberate in secrecy about which course of action they were to take.

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When an external, international event occurs, political leaders learn about it from media. This information is processed through various image components and than the policy or decision formulating process is set in motion. Media advisors and public relation professionals participate in this procedure; officials consult with them and consider their advice. Finally, they take the media into account when they outline their policy and match to it the suitable media tools.

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Media formulates foreign policy by shaping public opinion. Media is involved in all stages of foreign policy formulation processes and political leaders take media into consideration in its national and international aspects. Involvement of media in this regard is complex.

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Some of the studies have established the fact that media of a country favor and promote foreign policy of the country, particularly during times of crisis or war. It is also confirmed that the media of a particular country plays a pivotal role in framing public opinion not only within the country but also persuade masses of other states.

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There is a great discussion about the relationship between media and foreign policy formulation. Many journalists, policy-makers and scholars argue that there really is little doubt that media profoundly affect the foreign policy process.

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The government on the basis of Communication Regime pattern states the communication policy's goals such as; promoting competition and pluralism in the media, minimizing regulations, preventing cross-ownership, allocating broadcasting frequencies, protecting copyrights, etc. Similarly, most of the modern mass media are motivated by economic criteria, namely profit and business considerations. Although media does not make policy, but rather that media is mobilized (manipulated even) into supporting government policy especially with reference to foreign events. Following are the other trends which define this field; Advertising; the primary income source for media organizations Concentration of media to merge into large corporations Acquiring of media organizations by non-media corporations Media organizations become part of multi-national global corporations and these corporations tend to; become media monopolies try to increase their audiences by using the most modern technologies have strong political and other ties with governments The abovementioned trends are typical of democratic or developing states and define economic setting of mass media. Free-market media economics is limited in authoritarian states where the media are state-owned. Therefore, media regime and communication policy also define to what

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Finally, is the content of the media controlled or censored? In an authoritarian regime, for example, government owns, finances, appoints the editors and controls and even censors the content of the media. These theories define the specific press-government relation which provides the ground to set the main rules of the communication policy of the government towards the media which finally influence the foreign policy.

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Relation between state and press is divided into Four Theories of the Press: the Authoritarian, Soviet, Social Responsibility and Libertarian and two additional theories included 'Development' and 'Democratic-Participant'. These regimes are characterizes as; who owns media? How are media financed? Who appoints the editors?

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Mass media as an environmental factor in a specific state involve six variables: first, the political communication regime in the state under consideration, second, the communication policy adopted by the government of that state, third, the political economy setting of the mass media, fourth, the various communication channels and technologies existing in that country, fifth, the typical functions performed by media channels and finally, news values, the criteria that lead media gatekeepers to include items and events in the news.

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They describe internal setting as a human environment composed of culture and population and include public opinion. If we adopt a revised perspective on this setting, the media may be a major component of this environment. It can be described as the tool which expresses the nongovernmental interpretations and expectations of the various members or groups of the society, as well as a tool to express government policy in state-owned or dominated media.

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Although media does not make policy, but rather that media is mobilized (manipulated even) into supporting government policy especially with reference to foreign events. Glenn Snyder and his colleagues stated that Decision makers act upon and respond to conditions and factors that exist outside them and the governmental organization of which they are a part. Setting has two aspects: external and internal. .... Setting is really a set of categories of potentially relevant factors and conditions that may affect the action of any state.

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extent commercial processes such as concentration and globalization are possible in a given state. The communication regime, communication policy and economic background provide basis for the fourth dimension i.e. the existence of the various communication channels, from print, radio, TV and modern multimedia interactive technologies. Moreover, variety of channels includes national media environment operating in the state and international channels penetrating from abroad using new technologies and opening the state to an international media environment.

News values determine the criteria that lead editors to include items concerning war, peace or any other foreign-policy events in the news. It directs journalists to follow rules in making such decisions, or do they act spontaneously? Therefore, media coverage of certain events has potential to drive the policies that foreign policy makers conduct regarding the events covered. Secondly, foreign policy makers are the ones who drive media attention towards certain foreign events, and even determine the way those events are being framed (manufacturing consent). Media effects on foreign policy decision making can not be ignored. One of the important media effect is that it accelerants the process of foreign policy making, in this modality, media are presumed to shorten the time of decision-making response. Yet, media can also become a "force

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Reporters inform public of international, foreign and security events; journalists (analysts) provide background, interpretation and commentary on the information. Thus media provide support to the established authority and its norms, especially in times of crisis or peace process. Here the press performs its mobilizing and recruiting role, thus creating a joint media-government environmental component. It is important to note that there is a possibility that media can also go against the government in some cases.

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Foreign-policy environment demands three of the relevant roles including informative, correlative, and mobilizing. In performing these functions, the mass media integrate the national society as part of the internal environment.

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Through their professional performance, mass media provide components of internal foreign policy decision-making package through following distinguishing roles ; Surveillance of the environment Correlation of the parts of society in responding to the environment Transmission of the social heritage from one generation to the next. Entertainment Mobilization

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In the modern democratic state with commercialized media there is hardly any way to differentiate between these two media environments, and they can be viewed as an integrated media package of internal media and press and international media sources. In authoritarian states where media are not located in an open market, media package is unilateral exclusively internal because no external-inter-national influence is allowed.

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multiplier", a "method of sending signals" to the opponent. This effect is most plausible to appear in conventional warfare, strategic deterrence, and tactical deterrence. Second effect is media as impediment; this takes two forms, as an emotional inhibitor, and as a threat to operational security. It is presumed, public support is undermined by media coverage of casualties. As a threat to operational security, media are said to compromise success of an operation by broadcasting it and, thus, revealing strategic information to the enemy, frustrating the success of the operation. This kind of effect is likely to appear during conventional warfare, tactical deterrence, peace making and peace keeping operations. The third likely effect of the media on foreign policy making is that of the media as an agenda setting agent. It is presumed that the coverage of humanitarian crises puts the issue in the foreign policy agenda and drives intervention. Therefore, it can be concluded that media and foreign policy decision-making process influence one another, sometimes directly, others indirectly. The writer is Chairperson, Department of Mass Communication, LCWU, Lahore Dr. Anjum Zia

Sunday, January 01, 2012

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The Pakistan-US relationship is not about any particular incident or individual or about any

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Foreign Policy Special

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It is important that Pakistan, as a partner and an ally of US war on terror, is treated with dignity and sovereign equality. The Pak- US relationship will remain on a roller coaster unless the whole spectrum of Gen Musharraf's written and unwritten arrangements with the US are revisited to draw new 'terms of engagement' in keeping with the State's interests.

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An Enigmatic but Important Equation

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China's Rise inherent in phenomenal growth of its global power and economy has been of special concern to the US which has been building its own regional equations to contain this phenomenon. It has also had big stakes in the economic power of Japan and other East Asian economic tigers, besides its new interest in the burgeoning Indian economy with its tremendous population-cumdevelopment driven market potential.

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America is no stranger to our region. In the post-World War II era, the real Cold War took place on Asian soils which witnessed some of the most violent eruptions of the East-West struggle and even some of the longest wars of the last century. America's larger Asian focus represents its abiding interest in these regions especially those with known but hidden oil and gas reserves.

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US foreign policy goals in South Asia are rooted in its overarching global objectives and interests. And its global objectives are driven, as they would be in the case of any other sovereign state, by the imperatives of its foreign policy. The eastward focus of America's global power, however, is not something new. It represents the long gravity shift of global economic power from the EuroAtlantic to the Asia-Pacific regions.

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And yet, one is bewildered at Pakistan's demonization by its friends and allies. It is time to correct this approach. It is important that Pakistan, as a partner and an ally, is treated with dignity and sovereign equality.

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Pakistan has been the main target in an al-Qaeda-led war with almost 35,000 Pakistani civilians and security personnel having lost their lives in terrorist attacks in the last few years. In addition to invisible emotional fall out, this war has cost Pakistan staggering military burden, unquantifiable collateral damage and irreparable economic loss in the form of massive internal displacement, trade and production slowdown, and investor hesitation.

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Pakistan's post-9/11 alliance with the US was the beginning of another painful chapter in Pakistan's history. In the blinking of an eye, we became a battleground of the US war on terror, and have been paying a heavy price in terms of human and material losses.

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In the process, this relationship has seen alternating phases of engagement and estrangement depending on the convergence and divergence of each side's respective goals and policies. For much of its history, this enigmatic relationship has lacked continuity, a larger conceptual framework, and a shared vision beyond the narrowly based and vaguely defined issue-specific priorities. Unpredictability has been another consistent feature of this relationship which has gone through regular interruptions in its intensity and integrity.

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For Pakistan, the issues of security and survival in a turbulent and hostile regional environment and its problems with India were the overriding policy factors in its relations with Washington. The US policy goals in Pakistan, on the other hand, have traditionally encompassed a wide range of its regional and global interests, especially the issues of nuclear and missile proliferation, IndiaPakistan hostility, democracy, human rights, economic reform and now terrorism.

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Afghanistan-related irritant. It is an old relationship that has remained fundamentally strong and enduring despite many ups and downs. Ironically, however, it is an enigmatic equation that never had any conflict of interest but also never had any mutuality of interests. The only mutuality in this hinge has been one of expediency with each side always aiming at different goals and objectives to be derived from this relationship.

Today, India-Pakistan peace is critical to the prospect of a stable and peaceful Afghanistan where the implications of US failure are grave. President Obama in early days of his presidency understood this linkage. He knew that no strategy or roadmap for durable peace in the region including Afghanistan would be comprehensive without focusing on the underlying causes of conflict and instability. For any regional approach to succeed in Afghanistan, Obama was convinced the India-Pakistan equation will have to be kept straight. But in the actual execution of his AfPak policy, Obama was soon detracted from his stated goals. Unpredictability has been another consistent feature of this relationship which has gone through regular interruptions in its intensity and integrity. His June 22 speech on the US troops drawdown was the anticlimax of the one he delivered in Oslo two years ago when receiving an unearned Nobel Peace Prize. He justified wars to make peace, and just days before receiving his Nobel Prize, he went far beyond his predecessor's war effort by ordering a surge of more than 30,000 troops in Afghanistan. He escalated CIA-operated drone attacks in Pakistan. Even though they were allegedly aimed at suspected Al-Qaeda or Taliban havens, they killed many in nocent men, women and children. Even if they had the vague consent of Pakistan's rulers, they constituted violation of the UN Charter. No country, however powerful or dominant, can resort to pre-emptive or preventive use of force, or to any punitive action, unless it is authorised by the UN Security Council within the scope of Articles 42 and 51 of the Charter. Pakistan's Afghan dilemma: Unfortunately, as was evident in the Abbottabad incident, the real Afghan issue now starts and ends with Pakistan. This has had an alarmingly adverse impact on Pakistan's psyche which is already perturbed by America's indifference to its legitimate security concerns and sensitivities. Our Afghanistan-related problems are aggravated by the complex regional configuration with a growing Indo-US nexus, India's strategic ascendancy in the region and its unprecedented influence in Afghanistan with serious nuisance potential against Pakistan's security interests.

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The US-Pakistan relationship will never really be a trusted one again until the grinding conflict in Afghanistan comes to an end in a manner that does not jeopardise Pakistan's legitimate security interests. What comes as a crude shock to the people of Pakistan is the continuing US-led NATO forces' incursions inside Pakistan's territory. The premeditated November 26 Mohmand attacks killing 24 Pakistani security personnel seem to have crossed all limits. Pakistan has suspended its transit route

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for NATO supplies until a formal apology for the attacks. An investigation to determine the facts about the attacks is said to be in progress. But let's be honest. The problem is not the relationship. The problem is its poor and shortsighted management on both sides. For Washington, it remains a transactional relationship. On our side, the problem is the nature that our successive self-centred rulers have always sought to give to this relationship as their political and economic lifeline through their self-serving notorious deals. To them, this relationship is all about their personal interests. National interests have no meaning or relevance to them. They have squandered our sovereignty, dignity and national honour. For us, given our geopo-litical location, the foremost challenge to our foreign policy lay in our ability to withstand America's militarist pressures without compromising on our national interests. It is time we set our priorities in terms of our national interests. Even the current crisis in our relationship with the US is the result of commitments made by our self-serving rulers, not in the State's interest but in their own interest. No wonder, in recent years, the two countries have had no control over the growing list of irritants some of which could have easily been avoided if both sides were guided by the concept of mutuality in their relationship.

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But one thing is clear. This relationship will remain on a roller coaster unless the whole spectrum of Gen Musharraf's written and unwritten arrangements with the US are revisited to draw new 'terms of engagement' in keeping with the State's interests. Any security cooperation arrangement with the US must be covered by a formal status of forces agreement laying down a mutually applicable framework of cooperation modalities. The writer is a former foreign secretary

The Statement Adopted at Ottawa Dialogue1 Held in Copenhagen


Following-on their previous meetings, at Stanford in July, 2011 and recalling the Lahore

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The US on its part must reach out to democratic and liberal forces and the business community in our country, and also the younger generation in Pakistan which may resent US power but not its ideals. And in their success alone lies the very future of Pakistan as a strong and stable democratic country with a moderate and progressive outlook and as a factor of regional and global stability.

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It is time now to rectify the situation. Ambassador Munter is doing a good job for his country. We also need in Washington an ambassador with no 'conflict of interest.' Both sides should give diplomacy a chance not only to avert a conflictual situation but also to strengthen their relationship by infusing in it greater political, economic and strategic content. It must no longer remain what Vice-President Joe Biden described as a transactional relationship, and must go beyond the issue of terrorism.

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Obviously, Washington as a global sole super power has its own priorities as part of its larger Asian agenda. For us, given our geo-political location, the foremost challenge to our foreign policy lay in our ability to withstand America's militarist pressures without compromising on our national interests. It seems our diplomacy in Washington has been the victim of cross purposes rooted in our domestic political intrigues as evidenced in the Memogate.

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Howsoever enigmatic, US-Pakistan relationship is an important equation. Both countries need each other. It is time for both sides now to set a better bilateral perspective for this relationship to make it a mutually beneficial, normal and functional relationship with a policy focus on the people of Pakistan rather than on one man. The objective must be not to weaken this important equation but to strengthen it by infusing in it greater political, economic and strategic content. It must no longer remain a transactional relationship.

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There was a discussion of possible cooperation on such areas as the safe operation of nuclear power plants and the security of radioactive sources used in medical and industrial applications. There was consensus that the safe operation of nuclear power plants would be a suitable area for future work in the Ottawa Dialogue, but not on the matter of nuclear security. Finally, the participants expressed the hope that there would be no conflict between the two

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Existing hotlines and communications channels should be hardened, manned on a 24 hour, 7 day a week basis and supplemented with secure video-links; A dedicated communications channel should be established between the Indian National Security Advisor and the Pakistani equivalent; and Each side should establish a strategic risk management unit, which could serve some of the same communications functions as Nuclear Risk Reduction Centres in other contexts. communications CBMs must be effective in three different environments (peacetime, periods of escalation of tension and periods of conflict), and different measures and levels of communication may be required in these different phases of relations. In the field of civilian nuclear cooperation, the members of the Ottawa Dialogue heard proposals from a working group on the subjects of cooperation in nuclear medicine and nuclear agriculture, particularly concerning issues faced in common by the two countries. In both cases, specific proposals were advanced, which are attached. The members of the Ottawa Dialogue strongly recommend these cooperative research projects, which have the potential to improve the lives of peoples in both countries, to their governments. They further recommended that a bilateral framework should exist to facilitate such projects, and that these projects should not be hostage to the vicissitudes of the broader relationship.

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In a focused discussion on how Communication CBMs could be enhanced, the members of the Ottawa Dialogue noted that communications CBMs must be effective in three different environments (peacetime, periods of escalation of tension and periods of conflict), and different measures and levels of communication may be required in these different phases of relations. To that end, the members of the Ottawa Dialogue recommended that:

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More generally, the members of the Ottawa Dialogue recommended that their governments: Sign a CBM to the effect that their land-based nuclear arsenals will remain de-mated and dealerted in peacetime; Initiate a high-level official dialogue over how new and emerging technologies, such as future sea-based systems and nuclear-armed cruise missiles, will impact upon strategic stability; and More generally, enter into a high-level official dialogue over strategic sufficiency the question of how future nuclear force development can be kept to the lowest level consistent with national security needs.

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The members of the Ottawa Dialogue recommend that their governments should: Initiate an official, ongoing high-level dialogue on the impact of BMD on regional security; and Add cruise missiles to the Agreement on Pre-Notification of Flight Testing of Ballistic Missiles.

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Declaration and MOU of 1999, the members of the Ottawa Dialogue devoted their session held in Copenhagen on December 12-13, 2011to the elaboration of specific and practical CBMs. The Copenhagen meeting discussed the impact of emerging technologies on strategic stability, focussing on the topics of Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) and Cruise Missiles. The general sense was that agreements to restrain the development of these technologies are unlikely in the present atmosphere, although such controls would be desirable. Therefore, the members of the Ottawa Dialogue believe that the current focus should be on CBMs which could constrain destabilising deployment options and enhance stability in a future crisis.

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Masood Ahmad Khan Pak Ambassador to China


Foreign Policy Special
Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Chinese Perceive any Threat to Pakistan as a Threat to China

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The Ottawa Dialogue is a Track Two process comprising a distinguished group of academics and retired senior officials and military officers from India and Pakistan. It is led by Peter Jones, a professor from the University of Ottawa's Graduate School of Public and International Affairs. The ongoing dialogue process has already resulted in the adoption of an ambitious list of nuclear confidence-building measures (CBMs) which have since been submitted to the two governments for their joint consideration. Shamshad Ahmad The writer is a former foreign secretary.

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countries. However in the event of a conventional conflict breaking out they agreed that all efforts should be made to prevent an escalation of the conflict and suggested that, in addition to the faithful implementation of the agreement on non attack on nuclear facilities, both sides should also refrain from attacks on sensitive locations, a list of which should be drawn up immediately.

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Q: What was your feedback about Chinese support to Pakistan in the Envoys Conference? Ans: When China expresses such a position or puts forward its logical perspective, it in fact upholds the international law. International law is a universal fact which cannot be violated. China leadership perceives any threat to Pakistan as a threat to China. Therefore, they try to support Pakistan because they think Pakistan as a true friend. Q. How can China support this true friend(Pakistan) when its sovereignty is violated? Ans: China has always assisted in improving Pakistan economy. China has always helped in capacity building in terms of defence of Pakistan. Both are strategic partners and they know how to endure their partnership.

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Q. Leave apart the question of regional stability, Pakistan's sovereignty has been violated. What is the Chinese perspective on this issue? Ans: There is absolute trust between Pakistan and China which is a precious commodity. Pakistan independence and sovereignty is quite sacred to the people of Pakistan and we have to defend it ourselves. Pakistan has always stood shoulder to shoulder with China on all occasions whether it is the issue of Taiwan, Tibet or Xinjiang. Similar has been the position of China. China has a principled position that national sovereignty and territorial integrity of Pakistan must be respected. China has emphasized upon the international community to recognize the contribution and sacrifices of Pakistan in the war against terror. China has asked the world to assist Pakistan and refrain from creating troubles for Pakistan.

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Q: with the Nato attack on our western borders and consistent US pressure on Pakistan, what is significance of Pak-China friendship? Ans: Pak-China friendship is of a fundamental significance for ensuring peace and stability in the region. There is a consensus between the two countries to make collective efforts for regional peace. They have pledged to remain proactive for peace. I believe the collective efforts of Pakistan and China act as a balancing factor for regional stability.

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China has adopted a policy of peaceful engagement with her neighbours for the last 30 years. This policy has helped China in its economic development. But the Chinese have kept one thing clear that they have remained firm on their principled stance whether on the question of Taiwan, North China Sea or any other issue. Certainly they want cooperation and peaceful settlement of disputes in South Asia.

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Our main concern and need is a peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan

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Q: You also attended Envoys Conference to review foreign policy of Pakistan. What was the most important aspect the conference? Ans: We all agreed on one thing that only the Foreign Office Spokesman will speak about it. So I am bound by the decision. However, there has emerged one thing very prominently from the conference and that is the supremacy of the Parliament. S.M Piracha

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Q:When cabinet accorded in principle approval to granting MFN status to india, China welcomed it alongwith the United States. Can you elaborate the Chinese policy? Ans: China has always endeavoured that its neighbourhood remains prosperous and peaceful. And that is why China welcomed that. But the important is that there will be no compromise on the principles.

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Q: China has taken a particular position on Pak-India trade relations. Can You elaborate Chinese perspective? Ans: China has taken care of economic connectivity and has given it a lot of importance in its own foreign policy. It has maintained economic connectivity with Japan, Republic of Korea and even with India despite its issues with these countries. When we are trying to improve our trade relations with India, China will encourage us.

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Q: What is Chinese perspective on Pak-India peace process? Ans: If we want to learn from China, then the Chinese have adopted a policy of peaceful engagement with its neighbours for the last 30 years. This policy has helped China in its economic development. But the Chinese have kept one thing clear that they have remained firm on their principled stance whether on the question of Taiwan, North China Sea or other issues. Certainly they want cooperation and peaceful settlement of disputes in South Asia. They have associated themselves with SAARC for this purpose. This will help South Asian countries to forge economic connectivity. Thereby, the South Asian countries can set a direction for shared prosperity.

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Q: How do you think whether Chinese try to prevail upon the world in favour of Pakistan or just express their solidarity with us? Ans: We should always remember that Pak-China friendship is not built for any war rather it is for ensuring peace and stability. China wants removal of differences in the region. China always try to make other powers realize about these facts whether on the international fora or during their bilateral diplomatic engagements. China is always helpful but I will remind you again that the primary responsibility of defending our sovereignty is ours own.

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Ayaz Wazir Former Ambassador and Analyst


Sunday, January 01, 2012

JWT: What was Musharaf's policy towards Afghanistan? AW: Mushraf was a real disaster for Pakistan. We were so unfortunate to have an Army Chief as well as President like him; he was the most coward man on earth that I have ever seen. He used to call himself 'Commando' , a fearless soldier, yet he was so scared all the time that he always keep with him his pistol. Being a president of Pakistan the whole country is before you the whole army is with you so whom you are scare of or are you going to kill; and if he is brave enough as a 'commando' then why dose not he come back to Pakistan instead he ran away. I would again say we were very unfortunate Musharaf has literally ruined the country. In fact, he imposed a war on Pakistan which was not ours he had a prime minister, he had a parliament and at the same time he was Chief of Army Staff as well as the president of Pakistan but even than he did not consult anyone. Instead, he took a unilateral decision and he thought his own security synonymous to the security of Pakistan. Actually, he wanted to get himself accepted from the west and the incident of 9/11 gave him the chance to do so. Here another example I would like to give, when he was going first time to attend the UN General Assembly session it was prior 9/11 so, he was transiting through

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Jahangir's World Times: What are Pakistan's long term and short term interests in Afghanistan and how Pakistan is pursuing these interests? Ayaz Wazir: Well, Pakistan's interests are very deep in Afghanistan. We have the same tribes divided between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Both of us have strong bonds of relationship but at times some hiccups do come in this relationship. Our main concern and need is a peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan. A peaceful and prosperous immediate neighbor on our western border will directly affect our people not only in the border and tribal areas but deeper parts of the country as well. Here I would like to mention a saying of Allama Iqbal he said, If we take Asia as a human body then Afghanistan is the heart of that human body, if the heart is sick then the entire body is sick if the heart is healthy then the entire body is healthy. The short term interests not only of Pakistan but of the entire region are to find out a political solution of the Afghan problem. In fact, a political solution only can take Afghanistan to a positive direction when the NATO and US forces will be withdrawn from Afghanistan in 2014.

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Foreign Policy Special

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JWT: Decisions made in the Boon Conference are binding on whom and do you foresee any significant change in the Foreign Policy of Pakistan after 'Ambassadors Conference'? AW: Well 'Boon conference' will not be a boon for the Afghanistan problem because Pakistan a very important immediate neighbor boycotted the conference. Similarly the 'Taliban', the main rival factor, did not attend the conference in fact, they were not part of any of such conference like Istanbul conference. In fact, Boon Conference have opened the flood gate of disunity among the NATO, I heard from a very credible source that France is going to call back its troops from Afghanistan although it has not a larger share. As far as the recently held 'Ambassador Conference' is concerned, I would say it is the routine

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Manchester and I was Council General at Manchester I received him personally because that was the part of duty . I was there with my ambassador to receive him believe you me nobody in the British government was willing to give us a room to receive the president at the airport. So, by the help of a Pakistani who was in the administration of the airport we could able to arrange a small room which is used by the personal staff of the queen when they are coming and going and in that room there was no proper arrangement in that room so again by the help of that Pakistani we brought a sofa in the room and we received him there and there were no one from the British government to receive him. But after the 9/11 the whole thing turned upside down because Musharaf sold the country for himself. In fact, he had not any policy for Afghanistan, there were no policy but he was following the policy of America on Afghanistan as it is. Another catastrophe which he brought in was the deploying of Army in tribal areas. Quaid-E-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah promised with the tribesmen in Peshawar We (Pak) will not interfere in your area without consulting you and we will do whatever humanly possible to develop you politically and economically to bring out from the poverty. Musharaf was the first to shatter his commitment by deploying the army without consulting the tribesmen. So since 2003 till today our army is fighting with our own people not with a foreign army. This region was guarded by the tribes for us for 60 years and we did not spend a penny on them and now the 150 thousand troops are deployed and one can well imagine its cost.. As far as the recently held 'Ambassador Conference' is concerned, I would say it is the routine matter of the 'Foreign Office'. Actually, envoys are called to give their input as to how the countries where they are serving in are looking at Pakistan after the Salala incident and how they see the Pakistan's reactions after the attack. JWT: How do you see the role of India in Afghanistan as a balancer or perpetrator? AW: Well, it depends how you look upon it or how the Indian work over there. I had an Indian fellow here yes terday working with me in a conference she asked the same question I replied if the Indians are there to help the Afghanistan, to develop their infrastructure, extend their support in all fields other than military then the role of India would not be a concern to anyone. India and Afghanistan are two independent countries they can make deals even a strategic one. Pakistan cannot impose any decision on Afghanistan or India but it would be good for both India and Afghanistan to take care of the sensitivities of Pakistan. Pakistan should not interfere in the internal affairs of Afghanistan similarly India and Afghanistan should also not interfere in the internal matters of Pakistan.

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Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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At School of Political and International Relations, Quaid-I-Azam University (QAU), Islamabad.

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Discussion Forum on: The Effects of Osamas Capture on Pak-Us relations

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Any Message I cannot forget an advice of a 'Foreign Minister' of Middle Eastern country, he told me in confidence on the condition that I will not mention his name. He said, Can't you advice your ministers when they go out on tours that they should behave like a minister of a very strong nation you are representing a 'Nuclear power'. Unfortunately when they go out they seek their personal interests. My message is that our honor lies in our collective respect. If we respect the collective will of our people then the world will respect us. So, the country and the people comes first but not like Musharaf as he said (Sub say Pehley Pakistan but Pakistan was the last in his policies West and his own interest was first). Let the institution should do their own work, Army should do its own, Judiciary its own and Foreign office should do their own work. For the foreign policy decisions, counsel with all the concerned institutions, but then leave it up to the Foreign Office. Waqas Iqbal

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matter of the 'Foreign Office'. Actually, envoys are called to give their input as to how the countries where they are serving in are looking at Pakistan after the Salala incident and how they see the Pakistan's reactions after the attack. Moreover, if Pakistan makes drastic changes then what repercussions are expected particularly from the west and from the other important countries? So, the envoys would give a very honest and correct opinion suppose our envoy in China will tell us how the Chinese would react if we do this and this. Now in the light of this input the political leadership is to decide what to do, envoys do not make decisions they can give proposals. Well we have a saying i.e. the moon for celebrating eid is important and you have to see on the first day you do not see it every day. We have seen the present government from last four years what they had done in these years then how can we expect a miracle in the last one year these all are rhetoric they will do as we say ( Purani Tankhaw Pay nokri ker lain gay). Obviously, they are keeping the army happy and to calm the public to in cash on the sentiments but we have seen what they had done. If they were sincere to the nation they would have not disrespect in the Supreme Court so much.

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For instance, America thinks that Pakistan should built a pressure on Taliban by cutting their support from FATA for which they use the words save hideouts or sanctuaries and then they can negotiate with the Taliban from a position of strength. On the other hand Pakistan is of the opinion if you (US) have an option of dialogue then why not we. In fact, Pakistan thinks that American should have dialogue with the Taliban through them (Pak) so, these are the diverging perceptions of Pakistan and the US about Afghanistan. At the same time we can see that Americans have used the leverage of 700 millions$ aid but practically it is realized that 350 millions of the aid never reached Pakistan because of American aid system and out of that 350 millions to which extent military is

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Initiating the discussion, Dr. Zafar Nawaz Jaspal Associate professor of School of Politics and International Relations said, Today, we are here to discuss the Pak-US relations in the aftermaths of the elimination of Osama Bin Ladin on 2nd May, 2011 . If you see the revival of Pak-US relations after the 9/11 those were not based on solid foundations. No doubt we have the one commonality, the war against terrorism, but apart from that other determinants are not conducive for our bilateral relationship. If we see the present year 2011 there are four prominent indicators which we have to keep in mind 1. Emergence of new global power i.e. China, it has around $10 billion investment in Afghanistan. However, America needs India in Afghanistan as a counter check on China that is why India also has an investment of $2 billion. Now as far as Pakistan has a different perception with Chinese in Afghanistan we are comfortable but not with the Indians. 2. The issue of Raymond Davis, then 3rd one is the Abottabad operation and 4th is the recent attacks of NATO forces on our check post in the Mehmond Agency i.e Salala incident. Actually, these four factors deteriorated our relationship with the United States of America. Now in the present context we can see the Pakistans response at three levels first and the most tangible response is the vacation of the Shumsi Airbase Americans left it on 11 Dec then second one is we cut off the NATO supplies and the third one is diplomatic i.e. boycott of the Boon Conference. Now if you see towards the US they are kept on giving us a response that the cooperation between the Pakistan and the US is inevitable for the stability of Afghanistan. But the problem is that Pakistan and United States see the stability in Afghanistan with different angles both have their own perceptions.

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Under the auspices of Jahangirs World Times (JWT) a Discussion Forum was organized at the School of Politics & International Relations in QAU, Islamabad. The discussion was chaired by Dr. Lubna Abid Ali the chairperson of the School of Politics & International Relations while Dr. Mehmood-ul-Hassan Butt, director student affairs was also present at the occasion. The students and the faculty members of International Relations shared their views on the Pak-US relations in the aftermaths of the elimination of Osama Bin Ladin on 2nd May2011. Their arguments were logical, convincing and categorically sound. Actually, their views reflect some new dimensions of this ever long bilateral relationship which is an important chapter of Foreign Policy of Pakistan. Thus, they applied their understanding of International Relations and relevant knowledge to analyze the overall deteriorated situation of Pak-US relations especially after the Abottabad operation.

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Zubair Sumro another student of IR 1st Semester spoke differently he said, Traditionally, the US interest is based on its geo-strategic location of Pakistan instead in the society or people of Pakistan. In fact, the CIA and US government also know that they cannot have a dignified exit from Afghanistan without the help of Pakistan. Now in my opinion Pakistans response after Salala incident is adequate by all means. Interesting fact is this in the winter season the supply route Central Asia is not viable due to snow fall. Now we have to see how long Pakistan can stand with this response. Actually, they did this attack to gauge the Pakistans reaction. Rana Muhammad Dilawar student of IR 3rd semester highlighted another aspect he said. Actually problem lies with us not with the Americans the reason is that we kept on changing our foreign policy after the happening of any unexpected incidents. In fact, our policy making mechanism lacks far sightedness as well as coordination among the concerned institutions and because of the

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A visiting faculty member of the department of IR also participated in the discussion and said, Pak-US relations are highly dominated by the security interests and other aspects of this relationship are completely missing. So, any mishap in the realm of security quickly destabilizes the relationship as we are seeing now-a-days after the Salala incident. Here, in Pakistan there is a great misperception regarding America and in American society there are also misperceptions regarding Pakistani society. Thus, until and unless we would not develop or focus on the social aspects of the relationship we cannot achieve a cordial relationship.

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Asif Ali another student of IR 4th semester disagreed with the former speaker he said, Pakistans absence can definitely make a difference US secretary of state Ms. Hillary Clinton also admitted that without Pakistan it would be difficult because Pakistan is the main actor in the Afghan issue so, the Bonn Conference can not be a boon for the Afghanistan issue without Pakistan.

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Ehsun Ali Zahid (IR 1st semester ): Pakistan should not boycott the Bonn Conference instead by attending the conference along with some widows and orphan children of our soldiers who have been killed in the Salala Attack would have greater impact on the world especially on the western media. By doing this we could ask the United States at Bonn in front of international community now answer these victims of the brutal attack? , are you (US) our ally or foe? Actually, in the modern world states also use propaganda as a tool for projection of their foreign policy. But I think our foreign office and other concerned institutions are unaware of this technique.

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dependent on this aid is a big question mark. There is a realization in Pakistan that the revenue which normally we collect from the vehicles carrying supply for the NATO forces in Afghanistan is only Rs 400 per vehicle so we have to raise it. Thus, we can see the effects of the descent in Pak-Us relations at global, regional and domestic level (Afghanistan). Now floor is opened for the students.

institutional failure we always saw dominance of individuals in our foreign policy. Now this is the right time for the overhaul of our foreign Policy. Sajad Malik another student of IR 3rd semester was looking elegant summed up the discussion he said, I would say from the elimination of Osam Bin Ladin till salala incident clearly highlighted the trust deficit between Pakistans relationship with the United States. Moreover, in both countries civil and military leaderships are not at the same page but even than both are inevitable for each other. America needs Pakistans support during the withdrawal phase of its forces from Afghanistan while, for Pakistan US military and economic assistance is crucial. But in my opinion it is very important for Pakistan to redefine the terms of engagements with the US which should be based on mutual respect and strategic partnerships in real terms beyond the rhetoric of non-Nato ally. Thank you. Waqas Iqbal

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General kiyani's remarks that Pakistan does not want strategic depth in Afghanistan, has left many skeptical to this assertion, and as many also hopeful who want to see a revision in this policy because it has brought more harm than the benefits. These feelings emanating from Islamabad have resonated well in the power circles in Kabul and President Hamid Karzai also made the assertion that Pakistan and Afghanistan are twin brothers, implying that no other state can turn Afghanistan

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Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Pakistan opted to evolve working relationship with some sections of the Afghan society and in order to achieve that, Pakistan did some maneuvers which were termed by some as Strategic Depth. When those maneuvers became militarized, then Pakistan received high degree of condemnation both at home and internationally, though Pakistan kept on denying it officially.

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Changing Concept of Strategic Depth

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Pakistan in terms of conventional warfare is weaker as compared to India's military might, which is why it follows a policy of minimum credible deterrence in terms of non-conventional weaponry, so that in face of an all-out defeat on the group it may use that. Pakistan is also conscious to its thinner width and in case of a fully fledged Indian offensive; it fears that India can pierce it into two halves thus disconnecting the supply lines and force Pakistan to crumble on its knees. For that, its military policy makers are of the opinion that Pakistan needs a strategic depth where, in face of such an attack it can retire and then regroup for a counter offensive. These strategists think that Afghanistan can give that strategic depth to Pakistan. Thus they justify Pakistan's actions in Afghanistan. Pak-Afghan relationship after 9/11: Pakistan feels more comfortable with dealing the Pashtun element within the Afghan government

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The strategists in Pakistan feel compelled to pursue the policy of strategic depth because of the security dilemma, a concept very well explained by Kneth Waltz. In Pakistan's case it can be explained like, if a nation feels weak in conventional or non-conventional terms and it develops a feeling that the world powers are either not able or weak in resolve to protect its interests or security against another, then it takes some measures that makes him feel relatively satisfied about its security. The security of one state exacerbates the insecurity of the other state, and the weaker state adopts measures and pursues a policy which would become the harbinger of such a conflict that the both states don't want to enter. Due to the alliance of India with Afghanistan and incessant danger from both the borders, Pakistan felt the need to secure its western borders by developing a strategic depth in Afghanistan, also to avoid a hypothetical two-front situation when Pakistan has to fight on both eastern and western fronts.

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In order to understand the concept of strategic depth in its right perspective one must bring in theoretical clarity. Strategic depth must be seen in the perspective of forging friendly relationship with the neighbors, in which the two are not in animosity with one another. In today's globalized world it is not just a spatial concept anymore, now a state can have strategic depth overseas also, miles away from its borders like Israel has in the US. The other variants of this concept can be economic strategic depth, or political strategic depth, of course through political alliance making. So if taken in that sense, strategic depth can be the need of every country on the globe. Military's point of view of the strategic depth is the state's ability to protect its assets and absorb an attack from the enemy, its ability to retreat and regroup and again attack the enemy, engage it effectively and compel it for a retreat and thus exhaust it in its pursuits of achieving its strategic aims.

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Because of the uncertainty in the relations between the two and the threat from India, Pakistan opted to evolve working relationship with some sections of the Afghan society and in order to achieve that, Pakistan did some maneuvers which were termed by some as Strategic Depth. When those maneuvers became militarized, then Pakistan received high degree of condemnation both at home and internationally, though Pakistan kept on denying it officially. Over the years after the 9/11 there has developed a serious understanding between the leadership and strategists of both the countries that the conventional proxy games against the interests of each other will only harm the two and will give a pretext to the international forces to perpetuate their stay in the region. There are many reasons to believe that the concept of strategic depth is going through an erosion of some sorts, but still the relations between the both are far from being that of friendly neighbors.

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against Pakistan. Historically the relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan have not been very casual, rather animosity, tension and distrust has been conspicuous in the relations between the two. Nevertheless the importance of having some kind of relations has been felt by the both countries under different regimes in the past. Good relations has become more important especially after the events of 9/11, when the whole world around Pakistan and Afghanistan changed, making it incumbent upon the both to work together.

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Pakistan has put into its share in rebuilding Afghanistan. It has committed up to $330 Million in reconstruction and assistance programs to Afghanistan. It has helped build and maintain the Turkham to Jalalabad road in Nangarhar province and the Ghulan KhanKhost road. In 2010 projects like building PeshawarJalalabad and Quetta Kandahar rail links were set as priorities. Pakistan is also involved in constructing buildings at universities in Kabul, Nangarhar, and Mazare-Sharif, there is a project to build a hospital in Kabul called Jinnah Hospital. Pakistan is currently hosting 6000 Afghan students in Pakistani schools and hundreds and thousands of Afghan child refugees attend schools in Pakistan. This shows the degree of concern in Islamabad to project an acceptable image to the establishment in Afghanistan.

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2010 the two countries agreed on opening eighteen roads and border crossings, it was also agreed that Afghanistan will be given access port Qasim and Gawadar. It was good news for the Afghan businessmen who could export their products to the region and develop trade links to central Asian republics. The joint economic commission is also working to exploit new ways and avenues of bolstering trade.

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Pakistan catered for millions of refugees during the Afghan war of 1990s, about three million that time. After the fall of Taliban in 2001, numbers of people crossed into Pakistan and the number of refugee surge climbed up to five million. Pakistan is one of the largest refugee hosting countries in the world and most of the refugees in Pakistan are from Afghanistan, out of total 2.9 million Afghan refugees about 1.7 million were living in Pakistan by 2009. Pakistan's role as a host to the refugees is also criticized by some quarters, but a fact remains that the Afghans are obliged of this generous and sustained help that Pakistan has made available to them all along right from 1979. This can be a point which can be used as an argument to help improve relations and do away with the mistrust. "In the transit-trade pact signed in July 2010 the two countries agreed on opening eighteen roads and border crossings, it was also agreed that Afghanistan will be given access port Qasim and Gawadar." The economic cooperation has deepened after the 9/11 specially bilateral trade has been boasted and the transit trade deal is signed. PakistanAfghanistan Joint Economic Commission is constituted .Now Afghanistan is number one trading partner of Pakistan as of imports, and Pakistan is the third largest market for Afghan exports. The Bilateral trade has grown manifold since 2000; it reached $540 million in 200304 and $1.2 billion in 20040512 and the AfghanistanPakistan Transit Trade Agreement in 2010 committed to increasing that figure to $5 billion by 2015. In the transit-trade pact signed in July

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and has tried to befriend the Pashtuns of Afghanistan to evolve a friendly voice in Pakistan. Pakistan tried to make it a point with the US when it was attacking Afghanistan in October 2001, that the Northern Alliance will not occupy Kabul, that did not materialize but in the coming government of President Hamid Karzai the Pashtun element was quite dominant, but with the Northern Alliance leaders holding quite important portfolios. Both the governments knew that they need to do business and quite positively they agreed on a Tripartite Commission comprising of Pakistan, Afghanistan and US/NATO .It was mandated with monitoring security and coordinating information and intelligence sharing along the PakAfghan border. Afghanistan despite its reservations on Durand line agreed to be a part of it because this commission was also tasked with pushing for the international recognition of the Line. This showed that the ice was breaking in the ties between the two and the trust was developing.

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Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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The contested issues between both countries have led them to engage in an arms race to subdue each other, meet security dilemmas and to maintain deterrent capabilities. With an utter neglect towards social sectors, defense of both states has been gnawing lions share of their respective national exchequers right from the very inception. This situation has become more dismal and startling especially in the wake of natural catastrophes and population explosion. But, on the other hand, it is also essential that strategic decisions made without going through necessary calculations and a proper cost-benefit analysis can produce dire and ever-lasting consequences for states wider interests. Pakistan governments recent decision to grant India the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status is also one of the strategic decisions and must not be taken

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No sane mind can deny this fact that for the stability, prosperity and development, establishment of long-lasting peace in the region, normalization between India and Pakistan is indispensable.

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MFN Status to India: Repercussions for Pakistan

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The continuation of blame game and occasional outbursts of anger and frustration has conspicuous in the relations between the two countries, but this time around this delinquency has not acquire such magnitude , as to be able to derail the process of peace. The cross border attacks from Afghanistan into Pakistani territory, the assassination of Prof. Burhanuddin Rabbani , attacks inside Kabul and other irritants have not been able to stop the two countries from talking to each other, which is a positive sign. . For the sake of the progress of South Asia, India and Pakistan should also exercise the Hand off policy in relation to Afghanistan. The reservations on both the sides are reasonable, but the venues of negotiations should never be closed. The two countries have the right to forge any kind of relationship with any country, but to avoid the internecine security dilemma that may endanger the fragile understanding that both the countries have so far secured. Murad Kassi

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without thorough study. India though granted the same status to Pakistan in 1996, imposed non-tariff barriers to cripple the access of Pakistani products to Indian market. As a result of which, out of total India-Pakistan trade volume i.e. $1.4 billion, Pakistans export to India in the year 2009-10 remained $268 million while India exports to Pakistan was elevated to $1.2 billions. This trade imbalance Pakistan is already facing despite not granting India with MFN status and no rocket-science is required to gauge the gravity of the impact if the anticipated status is bestowed to India. Similarly, the number of importable products, which India allowed Pakistan to it were 850, while Pakistan allowed non-MFN India 1945 items to export it. After this decision is implemented, Indian exports to Pakistan will increase manifold and India will flood its products into Pakistani market of which Pakistans energy-stricken nascent industry will never be able to compete, thus sooner or later meeting its tragic end. Then if one makes a comparative analysis of the agriculture sectors of both the states, one can assess the huge difference present between the both due to asymmetry of subsidies extended to the farmers of the respective states and unequal availability of water resources. Prices of fertilizers, availability of modern machinery, energy resources for electric tube-wells and above all allocation of budget for the sector are the areas in which Pakistan is far behind India to match. Especially the scarcity of water and the pace, with which this deficiency is making its way, is really alarming. If Pakistan grants this controversial status without first addressing the concerns and filling the gaps will make Pakistan potent and Pakistan will deprive most of the leverages it already enjoys. This decision will also assist India to plead its case in the comity of nations for UNSC permanent membership. In short, pursuit of this decision by present government without necessary homework is just like pushing the nation into the swamps of slavery where there are no strong footings. mustansardss@hotmail.com Mustansar Hussain Tasir

Importance Transport Sector in the Economy


It is not the wealth of a nation that builds roads, but the roads, that build the wealth of a nation. (John F. Kennedy)
Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Foreign Policy Special

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Pakistan, with 180 million people, has, to some extent, developed transport infrastructure. Over the years, road traffic has grown significantly faster than national economy. Currently 90 % of national passenger traffic and 95% of freight (in the wake of poor performance of Railway) is through roads. The 3.65% of the total road network which comprises national highways and motorways network carries 80% of Pakistan's total road traffic. This sector currently accounts for 6% of employed labour force. Road density, an indicator of the level of prosperity and development, is .32KM/KM2 which is less from regional standard. In 1947 road network was 5000 KM now more than 260000 KM road network is available that includes 12000 KM of NHA networks carrying 80% of Pakistan's commerce. Lowering domestic production cost, timely delivery of raw material, integrating markets, linking different areas, bringing economic opportunities for people and enhanced productivity are the macro economic benefits associated with the development of road infrastructure. This also encourages tourism, foreign investment and brings competitive advantage over other economies. The economic impact of transportation can be direct and indirect. The direct impact includes

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The European Union in its policy statement emphasized its approach towards building transport system: Modern economies cannot generate wealth and employment without highly efficient transport networks. This is particularly true in Europe where for goods and people to circulate quickly and easily between member states, we must build the missing links and remove the bottlenecks in our transport infrastructure. The trans European network is a key element in the relaunched Lisbon strategy for competitiveness and employment in Europe for that reason alone; to unblock major transport routes and ensure sustainable transport, including through major technological projects.

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In the history of civilizations, each great power had made progress and successfully prolonged and strengthened their rule to the benefit of their subjects. Roman, British, Muslim Empires of Umayyad and Abbasid and in subcontinent Mughal Empire all had built roads, to move their army and to facilitate commerce. Similarly, the American settlers had rivers and canals to move their produce to the market. The Industrial Revolution brought about significant change and the countries began to develop their transportation system to fully utilize the potential of enhancing their mobility to increase trade and commerce. With the arrival of Railway a new dimension was added in the transport sector. In the twenty-first century the importance of transport to economic well-being of a nation has necessitated more and continued investment in transportation sector for economic development of the country and to compete with other nations.

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accessibility change which consequently enables to save time and cost. The economic multiplier effect, indirect impact, helps in drop of commodities price, enhances service and increases variety.

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It is incumbent upon policy makers to diversify transport system to move goods from highways to other modes including railway but unfortunately the performance of railway instead of improving has gone down over the years resultantly not only railway sustaining heavy losses but the national economy as a whole is suffering a lot. In the wake of above the following is suggested:I-Transportation sector be treated as investment rather as a cost. National economy can prosperous and compete other economies if necessary tools required for competition are provided by the govt. II-Investment should be prioritized and the identification of projects should be carried out

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Pakistan's geostrategic position has made it unique in the region, and the future of Central Asian economies, Afghanistan, China, India and regional trade is highly dependent on development of transportation system in Pakistan. The economic dividends for Pakistan are enormous and will ultimately bring prosperity and better economic opportunities across the board.

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For a developing country like Pakistan the return on investment in highway is greater than return on an average investment. If seen historically the return on investment in highway capital has been highest when the existing highway capital was smallest in those countries which started to make progress and achieved significant economic development. Micro economic view of benefits of road infrastructure is bit difficult to quantify more accurately since it deals with specific action taken in business in response to changes in efficiency or reliability of transportation services. In a country like Pakistan the development of road infrastructure brings equal economic opportunities for lower income or previously neglected areas. And consequently enhances national income and integration.

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In Pakistan, National Highway Authority (NHA) plays a major role in development of new projects, operation and maintenance and has reasonably performed well in ensuring road safety and all weather reliability. Besides undertaking different projects, one of the top priorities includes to expand north-south highway network which will ultimately reduce travel time in addition to making traffic more efficient and saving transport costs. Moreover cheaper transport cost will increase private sector productivity which will further diversify and deepen the industrial base necessary to provide jobs for the growing population. Another huge investment plan of NHA is to upgrade the highway from Karachi to Peshawar, linking it to port of Gawadar and to the People's Republic of China. This project on completion will cut travel time from 72 hours to 36 hours from Karachi to Peshawar. The importance of this artery for transportation moving between Arabian Sea ports in the South and Central Asia and People's Republic of China in the north is crucial for regional trade and development of our economy.

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strategically keeping in view project's benefits to the country.

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize

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Pakistan should have a vision of what it would like to achieve from other nations before reciprocating market access to them. Trade relations, like all other relations, are friend and foe oriented and are glued with the broader national interests of the country.

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WTO and its Implications for Pakistan

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The writer is director in a public sector organization. muhammadramzan2001@hotmail.com Muhammad Ramzan

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V-Enhanced road safety should be ensured by equipping NHA with latest technology regarding road safety.

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IV-An integrated approach demands that transport policy should encapsulate future demands of the country and the region as well.

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III-Efforts should be intensified to provide transport facility to the land locked economies in the west and also extend help to the neighboring economies in removing bottlenecks for the development of road infrastructure.

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The WTO is an institution with the broader legal and constitutional elements that incorporate and standardize the strategies for global economic integration. Its basic objective is to create a liberal and open trading system under which business enterprises from respective member countries can trade with one another in a fair and undisclosed competitive system with an agenda to raising standards of living, ensuring full employment and a large and steadily growing volume of real income and effect demand and developing the full sense of the resources of the world and expanding the production and exchange of goods. These objectives are to be achieved by following the optimal use of the world's resources in accordance with the objective of sustainable development, seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and to enhance the means for doing so in a manner which is consistent with their respective needs and concerns at different levels of economic development. In other words, the WTO facilitates the implementation, administration and operation, and further the objectives of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and also provides framework for the implementation, administration and operation of the Plurilateral Trade Agreements. It provides the forum for negotiations among its members concerning their multilateral trade relations in matters dealt with under the agreements and a framework for the implementation of the results of such negotiations, as may be decided by the Ministerial Conference. The WTO administers the Understandings on Rules and Procedures governing the Settlement of Disputes. It administers the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM). With a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making, the WTO cooperates, as appropriate, with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank) and its affiliate agencies. The four basic rules of WTO are 1. Protection to Domestic Industry through Tariffs.

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The need for an institution to promote rule based trade was felt when in 1930s world suffered through the Great Depression and World War II. The Great Depression had profound effect on the people and nations who lived through it. This economic mayhem started with the 1929 Stock Market Crash wiping out savings of people and creating unemployment of the highest level in Western World. That great Depression resulted into WWII and destroyed many European countries. After the WWII, reconstruction of the Europe was top most priority of the US and that promoted, along with other steps, to create some international institutions to facilitate and promote trade and development. In January 1948, 23 nations organized the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in Geneva providing opportunity to start the tariff negotiations. This first round resulted in 45,000 tariff concessions affecting $10 billion (about 1/5th of the world trade). In the next 47 years, the basic legal text of the GATT remained the same as it was in 1948, with some additions in the form of plurilateral voluntary membership agreements and continual efforts to reduce tariffs in a series of trade rounds till the inception of World Trade Organization on 1st January, 1995 in the 8th round at Uruguay. The agendas of the eight rounds of the GATT from 1947 to 1994 can be glanced through the following table.

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international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in late 40s. Along with International Monetary Fund (IMF) and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (commonly known as World Bank) for freer and predictable trade between countries. It tries to provide market access to countries for their products and services and promotes friendly investment policies by eliminating trade distortions between countries, trimming down tariff and non-tariff barriers, removing quotas and abolishing subsidies in a phased manner. It also has rules that protect local businesses and industry from foreign goods and services using unfair practices like dumping or transfer pricing mechanisms. The WTO has rules to address quality issues, labor standards, environmental aspects, government regulation, and legal frameworks. It is important to understand the evolution of WTO and how its rules affect developing countries such as Pakistan.

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GATT requires the member countries to protect their domestic industry/production through tariffs only. It prohibits the use of quantitative restrictions, except in a limited number of situations. 2. Binding of Tariffs The member countries are urged to eliminate protection to domestic industry/ production by reducing tariffs and removing other barriers to trade in multilateral trade negotiations. The reduced tariffs are bound against further increases by listing them in each country's national schedule and the schedules are an integrated part of the GATT legal system.

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Pakistan and WTO Pakistan joined WTO in 1995 when the organization came into being. As a developing country Pakistan has enjoyed the extra time given for preparations to abide by the Agreements of WTO upto 2005. The implications to adopt the free liberalization under WTO has many pros and cons but until now there has been no comprehensive study to capitulate the total impact in economic terms focusing overall and individual sectors of the economy in particular. To enter into the intricacies of WTO Agreements and applying them on sectors of the economy is a huge and difficult task and out of scope of this essay. In simple terms, WTO negates anything which blocks the way of free movement of goods and services from one market to another on a basic assumption of improving the human lifestyle. It demands open market access for foreign goods and services in the local market without any discrimination by creation of tariff or non-tariff barriers. Pakistan is required to provide a Most Favored Nation (MFN) status to all trading partners which means nondiscriminatory treatment among the members implying on any imports or exports origination from respective countries. If Pakistan provides an MFN status to India for example, then Pakistan has to provide an equitable treatment to all imports originating from India which will restrict Pakistan to impose any kind of qualitative or quantities restriction on "WTO facilitates the implementation, administration and operation, and further the objectives of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and also provides framework for the implementation, administration and operation of the Plurilateral Trade Agreements."

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4. National Treatment Rule The rule prohibits member countries from discriminating between imported products and domestically produced goods in the matter of internal taxes and in the application of internal regulations.

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3. Most Favored-Nation (MFN) Treatment The rule lays down the principles of non-discrimination amongst member countries. Tariff and other regulations should be applied to imported or exported goods without discrimination among countries. Exceptions to the rules are to regional arrangements subjected to preferential or duty free trade agreements, Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) where developed countries apply preferential or duty free rates to imports from developing countries.

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Indian products. Now this implies to the question why like India Pakistan is not reciprocating to given the same MFN status. The major reason is that the total GDP of Pakistan is approximately $80 billion and if India can subsidize all its imports of an equal amount this will create havoc for the Pakistani industry. In case of GATT, it requires all countries to reduce their respective rates to a given limit, and here WTO provides special preferential treatment to the developing and least developed countries by giving them more time and more flexibility to adjust to the global trade liberalization system. But in reality, with specific reference to Pakistan under IMF conditionality and structural adjustment program, Pakistan has to reduce its tariff from 65% to 30% gradually, and WTO also requires the same. Under WTO it is partly the mutual consent of the negotiating parties to determine tariff bind and tariff bound rates but under IMF it is more enforcement of the loan requirements. In case of a dispute the case is to be presented to the Dispute Settlement Body of WTO. This requires preparation of the case in context with the legalities of WTO rules. A developing country like Pakistan which does not have ample resources or know-how of the subject of WTO rules and references usually are trapped to pay hefty foreign exchange to international lawyers which are almost unaffordable. An ideal example is of Basmitti Rice, which was initially patented by a U.S. firm has been challenged by India, where Dispute Settlement Body favored India. Now, India having the sole patents refrains all Pakistani rice exports to be referred as "Basmitti" until the patents rights are paid for. Take any industry or sector of economy i.e., textile, fertilizer, pharmaceutical, oil & gas, ship building, sugar, banks, insurance, leasing, and agriculture WTO directly effects the local industry both at the import and export ends from the beginning to end focusing more on quality standards, hygienic conditions, and the very existence of a product or service through intellectual property clauses. The Way Forward The negotiation ground of WTO, we must be ready and fully prepared with complete set of briefings on impacts of WTO Agreements and its agenda on all sectors of Pakistani economy and industry. Pakistan should have a vision i.e. what it would like to achieve from other nations before reciprocating market access to respective countries. Like all other relations, trade relations are friend and foe oriented and are glued with the broader national goals of the country. Trade relations have become so influential that

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Pertaining to TRIPS agreements, different varieties of plants and animal species and traditional

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As regards agriculture, Pakistan being an agrarian economy is still a net importer of food items. The Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) is perhaps one of the most controversial aspects of WTO. The issues in AoA include subsidies, domestic support and market access. The developing countries and the developed world are at loggerheads over agriculture. The developing countries require an AoA that is fair just to meet both ends, while the developed countries require that they maintain their status quo to protect their handful of farmers through subsidies and domestic support. As far as Pakistan is concerned, Pakistan has comparative advantage in many primary commodities. But in order to fully utilize our comparative advantage, we need to focus on and solve the problems in supply side (domestic requirements). WTO directly effects the local industry both at the import and export ends from the beginning to end focusing more on quality standards, hygienic conditions, and the very existence of a product or service through intellectual property clauses.

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To what extend the tariff should be bound, to what extend the subsidies to be provided, to what extend Pakistan can win preferential treatment, win anti-dumping and safeguard cases, secure intellectual property rights, to choose to give MFN status, to apply national treatment to foreign products, to acclaim developing country provisions, to ensure a level playing field for domestic industry is not an easy task for Pakistani Mission to Geneva in WTO at least for now!

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they have become either source of normalization of other diplomatic relationships, or creating more belligerent associations with other countries. If Pakistan has to choose between the options international trade relationship can work wonders for Pakistan, making it possible for Pakistan to normalizing relationships with countries where the advantage is. "In simple terms, WTO negates anything which blocks the way of free movement of goods and services from one market to another on a basic assumption of improving the human lifestyle." In additions, as it has been emphasized from the beginning that exports are function of domestic production strength. Pakistan should also develop an indigenous model of economic development based on local stakeholders rather than following blindly the policies and guidelines of WTO, WB and IMF. Ban gladesh is a key example in this respect which has achieved formidable success in developing socio-economic strategies focusing the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) of the country. Gramine Bank and Gramine Telecom of Dr. Younas are an epic story of mobilizing the poorest fraction of the country especially women by providing credit loans to them to invest in local self-employment and business opportunities, and accessing market information using communication facilities.

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Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

Prime Minister of Pakistan Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani, in his speech on December 14 in the Senate of Pakistan, eulogized that he had become the longest serving prime minister in Pakistan . It is important to analyze the foreign policy pursued during the tenure of longest serving prime minister and his party. The Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians (PPP-P) opposes terrorism and will continue the policy of the present regime (General Musharraf) to ally itself against the forces of terror, says manifesto of the PPP-P released on the eve of 2008 elections in Pakistan. Therefore,

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The foreign policy of the present government does have internal political implications. The pro-establishment right wings in Pakistan, both in media and the political parties, have taken upon them to challenge every initiative the PPP government has taken so far. They have agitated PPP's inherited alliance in war on terror and vehemently opposed its pursuits and gestures towards India.

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PPPs Foreign Policy: Promises vs Performance

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The writer is Chief of Research and Dean Business Studies Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) Islamabad Dr Zafar Mueen Nasir

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pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge need to be registered to take full advantage of them. All valuable export brands like Basmati rice, varieties of mangoes, oranges, etc need to be protected under different provisions of TRIPS agreement. Furthermore we need to exploit our comparative advantage in the production of halal meat, dairy products, fruits, vegetables etc. Same is the case with the services which are the largest and most dynamic component of both developed and developing economies.

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The ups and downs in Pak-US relations during the first three years of the PPP government, the relationship hit bumpy road in the year 2011. Starting from Raymond Davis saga in Lahore early this year to OBL killing in the mid year to Nato attack by the end of the year, the two countries now seem poles apart from each other. And from Parliament to All Parties Conference in the PM House to Envoy Conference, every forum has recommended re-negotiating relations with the United States . Pakistan is now vying for renegotiation of Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement between Pakistan and the United States (US-Pak-01). The future look of the Pak-US relations does not seem very encouraging to the level of friendly allies. They are still allies (as Pakistan has not still opted out of war against terror) but harnesses grave mistrust between them. The United States considers Pakistan 's support to those who attack its soldiers across the border. And the United States has recently tied its military assistance to

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The United States endeavoured to win hearts and minds of Pakistanis by legislating a huge assistance programme introduced in Kerry-Lugar-Berman bill. It promised to provide $1.5 billion every year over a five-year span which was extendable to another similar programme. The massive assistance was purely for social sector development in Pakistan . However, given the peculiar civilmilitary relationship in Pakistan , the PPP could not sell the package. Hue and cry in Pakistan created irritants rather than goodwill about the United States among the people of Pakistan.

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It has been during the PPP government that the Strategic Dialogue between the two countries has been upgraded to ministerial level incorporating 13 areas for cooperation including the much-desired energy cooperation in Pakistan . While the United States has cooperated in enhancing capacity of Tarbela Dam Power project; Muzafargarh, Guddu and Jinnah Thermal Power Project, it however did not come up to the expectations in civil nuclear relations like they did with India. The PPP government could not persuade the United States that the history, the background of nuclear cooperation between the United States and India as enunciated by George Bush during his visit to Pakistan, was not different with Pakistan.

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Relations with the United States The PPP leadership owed a special relationship with the USA because of a role played by the United States in ensuring reconciliation between the then President Gen Pervez Musharraf and its slain leader Benazir Bhutto through NRO. And that has been the path so far, adopted by the CoChairman of the party and President Asif Ali Zardari. President Zardari has not only remained a stern advocate but also tried to comb together all powers in the form of Friends of Democratic Pakistan (FODP) in line with party's manifesto of allying itself against the forces of terror. The Pak-US relations during the current tenure of the PPP, has seen ups and downs. The announcement of massive assistance to Pakistan-KLB-to the tune of $ 7.5 billion over a span of five years can be termed as a highest whereas the NATO attack on Pakistan 's check post can be seen as a lowest point in their bilateral relations.

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the foreign policy pursuits with the United States in particular and the west in general, warrant special attention. Similarly, the present government has also taken initiatives to normalize with India . The process still continues despite four years and progress has to be seen.

Neighbours-First The PPP promised good neigbourly relations in the region. The manifesto reads PPP Parliamentarians will continue to cement and enhance relations with Pakistan 's traditional friends.The PPP Parliamentarians seeks good neighbourly relations with its neighbours. The present government has also tried to keep up with this promise. President Zardari announced to undertake tour to China after every three months. He has been to China for seven times whereas

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Trade with India and South Asia The PPP manifesto provides an overt support to regional trade. It believes that such a zone can enhance markets and job opportunities as well as enable the South Asian countries to formulate consensus views for World Trade Organization and other international bodies that are coming into being to ensure that they are supportive of the rights of the people of South Asia, reads the manifesto. The PPP government has reduced the negative list of tradable items under South Asia Free Trade Area (SAFTA) from more than 1100 and brought it down to over 900. The PPP government has further pledged to further reduce 20 % items from the negative list. However, it faces the real challenge in normalization of trade with India by according the Most Favoured Nation (MFN) status. The roadmap provides full normalization by December 2012. It is a thorny road and time will tell whether the PPP can succeed in this pursuit.

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Relations with India The PPPP manifesto reads The PPP Parliamentarians, without prejudice to the UN Security Council Resolutions, supports open and safe borders at the Line of Control to socially unite the Kashmiri people. It notes that India and China have a border dispute and yet enjoy tension free relations. It seeks to reduce tensions with India through peaceful negotiations to outstanding Disputes and issues. This is the foreign policy issue wherein the PPP has tried to keep its promise but with hardships. The PPP tried to carry forward the thread of composite dialogue process with India where it inherited from Musharraf regime. However, the Mumbai attacks not only halted the process but also put every thing on the hold with war clouds. However, the PPP successfully vindicated Pakistan 's stance and India had to come back on the negotiating table. The confidence building measures(CBMs) across the LoC are now further strengthened with additional CBMs signed between the two countries in July 2011.

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The disclosures by WikiLeaks also provided another dimension to the relationship; a divide within Pakistan between civil and military relations vis-a-vis Pak-US relations. Memogate is a manifestation on this account.

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action against the same elements. Pakistan , too, has its own grievances. There is a general fear among policy makers in Pakistan about 2012, being election year in the United States . The Obama administration in its re-election bid, would definitely put onus on Pakistan .

the Prime Minister visited China for four times. The relationship with China has seen an upward trend and would continue to be the same in future as well. The Afghan problem remains a problem till date. President Hamid Karzai was the only head of state who was invited to attend the oath-taking ceremony of President Zardari. The PPP government also signed a new Afghan Transit Trade Agreement with Afghanistan , providing land route for Afghan goods to India . However, Afghanistan 's tilt towards India or the United States creates problems for the government.

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Pakistan became the key ally of US in its war on terror but there remained a significant trust deficit, which go on till now. The talks about the future of relations between the two countries are under discussion on media, academic and scholarly level. This article aims at to contribute to this discussion in factual and analytical terms.

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Pak-US Marriage: Can it Lead to Divorce?

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Conclusion As discussed earlier, the foreign policy pursuits of the PPP government continue to face challenges. The challenge to the PPP is two-dimensional: both external and internal. The foreign policy of the present government does have internal political implications. The pro-establishment right wings in Pakistan , both in media and the political parties, have taken upon them to challenge every initiative the PPP government has taken so far. They have agitated PPP's inherited alliance in war on terror and vehemently opposed its pursuits and gestures towards India . Similarly, the PPP policies towards China and Iran have not been accepted by the United States and its allies. However, the PPP made promises to the people of Pakistan and it must fulfil the same despite multi-dimensional bottlenecks. Shaukat Piracha

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The PPP held its legs tight and did not bow to the pressures and signed gas pipeline treaty with Iran . President Zardari has been proactive in consolidating relations with neighbourly country. The PPP government has also started negotiations with Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) for strategic dialogue and is pursuing its desire.

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The two countries have had three marriages and two divorces, the first marriage came from Pakistan's membership of the Baghdad Pact and the divorce came in 1965 during the Pakistan- India war when the U.S. decided to hold back Pakistan's military aid. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan caused the second marriage between the two so as to defeat USSR in Afghanistan and contain its influence from the region. The separation occurred immediately after Soviet forces withdrawal from Afghanistan, which leading to the divorce in 1998 with Pakistan's nuclear detonations. The third marriage occurred in 2001 as a result of 9/11 attacks in the United States , Pakistan became the key ally of US in its war on terror but there remained a significant trust deficit, which go on till now and causing several obstacles in the way of successful achievement of the mutual interests. Currently as a result of some worst crises Pak-US relationship has had set back, the talks about probability or impossibility of the third divorce between the two countries are under discussion on media, academic and scholarly level. This article aims at to contribute to this discussion in factual and analytical terms. The US-Pakistan relationship has been declining since 2010, but the downward spiral accelerated in 2011 as a result of four grave incidents (i) the killing of two Pakistanis by a CIA contractor Ramyond Davis in Lahore on January 27, 2011 (ii) US raid in Pakistan on May2, 2011 to kill Osama bin Laden (ii) Terrorist attack on the US Embassy in Kabul on September 13, 2011 (iv) NATO aerial attack near Pakistan's border on November 26, 2011. The first main crisis of this list was the incident of a killing of two Pakistanis in Lahore at the hands of a CIA contractor Raymond Davis. The incident provoked anger and anti-American sentiments among Pakistani public. Washington hanged tough that Mr. Davis was a diplomatic agent and under law of diplomatic immunities he is immune from prosecution hence pressurized his earlier release. The government of Pakistan was internally and externally under pressure. Month long detention of CIA contractor in Pakistan strained relations between the two countries and finally under American pressure government released Davis Raymond and sacked the foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi who was demanding prosecution of Davis. While discussing the reasons of Mr. Davis's release it was analyzed that the government took this step to protect three major planning (i) President Asif Ali Zardari's visit to Washington (ii) the next round of US- Pakistan strategic dialogue (iii) trilateral talks involving Pakistan, Afghanistan and the United States.

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Present Pakistan-US relations are a story of sole super power's interest in a strategically strong state of the developing world. This story contains difficulties of diplomacy and policy making between asymmetrical states.

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Despite several controversies and suspicions two main dynamics are their mutual interest (i) Afghanistan, (ii) Regional Stability. US forces are still engaged in a war in Afghanistan and for a positive outcome it's vastly reliant on Islamabad. Besides, this time Americans will not repeat the previous mistake leaving Afghanistan destabilized without a proper rehabilitation and stable government that's why they do need Pakistan's cooperation for peace and stability in Afghanistan in the aftermath of American forces withdrawal. Similarly, Pakistan also needs peace and stable government in Afghanistan for furtherance of its interests in the region. So far as, the issue of

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In view of consequent upset relations the question about the likelihood of third divorce is being widely discussed in both the countries. However, facts reveal that the nature of mutual interests and objectives are probably stronger than any kind of chance for the split between them.

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Decade long history of the third marriage between Pakistan and United States witnesses that since the deployment of US and NATO forces in Afghanistan, Pakistan has practically experienced several military skirmishes on Durand Line. A similar type of aerial attack occurred on November 26, 2011 near Pakistani border and caused death of 24 Pakistani soldiers. This attack further smashed the stressed relations between the two countries. The attack was vigorously condemned on public and official level. Following the deadly cross border strikes Islamabd order a review of all arrangements with the United State and NATO, including diplomatic, political, military and intelligence activities and shut NATO supply routes into Afghanistan in retaliation for the mortal attack.

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The terrorist attacks on US embassy in Kabul on September 13, 2011 turned sour the gradually improving relations. Immediately after the attack, US blamed North Waziristan based Haqani militant network and sent message to Pakistan to take action against Haqqani network or the US will do it unilaterally. It was an open threat from Obama administration to Pakistan. Retaliating American pressure and threats Islamabd stated that Washington should do more about the safe havens and sanctuaries inside Afghanistan from where Pakistanis had been attacked.

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Pakistan army reacted strongly against American action critical of its territorial integrity and warned US for any future raid. Expressing Anger against US action for no prior information, government of Pakistan called it a violation of Pakistan's sovereignty and breach of International law and morality.This incident intensified suspicions between the two countries against each other.

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On May 2, 2011 the world's most wanted person Osama Bin Laden, was raided and killed in Abotabad, by United States Special Sources Military Unit. The immediate questions and criticism were raised by US and International community as to the safe residence of the world's most wanted culprit in Pakistan close to Pakistan Military Academy. The incident made greater than before the deep-seated mistrust in this relationship. Soon after the incident, The US suspended about a third of its $2.7 billion annual defense aid to Pakistan.

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Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Pakistan and Iran share over 900 kilometres common border. Traditionally, Pakistani frontiers with Iran have always been peaceful, safe and secure. Iran was the first country, to recognize Pakistan as

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It is high time that Pakistan and Iran should attend to their mechanisms for productive interactions not only on political but also on military level to counter the looming threats that recent developments in the region had posed to both countries.

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Pakistan-Iran Relations

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The writer is a scholar of International Relations and working on Pak-US Relations as major area of her M.Phill. Ishrat Abbasi

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The factual and analytical results reveal that so far United States and Pakistan are indispensable for each other. While reviewing future relations with United States, Government of Pakistan should apply the Rational Action Model of Foreign Policy in order to avoid any miscalculation about Pakistan's self-worth, options and the surrounding dynamics. This model comprises four dimension, Goal setting & ranking, Consideration of options, Assessment of consequences and Profitmaximization.

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Pakistan's fears concerning pro-Indian government in Afghanistan is concerned in this regard US will have to attempt for a mutually acceptable solutions in Afghanistan in view of the relevance of all the stakeholders because it is not in the interest of United States as well to have an unstable South Asian region. Secondly, Pakistan is highly dependent upon American aid, which is not limited to military aid.

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Recently, Iranian ambassador Mashallah Shakeri was addressing a farewell ceremony held in connection with the end of his tenure in Pakistan. Iran takes pride in the fact that with the export of natural gas and electricity to Pakistan, it would be able to transform its economy and ensure provision of energy to every single house, factory and

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Pakistan however, continued its efforts to maintain its friendly relations with Iran. Pakistan always has persuaded Iran for the reconciliation to set aside the differences. Through a progressive reconciliation and diplomatic efforts, both countries have come closer to each other in the last few years. Unfortunately, in 2009, a suicide attack allegedly by Jundallah militant group killed over forty people including senior commanders of Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) in Sistan-o-Balochistan. "Pakistan always has persuaded Iran for the reconciliation to set aside the differences. Thro-ugh a progressive reconciliation and diplomatic efforts, both countries have come closer to each other in the last few years." The Government of Pakistan strongly condemned the attack and shared the grief and sorrow of the Iranian people over the massive loss of innocent lives. Regretfully, immediately after the terrorist attack, a number of Iranian leaders blamed Pakistan for that. Pakistan Government, however, strongly denied its involvement in the incident and assured Iran for an all out support to find and punish all those responsible for the attack if found on Pakistani soil. The incident however deteriorated the steadily improving relationship between two brotherly countries.

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Both the countries maintained their bilateral relationship as good neighbours. Pakistan, Iran and Turkey established Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD), an inter-governmental organization for socio-economic development in the member countries in 1964. The organization later became Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) in 1985 and its membership increased to ten in early 1990s by including Central Asian States and Afghanistan. Following the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979, Pakistan became the first country to recognize Revolutionary Iranian Government. Pakistan sent a high-level delegation under foreign minister to assure Iran that, it intends further cementing its traditional relations with the latter. During Iran-Iraq war, Pakistan played an active role to negotiate a deal between two countries to end the war. Moreover, Pakistan provided moral and diplomatic support to Iran during that war which eventually annoyed Iraq and Arab world. Unfortunately, both countries developed minor differences over the interim setup in Afghanistan after the withdrawal of Soviet Union and later on the issue of the support to Taliban by Pakistan and Northern Alliance by Iran and India. In view of those differences, Iran did not support Pakistan Kashmir issue in1996 when Pakistan was presenting a resolution in United Nations on Human Rights violations in Kashmir. It was a serious blow to Pakistani efforts.

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an independent country in August 1947. In fact, there have been historical linkages between the people of Pakistan (the then India) with Iranian people. The people and civilization of Indian subcontinent had very effectively absorbed Iranian traditions and so much so that Persian became language of literary elite and later the official language. Since Iran had its security concerns from the former Soviet Union and strained relations with Arab world, therefore, emergence of a non-Arab Muslim country on its neighbourhood provided her a relief. Similarly, Pakistan, being victim of Indian aggressive stance and hostile Afghanistan, took Iran as its strategic partner. Iran proved that partnership during 1965 and 1971, Indo-Pak wars. It also militarily assisted Pakistan in the early years of inception. Both the countries were part of a Cold War alliance called the Central Treaty Organization Ceto). Iran supported Pakistan during war of 1965 with India, by sending over squadrons of airplanes and extra tanks and other arms, Pakistani fighter jets were often sent to Iran for fuelling and other tactical purposes. In the 1971 war Pakistani planes were sent to Iranian bases for protection from the enemy. Similarly Iran sent its jets at Pakistan Air Force Bases during the Iran-Iraq War.

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workplace in the country, he said. We hope that the mega project of bringing electricity to Pakistan, that is 1,000 MW of electricity, and even more than that up to twice that figure, will be operational soon. Today Iran, with a production capacity of 63,000 MW of electricity, can easily meet the requirements of Pakistan, he added.

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Just like the taxpayers of medieval Italian cities, we're having our money siphoned off to pay for a greedy military machine

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War Drums are Beating for Iran. But whos Playing Them?

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JWT Editorial Board

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It is high time that Pakistan and Iran should attend to their mechanisms for productive interactions not only on political but also on military level to counter the looming threats that recent developments in the region had posed to both countries. -JWT Desk

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Now, under the changed global environment, there is a need that both countries should forget past annoyances and forge a new long-term common vision for their common security and economic interests. The temporary slit in the Pak-Iran relations has no sound basis. The fleeting sourness thus can be alleviated through enhanced interactions at all level from both sides. Mutual trust deficit, prevailing over the years has to be ameliorated on priority basis. Both need to realise the impending threats in the regional and global context.

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Tehran stood by the Kashmiris and supported their just cause. Iran's position on Kashmir clearly reflected in the remarks of the country's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. On November 16, 2010, Iranian Supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei in his message to the Haj Pilgrims called for providing assistance to Kashmiris engaged in resistance struggle.

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The nightmare had begun. Huge armies of brigands rampaging through Europe was a disaster second only to the plague. It seemed as if the genie had been let out of the bottle and there was no way of putting him back in. Warfare had suddenly turned into a profitable business; the Italian city states became impoverished as taxpayers` money was used to buy off the free companies. And since those who made money out of the business of war naturally wished to go on making money out of it, warfare had no foreseeable end. Wind forward 650 years or so. The US, under George W Bush, decided to privatise the invasion of Iraq by employing private `contractors` like the Blackwater company, now renamed Xe Services. In 2003 Blackwater won a $27m nobid contract for guarding Paul Bremer, then head of the Coalition Provisional Authority. For protecting officials in conflict zones since 2004, the company has received more than $320m. And this year the Obama government contracted to pay Xe Services a quarter of a billion dollars for

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One of these armies was called the Great Company. It totalled, according to one estimate, 16,000 soldiers, larger than any existing national army. Eventually it descended on the pope, in Avignon, and held him to ransom. The pope made the mistake of paying off the mercenaries with huge amounts of cash, which only encouraged them to carry on marauding. He also suggested that they move on into Italy, where his arch-enemies, the Visconti, ran Milan. This they did, under the banner of the Marquis of Monferrato, again subsidised by the pope.

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Mercenaries had always existed, but under Edward III they became the mainstay of the English army for the first 20 years of what became the Hundred Years war. Then, when Edward signed the treaty of Bretigny in 1360 and told his soldiers to stop fighting and go home, many of them didn`t have any homes to go to. They were used to fighting, and that`s how they made their money. So they simply formed themselves into freelance armies, aptly called `free companies`, that proceeded around France pillaging, killing and raping.

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In the 14th century there were two pandemics. One was the Black Death, the other was the commercialisation of warfare.

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security work in Afghanistan. This is just one of many companies making its profits out of warfare. In 2000 the Project for the New American Century published a report, Rebuilding America`s Defenses, whose declared aim was to up the spending on defence from 3 per cent to 3.5 per cent or 3.8 per cent of American gross domestic product. In fact it is now running at 4.7 per cent of GDP. The UK spent about $57bn a year on defence, or 2.5 per cent of GDP.

And now the same war drums, encouraged by the storming of the British embassy last week, are beating for an attack on Iran. Seymour Hersh writes in the New Yorker: `All of the low enriched uranium now known to be produced inside Iran is accounted for.` The recent IAEA report which provoked such outcry against Iran`s nuclear ambitions, he continues, contains nothing that proves that Iran is developing nuclear weapons. In the 14th century it was the church that lived in symbiosis with the military. Nowadays it is the politicians. The US government spent a staggering $687bn on `defence` in 2010. Think what could be done with that money if it were put into hospitals, schools or to pay off foreclosed mortgages.

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In 1989 I picked up an in-house magazine for the arms industry. Its editorial was headed `Thank God For Saddam`. It explained that, since the collapse of communism and end of the cold war, the order books of the arms industry had been empty. But now there was a new enemy, the industry could look forward to a bonanza. The invasion of Iraq was built around a lie: Saddam had no weapons of mass destruction, but the defence industry needed an enemy, and the politicians duly supplied one.

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Sir John Hawkwood`s White Company would offer its services to the pope or to the city of Florence. If either turned his offer down, Hawkwood would simply make an offer to their enemies. As Francis Stonor Saunders writes in her wonderful book, Hawkwood Diabolical Englishman: `The value of the companies was the purely negative one of maintaining the balance of military power between the cities.` Just like the cold war.

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Just like the taxpayers of medieval Italiancity-states, we are having our money siphoned off into the business of war. Any responsible company needs to make profits for its shareholders. In the 14th century the shareholders in the free companies were the soldiers themselves. If the company wasn`t being employed by someone to make war on someone else, the shareholders had to forgo their dividends. So they looked around to create markets for themselves.

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Google x
Foreign Policy Special
Sunday, January 01, 2012

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In a top-secret lab in an undisclosed Bay Area location where robots run free, the future is being imagined. It is a place where your refrigerator could be connected to the Internet, so it could order groceries when they ran low. Your dinner plate could post to a social network what you're eating. Your robot could go to the office while you stay home in your pajamas. And you could, perhaps, take an elevator to outer space. These are just a few of the dreams being chased at Google X, the clandestine lab where Google is tackling a list of 100 shoot-for-the-stars ideas. In interviews, a dozen people discussed the list; some work at the lab or elsewhere at Google, and some have been briefed on the project. But none would

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At Google X, which uses artificial intelligence techniques and machine learning in its search algorithm, some of the outlandish projects may not be as much of a stretch as they first appear, even though they defy the bounds of the company's main Web search business.

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A Chase for Technological Dreams Looking far Ahead, Google Chases its Wildest Dreams

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The retiring US president, Dwight D Eisenhower, famously took the opportunity of his farewell to the nation address in 1961 to warn his fellow countrymen of the danger in allowing too close a relationship between politicians and the defence industry.`This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience,` he said. `In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.` It exists. The genie is out of the bottle again. JWT Desk

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speak for attribution because Google is so secretive about the effort that many employees do not even know the lab exists. Although most of the ideas on the list are in the conceptual stage, nowhere near reality, two people briefed on the project said one product would be released by the end of the year, although they would not say what it was.

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Google could sell navigation or information technology for the cars, and theoretically could show location-based ads to passengers as they zoom by local businesses while playing Angry Birds in the driver's seat.

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Google may turn one of the ideas the driverless cars that it unleashed on California's roads last year into a new business. Unimpressed by the innovative spirit of Detroit automakers, Google now is considering manufacturing them in the United States, said a person briefed on the effort.

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Sergey Brin, Google's co-founder, is deeply involved in the lab, said several people with knowledge of it, and came up with the list of ideas along with Larry Page, Google's other founder, who worked on Google X before becoming chief executive in April; Eric E. Schmidt, its chairman; and other top executives. Where I spend my time is farther afield projects, which we hope will graduate to important key businesses in the future, Mr. Brin said recently, though he did not mention Google X.

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For example, space elevators, a longtime fantasy of Google's founders and other Silicon Valley entrepreneurs, could collect information or haul things into space. (In theory, they involve rocketless space travel along a cable anchored to Earth.) Google is collecting the world's data, so now it could be collecting the solar system's data, Mr. Brooks said.

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A Google spokeswoman, Jill Hazelbaker, declined to comment on the lab, but said that investing in speculative projects was an important part of Google's DNA. While the possibilities are incredibly exciting, please do keep in mind that the sums involved are very small by comparison to the investments we make in our core businesses, she said. Among the items that could be connected: a garden planter (so it could be watered from afar); a coffee pot (so it could be set to brew remotely); or a light bulb (so it could be turned off remotely). Google said in May that by the end of this year another team planned to introduce a Web-connected light bulb that could communicate wirelessly with Android devices. At Google, which uses artificial intelligence techniques and machine learning in its search algorithm, some of the outlandish projects may not be as much of a stretch as they first appear, even though they defy the bounds of the company's main Web search business.

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At most Silicon Valley companies, innovation means developing online apps or ads, but Google sees itself as different. Even as Google has grown into a major corporation and tech start-ups are biting at its heels, the lab reflects its ambition to be a place where ground-breaking research and development are happening, in the tradition of Xerox PARC, which developed the modern personal computer in the 1970s.

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They're pretty far out in front right now, said Rodney Brooks, a professor emeritus at M.I.T.'s computer science and artificial intelligence lab and founder of Heartland Robotics. But Google's not an ordinary company, so almost nothing applies.

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A leader at Google X is Sebastian Thrun, one of the world's top robotics and artificial intelligence experts, who teaches computer science at Stanford and invented the world's first driverless car. Also at the lab is Andrew Ng, another Stanford professor, who specializes in applying neuroscience to artificial intelligence to teach robots and machines to operate like people.

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While software engineers toil away elsewhere at Google, the lab is filled with roboticists and electrical engineers. They have been hired from Microsoft, Nokia Labs, Stanford, M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon and New York University.

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One Google engineer familiar with Google X said it was run as mysteriously as the C.I.A. with two offices, a nondescript one for logistics, on the company's Mountain View campus, and one for robots, in a secret location.

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Other ideas involve what Google referred to as the Web of things at its software developers conference in May a way of connecting objects to the Internet. Every time anyone uses the Web, it benefits Google, the company argued, so it could be good for Google if home accessories and wearable objects, not just computers, were connected. Because Google X is a breeding ground for big bets that could turn into colossal failures or Google's next big business and it could take years to figure out which just the idea of these experiments terrifies some shareholders and analysts. Among the items that could be connected: a garden planter (so it could be watered from afar); a coffee pot (so it could be set to brew remotely); or a light bulb (so it could be turned off remotely). Google said in May that by the end of this year another team planned to introduce a Web-connected light bulb that could communicate wirelessly with Android devices.

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Fleets of robots could assist Google with collecting information, replacing the humans that photograph streets for Google Maps, say people with knowledge of Google X. Robots born in the lab could be destined for homes and offices, where they could assist with mundane tasks or allow people to work remotely, they say.

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Robots figure prominently in many of the ideas. They have long captured the imagination of Google engineers, including Mr. Brin, who has already attended a conference through robot instead of in the flesh.

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Introduction and Selection by Baidar Bakht Translation from Urdu by Baidar Bakht and Marie-Anne Erki Publisher: Packages Ltd, Lahore, 2010. Pages 604. Price: Rs 750/US $ 25/GB P 20. Reviewed by Toheed Ahmad
Foreign Policy Special
Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Shifting Sands: Poems of Love and other Verses

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There are a few small, speculative projects happening at any one time, but we are very careful stewards of shareholders' money, he told analysts in July. We are not betting the farm on these. JWT Desk

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Mr. Page has tried to appease analysts by saying that crazy projects are a tiny proportion of Google's work.

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These moon-shot projects are a very Google-y thing for them to do, said Colin W. Gillis, an analyst at BGC Partners. People don't love it but they tolerate it because their core search business is firing away.

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Because Google X is a breeding ground for big bets that could turn into colossal failures or Google's next big business and it could take years to figure out which just the idea of these experiments terrifies some shareholders and analysts.

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Johnny Chung Lee, a specialist in human-computer interaction, came to Google X from Microsoft this year after helping develop Microsoft's Kinect, the video game player that responds to human movement and voice. At Google X, where he is working on the Web of things, according to people familiar with his role, he has the mysterious title of rapid evaluator.

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Amjad is generally accepted as the most popular living Urdu poet. He has a prolific pen. Besides the 12 collections of poetry, he has written two travelogues, one book on critical appreciation of classical Urdu poetry and many books containing his dramas for both TV and stage. He has produced two volumes of translations in Urdu language - one, Aks (reflections) comprising of protest poems of Palestinian poets, and Kale logoan ki roshan nazmain (Bright poems of black people) containing poems of African and AfroAmerican poets. He contributes a regular column to the national Urdu daily Express and is a frequent participant in TV talk shows on culture and society. Before the 'Shifting Sands' two volumes of his Urdu verse had been translated into English.

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'Shifting Sands' is a book that demands attention as a world class product of translation. Beautifully produced in a coffee-table format, the volume presents the parallel Urdu-English text of 170 poems - Nazms and Ghazals - selected from the 12 volumes of Amjad's Urdu poetry translated so effectively by the Canadian team of Baidar Bakht and Anne-Marie Erki. I have not seen nor heard of such a massive parallel texting of another Pakistani poet being available in a major world language, not even of our dear national poet Allama lqbal. Baidar Bakht had earlier produced a selection of Amjad's poems in English translation in 1991 titled In the last days of autumn. The translators deserve special thanks of us Urdu lovers.

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The second reason is the lack of national literary discourse of corpus and canon. While Chinese or Persian Literature is clearly identifiable and marketed as such, Pakistani literature has not come of age 64 years after the birth of the country. By contrast the history of Urdu literature is spread over five centuries, and the vocabulary list of the language exceeds the number of words available to the English language.

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Poets, it is said, produce national literature, while translators produce world literature. This beautiful book is a brilliant illustration of this adage. Urdu literature has yet to create its deserved space in world literature, and this book can be cited as an example of where this sweet language can stand in the world - at the top level. I will cite two reasons for this. One, because our society gives a very low status to translation. It remains a low paying profession whose wages are below those of domestic servants and garbage collectors. Nowhere in the country do we teach the subject of Translation Studies. Foreign language learning has fallen out of fashion at our universities. Nobody in our academia or the literati is familiar with the discipline of Comparative Literature. So who will talk about world literature?

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Sunday, January 01, 2012

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They may be about medicine, science and technology, religion or philosophy. Some of the subjects discussed may not be familiar to you. Here speed as well as understanding of the contents of the given passage is of the essence because in every competitive examination, several such passages are given. Comprehension tests ascertain your ability to understand the passage and remember its main points. Questions on the passage are mostly fact-based. In some cases, the candidates are asked to draw inferences from what is stated or implied in the passage. Such passages are difficult and need a lot of practice. GUIDELINES 1. Read newspapers and magazines regularly.

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Foreign Policy Special

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Comprehension of a passage is generally difficult for most candidates because the topics are varied.

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HOW TO ATTEMPT COMPREHENSION QUESTION

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The 'Shifting Sands' carries a powerful dedication: To the dream of a peaceful and equality-based neighbourhood for every human being in the global village of the 21st century. In this Age of Globalization, the Information and Communication Technologies have sounded the death knell for geography. Distance is dead. The planet is becoming one neighbourhood where the role of the translator/interpreter in making cross-cultural communication possible is critical. The dedication of 'Shifting Sands' therefore carries a deeper meaning as it is a proclamation of our desire, and ability, to take Urdu to the world. JWT Desk

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Amjad's competence in a variety of literary genres is amazing, and perhaps unparalleled in our tradition.

A SOLVED EXAMPLE Long ago Emerson wrote. A mans task is his life preserver. This seems to be remarkably correct in our modern life. The man without a task is like a ship without ballast and anchor; he is all too often merely a drifter. Very few men seem to have initiative enough to choose a task for themselves if they do not need to work. When the inevitable disappointments come, as they assuredly will, they are completely overwhelmed. But the man who has his task has no time for vain regrets; he escapes the disastrous fate which over takes his less fortunate brothers. Work is one of the greatest safety-

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IN THE EXAMINATION HALL 1. Read the passage at least twice and understand its contents well. This should not take more than five minutes for a small and ten for a long passages. 2. Do not read the questions first. This may tempt you to look for only particular information in the passage and consequently, affect full comprehension. It is important to first understand the passage before you go to the questions because if the questions are not very specific, you may commit a lot of mistakes. Generally, the passages have a mix of implied ideas and specific detail type of questions. 3. Eliminate regression, i.e., going back to the lines you have just read. This is out of habit developed over years of wrong or half-hearted reading. This must be done away with as the maximum time you should take to answer all the questions after reading a passage is about seven minutes. Regression is the result of lack of concentration and assumptions. 4. Do not let your own knowledge (or lack of it) interfere with the contents of the passage. Do not make any attempt to agree or disagree with the author. 5. Your principal task in attempting a comprehension passage should comprise: i. Finding the topic. The topic must be precise. Generally the topic is found either in the first or in the last line. ii. Finding the main idea. This can be a definition, a classification, a purpose or an elaboration of the topic; often the topic and the main idea are the same. iii. Finding major supporting details. The supporting details modify, explain or elaborate the main idea. You should learn to recognize these supporting details that explain, illustrate, compare and contrast, show cause-effect relationship or merely restate the main idea in other words. 6. Underline the words you dont know the meaning of. Try to relate them to the given context. 7. Resort to sentence analysis and break a sentence into parts, looking for answers to who, what, whom, when, where, which, why and how. 8. Locate reference words and check what they refer to. 9. Underline signal words and look for what they indicate. 10. If the passage contains more than one paragraph, resort to paragraph analysis in the manner given above (5 to 10).

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2. Give yourself an environment of English; converse in English with your friends and peers. 3. Read the first few lines (or the paragraph) very carefully as this part generally contains the central idea of the passage. 4. Develop a sense of urgency while reading the passage. 5. Practise at least one typical passage under test conditions every day. Give yourself five to seven minutes to read a small passage and ten to fifteen minutes in case of a long passage. 6. Take random selection book test. This means take a good book and open it randomly at any page. Select one paragraph. Give yourself five minutes to read the passage. Take a blank sheet of paper and note down all the information you can recall from what you have just read. Then, go back to the page and check what you have missed out. Do this at least twice a day. Gradually try and reduce the time to three minutes per page. 7. Have a clear and logical thought process. Do not clutter your brain with unnecessary and irrelevant thoughts and details.

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valves which was ever invented, and the youths especially need it. We sometimes pity the man who is a slave to his task, and perhaps we are right; but a man who has no task is a slave to his ennui, which is very much worse. Even a disagreeable task is better than none; the man who does work which is disagreeable to him will yet live more happily, than if he had had no task at all. And the man with the task is easier to live with, and will prove a more contented citizen, and a more valuable one, than the one who lacks such a task. Even so-called invalids are often the better for some task which is suited to their powers, and they often live all the longer if they work hard. The man who starts life with a solid task which taxes his powers had better thank God, and do his best, for this is one of humanitys greatest boons. Questions: 1- What disadvantages will a man without a task suffer? 2- Why is even disagreeable task considered better than none? 3- In what ways is a man with some task the better for it?

Preparing for the CSS Right Thing Right Time


In this article, I would focus on the issues of the candidates which result in failure of many of the candidates.
Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Foreign Policy Special

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Answers: 1- A man without a task, that is, purposeful work, will lack both will and direction. He will not be able to engage himself in any useful activity. Consequently he will neither work nor achieve anything. He will simply stagnate, suffer disappointments, and bring ruin upon himself. 2- A man without any work to do will inevitably lead a life of boredom and lethargic inactivity. Such a life will be one of unchanging monotony and misery. It is, therefore, better to be engaged in any task whatsoever, even if it be an unpleasant one, than to have nothing to do and suffer endless boredom and unhappiness. 3- A man who has some work, or who is usefully employed, will be a more contented person and also easier to live with than a man without any work. Work has a therapeutic value in the case of invalids, for if they are purposefully employed, according to their capabilities, they will add years to their life. Work is a life preserver; it helps a man to live longer and more happily than a man who has no task in life. Prof Muzaffar Bokhari (Retd)

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For Vocabulary, take half an hour by revising and memorizing from GRE test. Some students complained me it is difficult to memorise. I advised them just to go through these words as these words are helpful in understanding prcis, comprehension, pair of words, topic of the long essay etc. The writer is a lecturer and teaches English and Islamic History.

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For pair of words, memorise a list from different sources and then the last five years and the sentence of these pairs must get checked from English teacher as we usually do not know how to write a sentence. Besides this, practise Active and Passive & Direct and Indirect by revisin the rules and solving the CSS papers of the last 10 years by the end of December and the start of January. For correction, revise the rules and solve the correction of the last 20 years of the CSS papers.

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Besides this activity, it is the need of the hour to focus on expansion of the ideas. These ideas should be read from different sources like books and one must read nearly 200 to 300 expansion of the ideas. When it is asked in the paper then one should need to develop his own points rather than writing those things which one has memorised without logic. Furthermore, candidate must solve a prcis in a week and when it is the month of December and January then one must solve the CSS prcis of the last 20 years daily assuming himself sitting in the exams. These essays, expansion of the ideas and prcis must be checked by an English teacher. Having confidence that I am able to write perfect essays and prcis result in utter failure and playing with one's future. So going to an English teacher is better and chance availing option.

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They need to write daily more and more in order to improve their expression. If one improves his/her expression it will help not only in English paper but also in all compulsory and optional papers. So write a short essay now a days and in the start of December begin writing long essays. The topics of these essays have been taken in my previous issues. So one prepares 10 to 15 long essays and after that he/she is in the position to write any essay because the matter is similar and it depends on the candidate that how he utilises his time and material best during the 3 hours of the exams time. One should recall all the material and things he has prepared and grasped all important points in the rough outline then one should write an essay.

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As the time of the exams (CSS Exam scheduled to be held in the last week of February) is approaching, the candidates are preparing for their best to compete with hundreds and thousands of the candidates. I usually saw the trend that the candidates focus on their optional and compulsory subjects completely ignoring English subject. I would advise those candidates that more than 70 to 80% students fail in English essay and comprehension and the rest due to subject selection issue. It is high time they needed to set their direction in the right way.

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Zahid Ashraf

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

Mahsud said that Rs 1.862 billion project of Wapda Town grid station entails installation of 220/132 KV transformers and three 160MVA (Mega Volt Ampere) transformers with controlling switchgears on both sides, 4 No. 220KV line bays and 220KV Lahore-Kot Lakhpat double circuit in/out transmission line. Detailing the salient features of Ghazi Road Grid Station, Rasul Khan Mahsud said that for being closer to the Indian border, it would be the foremost and nearest available grid station for pole-to-

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Talking to the Jahangir's World Times (JWT) the PEPCO/NTDC Managing Director Rasul Khan Mahsud said that the NTDC is extending and improving country's power transmission system following increase in electricity generation through new and up-gradation projects in line with the present democratic government's commitment to ensure optimum utilization of all available resources to balance the power demand and supply mechanism.

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The National Transmission and Dispatch Company (NTDC) has established a new 220KV Grid Station at WAPDA Town Lahore, besides achieving an overall 85 percent work progress on another station of same capacity at Ghazi Road here that will help reduce load-shedding duration in LESCO domain.

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At present there are 12 grid stations of 500 KV having capacity of 14850 MVA and 26 sub-station of 220 KV with 15364 MVA capacity, and these grids are sufficiently catering to the power needs of the country says MD PEPCO/NTDC Rasul Khan Mahsud

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Power Production Capacity Sufficient to the Need

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pole power import, if Pakistan reached into an agreement with India for import of electricity. The PEPCO/NTDC Managing Director said, the estimated cost of this vital project is Rs 2.562 billion with scope of work including construction of sub-station consisting of 220KV and three 160MVA transformers along with controlling switch-gears, construction of 220kV double circuit transmission line for in/out of existing Kala Shah Kaku-Sarfaraz Nagar single circuit line and construction of 220KV double circuit transmission line in/out for Kala Shah Kaku-Ravi single circuit. The Ghazi Road 220KV Grid Station would also help reduce power load from 220/132KV transformers feeding the LESCO (Lahore Electric Supply Company) load centres and decrease transmission losses with better voltage control.. Responding to a query, he said, the Company had also the credit of stretching 246 kilometres long 220KV double circuit twin bundle transmission line in a very short span of time. The line, he added, would transmit 325MW generated electricity from power stations installed over Dabair Khuwar (Khuwar, a Pashto word which means tributary or nulla), Khan Khuwar and Allai Khuwar to Islamabad via Mansehra district. He said, the SNC Company Canada and NESPAK has completed the feasibility report of 500KV HVDC and HVAC lines for transmission of imported 3400MW coal-based power. While, feasibility report was being prepared for transmission of 2400MW to be generated through Thar Coal deposits and its PCI had been forwarded to the government. Now, the NTDC has also connected eight independent power plants of 1,725MW collective capacity in the main power system. Similarly, 300MW Chashma Nuclear Power Plant's generation has been connected to main power system through 140 kilometres long 220KV transmission line. -JWT Report JWT Desk

NATIONAL AFFAIRS
Foreign Policy Special
Sunday, January 01, 2012

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WORLD IN FOCUS November December 2011

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New PHC chief justice takes oath: The newly appointed Chief Justice of the Peshawar High Court, Justice Dost Mohammad Khan, took oath of his office.

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Sindh Information minister resigns: Sindh Information Minister Sharjeel Memon resigned from the provincial cabinet after meeting President Asif Ali Zardari. Nawaz demands commission to probe memo: Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz (PML-N) president Muhammad Nawaz Sharif has demanded the formation of a high-level commission comprising members of the parliament and judges to expose elements involved in writing a memo

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New LHCJ sworn into office: Justice Sheikh Azmat Saeed took oath as 40th Chief Justice of the Lahore High Court.

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BD retracts assurances given to Gilani, Khar: Pakistan faced great embarrassment when after winning the consent of 150 countries, Bangladesh once again made it clear it would not remove its objections at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) meeting that calls for the European Union to allow Pakistan a two-year cut in tariffs to boost Pakistan's economy.

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NA passes pro-women bill unanimously: On 15 Nov, after being blocked twice, a landmark private bill seeking to penalise evils like the so-called marriage with the Holy Quran, forced wedlock and depriving women from inheritance finally got through the National Assembly.

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Pakistan ranks 6th in TB burden countries: Pakistan ranks 6th globally among 22 high tuberculosis burden countries, contributing 43 per cent of the disease towards the EasternMediterranean region of World Health Organisation (WHO).

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Oil, gas discovery in KP: The Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) announced the discovery of a new hydrocarbon bearing horizon from its appraisal well Nashpa-2, located in District Karak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

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Eunuchs get on voters' list: Orders went out from the Supreme Court to the Election Commission of Pakistan (ECP) to enrol eunuchs as voters a development that accords the basic right to a much mistreated community.

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Gas agreement signed with Turkmenistan: Pakistan and Turkmenistan signed five agreements and memoranda of understanding to boost cooperation in the fields of trade, energy, media and culture. One of the agreements relates to the $7.6 billion Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) gas pipeline project under which Pakistan will get 1.3 billion cubic feet per day of gas.

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to Admiral Mike Mullen. USAID launches $45m 'Citizens Voice Project': The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) launched its three-year 'Citizens' Voice Project' in Punjab asking civil society organisations to come up with innovative proposals on issues in the sectors of energy, economic growth, agriculture, education and health.

He started his political career as a student activist with ultraconservative Jamiat, a student wing of Jamaat-i-Islami. He is married to Farahnaz Ispahani, the granddaughter of Pakistan's first ambassador to USA Mirza Abu-ul-Hassan Ispahani and is now serving as MNA and spokesperson for the President of Pakistan. He took up the assignment of ambassador to the United States in April 2008 soon after Pakistan People`s Party came into power.

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The `memogate` scandal, however, finally made him stumble. Tribal status of Wazir area restored: Commissioner Abdullah Khan Mahsud restored the tribal status of the territory of Ahmadzai Wazir tribe of FR Bannu. Sherry makes comeback, gets Haqqani's post: The government named member of parliament

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Smaller controversies kept cropping up and only earlier this year he was accused of granting visas to a large number of `CIA spies`.

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Mr Haqqani also served as high commissioner in Sri Lanka and remained a close aide of both Nawaz Sharif and Benazir Bhutto.

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The former ambassador is known as an outspoken critic of the military. His book `Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military` had detailed the military`s relations with jihadi elements a despised nexus in the West.

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Mr Haqqani, a former journalist, has been living in the US for 10 years, where he earlier remained associated with Carnegie Endowment and Boston University.

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Haqqani bows out: The curtain fell on Ambassador Husain Haqqani's career as a diplomat in Washington as he resigned after the memogate issue.

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Gilani pledges memo probe at 'highest level': After some days of public silence over a high drama, prime minister Yousuf Raza Gilani told the National Assembly he would set up a committee for what he said would be an impartial inquiry at the highest level into a controversial memo that led to the resignation of Pakistan's ambassador to the US Husain Haqqani.

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US told to vacate Shamsi base; Nato supplies stopped: Furious over the pre-dawn Nato attacks on border posts, the government reacted sharply by indefinitely closing down supply routes used by western forces in Afghanistan and once again asking the United States to vacate an airbase previously used for drone operations. The government also said it would carry out a thorough review of its cooperation with the US and Nato.

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26 Pak soldiers die in Nato blitz: On 26 Nov, twenty-six soldiers including two officers were killed and 15 others were injured when Nato helicopters attacked two security check-posts in a farflung area near the Pak-Afghan border some 50-kilometres to the west of Mohmand Agency's headquarters Ghallanai.

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Major gas discovery in Marri-Bugti area: The state-run Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) is reported to have made a major gas discovery in Zin block in Balochistan's restive Marri-Bugti area that has the potential to change the dimension of the country's power sector.

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Steel Mill given Rs.6bn lifeline: The government agreed to provide an 'immediate relief' of Rs. 6 billion to Pakistan Steel Mills to avert its closure following a communication from the PSM management that it was starting a 'shutdown process' which would be completed by December 10.

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SC throws out petition for NRO ruling review: A 17-judge Supreme Court bench threw out the government's petition for a review of its ruling which had struck down the controversial National Reconciliation Ordinance (NRO).

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Despite losing the dream prize Malala Yousafzai, a student of grade 8 from Gulkada, Mingora, is determined to fight for girls' education and fulfil the noble cause for which she raised her voice.

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Swat girl stops short of getting world peace prize for children: A 14-year-old Swat girl was nominated for international peace prize for children in South Africa last by Nobel laureate Archbishop Desmond Tuto, but a South African handicapped girl won the prize.

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and rights activist Shehrbano (Sherry) Rehman as ambassador to the US, a day after Husain Haqqani had been asked to resign over allegations that he had sought Washington's help against a possible military takeover.

PM suggests Peace Nobel for Edhi: Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani proposed the name of Abdul Sattar Edhi, head of the Edhi Foundation, for the Nobel Peace Prize. Asfandyar to head ANP for 4th term: The central council of the Awami National Party (ANP) has elected Asfandyar Wali Khan as the party's president for the fourth time.

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SC orders memogate inquiry, tells Haqqani not to go abroad: The Supreme Court moved decisively and rapidly against the government on a petition filed by PML-N chief Nawaz Sharif and ordered an inquiry to be completed into the 'memogate' scandal within 15 days. It also barred former ambassador to the US Husain Haqqani from leaving the country

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Pakistan ranked 42nd most corrupt nation in 2011: Transparency International, in its 2011 world corruption report, has shown Islamabad sliding down from last year's 34th to 42nd in ranking amongst the most corrupt nations in the world.

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Commissioned by a Germany-based Pakistani family from Sheikhupura's Jher Moulvi area, the project has been designed by architect Eike Roswag and his German team.

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Cob and bamboo building wins award: A cob and bamboo building made in a village in Sheikhupura district has won the prestigious first award for Asia Pacific that is aimed at promoting innovative architecture focused on sustainable infrastructure for communities.

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UAE mounts pressure to get airbase decision reversed: The United Arab Emirates has dived into troubled Pakistan-US ties in a desperate effort to prevent them from unravelling and avert an immediate eviction of the Americans from the Shamsi airbase whose control they enjoy.

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Memogate probe by parliament committee: The Parliamentary Committee on National Security (PCNS) headed by Senator Raza Rabbani will investigate the memogate affair and interrogate former ambassador to the US Husain Haqqani who will not leave the country till the proceedings are completed.

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Maintaining the tradition, Pakistan Army's documentary Glorious Resolve received the Jury's special award from the President of the Italian Senate with the citation A technically outstanding and emotionally powerful dramatisation of the story of the courageous soldiers under fire in a dire combat situation.

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ISPR's documentary wins Eserciti-e-Popoli award: Inter Services Public Relations documentary has won the first prize in the recently held International Film Festival Eserciti-e-Popoli (Army and People) held at Bracciano, Rome (Italy).

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Qureshi joins hands with Imran Khan: Former foreign minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi joined Imran Khan's Pakistan Tehrik-i-Insaaf (PTI) at a large rally in Ghotki.

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Nisar quits PAC chairmanship: PML-N stalwart and Leader of Opposition in the National Assembly, Chaudhry Nisar Ali Khan, announced that he was resigning as chairman of the Public Accounts Committee because of the appointment of a 'controversial person' as Auditor General and other reasons.

Khosa pulls out as memo probe panel chief: Three days after the Supreme Court named him to probe the 'memogate' scandal, Tariq Khosa regretted that he was unable to accept the job. 2012 declared year of regional trade and Economic Connectivity: The government has declared 2012 as the 'Year of Regional Trade and Economic Connectivity' with the objective of projecting Pakistan as an economic hub connecting Central Asia to several countries in the region. All accords with US and Nato to be reviewed: Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani said that his government had decided to review the agreements made by the government of president Pervez Musharraf with the United States, Nato, Isaf and the United Nations. Gwadar civil secretariat inaugurated: Balochistan Chief Minister Nawab Aslam Raisani said the Gwadar port had the potential to turn into a trade hub for the region and gateway to Central Asia and the Middle East. Addressing a ceremony held to inaugurate the civil secretariat in the coastal town, he said: Gwadar has strategic and geographical importance and the 21st century belongs to such places. Gilani for resetting relations; State dept non-committal: Pakistan wanted to rebuild ties with the United States despite the ongoing retaliation over Nato air strikes in Mohmand Agency on 26 Nov,

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Pakistan decides to take Nimoo-Bazgo project to ICA: Pakistan has taken decision in principle to take up the controversy over Nimoo-Bazgo hydropower project having generation capacity of 45 MW with International Court of Arbitration (ICA) and has given a go ahead signal to Indus Water Commissioner of Pakistan (IWCP) for preparation on legal technicalities.

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'Steel city' planned in Gadani: Balochistan Chief Minister Nawab Aslam Raisani has announced that a 'steel city' will be set up at the Gadani beach to provide job opportunities to the people of Lasbela district.

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16-year-old develops Multi Texter for Android smart phones: A young Pakistani student Sherjeel Shabih, at only 16 years, has developed a messaging application for Android smart phones. The application, Multi Texter, enables sending a bulk of text messages to multiple contacts at once.

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Testing for HIV made mandatory in KPK: Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Governor Barrister Masood Kausar has announced that HIV/Aids tests have been made mandatory before every surgical operation in all hospitals across the province.

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ECC endorses Rs. 6bn bailout package for PSM: The Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) of Cabinet endorsed the Rs. 6 billion bailout package for Pakistan Steel Mills Corporation (PSMC).

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Joint body set up to facilitate cross-LoC trade: In a major development, ten associations of commerce and industry from both sides of Jammu and Kashmir have decided to form a joint apex body to facilitate trade across the Line of Control.

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Pakistan wants those responsible for attack punished: Setting terms for renewal of ties with the United States, Pakistan has sought 'punishment' for and an 'apology' from those responsible for deadly Nato attack on two of its border posts.

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Troops free to hit back in future: Army chief Gen Ashfaq Parvez Kayani upped the ante in the standoff with the United States by telling his troops that aggressors would not be able to evade a crushing retaliation in future.

2011, Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani said, stressing that he believed it won't take long to achieve a new relationship with Washington. Zardari in Dubai, rumours in Islamabad: President Asif Ali Zardari's health and his fate kept the nation on tenterhooks all day; the clouds of uncertainty and ambiguity that had descended on Islamabad evening had not lifted 24 hours later despite telephone calls galore; talk show storms and a spate of press releases from the government side. Azam Swati quits JUI-F, Senate: Mohammad Azam Khan Swati, a senator from the Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam (JUI-F), resigned as member of the Senate and of the party. Afghan border to get air defence weapons: The government has decided to deploy air defence weapons on the country's border with Afghanistan to pre-empt fresh attacks as it re-evaluates the strategy for safeguarding its western borders from air raids, the Director General of Military Operations Maj Gen Ashfaq Nadeem told the federal cabinet and the Senate's defence committee. PM warns of fierce riposte to attack: Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani warned the US and its Nato allies that a fresh cross-border attack would meet with a 'detrimental response'. Taliban leader hopeful of peace accord on Bajaur: The fugitive deputy commander of the outlawed Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), Maulvi Faqir Mohammad, has confirmed he is in peace talks with the government and that an agreement is in sight. He said the government had released 145 members of the group as a 'gesture of goodwill' and the militants had pledged a ceasefire. Pakistan made member of UN scientific body: The UN General Assembly has unanimously decided to appoint Pakistan as a permanent member of the UN Scientific Committee (UNSCEAR), a top international body dealing with nuclear radiation.

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Amazon, Halong Bay, Iguazu Falls among new 7 natural wonders: The Amazon rainforest, Vietnam's Halong Bay and Argentina's Iguazu Falls were named among the world's new seven wonders of nature, according to organisers of a global poll.

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The summit adopted the 'Addu Declaration' which lays emphasis on effective implementation of the South Asian Free Trade Area (Safta) accord, reduction in sensitive lists and resolution of the issue of non-tariff barriers among the states of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (Saarc).

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Saarc leaders agree to boost regional trade: South Asian leaders concluded a two-day summit with pledges to promote regional trade and facilitate communications and travel among their countries.

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INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS

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Kyrgyz PM confirmed as incoming president: Kyrgyzstan confirmed Prime Minister Almazbek Atam-bayev would take over as president this year after rubber stamping the results from last month's presidential elections.

China peace prize awarded to Putin: A group of Chinese academics awarded its version of the Nobel Peace Prize to Vladimir Putin, an organiser said, pointing to the Russian prime minister as outstanding in keeping world peace. Normal trade ties with India from February: India and Pakistan agreed to resume normal trade ties in February 2012, paving the way to end decades of political mistrust and military rivalry.

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New Greek govt wins confidence vote: A majority of Greek lawmakers gave their approval to a new unity government led by Prime Minister Lucas Papademos in a symbolic confidence vote following his appointment last week. Monti formally sworn in as Italian PM: Italy's Mario Monti was formally installed as the new prime minister at the head of a technocratic cabinet in a swearing-in ceremony in front of President

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Australian PM calls for lifting ban on uranium sale to India: Prime Minister Julia Gillard called on her ruling party to overturn its ban on Australia exporting uranium to India for peaceful purposes, describing the prohibition as all pain with no gain for the national economy.

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India tests long-range nuclear-capable missile: India successfully test fired one of its longest range missiles Agni IV capable of carrying a one-ton nuclear warhead deep inside China.

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Italian PM resigns after MPs endorse austerity law: Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi formally resigned, ending one of the most scandal-plagued eras in recent Italian history.

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Arab League suspends Syria, seeks sanctions: The Arab League suspended Syria until President Bashar al-Assad implements an Arab deal to end violence against protesters, and called for sanctions and transition talks with the opposition.

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Italian Senate approves reform bill: Italy's Senate approved crucial economic reforms demanded by the European Union, the first step in paving the way for Premier Silvio Berlusconi to resign as early as this weekend and a transitional government to be formed.

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The other four crowned the world's natural wonders are South Korea's Jeju Island, Indonesia's Komodo, the Philippines' Puerto Princesa Underground River and South Africa's Table Mountain, according to the New 7 Wonders foundation.

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Giorgio Napolitano.

The two islands were found on the remote sea floor in international waters 1,600 kilometres west of Australia during a surveying trip in November. Norway hit by data-theft attack: Norwegian security officials say the Nordic country has been hit by one of the most extensive data espionage attacks in the country's history.

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Test finds neutrinos still faster than light: A new experiment appears to provide further evidence that Einstein may have been wrong when he laid down that nothing could go faster than the speed of light. The new evidence, challenging a dogma of science that has held since Albert Einstein published his 'theory of relativity' in 1905, appeared to confirm that subatomic particles called neutrinos could travel fractions of a second faster. Get ready for extreme weather, warn scientists: Top international climate scientists and disaster experts meeting in Africa have a sharp message for the world`s political leaders: Get ready for more

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Launched by rocket from Hawaii at 1130 GMT, the Advanced Hypersonic Weapon, or AHW, glided through the upper atmosphere over the Pacific at hypersonic speed before hitting its target on the Kwajalein atoll in the Marshall Islands. Kwajalein is about 2,500 miles (4,000 kilometres) south-west of Hawaii.

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Pentagon tests hypersonic flying bomb: The Pentagon held a successful test flight of a flying bomb that travels faster than the speed of sound and will give military planners the ability to strike targets anywhere in the world in less than an hour.

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The Norwegian National Security Authority says, Industrial secrets from the oil, energy and defence industries have been stolen and disseminated.

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Parts Gondwana found off Australia: Australian scientists exploring areas of the Indian Ocean said they had found sunken parts of the mega continent Gondwana which could offer clues on how the current world was formed.

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Bronze-age bag full of beads found on moor: An extraordinary collection of early Bronze Age remains and artefacts including amber beads inside a stitched bag or basket has been discovered in one of England's most remote spots.

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Myanmar wins diplomatic coup with nod to chair ASEAN: Southeast Asian leaders agreed to allow Myanmar to chair their bloc in 2014, in a victory for the new government seeking international legitimacy after a series of reform moves.

dangerous and unpredictable weather caused by global warming.

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Night-flowering orchid discovered: The world's first known night-flowering orchid has been discovered on New Britain Island, near Papua New Guinea, experts from Kew Gardens have said. The species, Bulbophyllum nocturnum, is the first known example of an orchid which has flowers that consistently open after dark and close in the morning. Libyan courts, not ICC, to try Seif al-Islam: Libya will not hand over Muammar Gaddafi's son

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US, EU sign airline passenger data sharing deal: The United States and the European Union have signed a draft pact on sharing passenger data for flights between the two continents, which both sides have welcomed as a significant step forward. The agreement, which must be adopted by the European Council and parliament, aims to combat transnational crime and terrorism.

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Seoul votes a chaotic yes to free trade with US: Amid tear gas, President Lee Myung-bak's governing party rammed a free-trade agreement between South Korea and the United States through parliament, ratifying a deal that has sharpened a political divide between the government and the opposition and between big business and the growing number of voters unhappy with deepening economic inequality.

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The 217-member assembly, the first elected body of the Arab Spring, was expected to confirm a deal whereby the Islamist Ennahda party and two other parties split the country's top three jobs between themselves.

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Tunisia enters new era of democracy: Tunisia entered a new era of democracy with the inaugural session of its democratically-elected constituent assembly, 10 months after a popular uprising that ended years of dictatorship.

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China launches two satellites: China placed two satellites in orbit, including a spacecraft that will collect and relay data for disaster relief efforts.

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India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan were part of the Climate Summit for a Living Himalayas held in Bhutan`s capital Thimphu. They agreed to cooperate on energy, water, food and biodiversity issues.

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Himalayan nations agree on climate adaptation plan: Four Himalayan nations facing the threat of weather changes have agreed to collaborate on ways to adapt to climate change after a two-day summit in Bhutan.

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Qadhafi's son Saif arrested: Muammar Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam has been captured, Libya's new authorities announced, ending a three-month manhunt for the murdered dictator's long-time heir apparent.

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Afghan jirga backs troop deal with US: Afghan elders endorsed a strategic partnership deal with the US which could see its troops remain on Afghan soil for years, while insisting on a string of conditions. The declaration at the end of the loya jirga stressed terms including that US nationals committing crimes in Afghanistan must not face immunity and that the US must side with Afghanistan if a third country tries to attack it.

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They're calling for preparations that they say will save lives and money. The experts fear that without preparedness, crazy weather extremes may overwhelm some locations, making them uninhabitable.

Seif al-Islam to the International Criminal Court for trial, a minister said as the war crimes court's prosecutor visited the country. Libya's National Transitional Council (NTC) has appointed as new defence minister the local commander whose forces captured Seif at the weekend.

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Iran MPs vote to expel British envoy: Iran's parliament voted to expel the British ambassador in retaliation for fresh western sanctions over Tehran's nuclear programme and warned that other countries could also be punished. Opposition chief asked to form new govt: Yemen opposition chief Mohammed Basindawa was tasked with forming a new government to rule until the departure of President Ali Abdullah Saleh,

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New Zealand PM John Key wins second term: New Zealand Prime Minister, John Key, won a second term, with voters in no mood for change after a tumultuous year marked by a devastating earthquake and glory in the Rugby World Cup.

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Prehistoric man mastered deep-sea fishing: Australian archaeologists have uncovered evidence that prehistoric humans living 42,000 years ago mastered the art of deep-sea fishing.They also found the world's earliest recorded fish hook, made of shell and dating from between 23,000 and 16,000 years ago, during excavations at the Jerimalai cave site in East Timor.

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Libya's new govt takes office: Libya's new transitional government was sworn-in tasked with uniting the war-ravaged country and paving the way to a new constitution and general elections in seven months.

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New head of UN mission in Afghanistan named: Jan Kubis of Slovakia has been appointed UN Secretary General's Special Representative (SRSG) and Head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA), says a press statement issued by the spokesman of the UN chief.

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CAREC countries agree to boost cooperation: Ministers from the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) countries, meeting in Baku, have endorsed the CAREC strategy until 2020. CAREC described the strategy as a framework for intensified regional cooperation that promises to build on the programme's first decade of achievement. Established in 2001, CAREC brings together Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

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Nine new entries on Unesco 'intangible heritage' list: Mongolian folk songs played on ancient flutes and the art of Yimakan storytelling by China's ethnic Hezhen were among nine traditions added to Unesco's list of intangible heritage in need of preservation.The other new entries include Mauritania's Moorish epic T'heydinn poems, Yaokwa, an indigenous Brazilian drought ritual, Vietnam's Xoan singing, practiced in sacred places of Phu Tho province during spring, the secret society of Koredugaw, a rite of wisdom by the Bambara, Malinke, Senufo and Samogo peoples of Mali, Unesco said on its website. The Koredugaw are a group of initiates who provoke laughter with behaviour characterised by gluttony, caustic humour and wit, but who also possess great intelligence and wisdom, it said.

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Saleh at last signs deal to step down: Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh agreed to step down after a long-running uprising to oust him from 33 years in power. Mr Saleh, seated beside Saudi King Abdullah in the Saudi capital Riyadh, signed a deal hammered out by Yemen's powerful neighbours to transfer power within 30 days to his vice president, Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi.

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set for February.

Kuwait cabinet resigns amid crisis: The government of oil-rich Kuwait resigned following a bitter dispute with opposition MPs.World's farmland at risk, warns UN food agency: The UN food agency warned that the world would struggle to raise food production by 70 per cent by 2050, with a quarter of land considered highly degraded and many farming areas already at risk.The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) report found that erosion, desertification and climate change were endangering key production systems across the world from the Mediterranean to Southern Africa to Southeast Asia. WikiLeaks wins Australian journalism award: WikiLeaks has been recognised in Australia for its outstanding contribution to journalism, with founder Julian Assange lashing out at cowardly Prime Minister Julia Gillard in an acceptance speech.

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Japan cooks world's longest kebab: Residents of a small Japanese island cooked up a late-night snack that could satisfy even the heartiest appetite a kebab more than 100 meters (330 feet) long. Thousands of people on southern Ishigaki Island tucked into the 107.6-meter monster; the world's longest, in an event to promote the premium Ishigaki beef.

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China, Russia want Nato strikes probe: China and Russia sought an 'earnest and meticulous' investigation into the Nato strikes that killed at least 24 Pakistani troops. The Organisation of Islamic Conference also condemned the incident.

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Anti-drug accord with Iran, Afghanistan: Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan agreed to bolster regional cooperation to combat drug smuggling at a time when the cultivation of illicit opium poppy is increasing despite the presence of US-led Nato forces in the country.

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Iran passes law to expel British envoy: Iran's Guardians Council approved a parliamentary bill demanding Britain's ambassador to Tehran be expelled within two weeks, making it law.

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Arab League approve sanctions on Syria: Arab foreign ministers and Turkey agreed to a list of sweeping sanctions designed to cripple the Syrian regime of President Bashar Al-Assad, who has defied pressure to halt a bloody crackdown on protesters.

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Malaysia launches women-only taxis: Malaysia has launched a fleet of women-only taxis, an initiative that follows pink-coloured train coaches and buses aimed at shielding women from harassment.

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Shining light on world's most corrupt governments: New Zealand tops the list of the world's cleanest governments, followed by Finland and Denmark, while Somalia and North Korea tied for the dubious distinction of most corrupt, according to a report from Transparency International. FBI spying on Muslims, says HR body: The FBI has been spying and compiling information on Muslim community groups while under the guise of holding outreach meetings with their

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EU blacklists, 180 Iran firms, individuals: EU foreign ministers piled pressure on Iran over its nuclear programme, slapping sanctions on an additional 180 firms and individuals and threatening to hit out at its vital oil sector.

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Israel agrees to yield funds to Palestinians: Israel has agreed to transfer to the Palestinian Authority about $100 million in tax and customs payments that it has withheld for four weeks in protest over the Palestinians' membership efforts at the United Nations and pursuit of power-sharing with Hamas.

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Malaysian parliament adopts electoral reforms: Malaysia's parliament adopted electoral reforms including several demands made by leaders of a mass rally that alleged poll fraud.

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India test-fires nuclear capable Agni-I missile: India tested its indigenously developed nuclearcapable surface-to-surface Agni-I missile from a military base in Odisha.

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Parliament said in a statement that it had passed the motion with 38 of 63 votes in favour of a resolution to recognise Palestine as an independent and sovereign state based on borders predating the Six Day War of 1967.

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Iceland recognises Palestine as an independent state: Iceland has become the first Western European nation to recognise Palestine as an independent state.

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Britain shuts Iran embassy: Britain closed its Tehran embassy after evacuating all its diplomats from Iran as part of a very though response to the storming of the mission the day before by Iranian protesters.

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Ivory Coast's Gbagbo handed over to world court: Ivory Coast's Laurent Gbagbo was transferred to the International Criminal Court to face charges of rape and murder, becoming the first former head of state to stand before the tribunal.

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Russia considering blocking Nato supply routes: Russia may not let Nato use its territory to supply troops in Afghanistan if the alliance doesn't seriously consider its objections to a US-led missile shield for Europe, Russian ambassador to Nato Dmitri Rogozin has said.

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UAE gives women right to pass nationality to children: The United Arab Emirates announced that children of Emirati women married to foreigners could apply for citizenship once they turned 18, moving closer to giving women the same nationality rights as men.

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Kuwait emir names defence minister as PM: Kuwait's ruler appointed defence minister Sheikh Jaber Mubarak al-Sabah as the new prime minister of the oil-rich Gulf state.

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Kenya issues arrest warrant for Bashir: A Kenyan court issued an arrest warrant for Sudan President Omar al-Bashir, wanted by the International Criminal Court on genocide charges, following a request by the International Commission of Justice (ICJ).

representatives, a US rights organisation American Civil Liberties Union said.

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The findings, published in three reports by the Kathmandu-based International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), show Nepal's glaciers have shrunk by 21 per cent and Bhutan's by 22 per cent over 30 years. Blast seen as major setback for Iranian missiles: The huge explosion that destroyed a major missile-testing site near Tehran three weeks ago was a major setback for Iran's most advanced longrange missile programme, according to US and Israeli intelligence officials and missile technology

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Himalayan glaciers melting, scientists confirm: Glaciers in the Himalayas have shrunk by as much as a fifth in just 30 years, scientists have claimed in the first authoritative confirmation of the effects of climate change on the region.

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Syria 'accepts' Arab plan for observers: Syria said it conditionally accepts observers as part of an Arab plan, as a rights group reported militiamen loyal to the regime killed 34 civilians and dumped their bodies in a city square.

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Brotherhood leads in Egypt run-off vote: Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood has called on its rivals to accept the will of the people after a first-round vote set its party on course to take the most seats in the country's first freely elected parliament in six decades.

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Leftwing Opp wins Croatian vote: Croatia's centre-left opposition bloc 'Kukuriku' won general elections by a wide margin, according to an exit poll released by national television HRT immediately after voting closed.

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Islamist parties sweep to victory in Egypt poll: Early results from Egypt's first post-revolution election showed Islamist parties sweeping to victory, including hard-line Salafists, with secular parties trounced in many areas.

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New Americas summits aims criticism at US: Leaders of Latin American and Caribbean nations worked to finalise an action plan for a new Americas bloc, which excludes the United States and which, according to its organisers, is designed to usher in a new era of Latin American independence.

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Serbia, Kosovo strike border management deal: Serbia and Kosovo struck a key deal to jointly manage their disputed border crossings, a vital step in reducing tension on the north Kosovo border.

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Myanmar govt allows 'peaceful' protests: Myanmar's president Thein Sein has approved a bill allowing citizens to protest peacefully, if they have permission.

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US hands over main war base back to Iraq: The US military returned its biggest base in Iraq to the government, a huge compound near Baghdad airport that housed the American operations centre and hosted a captive Saddam Hussein before his execution.

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The deal was agreed with the Shan State Army (South) and will soon be finalised, resulting in a cessation of long-running hostilities between government troops and militias and cooperation on drugs suppression.

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Myanmar govt reaches peace deal with ethnic rebel group: Myanmar's government has reached a ceasefire agreement with one of the country's biggest ethnic rebel groups, the latest sign of political rapprochement as the new civilian leadership embarks on a series of reforms.

experts. West to prop up Kabul govt after pullout in 2014: The Bonn conference convened to discuss Afghanistan's future after Nato troops leave in 2014 pledged sustained support for another decade, assuring the Kabul government that we will not let you meet the same fate as your predecessors met after the Soviet pullout.

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Arab human rights award for King Abdullah: Saudi King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz has been awarded the International Arab Human Rights Award 2011 by the Arab-European Centre of Human Rights and International Law in recognition of his services for humanity. Sarkozy speaks of last chance as EU begins crucial summit: European Union leaders opened a make-or-break summit in Brussels aiming to resolve a crippling debt crisis as French President Nicolas Sarkozy warned there would be no 'second chance' to save the eurozone.

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Egypt's PM names new cabinet: Egypt's military ruler Field Marshal Hussein Tantawi swore in a new cabinet including new Prime Minister Kamel al-Ganzuri and a former police chief to head the interior ministry.

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The report said the stealth-version of the RQ-170 drone was detected by Iranian forces over the eastern town of Kashmar, some 225 kilometres from the border with Afghanistan.

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Iran says downed drone was deep in its airspace: The unmanned US spy plane was deep inside Iran's airspace, flying over an eastern town famous for Persian carpets and saffron when it was downed by Iranian armed forces, state radio reported.

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Emissions rose 5.9 per cent in 2010, according to an analysis released by the Global Carbon Project, as international collaboration of scientists tracking the numbers.

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Carbon emissions spike after brief decline last year: Global emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel burning jumped by the largest amount on record last year, scientists say, upending the notion that the brief decline during the recession might persist through the recovery.

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One of the marginally Earth-like planets, Gliese 581d, is 20 light years from Earth, and the other, HD 85512b, is 36 light years away.

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Earth-like planets feature in new survey: According to a catalogue released of planets and moons that could have the right conditions to support life a total of 47 exoplanets and exomoons are potential habitable candidates, according to the online ranking of bodies outside our solar system by the Planetary Habitability Laboratory (PHL) of the University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo.

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The 2008 action violated a provisional agreement reached in 1995 to end the long-running row, the International Court of Justice ruled, saying Athens had breached its obligation.

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UN court rules against Greece in Macedonia row: Greece was in the wrong when it blocked Macedonia's admission to Nato because of a dispute over the former Yugoslav republic's name, the UN's highest court ruled.

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Astronomers discover biggest black holes ever: Scientists have discovered the two biggest black holes ever observed, each with a mass billions of times greater than the Sun's, according to a study. The two giants are located in the heart of a pair of galaxies several hundred million light years from Earth, said the study in scientific journal 'Nature'.

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China to adopt IMF reforms: The head of China's central bank says the country will implement changes to its financial system suggested by the International Monetary Fund as appropriate, the Washington-based lender said. Yemen's unity govt takes oath: Yemen's national unity government, led by the opposition, was sworn-in to lead a three-month transition period until early elections are held and President Ali Abdullah Saleh formally steps down. Belgium govt wins confidence vote: Belgium's new government won a parliamentary confidence vote, the last hurdle in resolving a political crisis in the linguistically divided country that lasted a record-breaking 541 days. SPORTS

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Radcliffe's marathon record stands: Paula Radcliffe has been reinstated as the holder of the women's world marathon record at two hours 15 minutes and 25 seconds overturning a

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Kabila declared winner of Congo election: Provisional results published by Congo's election commission handed victory to President Joseph Kabila who won another term with 49 per cent of the 18.14 million votes cast.

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Croatia signs EU accession pact: Croatia signed an EU accession treaty, a move paving the way for the former Yugoslav republic to join the bloc in mid-2013, after almost a decade of long and often fraught negotiations.

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Netherlands apologises for 1947 Indonesia massacre: The Dutch government formally apologised for a 1947 massacre on Indonesia's Java island, in an emotional ceremony on the anniversary of the executions by its colonial army.

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Europe moves ahead with fiscal union; UK opts out: Europe secured a historic agreement to draft a new treaty for deeper economic integration in the euro zone, but Britain, the region's third largest economy, refused to join the other 26 countries in a fiscal union and was isolated.

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In an unusual briefing evidently aimed at Washington, Gen. Mukhtar al-Mulla of the ruling council asserted that the initial results of elections for the People's Assembly did not represent the full Egyptian public, in part because well-organised factions of Islamists were dominating the voting.

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Egypt's military digs in against Islamists: Egypt's military rulers said that they would control the process of writing a constitution and maintain authority over the interim government to check the power of Islamists who have taken a commanding lead in parliamentary elections.

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At climate talks, China and US set to spar again: China, the world's biggest greenhouse gas emitter, has once again emerged as the biggest puzzle at international climate change talks, sending ambiguous signals about the role it intends to play in future negotiations. The top Chinese climate envoy said this week that China would be open to signing a formal treaty limiting emissions after 2020 but laid down conditions for doing so that are unlikely ever to be met.

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Women to serve on British submarines: Women will be allowed to serve on British navy submarines, with female officers taking up roles from late 2013, defence minister Philip Hammond announced. The first officers will serve on Vanguard class nuclear-powered submarines and will be followed by women ratings in 2015.

controversial decision by the IAAF not recognise the time as such. Radcliffe's record of 2hrs, 15mins and 25secs was set in a mixed field in the 2003 London Marathon. Australia's Gold Coast gets 2018 CW Games: Australia's Gold Coast has been chosen to host the 2018 Commonwealth Games, the event's governing body said in St Kitts and Nevis. Federer clinches maiden Paris Masters title: Former World No. 1 Roger Federer captured his maiden Paris Masters title with a 6-1, 7-6 win against local favourite Jo-Wilfried Tsonga.

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Saeed makes top ODI spot: Pakistan's in-form off spinner Saeed Ajmal has rocketed to the top of the International Cricket Council (ICC) player rankings for ODI bowlers following an impressive performance in the just concluded series against Sri Lanka in the UAE. Wapda crowned national cycling champions: Wapda notched eight gold medals to emerge as champions in the 59th National Cycling Championship.

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Pakistan defeat India to win SA Karate Championship: Pakistan defeated India in New Delhi to win the 1st South Asian Karate Championship. Pakistan claimed seven gold medals, four silver and four bronze medals in the event to clinch the first position.

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Butt, Amir lose appeals: Disgraced Pakistan players Salman Butt and Mohammad Amir lost their appeals against their jail sentences for spot-fixing, with England's top judge saying they had betrayed their country.

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Pakistan thump Sri Lanka: Skipper Misbah-ul-Haq and Umar Akmal hit half centuries to help Pakistan upstage Sri Lanka by three wickets in the fifth and final day-night international at Abu Dhabi Stadium.

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Pakistan, SL qualify for Women WC: Pakistan Women sealed their berth in the ICC World Cup with a massive 193-run win against Netherlands Women in Fatullah.

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Amir declared British boxer of the year: Pakistani origin boxer Amir Khan has been declared British boxer of the year.

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Malaysia beat hosts to win football gold: Malaysia defended their Southeast Asian Games football title with a nerve-shredding 4-3 win on penalties after their hotly anticipated final with hosts Indonesia ended 1-1 following extra time.

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Sharjah Stadium enters Guinness Book of Records: The Guinness Book of Records acknowledged the achievement of Sharjah Cricket Stadium for hosting the most number of one-day matches during the Pakistan and Sri Lanka encounter.

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Italy win WC, China to Olympics: Italy defended their World Cup women's volleyball title as Asian champions China also claimed their ticket to the London Olympics next year.

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India clinch Windies series despite Bravo ton: Pragyan Ojha and Ravichandran Ashwin shared four wickets as India beat a resilient West Indies by an innings and 15 runs in the second Test to clinch the series at Eden Gardens in Kolkata.

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All teams involved in fixing matches: All of cricket's leading countries were involved in the fixing of major matches, not just Pakistan, the sport's former chief anti-corruption investigator Paul Condon said.

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International

Former heavyweight contender Ron Lyle, who fought Muhammad Ali for the title in 1975 and later battled George Foreman, has died in Denver at age 70. Ante Markovic, the last prime minister of the Socialist Yugoslavia before it collected in a series of 1990s wars, died in Croatia at the age of 87, his family said. Brazil's 1982 World Cup captain Socrates, the 'Golden Heel' renowned as one of the great playmakers of his generation, died at the age of 57. Iconic Indian actor Dev Anand died in London leaving behind at least three generations of distraught fans across the world. He was 88. The comic book artist credited with creating the Joker the archfoe of Batman played in film

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National Noted columnist and Editor of Daily Wafaq, Mustafa Sadiq, passed away. Renowned director, actor, recipient of Pride of Performance and Chancellor of the National Institute of Culture, Rauf Khalid died. Former federal minister Ghulam Muhammad Maneka passed away after a protracted illness. He will be laid to rest in his ancestral graveyard.

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Clinical David wins record sixth World Open title: Malaysian squash superstar Nicol David won a record sixth women's World Open title with a straight games victory over England's Jenny Duncalf. David prevailed 11-2, 11-5, 11-0 in slightly less than half an hour in which the Amsterdam-based Malaysian's speed was outstanding and which was arguably her best performance in a world final.

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Sehwag hammered a scintillating 219 off 149 balls to lift India to their best one-day total of 418-5, before the West Indies were bowled out for 265 in the fourth international.

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Sehwag's record 219 sets up series win for India: Virender Sehwag smashed the highest score in One-day International cricket as India flattened the West Indies by 153 runs to take a decisive 3-1 lead in the five-match series.

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Nadal secures fifth Davis Cup title for Spain: Rafael Nadal got the winning point as Spain won a fifth Davis Cup title. The World number two beat Argentina's Juan Martin del Potro to give the host an unbeatable 3-1 lead.

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Russia lift volleyball World Cup as Brazil book Olympic berth: Russia stormed back from match points down to defeat Poland and win the men's World Cup volleyball tournament with Brazil taking the last ticket to the London Olympics next year.

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Raumpal scores highest runs by a No. 10 batsman in ODI: Tailender Ravi Rampaul and opener Lendl Simmons both cracked half-centuries as the West Indies recovered from an early collapse to post 269-9 in the second one-dayer against India. Rampaul's 86 and his six sixes in the 66-ball knock, both were the highest by a number 10 batsman in one-day internationals.

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Boxer Wlodarczyk retains WBC title: Poland's Krzysztof Wlodarczyk retained his WBC cruise weight world title with an 11th-round knockout of Australian challenger Danny Green in Perth.

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Aisam, Bopanna part ways: Pakistan's Aisam-ul-Haq Qureshi and India's Rohan Bopanna have ended their successful tennis doubles partnership, which was hailed as a symbol of friendship between the rival nations.

adaptations by Jack Nicholson and Heath Ledger has died at the age of 89. Muhammad Usman Butt

Sunday, January 01, 2012

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Have a hearty breakfast. Winter is the perfect season for porridge. Eating a warm bowlful on a cold morning isn't just a delicious way to start your day, it also helps you to boost your intake of starchy foods and fibre, which give you energy and help you to feel fuller for longer, stopping the temptation to snack midmorning. Oats also contain lots of vital vitamins and minerals. Spend time in sunlight. Studies have shown that supplementing with Vitamin D is an immune booster. Get some sunshine

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Dry brush your skin before you shower. Skin is the #1 detox organ and since we don't sweat as much throughout the winter months, our bodies could use the extra help. Even if you do sweat regularly, boost your immune system with a good brushing before your morning shower.

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Eat with the season. Now is the time to gravitate towards warmer foods, suddenly raw, cold salads have lost their appeal. Make soup, stew, roasted vegetables and warm meals with foods naturally in season.

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Surely, it's easy to stay hydrated when we're working out and aware of the summer heat; but as winter comes, we forget that our bodies need adequate water to guard against illness and operate at maximum efficiency. Dehydration is to blame for small cracks inside our nose that allow germs to enter easily, so drink up.

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Foreign Policy Special

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Increase your water intake.

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Ways to Stay Healthy this Winter

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on your body. If you can find a wind blocked area on a warm, sunny winter day, spend some time with minimal clothing on and get a few minutes of natural sunlight on your body. Drink more milk. You are 80% more likely to get a cold in winter so make sure that your immune system is in tip-top condition. Milk and dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt are great sources of protein and vitamins A & B12. They're also an important source of calcium, which helps keep our bones strong. Try to go for semi-skimmed or skimmed milk, rather than full fat, and low-fat yoghurts. Eat more fruit and vegetables. When it's cold and dark outside, it can be tempting to fill up on unhealthy comfort food, but it's important to ensure that you still keep your diet healthy and include five portions of fruit and vegetable a day. Hina Adeel

Foreign Policy Special


Sunday, January 01, 2012

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In the northern half of the world, January is the coldest month. Nature is quiet and the birds travel less. The woodchucks and bears sleep day and night, in hibernation. The plants are resting, waiting for the warmer temperatures of the Spring. In the southern half of the world, January is the warmest month. Animals are very active, and plants are growing.

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It is named for Janus, a Roman god. Roman legend has it that the the ruler Numa Pompilius added January and February to the end of the 10-month Roman calendar in about 700 B.C. Pompilius gave the month 30 days. Romans later made January the first month. In 46 B.C., the Roman statesman Julius Caesar added a day to January, making it 31 days long. The Anglo-Saxons called the first month Wolfmonth because wolves came into the villages in winter in search of food.

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Most of the world uses the Gregorian calendar, which has January as the first month of the year.

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This Month In History January

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he garnet is the birthstone for January. The snowdrop is the flower for the month of January. It often blooms in the snow.

What happened in History in this month?

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1965-Presidential election held. Field Marshal Ayub Khan re-elected as President. 2006 -Dr Shamshad Akhter assumes office of State Bank Governor becoming the first woman Governor of SBP. 2008- The Election Commission announced elections will be held on February 18. January 3

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January 2

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January 1 New Year's Day - The most celebrated holiday around the world. 1502 - Portuguese explorers landed at Guanabara Bay on the coast of South America and named it Rio de Janeiro (River of January). Rio de Janeiro is currently Brazil's second largest city. 1776 - During the American Revolution, George Washington unveiled the Grand Union Flag, the first national flag in America. 1877 - Queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India. 1949 United Nations cease fire orders to operate in Kashmir. War stops accordingly. 1955 Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) comes into being. 1958 - The EEC (European Economic Community) known as the Common Market was formed by Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and The Netherlands in order to remove trade barriers and coordinate trade policies. 1959 - Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba after leading a revolution that drove out Dictator Fulgencio Batista. Castro then established a Communist dictatorship. 1961 -Decimal coinage introduced in Pakistan 1973 - Britain, Ireland and Denmark became members of the European Common Market (EEC). 1979 - China and the US established diplomatic relations, 30 years after the foundation of the People's Republic. 1981- Interest-free banking introduced in Pakistan. 1993 - Czechoslovakia broke into separate Czech and Slovak republics. 1998- Rafiq Tarrar was sworn in as President of Pakistan. 1999 - Eleven European nations began using a new single European currency, the Euro, for electronic financial and business transactions. Participating countries included; Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. 2004 - General Musharraf won a vote of confidence in the Senate, National Assembly and provincial assemblies.

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January 6 1968-Agartala conspiracy case for secession of East Pakistan, unearthed. 28 involved persons arrested. 1990 - Poland's Communist Party disbanded and then reorganized as the Social Democratic Party, an opposition party to Solidarity. Birthday - Joan of Arc (1412-1431) was born in France. After a series of mystic visitations by saints, she inspired French troops to break the British siege at Orleans and win several important victories during the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) between France and Britain. She was eventually captured and sold to the British who tried her for heresy and burned her at the stake. In 1920, Joan of Arc was canonized a saint by the Roman Catholic Church. January 7 1714 - A patent was issued for the first typewriter designed by British inventor Henry Mill "for the impressing or transcribing of letters singly or progressively one after another, as in writing." 1782 - The first US commercial bank opened as the Bank of North America in Philadelphia.

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January 5 1919 - German Communists in Berlin led by Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht attempted to take over the government by seizing a number of buildings. However, ten days later, they were both assassinated by German soldiers. 1919 - The German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) was founded by Anton Drexler in Munich. Adolf Hitler became member No. 7 and changed the name in April of 1920 to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei) commonly shortened to Nazi or Nazi Party. 1963-First trade agreement is signed between Pakistan and China. 1976 - In Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot announced a new constitution which legalized the Communist government and renamed the country as Kampuchea. During the reign of Pol Pot, over 1 million persons died in "the killing fields" as he forced people out of the cities into the countryside to create an idyllic agrarian society. Educated and professional city people were especially targeted for murder and were almost completely annihilated. In January of 1979, the Pol Pot was overthrown by Cambodian rebels and Vietnamese troops. 2002-Musharraf stunned Vajpayee by a handshake at the 11th SAARC summit in Kathmandu. 2004-Musharraf meets Vajpayee in Islamabad, discusses Kashmir dispute. Birthday Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 4 April 1979) was 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that, 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.

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January 4 1950-Government of Pakistan recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. Birthday - Louis Braille (1809-1852) was born in France. Blinded as a boy, he later invented a reading system for the blind using punch marks in paper.

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1981- International Islamic University starts functioning at Islamabad Pakistan. 1990 - Manuel Noriega, the deposed leader of Panama, surrendered to American authorities on charges of drug trafficking after spending 10 days hiding in the Vatican embassy following the US invasion of Panama. 1993 - President George Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed the START-II (Strategic Arms Reduction Talks Treaty), eliminating about two-thirds of each country's long range nuclear weapons.

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1989 - Emperor Hirohito of Japan died after a long illness. He had ruled for 62 years and was succeeded by his son, Crown Prince Akihito. January 8 1964 - President Lyndon Johnson declared War on Poverty during his State of the Union message before Congress. 1972-Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman is released unconditionally. 1993-General Asif Nawaz dies of heart attack in Rawalpindi.

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January 12 1879 - In Southern Africa, the Zulu War began between the British and the natives of Zululand, ultimately resulting in the destruction of the Zulu Empire. 1990 - Romania outlawed the Communist Party following the overthrow of Dictator Nicolae Ceauescu who had ruled for 24 years. 1991 - Congress authorized President George Bush to use military force against Iraq following its invasion of Kuwait. 1992-Lahore-Islamabad Motorway project launched. 1996 - The first joint American-Russian military operation since World War II occurred as Russian troops arrived to aid in peacekeeping efforts in Bosnia. . January 13 1893 - The British Independent Labor Party was founded with James Keir Hardie as its leader. 1996-General Jahangir Karamat becomes chief of army staff. Birthday - Author Horatio Alger (1834-1899) was born in Revere, Massachusetts. He wrote over

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January 11 1982 - General Zia-ul-Haq inaugurate first session of Federal Council (Shoora) in Islamabad.

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January 10 1863 - The world's first underground railway service opened in London, the Metropolitan line between Paddington and Farringdon. 1912 - The flying boat airplane, invented by Glenn Curtiss, made its first flight at Hammondsport, New York. 1920 - The League of Nations officially came into existence with the goal of resolving international disputes, reducing armaments, and preventing future wars. The first Assembly gathered in Geneva ten months later with 41 nations represented. More than 20 nations later joined, however, the US did not join due to a lack of support for the League in Congress. 1946 - The first meeting of the United Nations General Assembly took place in London with delegates from 51 countries. The UN superseded its predecessor, the League of Nations. 1966-Tashkent Declaration signed between India and Pakistan. 1977- Nine opposition parties form joint election forum, Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). 1984 - The US and Vatican established full diplomatic relations after a break of 116 years.

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January 9 1960 - With the first blast of dynamite, construction work began on the Aswan High Dam across the Nile River in southern Egypt. One third of the project's billion-dollar cost was underwritten by Soviet Russia. The dam created Lake Nasser, one of the world's largest reservoirs, at nearly 2,000 square miles and irrigated over 100,000 acres of surrounding desert. The dam was opened in January of 1971 by President Anwar Sadat of Egypt and President Nikolai Podgorny of the Soviet Union. Birthday - Carrie Lane Chapman (1859-1947) was born in Ripon, Wisconsin. She was the women's rights pioneer who founded the National League of Women Voters in 1919.

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100 books for boys, many featuring "rags to riches" themes of poor boys triumphing over life's obstacles. January 14 1943 - President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at Casablanca in Morocco to work on strategy during World War II. At the conclusion of the conference, Roosevelt and Churchill held a joint news conference at which Roosevelt surprisingly announced that peace would come "by the total elimination of German and Japanese war power. That means the unconditional surrender of Germany, Italy and Japan." Birthday - Philosopher-physician Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) was born in Upper Alsace, Germany. He served as a medical missionary in Africa and received the 1952 Nobel Peace Prize for his work on behalf of the brotherhood of all nations. Birthday - American film pioneer Hal Roach (1892-1992) was born in Elmira, New York. His output included nearly 1,000 movies of all lengths, including the classic Laurel and Hardy comedies. January 15 1994-Pakistan Television transmission gets access to 38 countries via satellite. 1983-First three F-16 jets reach Pakistan. Birthday - Martin Luther King (1929-1968) was born in Atlanta, Georgia. As an African American civil rights leader he spoke eloquently and stressed non-violent methods to achieve equality. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968. In 1983, the third Monday in January was designated a legal holiday in the US to celebrate his birthday. January 16 1979 - The Shah of Iran left his country amid mass demonstrations and the revolt of Islamic fundamentalists led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The Shah had ruled Iran since 1941 and had unsuccessfully attempted to westernize its culture. 1991 - The war against Iraq began as Allied aircrafts conducted a major raid against Iraqi air defenses. The air raid on Baghdad was broadcast live to a global audience by CNN correspondents as operation Desert Shield became Desert Storm. January 17 1955-Noted short story writer, Saadat Hasan Manto passes away in Lahore. . Birthday - Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) was born in Boston, Massachusetts. Considered the Elder Statesman of the American Revolution, he displayed multiple talents as a printer, author, publisher, philosopher, scientist, diplomat and philanthropist. He signed both the Declaration of Independence and the new U.S. Constitution. Birthday - Muhammad Ali was born in Louisville, Kentucky, January 17, 1942 (as Cassius Clay). At age 22 in 1964, he knocked out Sonny Liston to win the world heavyweight boxing championship, shouting out "I shook up the world!" After converting to the Muslim religion, the boxing superstar became an outspoken conscientious objector (on religious grounds) to America's escalating involvement in the Vietnam War and refused military duty upon being drafted. As a result, he was stripped of his boxing title, banned from boxing, and subsequently jailed. After a long legal battle, his conviction was reversed and he regained the championship in 1974 by defeating George Foreman. In the early 1980s, after retiring from boxing, Ali revealed his new struggle with Parkinson's disease. However, he has remained active, devoting himself to various philanthropic and humanitarian causes. January 19 1966 - Indira Gandhi was elected prime minister of India in succession to Lal Shastri who had died

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January 23 1937 - In Moscow, 17 leading Communists went on trial, accused of participating in a plot engineered by Leon Trotsky to overthrow Stalin's regime and assassinate its leaders. After a sevenday trial, 13 of them were sentenced to death. Trotsky fled to Mexico where he was assassinated in 1940. 1943 - In North Africa, British forces under General Bernard Montgomery captured Tripoli in Libya. Birthday - Russian film director Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948) was born in Riga, Latvia. He developed a new way of film making utilizing artistic montages (a series of arbitrary images) to deliver an emotional impact. Prior to him, most film makers showed scenes in strictly chronological sequences. His classic films include Potemkin, Alexander Nevsky, and Ivan the Terrible.

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January 22 1901 - Queen Victoria of England died after reigning for 64 years, the longest reign in British history, during which England had become the most powerful empire in the world. 1905 - Five hundred protesting Russian workers were killed by the troops of Czar Nicholas II in St. Petersburg. The event became known as "Bloody Sunday" and marked the beginning of the violent revolutionary movement of 1905 which ultimately failed. A second revolutionary movement in 1917 succeeded and the Czar abdicated. 1973 - Abortion became legal in the US as the Supreme Court announced its decision in the case of Roe vs. Wade striking down local state laws restricting abortions in the first six months of pregnancy. In more recent rulings (1989 and 1992) the Court upheld the power of individual states to impose some restrictions. Birthday - British essayist, philosopher and statesman Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was born in London. Best known for his philosophical works concerning the acquisition of knowledge; Novum Organum and The Advancement of Learning.

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January 21 1924 - Soviet Union leader Vladimir Lenin died of a brain hemorrhage. He led the Bolsheviks to victory over the Czar in the October Revolution of 1917 and had then established the world's first Communist government. Lenin's body was placed in a tomb in Red Square in Moscow and was a much venerated national shrine until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. 1954 - The USS Nautilus, the world's first nuclear powered submarine, was launched at Groton, Connecticut. 1976 - The Concorde supersonic jet began passenger service with flights from London to Bahrain and Paris to Rio de Janeiro, cruising at twice the speed of sound (Mach 2) at an altitude up to 60,000 feet.

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January 20 1945 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt was inaugurated to an unprecedented fourth term as president of the United States. He had served since 1933. 1972-Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called a secret meeting at Multan, and launched the programme on nuclear weapons development. 1981 - Ronald Reagan became president of the United States at the age of 69, the oldest president to take office. During his inauguration celebrations, he announced that 52 American hostages that had been seized in the US embassy in Tehran, Iran, were being released after 444 days in captivity. 1996 - Yasir Arafat became the first democratically-elected leader of the Palestinian people with 88.1 percent of the vote.

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eight days earlier. She served until 1975 and later from 1980 to 1984, when she was assassinated by her own bodyguards as she walked to her office. Her only surviving son, Rajiv, became the next prime minister. In 1991, he too was assassinated while campaigning for reelection

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January 29 1916 - During World War I, the first aerial bombings of Paris by German zeppelins took place. Birthday - Russian playwright Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) was born in Taganrog, Russia. His works included Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. January 30

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January 28 1935 - Iceland became the first country to legalize abortion.

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January 27 1973 - US involvement in the Vietnam War ended as North Vietnamese and American representatives signed an agreement in Paris. The US agreed to remove all remaining troops within 60 days thus ending the longest war in American history. Over 58,000 Americans had been killed, 300,000 wounded and 2,500 declared missing. A total of 566 prisoners-of-war had been held by the North Vietnamese during the war, with 55 reported deaths. Birthday - Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was born in Salzburg, Austria. From the age of five, through his untimely death at age 35, this musical genius created over 600 compositions including 16 operas, 41 symphonies, 27 piano and five violin concerti, 25 string quartets, 19 masses, and many other works. Birthday - British novelist Lewis Carroll (1832-1898) was born in Daresbury, Cheshire, England (as Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). Best known for Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass. He also lectured in mathematics and was a pioneering photographer. Birthday - Labor leader Samuel Gompers (1850-1924) was born in London. He emigrated to America at age 13, worked in a cigar factory, eventually becoming head of the Cigar Workers' Union. He later brought together several national unions under the name American Federation of Labor and became its first president.

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January 26 1998 - President Bill Clinton made an emphatic denial of charges that he had a sexual affair with Monica Lewinsky and had advised her to lie about it. "...I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky..."

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January 25 1959 - An American Airlines Boeing 707 made the first scheduled transcontinental U.S. flight, traveling from California to New York. 1971 - In Uganda, a military coup led by Idi Amin deposed President Milton Obote. Amin then ruled as president-dictator until 1979 when he was ousted by Tanzanian soldiers and Ugandan nationalists. During his reign, Amin expelled all Asians from Uganda, and ordered the execution of more than 300,000 tribal Ugandans. 1994-Benazir Bhutto inaugurates country's first women police station in Islamabad. Birthday - Scientist Robert Boyle (1627-1691) was born in Lismore, Ireland. He formulated Boyle's Law concerning the volume and pressure of gases.

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January 24 1963-Zulfikar Ali Bhutto became Foreign Minister of Pakistan. 1965 - Winston Churchill (1874-1965) died. He had been Britain's wartime prime minister whose courageous leadership and defiant rhetoric had fortified the British during their long struggle against Hitler's Germany. 1972 - Japanese soldier Shoichi Yokoi was discovered on Guam after he had spent 28 years hiding out in the jungle not knowing World War II had long since ended.

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All material is sourced from http://jworldtimes.com/ and is copyright of the respective owners.

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January 31 1943 - German troops surrendered at Stalingrad, marking the first big defeat of Hitler's armies in World War II. During the Battle of Stalingrad, 160,000 Germans were killed and 90,000 taken prisoner, including the commander, Friedrich von Paulus, the first German Field Marshal ever to surrender. The captured Germans were forced to march to Siberia, with few ever returning to Germany. Zaheer Ahmad Anjum

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1933 - Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg. Hitler went on to become the sole leader of Nazi Germany. 1948 - Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated in New Delhi, India, by a religious fanatic. 1971- An Indian Airlines aeroplane, hijacked by two Kashmiri separatists, lands at Lahore airport. Birthday - Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) the 32nd US President was born in Hyde Park, New York. Despite crippling polio, he led America out of the Great Depression and through World War II and is widely considered to be one of America's three greatest presidents (along with Washington and Lincoln). "When peace has been broken anywhere, the peace of all countries is in danger," he stated in 1939.

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