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Ti liu sng to t gii ngnh gio dc

H thng ho ton b kin thc lp 9

Chc nng c bn : - H thng ha kin thc, gip hc sinh nh nhanh, nh su. - So snh, tng hp, khi qut ho cc khi nim. - a ra di dng cc cng thc, s d hiu, kch thch tnh t m, t tm hiu ca hc sinh.

PHn loi HCVC


Oxit (AxOy) Hp cht v c

Oxit axit: CO2, SO2, SO3, NO2, N2O5, SiO2, P2O5 Oxit baz: Li2O, Na2O, K2O, CaO, BaO, CuO,Fe2O3 Oxit trung tnh: CO, NO Oxit lng tnh: ZnO, Al2O3, Cr2O3

Axit (HnB)

Axit khng c oxi (Hidraxit): HCl, HBr, H2S, HF Axit c oxi (Oxaxit): HNO3, H2SO4, H3PO4 . Baz tan (Kim): NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2, Ba(OH)2 Baz khng tan: Mg(OH)2, Cu(OH)2, Fe(OH)3 Mui axit: NaHSO4, NaHCO3, Ca(HCO3)2 Mui trung ho: NaCl, KNO3, CaCO3

Baz- M(OH)n

Mui (MxBy)

Ngoi ra c th chia axit thnh axit mnh v axit yu HNO3 H2SO4 HCl H3PO4 H2SO3 CH3COOH

H2CO3 H2S

Axit mnh yu

Axit trung bnh

Axit yu

Axit rt

oxit axit nh L hp cht ca oxi vi L hp cht m phn ngha 1 nguyn t khc t gm 1 hay nhiu nguyn t H lin kt vi gc axit Gi nguyn t trong Gi gc axit l B c oxit l A ho tr n. ho tr n. CTHH CTHH l: CTHH l: HnB - A2On nu n l - AOn/2 nu n chn Tn oxit = Tn nguyn - Axit khng c oxi: t + oxit Axit + tn phi kim + Lu : Km theo ho tr hidric ca kim loi khi kim - Axit c t oxi: Axit + Tn gi loi c nhiu ho tr. tn phi kim + (r) Khi phi kim c nhiu - Axit c nhiu oxi: ho tr th km tip Axit + tn phi kim + ic u ng. (ric) TCHH 1. Tc dng vi nc 1. Lm qu tm - Oxit axit tc dng vi hng nc to thnh dd Axit 2. Tc dng vi Baz - Oxit baz tc dng Mui v nc vi nc to thnh dd 3. Tc dng vi oxit Baz baz mui v nc 2. Oxax + dd Baz to 4. Tc dng vi kim loi thnh mui v nc mui v Hidro 3. Oxbz + dd Axit to 5. Tc dng vi mui thnh mui v nc 4. Oxax + Oxbz to mui mi v axit mi thnh mui

baz L hp cht m phn t gm 1 nguyn t kim loi lin kt vi 1 hay nhiu nhm OH Gi kim loi l M c ho tr n CTHH l: M(OH)n Tn baz = Tn kim loi + hidroxit Lu : Km theo ho tr ca kim loi khi kim loi c nhiu ho tr. 1. Tc dng vi axit mui v nc 2. dd Kim lm i mu cht ch th - Lm qu tm xanh Lm dd phenolphtalein khng mu hng 3. dd Kim tc dng vi oxax mui v nc

mui L hp cht m phn t gm kim loi lin kt vi gc axit. Gi kim loi l M, gc axit l B CTHH l: MxBy Tn mui = tn kim loi + tn gc axit Lu : Km theo ho tr ca kim loi khi kim loi c nhiu ho tr. 1. Tc dng vi axit mui mi + axit mi 2. dd mui + dd Kim mui mi + baz mi 3. dd mui + Kim loi Mui mi + kim loi mi 4. dd mui + dd mui 2 mui mi 5. Mt s mui b nhit phn

Lu

4. dd Kim + dd mui Mui + Baz 5. Baz khng tan b nhit phn oxit + nc - Oxit lng tnh c th - HNO3, H2SO4 c c - Baz lng tnh c - Mui axit c th tc dng vi c dd axit cc tnh cht ring th tc dng vi c phn ng nh 1 axit v dd kim dd axit v dd kim

Tnh cht ho hc ca cc hp cht v c


+ dd Baz

Mui + nc

+ dd Axit

Mui + H2O
+ Baz

Oxit baz

Oxit axit

Qu tm

+ Oxit Baz

Axit
+ dd Mui + KL

Mui
+ Nc

+ Nc

axit

Kim

Mui + h2

Mui + Axit

Tchh ca oxit

Tchh ca Axit

Qu tm xanh Phenolphalein k.mu hng

Mui + baz
+ dd Mui

oxit + h2O
t
0

Mui + baz
+ dd baz

Mui + kim loi


+ kim loi

Mui + axit

Baz

Mui

Kim k.tan

+ axit

+ Oxax

+ axit

t0

Mui + h2O

+ dd mui

Mui + mui Tchh ca baz

Cc sn phm khc nhau

Tchh ca mui

Lu : Thng ch gp 5 oxit baz tan c trong nc l Li2O, Na2O, K2O, CaO, BaO. y cng l cc oxit baz c th tc dng vi oxit axit. i vi baz, c cc tnh cht chung cho c 2 loi nhng c nhng tnh cht ch ca Kim hoc baz khng tan Mt s loi hp cht c cc tnh cht ho hc ring, trong ny khng cp ti, c th xem phn c thm hoc cc bi gii thiu ring trong sgk.

Mi quan h gia cc loi hp cht v c Kim loi


+ Oxi + H2, CO

Phi kim
+ Oxi

Oxit baz
+ Axit + Oxax + H2O

+ dd Kim + Oxbz

Oxit axit

t0
+ dd Kim

Mui + h2O
+ Axit + Oxax + dd Mui + Axit + Baz + Kim loi + Oxbz + dd Mui

+ H2O

Phn hu

Baz
Kim k.tan

Axit
Mnh yu

Cc phng trnh ho hc minh ho thng gp 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3 Lu : t CuO + H2 Cu + H2O - Mt s oxit kim loi nh Al2O3, t Fe2O3 + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO 2 MgO, BaO, CaO, Na2O, K2O S + O2 SO2 khng b H2, CO kh. - Cc oxit kim loi khi trng CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 t thi ho tr cao l oxit axit Cu(OH)2 CuO + H2O nh: CrO3, Mn2O7, CaO + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O - Cc phn ng ho hc xy ra CaO + CO2 CaCO3 phi tun theo cc iu Na2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + 2NaOH kin ca tng phn ng. NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O - Khi oxit axit tc dng vi dd 2NaOH + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2O Kim th tu theo t l s BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaCl mol s to ra mui axit hay mui trung ho. SO3 + H2O H2SO4 VD: P2O5 + 3H2O 2H3PO4 NaOH + CO2 NaHCO3 P2O5 + 6NaOH 2Na3PO4 + 3H2O 2NaOH + CO2 Na2CO3 + H2O N2O5 + Na2O 2NaNO3 - Khi tc dng vi H2SO4 c, BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl kim loi s th hin ho tr 2HCl + Fe FeCl2 + H2 cao nht, khng gii phng 2HCl + Ba(OH)2 BaCl2 + 2H2O Hidro 6HCl + Fe2O3 2FeCl3 + 3H2O VD:
0 0 0

2HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + 2H2O iu ch cc hp cht v c Kim loi + oxi Phi kim + oxi Hp cht + oxi
2 3 1 4

Nhit phn mui

oxit
5

Nhit phn baz khng tan

Phi kim + hidro Oxit axit + nc Axit mnh + mui


7 8

Axit

Kim + dd mui Oxit baz + nc


in phn dd mui
(c mng ngn) 12 10

Baz
11

t 1. 3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 t 2. 4P + 5O2 2P2O5 t 3. CH4 + O2 CO2 + 2H2O t 4. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 t 5. Cu(OH)2 CuO + H2O askt 6. Cl2 + H2 2HCl 7. SO3 + H2O H2SO4 8. BaCl2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2HCl 9. Ca(OH)2 + Na2CO3 CaCO3 + 2NaOH 10. CaO + H2O
0 0 0 0 0

Axit + baz

Mui

19 20 21

Kim loi + phi kim Kim loi + dd axit Kim loi + dd mui

Oxit baz + dd axit 13

Oxit axit + dd kim 14 Oxit axit + oxit baz


15

Dd mui + dd mui 16 Dd mui + dd kim 17 Mui + dd axit


18

12. Ba(OH)2 + H2SO4 BaSO4 + 2H2O 13. CuO + 2HCl CuCl2 + H2O 14. SO2 + 2NaOH Na2SO3 + H2O 15. CaO + CO2 CaCO3 16. BaCl2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NaCl 17. CuSO4 + 2NaOH Cu(OH)2 + Na2SO4 18. CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2

Tnh cht ho hc ca kim loi oxit


+ O2 + Axit

Mui + H2

Kim loi
+ Phi kim + DD Mui

t 1. 3Fe + 2O2 Fe3O4 t 2. 2Fe + 3Cl2 2FeCl3 3. Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 4. Fe + CuSO4 FeSO4 + Cu
0 0

Mui

Mui + kl Dy hot ng ho hc ca kim loi. K, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, Pb, (H), Cu, Ag, Au (Khi No May A Zp St Phi Hi Cc Bc Vng)

ngha: K B a

C a

Na Mg Al

Z n

F e

N i

S n

P H C b u

A g

H g

A u

P t

+ O2: nhit thng ng K B a C a Na Mg Al Z n F e

nhit cao N i S n P H C b u A g H g

Kh phn A u P t

Tc dng vi nc K B a C a

Khng tc dng vi nc nhit thng Z n F e N i S n P H C b u A g H g A u P t

Na Mg Al

Tc dng vi cc axit thng thng gii phng Hidro Khng tc dng. K B a C a Na Mg Al Z n F e N i S n P H C b u A g H g A u P t

Kim loi ng trc y kim loi ng sau ra khi mui K B a C a Na Mg Al Z n F e N i S n P H C b u A g H g A u P t

H2, CO khng kh c oxit cao

kh c oxit cc kim loi ny nhit

Ch : - Cc kim loi ng trc Mg phn ng vi nc nhit thng to thnh dd Kim v gii phng kh Hidro. - Tr Au v Pt, cc kim loi khc u c th tc dng vi HNO 3 v H2SO4 c nhng khng gii phng Hidro. So snh tnh cht ho hc ca nhm v st * Ging: - u c cc tnh cht chung ca kim loi. - u khng tc dng vi HNO3 v H2SO4 c ngui * Khc: Tnh cht Al (NTK = 27) Fe (NTK = 56) Tnh cht - Kim loi mu trng, c - Kim loi mu trng xm, vt l nh kim, nh, dn in c nh kim, dn in nhit nhit tt. km hn Nhm. - t0nc = 15390C - t0nc = 6600C - L kim loi nng, do nn - L kim loi nh, d dt d rn. mng, do. t t Tc dng 2Al + 3Cl2 2Fe + 3Cl2 2AlCl3 2FeCl3 t t vi 2Al + 3S Fe + S Al2S3 FeS phi kim Tc dng 2Al + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + 3H2 Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 vi axit Tc dng 2Al + 3FeSO4 Al2(SO4)3 + Fe + 2AgNO3 Fe(NO3)2 + vi 3Fe 2Ag dd mui Tc dng 2Al + 2NaOH + H2O Khng phn ng vi 2NaAlO2 + dd Kim 3H2 Hp cht - Al2O3 c tnh lng tnh - FeO, Fe2O3 v Fe3O4 u Al2O3 + 6HCl 2AlCl3 + l cc oxit baz 3H2O - Fe(OH)2 mu trng Al2O3+ 2NaOH2NaAlO2 + xanh H2O - Fe(OH)3 mu nu - Al(OH)3 kt ta dng keo, l hp cht lng tnh
0 0 0 0

Kt lun

- Nhm l kim loi lng tnh, c th tc dng vi c dd Axit v dd Kim. Trong cc phn ng ho hc, Nhm th hin ho tr III

- St th hin 2 ho tr: II, III + Tc dng vi axit thng thng, vi phi kim yu, vi dd mui: II + Tc dng vi H2SO4 c nng, dd HNO3, vi phi kim mnh: III

/N

Sn xut

Tnh cht

Gang v thp Gang Thp - Gang l hp kim ca St - Thp l hp kim ca St vi Cacbon v 1 s nguyn vi Cacbon v 1 s nguyn t khc nh Mn, Si, S t khc (%C<2%) (%C=25%) t t C + O2 2Fe + O2 CO2 2FeO t t CO2 + C FeO + C 2CO Fe + CO t t 3CO + Fe2O3 FeO + Mn 2Fe + Fe + MnO t 3CO2 2FeO + Si 2Fe + SiO2 t 4CO + Fe3O4 3Fe + 4CO2 t CaO + SiO2 CaSiO3 Cng, gin Cng, n hi
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

tnh cht ho hc ca phi kim. Oxit axit


+ O2

sn phm kh
+ Hidro

HCl + HClO HCl


+ Hidro + H2O

Nc Gia-ven + NaOH

NaCl + NaClO

+ Kim loi

Phi Kim Mui clorua

Clo
+ Kim loi

+ KOH, t0

Oxit kim loi hoc mui

KCl + KClO3

Kim cng: L cht Than ch: L cht Cacbon v nh dpdd Cc phng trnh ho hc ng nh rn trong sut, cng, rn, mm, c6. kh hnh: L cht rn,+ NaCl + 2H 2NaOH 2O mnx 1. 2Fe dn + 3Cl Hidrocab Hidrocacbo Hidrocacb Hidrocacb Dn xp, khng Dn c kh Dn 2 2FeCl3 khng in nng dn in Cl2 + H 2 t on n khng khng on cc, thmcht xut nngt dn xut in,xut 2. Feno + Strang FeSno onLm Lm sc, in c 6. C +cha 2CuO 2Cu + CO 2 Ankan Anken no Aren cha cha mi khoan, dao ct bi trn, rut 7. bt nh hp 3. H O + Cl HCl + HClO t ph. 2 2 + Fe2O3 2Fe + CTTQ CTTQ: Ankin CTTQ 3CO Halogen Oxi Nit knh ch Lm nhin liu, VD: ch 4.C2NaOH + Cl NaClO + 2 C CTTQ: CnH2n-6 3COVD: VD: nH2n+2 nH 2n NaCl + 2 to mt n phng Ba dng th hnh ca Cacbon + O VD: CH VD: C2H4+ Oxit CnKL HHp VD: C6 H C2H5Cl C2H5OH Protein H 2 4 2n-2 6 Phn loi hp cht hu c 2O 8. NaOH + CO NaHCO Kim Hidro loi cacbon + CO cht cacbon hu c Dn xut ca CO 2 3RH 2 2
0 0 0

(Metan)

t0 (Etilen)

VD: C2H4

(Benzen)

C6H5Br

CH3COO

Hp cht CTPT. PTK Cng thc cu to

Metan CH4 = 16
H H C H H

Etilen C2H4 = 28
H C H C H H

Axetilen C2H2 = 26
H C C H

Benzen C6H6 = 78

Lin kt n
Trng thi

Lin kt i gm 1 lin kt bn v 1 lin kt km bn Kh

Lin kt ba gm 1 lin kt bn v 2 lin kt km bn

3lk i v 3lk n xen k trong vng 6 cnh u Lng Khng mu, khng tan trong nc, nh hn nc, ho tan nhiu cht, c

Tnh cht vt l Tnh cht ho hc - Ging nhau - Khc nhau

Khng mu, khng mi, t tan trong nc, nh hn khng kh.

C phn ng chy sinh ra CO2 v H2O CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O C2H4 + 3O2 2CO2 + 2H2O Ch tham gia phn ng th anhsang CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl + HCl C phn ng cng C2H4 + Br2 C2H4Br2 Ni ,t 0 , P C2H4 + H2 C2H6 C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH

2C2H2 + 5O2 4CO2 + 2H2O 2C6H6 + 15O2 12CO2 + 6H2O C phn ng cng C2H2 + Br2 C2H2Br2 C2H2 + Br2 C2H2Br4

ng dng

Lm nhin nguyn liu

Va c phn ng th v phn ng cng (kh) Fe ,t 0 C6H6 + Br2 C6H5Br + HBr asMT C6H6 + Cl2 C6H6Cl6 liu, Lm nguyn liu iu Lm nhin liu hn Lm dung mi, diu trong ch nha PE, ru Etylic, x, thp sng, l ch thuc nhum, d-

iu ch

i sng v trong cng nghip C trong kh thin nhin, kh ng hnh, kh bn ao.

Nhn bit

Axit Axetic, kch thch qu chn. Sp ch ho du m, sinh ra khi qu chn H 2 SO4 d ,t 0 C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O Khg lm mt mu Lm mt mu dung dd Br2 dch Brom Lm mt mu Clo ngoi as ru Etylic CTPT: C2H6O
h h c h o h h c h

nguyn liu sn xut PVC, cao su Cho t n + nc, sp ch ho du m CaC2 + H2O C2H2 + Ca(OH)2

c phm, thuc BVTV Sn phm chng nha than .

Lm mt mu dung Ko lm mt mu dd dch Brom nhiu Brom hn Etilen Ko tan trong nc Axit Axetic CTPT: C2H4O2
h h c h c o o h

Cng thc CTCT: CH3 CH2 OH Tnh cht vt l Tnh cht ho hc.
0

CTCT: CH3 CH2 COOH

L cht lng, khng mu, d tan v tan nhiu trong nc. Si 78,3 C, nh hn nc, ho tan c Si 1180C, c v chua (dd Ace 2-5% lm nhiu cht nh Iot, Benzen gim n) - Phn ng vi Na: 2C2H5OH + 2Na 2C2H5ONa + H2 2CH3COOH + 2Na 2CH3COONa + H2 - Ru Etylic tc dng vi axit axetic to thnh este Etyl Axetat H SO d ,t CH3COOH + C2H5OH CH3COOC2H5 + H2O - Chy vi ngn la mu xanh, to - Mang tnh cht ca axit: Lm qu nhiu nhit tm, tc dng vi kim loi trc H, vi baz, oxit baz, dd mui C2H6O + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O 2CH3COOH + Mg (CH3COO)2Mg + H2 - B OXH trong kk c men xc tc
2 4 0

ng dng

iu ch

m engiam C2H5OH + O2 CH3COOH + H2O Dng lm nhin liu, dung mi pha sn, ch ru bia, dc phm, iu ch axit axetic v cao su Bng phng php ln men tinh bt hoc ng Men 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 C6H12O6 3032 C Hoc cho Etilen hp nc ddaxit C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH
0

CH3COOH + NaOH CH3COONa + H2O Dng pha gim n, sn xut cht do, thuc nhum, dc phm, t - Ln men dd ru nht m engiam C2H5OH + O2 CH3COOH + H2O - Trong PTN: 2CH3COONa + H2SO4 2CH3COOH + Na2SO4

Cng thc phn t Trng thi Tnh cht vt l

tinh bt v xenluloz C6H12O6 C12H22O11 (C6H10O5)n Tinh bt: n 1200 6000 Xenluloz: n 10000 14000 Cht kt tinh, khng mu, Cht kt tinh, khng mu, L cht rn trng. Tinh bt tan v ngt, d tan trong nc. v ngt sc, d tan trong c trong nc nng h tinh bt. nc, tan nhiu trong nc Xenluloz khng tan trong nc k nng c un nng Thu phn khi un nng trong dd axit long ddaxit,to (C6H10O5)n + nH2O nC6H12O6

glucoz

saccaroz

Phn ng trng gng Thu phn khi un nng trong dd axit long C6H12O6 + Ag2O Tnh ddaxit,to C6H12O7 + 2Ag C12H22O11 + H2O cht ho hc C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 quan glucoz fructoz trng

ng dng iu ch Nhn bit

H tinh bt lm dd Iot chuyn mu xanh Thc n, dc phm Thc n, lm bnh ko Tinh bt l thc n cho ngi v Pha ch dc phm ng vt, l nguyn liu sn xut ng Glucoz, ru Etylic. Xenluloz dng sn xut giy, vi, g v vt liu xy dng. C trong qu chn (nho), C trong ma, c ci ng Tinh bt c nhiu trong c, qu, ht ny mm; iu ch ht. Xenluloz c trong v ay, t tinh bt. gai, si bng, g Phn ng trng gng C phn ng trng gng Nhn ra tinh bt bng dd Iot: c khi un nng trong dd axit mu xanh c trng