Está en la página 1de 48



Pankaj Gupta Harikumar Chari Vikrant Chaudhari

Electrical Engineering Dept

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. INTRODUCTION Salient Features Main Plant Overview Thermal Power Plant Cycle And Its Operation Special Features Power Generation Process Main Plant Generator Transformers Motor Electrical System at Dahanu TPS Safety Precautions


Location: Dahanu Thermal Power Station is about 120 km north of Mumbai on Mumbai-Delhi Western Railway route and is situated at 3 km away from Dahanu Railway station. It is suitably linked by Railway as well as road. The Western Express highway is 26 km east of Power station. Basic Requirement of the Project: The estimated requirements of coal, water and land for two units of 250 MW capacities are as follows:

Coal per year 2.5 million tonnes based on an average calorific value of 3300 kcal/kg. Cooling water of 84,000 cu 3 /hr for once through cooling Fresh water for boiler 300 cu 3 /hr make-up Land for power plant 351 hectares Land for Ash disposal 370 hectares area for 25 years.


Total land - 821.58 hectares Land for Plant - 351.58 hectares Land for Ash disposal area - 370.00 hectares Land for colony - 100.00 hectares

Water: 3 Sea Water - 84,000 cu /hr 3 Fresh Sweet Water - 300 cu /hr Coal:

1.85 Million Tonnes / Year based on blended average calorific value of 4200 kcal/kg. i.e. 1.60 million tonnes Indian coal and 0.40 million tonnes imported coal. 2.5 million tonnes / year based on average calorific value of 3300 kcal/kg. Dahanu Plant has started receiving washed coal from SBCWL Coal Washery project at Korba, MP. This Washery project is a joint venture between BSES Ltd & Spectrum Technologies, USA. Coal is imported from Indonesia by Sea.

Major Milestones at Dahanu TPS:

Start of Land Development - 01/04/1990 Finalization of Main Plant Contract - 29/01/1991 Boiler Unit # I start of foundation work - 11/04/1991 Station Commercial Operation - January 1996 Activity First Synchronization Commercial Operation Unit # I 06/01/1995 July 1995 Unit # II 29/03/1995 January 1996

Special Features:

Complete automatic control & monitoring of the turbine, boiler and auxiliaries by Digital Distributed Control, Monitoring and Information System (DDC-MIS). Utilization of concrete volute pumps for CW System. Erection of the tallest chimney (275.3 mtr.) in the country. State-of-the-art Electronic Precipitators (ESP) with efficiency of 99.9% and technologies for complete environment safeguard. Completely Hydrogen cooled Generators. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for transmission and distribution. Microprocessor based fire detection system. Advanced air pollution monitoring system.


Excitation Systems
The basic function of the excitation system is to provide direct current to the synchronous machine field winding. Excitation systems perform control and protective functions essential to the satisfactory performance of the power system. 2.1 Control functions: 1) Control of voltage and reactive power flow. 2) Enhancement of system stability. The protective functions ensure that the capability limits of the synchronous machine, excitation systems and other equipment are not exceeded. Generator consideration: 1. Maintain terminal voltage as output varies To supply and adjust field current to maintain terminal voltage as the output varies within the continuous capability of the generator (V curves). 2. Must be able to respond to transient disturbance with field forcing. To respond to transient disturbances with field forcing consistent with generator instantaneous and short term capabilities. Power systems consideration: Effective control of voltage and enhancement of systems stability1. Rapid response to improve transient stability. 2. Modulation of field to enhancing small signal stability. (PSS). To fulfill these roles satisfactorily, the excitation system must satisfy the following requirements: a) Meet specified response criteria; b) Provide limiting and protection to prevent damage to itself, generator and other equipment; c) Meet specified requirements for operating flexibility, reliability and availability. Excitation systems are extremely important as a first line of defense in maintaining system stability and their role has continually been growing.

These systems have continued to evolve improved speed of response and capabilities, particularly in 1960s; also began to include power system stabilizers. Modern exciters are capable of practically instantaneous response and very high ceiling voltages, with a wide array of control and protective circuits. 2.3 Characteristics of modern excitation systems 1) Fast response. 2) High ceiling voltage Exciter ceiling voltage is the maximum voltage that may be attained by an exciter with the specified condition of load. For rotating exciters ceiling should be determined at rated speed and specified field temperature. 2.4 Dynamic performance measures: Following are the few important parameters on which dynamic performance of an excitation system is judged. 1. Nominal exciter ceiling voltage Nominal exciter ceiling voltage is the ceiling voltage of an exciter loaded with the resistor having an ohmic value equal to the resistance of the field winding to be excited. This resistance shall be determined at a temperature of a) 75 C for field winding designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise of 60C or less. b) 100C or field winding designed to operate at rating with a temperature rise greater than 60C. For rotating exciters the temperature of the exciter field winding should be considered to be 75C. 2. Excitation system ceiling voltage Maximum direct voltage that excitation system is able to supply from its terminal under specified conditions. 3. Excitation systems ceiling current It is the maximum current that the excitation system is able to supply from its terminal for a specified time.

4. Excitation system voltage time response Excitation systems output voltage expressed as the function of time under specified condition. 5. Excitation systems voltage response time The time in seconds for the excitation systems to attain 95%of the difference between the ceiling voltage and the rated load field voltage under specified conditions. 6. High terminal response excitation systems It is an excitation system, having voltage response time of 0.1s or less. It represents a high response and fast acting excitation systems. 2.5 Elements of Power System

2.6 Types of excitation systems: Classification based on the power source. 1. DC excitation systems. 2. AC excitation systems. 3. Static excitation systems 1. DC excitation systems Use dc generators as source of power, driven off main generator shaft or separate motor, self or separately excited. Typical of early systems and have been slowly disappearing since 1960s; still exist and need to be modeled in stability studies, often with modern voltage regulators fitted. DC excitation system

2. AC excitation systems Use ac machines (alternators) as source of power, with exciter usually on same shaft as turbine-generator. Either controlled or non-controlled rectifiers rectify AC output of the exciter, which may be stationary or rotating (brush less excitation systems). Early systems used combination of magnetic and rotating amplifiers as regulators; new systems use electronic amplifier regulators.

AC excitation system

3. Static excitation system All components are static (i.e. stationary) and dc is supplied to the generator field via slip rings. Power supply to rectifiers is from main generator or the station auxiliary bus. Three main types: Potential-source controlled-rectifier systems Compound-source rectifier systems Compound-controlled rectifier excitation systems

2.7Comparison between Brush less & Static Excitation systems: Brush less excitation system Exciter response limited to exciter machine time constant. Field discharge with natural time constant or inverter operation Supply from PMG hence no initial built up circuit required. Easy supporting of short circuit currents Static excitation system 1) Fast response 2) Field discharge by field discharge resistor 3) Initial built up circuit is required.

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8)

4) Supporting of short circuit current requires special compounding transformer. No slip ring and brush gears hence 5) Direct measurement of field excitation quantities are quantities is possible. approximated. Since no slip ring and brush gears 6) Wear & tear of slip rings and brush are involved, wear & tear is less gears requires more frequent hence the maintenance cost is low. maintenance. Power requirement are smaller 7) Power requirements are higher. No hence uses small Thyristor, limitation on the degree of rectifiers redundancy of thyristor bridge. Less space required for necessary 8) More space required for cubicles. cubicles



Study of Excitation System at DTPS

3.1 Basic mode of operation
THYRISIME-04- voltage regulator is designed for excitation and control of brush less generators the machine sets consists of the generator and a direct coupled exciter unit with a 3phase main exciter rotating rectifiers and a permanent magnet auxiliary exciter the main component of voltage regulator are two close loop control systems each followed by a separate gate control unit and Thyristor sets and deexcitation equipment. The control system (1) for an automatic generator voltage control comprises the following one 1. Generator voltage control. 2. Excitation current regulator controlling the field current of main exciter. 3. Circuit for automatic excitation build up during start up and field suppressing during shut down. 4. Limiter for the under excited range. 5. Delayed limiter for over excitation range. Field forcing limits (practically un-delayed) The output current of the thyristor sets to the maximum permissible value when the voltage regulation calls for maximum excitation. Normally, the maximum permissible value is 1.5times the rated excitation. The over excitation limiter ensures delayed reduction of the excitation current to the rated value in the over excited range that is between rated excitation and maximum excitation. The delay time depends on the amount by which the rated value has been exceeded. These limiters protect Thyristor sets and machine against over excitation with two high values or to long duration. In the under excited range the under excitation limiter ensures that the minimum excitation for stable parallel operation of the generator with the system is available and that the under excited reactive power is limited accordingly. The response characteristics is formed on the basis of the generator reactive current active current and terminal voltage and can be matched to the generator and system data. The power system stabiliser (PSS) serves to dampen rotor oscillations of synchronous generator by additional influence on the excitation systems and acceleration as well as slip signal is required for stabilisation, are derived fro the active power and terminal frequency as supplied by the generator after suitable amplification the stabilising signal generated which acts on the voltage regulator of the synchronous machine.


Control system (2) manual it mainly comprises a second excitation current regulator with separate sensing for the actual value. This control system is also called manual control system, because for constant generator voltage manual readjusting of the excitation current set point is requires when changing the generator load. The excitation current regulator permits plotting of generator characteristics and setting of protective relays during no load and short circuit runs of the generator during communing and maintenance work. The system can also be used for the setting of generator excitation during normal operation when the AVR is defective. Normally the AVR is in-service even during start up and shutdown of the generator set. Set-point adjuster of the excitation current regulator for manual is track automatically so that the event of fault change over to manual control is possible without delay. Automatic changeover is initiated by some special fault condition. Correct operation of the follow up control circuit is monitored and can be observed on the matching instrument. Either control system is co coordinated with a separate gate control and Thyristor set. Separate equipment is also provided supplying power to either control system. The two separate Thyristor set for automatic voltage regulation and excitation current control have the same ample dimensioning regarding current and blocking voltage. Each Thyristor is fused separately. The Thyristor set for automatic regulation can be switched off by means of an isolated contacts in the gate control, power supply and output side. This isolator in conjunction with corresponding arrangement and design of Thyristor set enables an exchange of Thyristor and fuse during operation if necessary whilst operation is continued by means of the excitation current regulator (manual). In addition the thirstier set for automatic voltage regulation is equipped with current flow monitoring system for detecting failure of firing pulses or fuses. Automatic changeover to the manual current regulator is initiated by this system. On the input side the Thyristor set are fed with auxiliary power from 220V, 400Hz permanent magnet auxiliary exciter. The output side of the Thyristor set feeds the field windings of the main exciter with variable DC current. To de excite the generator during shut down or when the generator protection system has picked up. A command is transmitted to the output of both control system, driving the Thyristor set being in service to minimum negative output voltage (inverter operation) de-excites the main exciter in less than 0.5 s. the generator de-excitation following is a function of the relevant effective generator time constant. The off command is issued to the field breaker via its tripping coil. In the event of failure of electronic field suppression by inverter operation de-excitation would be achieved with a delayed via the field discharge resister.



Excitation control, start up and shut down, field breaker control and De-excitation.

Excitation and voltage closed loop control are not necessary for speeds under approximately 0.95 times rated speed. Further more closed loop control of the generator voltage to the rated voltage would not be permissible at low speeds, since the generator and unit transformers would become saturated. For this reason, functions are provided for enabling excitation during start up and for blocking excitation during shut down of the generator. The speed is detected via the largely speed proportional voltage of the auxiliary exciter. The field breaker is to be switched on after reaching the speed limit required by a manual command or from a functional group control system. Closing of the field breaker is inter locked with the criterion ramp function generator lower limit to insure that the generator voltage builds up slowly with out over shooting. During excitation current control (MANUAL), the lower limit of the set point adjuster is interred locked instead to ensure that zero excitation is obtained after closing. With the field breaker being closed and the speed limits exceeded the pulse blocking signal to the generator runs up, thus building up the generator excitation if automatic voltage control (AUTO) has been selected. The run up command is stored by a memory with remnant relay. When the speed drops below that limit values during shut down this initiates together with the status Generator not loaded Field breaker off command Pulse blocking signal to the gate control set. Run down of function generator. Run down of function generator may also be initiated during rated speed by the off state of the field breaker, when the breaker is tripped from the generator protection system. The speed criteria are monitored with respect to their importance. Presence of the criterion n< or absence of the criterion n> while the generator is loaded will be alarmed. Under excitation current control (manual) no automatic excitation is build-up is affected during start up. When the field breaker is closed the excitation is at its lowest possible value = zero value approx. the desired excitation can be set on the set point adjuster (lower/ rise push button in the control room). During shut down of generator the field, current set point adjuster receives continuous lower command on tripping of the field breaker so that the set point adjuster is set to the lower limit position. The tripping circuit for the de-excitation are provided twice for redundancy reason. This should be complemented by corresponding safety in the power supply for the trip circuits.


The field breaker is automatically tripped during generator shut down. In emergencies, the field breaker can also be tripped manually via the generator protection system. In this case, turbine-tripping command is transmitted through turbine control equipments. During short circuit operation of the generator for setting of the generator protective equipment, the degree of excitation is adjusted by means of the excitation current regulator (manual). During this mode of operation, a manual faulted criteria available in the alarm system of the regulator can be provisionally be used for tripping the field breaker.


3.3 Automatic voltage regulator (AUTO) The design of the amplifier circuit for the close loop control of the generator voltage is shown in the fig. The potentiometer R1 fed from the +10V stabilised voltage presets the base reference value, the standard corresponding 85% rated voltage. Added to this is the variable value from the set point adjuster, as standard 020%, corresponding to a total setting range of 85 to 105%. The output voltage of the set point adjuster is applied through amplifier N1 to the potentiometer R2 that enables the setting range width to be changed. The position of the set point adjuster is available at the output of the amplifier N1 for position indication and as a variable for the under and over excitation limiters. The generator voltage actual values present on the potentiometer R3; it is set such that the out put voltage of the subsequently arranged amplifier N2 amounts to 8V at rated generator voltage. The comparison of the set point with the actual value takes places at the input of the potential amplifier N4.furtahe more the out put of the amplifier N3 which sums up the influencing factors of the compensation (reactive current effect) and of the under and over excitation limiters, is also switched to this junction point. The result of these influences is that of an additional set point. The inputs for the limiters as well as further free inputs of the amplifiers N3 can be individually switched to this point. The compensation can be set to between 0 and approx. 10% by a potentiometer. A cascade of a proportional integral voltage regulator (N4, N7) and a following excitation current regulator (N14, N15) serves for dynamic evaluation of the deviation of between set point and actual value. The deviation is determined and amplified by amplifier N4; the gain is set at potentiometer R4. The integral function is provided by amplifier N7 and adjusted at potentiometer R7. The feedback resistor R8 determines the static gain. The amplifier N9, N10 with high proportional gain limit the +/- out put voltage Have the amplifier N8 and thus the input signal to the excitation current regulator, depending on the setting of the potentiometers R9, R10. Negative out put voltage of the PI voltage regulator results in a positive set point value to the input of the excitation current proportion (P-) regulator N15. This P-regulator compares the positive set point value against a negative actual value signal from amplifier N14 and amplifies the difference. The gain of the P- amplifier is adjusted by potentiometer R15. Under steady state condition, the set point and actual value the signal have approx the same amount, the difference setting to a value which multiplied by the gain of N15v results in the required signal going to the gate control set.


Negative voltage to the gate control set generates firing angle infinity < 90 0 thus supplying power to the field winding of the main exciter. Positive voltage generates firing angles infinity > 900 thus drawing power from the field winding of the exciter resulting in current falling towards zero. The relay K15 switches a positive voltage to a limiting input of amplifier N15 during the de-excitation resulting in equal positive voltage to gate control circuit. The Thyristor set current drops < 0.5 sec to zero the generator voltage or generator current in the case of a short circuit follows with a delay corresponding to the relevant generator time constant. As soon as the current reaches zero Thyristor turns off and field winding looses excitation. The excitation current actual value = output current of the Thyristor is sensed by two transducer one combination is provided for automatic voltage regulator and other for manual control system.


3.4 Field forcing With the automatic voltage regulation calling for maximum excitation of the generator the thyristor set initially supplies a higher voltage to field winding of the main exciter than that actually required under steady state conditions. Until the actual current in the main exciter, field winding has reached the excitation current set point coming from the PI voltage regulator. Over driving, the voltage to the field winding of the main exciter reduces the time required for building up the corresponding current in same field winding and thus improves the exciter response. The over driving function also referred to as field forcing also becomes effective in the case of smaller control operations. The proportional excitation current regulator N15 together with proper setting of the control limits achieves this effect. The maximum possible out put voltage of the thyristor set UA max is determined by a limit set as required in the gate control unit that is the minimum delay angle for rectifier operation. Because of the high gain of the current regulator, N15 small increase of the set point is sufficient to reach UA max. The maximum output current IA max is determined by the maximum possible excitation current set point from the PI voltage regulator. This set point is limited by amplifier N10 with respect to a reference voltage coming from ramp function generator N11 the function of which is explained below. This reference voltage is corresponding with the setting on potentiometer R11. Over driving also becomes effective in case of down ward control action. The mean possible reversed output voltage gain is determined by limit set in the gate control unit i.e. the maximum delay angle for inverter operation. The positive signal from the PI voltage regulator to the excitation current regulator is limited by amplifier N9 according to setting of the potentiometer R9 to a small value. At the beginning of a generator start up cycle the output voltage of the ramp function generator N11 is zero so that the thyristor set output current is limited to zero. When a speed value just short of synchronization is reached the ramp function generator gets its input voltage to run up to its maximum value with approximately 20 sec. thus due to the gradual enabling of the current the generator receives its voltage with in a few seconds with out over shooting. On shut down of the machine the ramp function generator runs back to the output zero after revolving the run up command. Failure of diodes in the rotating rectifier between the main exciter and the generator field winding reduces its load capacity. The control panel in the regulator cubical includes a switch by means of which the normal field forcing values ZA max of 1.5 times rated excitation can be limited to 1.1 times the rated excitation. This is effected via a voltage divider R10 in the ramp function generator output by means of which the field forcing limitation is reduced. Field forcing limitation I.e. limitation of thyristor set output current to ZA max is monitored by a limit monitor which senses output current of the thyristor set and its pickup value being adjusted o 1.1 IA max. response of this limit monitor initiates automatic change over to the manual control system.


3.5 Under excitation limiter Operation of the generator requires its capability curve to be observing from which the permissible active and reactive power combinations can be seen as well as the ranges in which the generator must not be operated or for limited period only. In the basic capability diagram below or permissible points inside the area A-B-CD-E-F. The section A-B-C is obtained on the assumption of a rotor displacement angle, which, because of the increase of this angle on short circuit conditions in the systems, is to provide a safety margin from the actual stability limit. D-E is a selection of the circuit rated apparent power equals constant sections C-D results from stator end heating, if applicable. The limit line in the under excited range may be exceeded slowly when the system voltage slowly increases during light load operation. With the generator voltage kept constant by the voltage regulator, this causes the over excited reactive power to be reduced or the under excited reactive power to be increased. Exceeding of the limit line can in this case be prevented before the under excitation limiter is activated by changing the limit. Transformer tap changer position early enough or, if no tap changer is provided by increasing the generating voltage or by switching measures in the systems. The limit line may also be exceeded quickly for example due to switching procedures in the systems (connection of lines) or incorrect operation of the unit Xmer tap changer. This requires automatically initiated measures on the voltage regulator equipment to returned in to the permissible range by increasing the generator voltage. This must be performed quickly enough to prevent generator tripping via the under voltage operation systems. Increasing of the generator voltage can then be cancelled by switching measures such as changing the unit Xmer tap changer position. Figure.1 shows the basic circuits required to form a response characteristics which corresponds to the limiting characteristics in the under excited range of the capability curve and which further more permits representation of a straight line to take in to consideration the stator and heating in the under excited range if required. For this purpose, three line to line generator voltage actual value in the form of a dc signal which both signals are required. The generator current is converted across the resistor R3 in to a proportional ac voltage and this applied via the potentiometers R1/R2 to the phase controlled (by the generator voltage) rectifies V1/V2. These form a signal proportional to the reactive current Ixsin or active current Ixcos; the potentiometers R1/R2 are used to standardise the signals. The response characteristics of the under excitation limiter is shown deriving from the reactive capability curve in reactive/ active current co ordinates.


The reason is, that pole angle of stability observations the foot A on the reactive current axis must be shifted proportional with the generator voltage. The curve AB-C shifts proportionally away from the active current axis when the voltage rises; similarly, this distance drops when the voltage drops. The foot pond A is forced by comparing the generator reactive current and the generator voltage. The reactive current is applied through a fixed resistor, the generator voltage through potentiometer R4 to the summation amplifier N3; the setting of the potentiometer R4 determines the position of the point A. point B (potentiometer R5) is formed by comparing the active current with the generator voltage. As soon as the active current exceeds the value according to point B, the amplifier N1 issues an additional signal to the sum amplifier N3. The proportionality factor for this signal depends on the setting of potentiometer R6, which sets the angle B. the limit characteristics A-B-C of the reactive capability diagram, is thus simulated. The active current value is smoothened before being used in forming the response characteristics to a degree, preventing response of the under excitation limiter due to pole angle oscillations. If further bend in the characteristics is necessary due to stator end heating the amplifier N2 supplies the signal, potentiometer R7 determines the point C, potentiometer R8 angle . Since stability observations are not important for this bend, the active current is not compared with the variable generator voltage but it is a fixed voltage value. The limitations signal to amplifier N2 limits the length of the bend to the part C-D with the purpose of avoiding and undesired rise in excitation in the over excitation range. Behind point D the response characteristics runs parallel to the steeper bend. The out put voltage of amplifier N3 is proportional to horizontal distance = the reactive current distance on the operating point from the response characteristics. When the response characteristics is exceeded its output polarity changes from minus in the permissible range to plus in the non-permissible range. Proportional amplifiers N1 refer to fig-2 limits the first correcting action on the voltage regulator required when the response characteristics are exceeded quickly. This action is limited by the amplifier N2 to increasing the deviation from the response characteristics on the response side. Integrator N4 that is also controlled by the deviation from the response characteristics i.e. directly and in addition via the output voltage of proportional amplifier N1 ensures the permanent and accurate setting. The out put signal of proportional amplifier N1 and of integrator N4 (both negative) are added in voltage regulator with reserved signal then influence the amplifier input for comparing the positive voltage set point and the negative actual value. The result is that the excitation and generator voltage increases until the deviation from the response has been eliminated. Remaining increase of the generator voltage is limited by the limitation of the integrator, which depends on the position of the potentiometer R9 and via


potentiometer R8 on the position of the set point adjuster for the generator voltage. The setting can for example be carried out in a way to ensure that independently of the position of the generator voltage is set point adjuster on increase up to 1.1 times rated voltage is possible the limitation thus is shifted with the position of the set point adjuster. The adjustable limit monitor gives a signal to the control room on response of the integrator. The pick up value of the limit monitor may be chosen, example to indicate the occasion for changing the unit transformer tap with the aim to reset the generator voltage to normal value.


3.6 Over excitation limiter The operating state of the generator with rated excitation current determines the section EF in the over excitation range of the capability curve. The rated excitation current may only be temporarily exceeded. If the system voltage drops due to reactive power requirements switching procedure or faults, the voltage regulator increases the generator excitation in order to keep the generator voltage constant. Thermal overloading of the exciter and generator rotor can arise due to large drop in the system voltage if the operator does not reduce the set point for the generator voltage or if the ratio of unit transformer is not re adjusted. The purpose of the over excitation limiter in this case is to automatically limit the generator excitation by reducing the generator voltage. The limitation of the generator excitation can afterwards be replaced by changing the ratio of the unit transformer provided it has an on load tap changer. From the circuit diagram of the over excitation limiter the actual values for the over excitation limiter is the field current of the main exciter coming from a shunt via transducer. The amplifier N4 compares the actual value with a set point value preset by potentiometer R2 normally to 100-105% rated excitation. The gain is set by potentiometer R4 such that 140% rated excitation produce a 10 Volt signal at the output of N4. The shortest response time of the over excitation limiter is assigned to this signal. The limiting voltage from potentiometer R3 prevents a larger value. The output voltage of the amplifier N4 is normally positive (excitation current <rated value), that of the subsequent integrator N5 negative, the value corresponding to the limiting voltage set by potentiometer R7. If the current actual value exceeds the reference value, the output of the amplifier N4 becomes negative. This causes the integrator N5 to integrate up in the direction to positive voltage. As soon as its output voltage becomes positive, its signal reaches the comparator point between the set point and the actual value of generator voltage in the voltage regulator. The result is a reduction of the excitation to the over excitation limiter set point in conjunction with a reduction in generator voltage and reactive power. A permanent output voltage of the integrator N5 maintains this state until the condition, which initiated the limiter, disappears. Reduction of the generator voltage is limited via a limitation input of the integrator, depending on the position of potentiometer R9 and via potentiometer R8, on the position of the set point adjuster for the generator voltage. The setting may for example be carried out to ensure that, independent of the position down to 0.8x rated voltage is possible, the limitation being varied with the set point adjuster position accordingly. When setting this limitation, contradictory requirements have to be considered:


1. Thermal protection of the generator field winding (by limitation of the excitation) on the one side, by adoptions of the generator voltage to a reduced grid voltage level. 2. Support of the system and station supply voltages (by over excitation) in case of system voltage drops on the other side. Integrator N5 allows for a response time, which is inversely proportional to the control deviation. The shortest response time using standard settings amounts to 10 seconds. This value ensures that the over excitation limitation does not influence the effectiveness of over current relays within the scope of the generator protection system. The over excitation limiter is again made inoperative if excitation drops below the response value for a short period of time by 3.3% for 2 minutes. The main exciter is equipped with a measuring coil for the generator excitation current. The AC signal supplied by this coil is rectified and watched and transmitted to an instrument, which indicates the generator excitation current in the control room. The over excitation limiter is supplemented by a stator current limiter, which in principle works the same way. It is operative only in the overexcited part of the capability diagram i.e. in the part of the curve D-E. Lowering of the generator excitation in the under excited area of the diagram would increase the stator current instead of limiting it. Therefore a limit monitor disables the limiter, when the reactive current falls short often-adjustable reactive current limit. The output signal of the over excitation and stator current limiter go through diodes to the comparator point of the generator voltage regulator. If both limiters respond, only the larger signal will influence the voltage regulator.


3.7 Actual voltage feedback signal This module is mainly used in automatic voltage regulators of large alternators for forming, adjusting and amplifying the actual voltage feedback signal, for adjusting and amplifying the voltage reference signal, for summing and amplifying additional control signals and for providing components for shaping the response of amplifiers in the automatic voltage regulators. Mode of operation Voltage transformers are used to provide six voltages (24volts, 50/60Hz), which are proportional to the alternator voltage. This form the input signals to the module and is rectified by the six diodes. The rectified and summed voltages are fed to a decoupling amplifier via a potential divider. The decoupling amplifier output the actual value feedback signal of the alternator voltage; this is used for control and monitoring functions. A further decoupling amplifier used to feed the voltage reference signal to the various control functions, the reference signal being obtained from a remote motorised setting potentiometer. The module also contains potentiometers for the presetting the basic voltage reference and the bandwidth of the variable voltage component.


3.8 Fault indication and automatic change over to manual Following alarms are issued from the voltage regulator to the control room. 1. AVR fault, 2. AVR, automatic changeover to MANAUL, 3. AVR, loss of alarm voltage. The group alarm AVR fault collects the individual alarms; refer to the functional diagram. The initiating individual signal (s) is (are) stored and can be identified locally (in the voltage regulator cubicle) by means of LEDs. The initiations1. Power supply AUTO, 2. Generator voltage actual value, 3. Thyrister set AUTO, 4. Faulty over excitation. Causes automatic changeover to MANUAL, unless changeover is not blocked due to a fault in the excitation current control (MANUAL). Changeover can also be blocked in either direction by switches provided locally in the voltage regulator cubicle if components of MANUAL or AUTO are not ready for operation. This blocking takes effect both for automatic and manual commands. Fault conditions initiating automatic changeover also cause the alarm AVR, automatic changeover to MANUAL to be given. The Power supply AUTO alarm initiating automatic changeover occurs in the event has under voltage in the stabilised 15 volts power supply for the automatic voltage control and the associated gate control set. The alarm Alternator voltage actual value is initiated either by tripping of the voltage transformer MCB for the generator voltage actual value, or by the generator voltage actual value monitor. Response of the current flow monitoring system initiates the thyristor set AUTO alarm. The alarm faulty over excitation is with only a short delay initiated by the field forcing limitation monitor and additionally by a generator reactive current monitor as follows: The above-mentioned field forcing limitation monitor responds above 1.65* Rated excitation approx. at operating temperature of the machine, at somewhat higher value if the machine being cold. Lower excitation values are limited with delay by the over excitation limiter.


3.9 Compensation The purpose of the compensation is to generate an increase in the controlled generator voltage proportional to the reactive current to partly compensate for the voltage drop in the unit transformer. For this reason signal available from the under excitation limiter which is proportional to the reactive current is applied to the comparator point for the generator voltage set point and actual value. The effect referred to a reactive current = rated current of the generator is adjustable between 0 and 0.1 X-rated voltage. As a result of partial compensation of the voltage drop across the unit transformer the voltage regulator reacts more pronounced to changes in the voltage drop between the generator and the grid. Change n reactive power associated with the change in voltage drop becomes noticeably bigger. For this it is irreverent whether the voltage change occurs on the grid side or whether it is purposely introduced by set point changes or by tap change in the unit transformer. The change in the controlled generator voltage with the reactive current should be noted with respect to a station supply possibly connected to the generator terminals and because of the voltage limits of the generator. If the generator is operating in parallel with other generator via the unit transformer on to a common bus bar then the voltage drop may be compensated to a maximum residual of 4 to 6% otherwise changes in the set point or of the unit transformer tap would result in substantial cross currents between the generator. The same applies with the parallel operation of individual generator with the grid. The voltage regulator of large generators is preferably operated with out compensation. The decision whether compensation is suitable requires individual consideration or local operation experience.


3.10 Monitoring of generator voltage actual value For the automatic voltage regulation the generator voltage actual value is sensed as the average of the three line to line voltages. Drop of this actual values by blowing of a voltage transformer fuse or by an interruption in the inter connection in the voltage regulator or in the circuits of the intermediate voltage transformer and associated rectifier would cause the generator to increase the excitation and generator voltage to improper and dangerous values. An adequate action in this case is immediate change over to manual that is the separate regulator for the exciter field current as this current regulator is automatically tracked according to the automatic voltage regulator normal excitation is restored and tripping of the machine is avoided. For this purpose the three phase secondary voltage from a second set of voltage transformer is required. After reducing the voltage level by intermediate voltage transformers the average of the voltage is formed and compared to the corresponding signal from the first set of voltage transformers by means of differential amplifiers. Voltage drops incoming from the grid cause both signals to change by small amount and the output of the differential amplifier will remain zero. But a failure arising in the circuit of the first set of voltage transformers only will produce positive output voltage on the differential amplifier output. This will be detected by a connected limit monitor if the response limit adjusted is exceeded. The response limit is to be set so that interruption of the phase will be determined safely. A failure in the circuit of the second set of voltage transformer will produce a negative output voltage signal on the differential amplifier output, which is not evaluated. The response of the limit monitor is evaluated for a single alarm Generator voltage actual values, automatic change over to manual, a group alarm AVR fault, and an alarm AVR automatic change over to MANUAL.


3.11 Volts per Hertz limiter (V/F Limiter) The voltage regulator keeps the generator voltage constant independent of the generator frequency. Excitation of the generator with excessive under frequency value is prevented by speed dependent enabling of the excitation at speed values of 0.95 pu or by blocking speed values of less than 0.9 pu approximately. This means that the excitation equipment permits excited operation of the generator with frequency deviation up to 0.1 pu below normal frequency. The magnetic flux of the unit transformer is directly proportional to the terminal voltage and inversely proportional to the frequency i.e. proportional to the ratio V/Hz. Excessive magnetic flux increases thermal stressing of the unit transformer and of the generator. The function of the V/Hz limiter is to issue a signal when a present V/Hz limit value is exceeded and to reduce this value to the permissible limit. The ac generator voltage is transferred to level of 8V approximately by an intermediate transformer and then fed to frequency voltage converter. The dc output voltage of this converter is proportional to frequency and amounts to +8V at rated frequency. At the proportional amplifier N1 the frequency proportional signal is compared against a dc signal proportional to the generator voltage. The generator voltage proportional signal is adjustable to potentiometer R1 the setting of which determines the pickup value of the V/Hz limiter. The setting range is 7.2 to 8.0 volts approximately corresponding to V/Hz limit pickup value setting of 1 pu to 1.1 pu. The V/Hz limiter responds when the output of the negative generator voltage signal exceeds the amount of positive frequency signal. The output voltage of the amplifier N1 then changes from negative to positive side. The normally negative output voltage is fed to the input of the integrator N2, the output voltage of the latter then being +11V app.. The out put voltage of the integrator N2 changes to negative values when the pickup level of the V/Hz limiter is exceeded. The output of the integrator N2 is reversed by reversing stage N3 the output of which being positive on pickup of V/Hz limiter. Positive output voltage of amplifier N3 biases the comparator between the set point and actual value of the generator voltage in the regulator. This simulates a too high voltage to the voltage regulator and returns V/Hz ratio to the set response value. When integrator N2 changes its initial output potential the capacitor across the integrator becomes charged in the opposite direction, the rate of change at the output of N2 depending on the input current of N2.


The V/Hz limiter thus has a response time which is shorter to greater the V/Hz ratio deviates from the set value. It depends also on the size of the capacitor and setting of the potentiometer R3. the setting of potentiometer R2 determines on which deviations of the V/Hz ratio from the set level. Output voltage of +11V will appear at amplifier N1 determining the shortest responsible possible. When the output of amplifier N3 changes to positive voltage an electronic limit switch will give a signal to the control room to draw the attention of the operator to the abnormal situation. Normally when the unit transformer is more vulnerable with respect to V/Hz value than the generator is. It must be observed that deviation response time characteristics is of the type T= C/deviation. Where C is the constant value but with a constant response time value after certain deviation is exceeded.



Power System Stabiliser (PSS)

Application of power system stabilizer (PSS) is to improve the dynamic performance of a power system. The most widely employed PSS is the lag-lead type where the gain setting is fixed at certain values, which are determined under particular conditions. The operating point of power system drifts as a result of load changes or major disturbances such as 3-phase faults. To take care of machinery during such critical conditions PSS is necessary. In presence of AVR oscillations of the rotor can be de-stabilized due to negative damping torque. To make the system stable it is required to provide some other means of damping so as to make the total damping torque positive, modulating some control quantity does this. The necessary condition for damping are 1) The oscillations should be seen in the quantity, which is used, as the modulating signal. For example speed deviation and power output of the generator-modulating signal should also be easily measured and should be less susceptible to noise. 2) Variation of the controllable quantity should be able to cause an adequate variation in the torque. E.g. Input mechanical torque, however it is not practically feasible due to slow response of the turbine control system. Another option is to control the voltage reference of AVR or of HVDC and SVC control in the systems. 3) The controller should modulate the controllable quantity approximately using the modulated signal so that damping torque is produced at the rotor oscillations frequency. The most widely accepted and inexpensive way to achieving stabilizer is to modulate the voltage reference of the AVR using speed/power/bus frequency signals. The controller in each case will be different since these oscillations are not in phase with each other.


4.1 Structure of PSS The main objective of the PSS is to increase the power transfer in the network, which would otherwise be limited by oscillatory instability. The PSS must also function properly when the system is subjected to large disturbances. WASHOUT CIRCUIT: The washout circuit is provided to eliminate steady state bias in the output of the PSS, which will modify the generator terminal voltage. The PSS is expected to responds only to transient variations in the input signal and not to the dc offsets in the signal. This is achieved by subtracting from it the low frequency component of the signal obtained by passing the signal through a low pass filter. Gw(s)= sTw / (1+s Tw) = 1- 1/(1+s Tw) = 1- Glp(s) DYNAMIC COMPENSATOR: The compensator should modulate the controllable quantity appropriately using the modulating signal so that damping torque is produced at the rotor oscillation frequency. TORSIONAL FILTER: The torsional filter in the PSS is essentially a band reject filter to attenuate the first torsional mode frequency. The transfer function of the filter can be expressed as FILT(s) = Wn2 / (s2 + 2 Wns+Wn2) Torsional filter is necessitated by the adverse interaction of PSS with the torsional oscillations. This can lead to shaft damage, particularly at light generated loads when the inherent mechanical damping is small even if shaft damage does not occur; stabilizer output can go in to saturation (due to torsional frequency components) making it ineffective. LIMITER: The output of the PSS must be limited to prevent the PSS acting to counter the action of AVR. For example when the load rejection takes place the AVR acts to reduce the terminal voltage when PSS action calls for higher value of the terminal voltage (due to increase in speed/frequency). It may even be desirable to trip the PSS in case of load rejection


The negative limit of PSS output is of importance during the back swing of the rotor (after initial acceleration is over). The AVR action is required to maintain the voltage (and thus prevent loss of synchronism) after the angular separation has increased. PSS action in the negative direction must be curtailed more than in the positive direction. Recent studies show that higher negative limit can impair first swing stability.

Vs max MODULATING SIGNAL sTw Gc (s) 1+sTw Gf (s)







New Trends -Digital Voltage Regulator (DVR)

Control of the voltage and reactive power of synchronous machine has been so far achieved mainly with analog control amplifier in excitation equipment. In these, the control signal is formed by continuous comparison of the measured actual value with required reference values available in the form of dc voltage. The control signal varies the output of thyristor-controlled rectifiers, provided as power stage, by shifting the firing pulses. The pulses are generated in gate-controlled units provided with discrete components. The analog control amplifiers having general met the requirements of control speed and adaptability to control systems. However automatic diagnostics features such as self-monitoring and fault detection, often required in present-day systems, are difficult to be incorporated. Also the number of modules required for configuring systems with complex control such as limiters, stabilizers etc are many. With the introduction of fast microprocessor, modules are now available, which can meet the highly demanding task in the field of AVR. These modules can also be used for various sub systems in excitation equipment such as monitoring, protection and control thus forming the decentralize digital voltage regulator. Features of digital voltage regulator are:1] Self-monitoring of the modules. 2] Ease of setting and measuring of the variables, using local micro terminal. 3] Settings which are digital i.e. they are exactly reproducible and are not subject to variation over long period of time. 4]. Digital firing and control module having stable behaviour even with distorted synchronous voltage. 5]. A significantly small no of different modules. 6]. Easy adaptation of customers individual requirements. 7]. The maximum converter out put voltage can be reached in less than 20ms signifying a very fast control response.


5.1 The digital voltage regulator philosophy. For voltage regulation of synchronous machines several special conditions have to be met. An important factor is the measurement of the active and reactive power and derives variables such as load angle and power factor. The actual measurement is made by measuring the instantaneous values of the current as the A.C voltage passes through zero. As the phase voltage passes through zero from positive to negative, the instantaneous value of the current corresponds to the value of the reactive current. As the line voltage passes through zero from negative to positive the instantaneous value of the current corresponds to the value of active current. Thus reactive current can be measured six times in each period as the phase voltage passes through zero and the active current can be measured six times as the line voltage passes through zero. An interrupt generator is used to produce 12 pulses in each period, which among other functions, are used in determining the active and reactive components of the current. When short circuit occur close to the generator. The response time of the regulator must be very short. This means that after the short circuit event, the converter out put voltage must reach 95% of its maximum value within 20ms. In the digital voltage regulator the control signal is computed periodically from the measured actual value and the reference values, there fore the calculation must be repeated at every short interval of time in order to meet the requirement. The transfer function of the voltage regulator represents an important parameter while studying the stability of the network. The transfer function of the digital voltage regulator remains the same as that for analog voltage regulator. Amplification factor and time constant, which are known from the analog regulator, can be used as initial input parameters during commission.


5.2 Functional layout Description: It consists of a single channel regulator. Heart of the system is C.P.U and is connected to various peripherals through address bus, serial I/O and control bus. Data processing is synchronized by clock pulses of 12MHz derived from internal frequency generator. Voltage and current measuring modules measures the generated voltage, current and field current. An important function of this module is to produce interrupt pulses in relation to the point where the generator voltage passes through zero. These pulses are required for measuring active and re active currents. Analog and digital conversions of measured values is done through A/D conversion module. This module lies before the voltage and current measuring module. Digital I/O module is used for D/A conversion. Central processing unit accepts the measured values in digital forms in synchronism with interrupt pulses. The pulses are synchronized by input A/C voltage of thyristor converter equipment. Central Processing Unit C.P.U uses 16-bit microprocessor, which can be used for any application. The module has 64 KB of memory. The memory sub divided into to different blocks. 1) EPROM with basic programs 2) EPROM program to suit the customer requirement. 3) Free for future use. 4) EE-PROM for setting reference values. 5) RAM as working memory. The digital voltage regulator is capable of performing wide range of function which are as follows:a) Control of generator voltage. b) Limitation of field current. c) Limitation of load angle. d) Limitation stator current. e) Damping of active power oscillations. f) Number of supplementary functions. The following subroutines are called at every second interrupt pulses:a) Formation of generator voltage actual value signal. b) Reference and actual value difference. c) P.I.D algorithm. Digital pulse generator Regulator described above. In addition to the main function of generating double pulses the module has a number of auxiliary function to meet specific plant requirement .


1) Filtering of heavily distorted synchronizing voltages due commutation in thyristor. This is done with data registers. 2) Correction of gate triggering angle proportional to changes in frequency with respect to the rated frequency. 3) Blocking of the gate pulses to the inverter region through an external signal. 4) Monitoring and limiting of field current. To prevent slip rings short circuit 5) Gate pulses can be adjusted any one of the following of the methods 1) The voltage regulator control output. 2) The internal reference value. 3) Internal field current controller. Additional feature with microprocessor hardware within the excitation equipment. The central processing unit describe earlier can also be used for another sub systems within the excitation systems. In the additional to the excitation sequence control and excitation monitoring both describe below. Rotor temperature measurement.


Excitation sequence control Excitation systems depend on the individual plant requirements and often require to be modified during commissioning. As result software has been designed in a simple way so that it is easy to program and specialized programmer is required. The arrangement of the excitation systems is simple as shown in the fig. The CPU communicates with the digital I\O module and with the alarm indication module. Data exchange with plant systems is done with digitally isolated contacts for inputs and potential fed contacts for outputs. When CPU is used for sequence control the memory allocation is as follows. 1) Block 1 EPROM containing the operating systems, which interprets the functional blocks of the programming language. 2) Block 2 EPROM contains the user program 3) Block 3 reserved for future use. 4) Block 4 EEPROM for intermediate storage of auxiliary values so as to reduce computation time. 5) Block 5 RAM working memory. Program cycle is 20ms.


5.4 Excitation monitoring-: The analog signals of generator voltage and current are converted into digital form by A\D converter and are fed to the CPU. Through the data and address bus. Signals from the current monitoring CTs go through the central processing module unit through another current flow monitor module. Data exchange with the control sub systems takes place through the digital I\O module. With this subsystem following functions can be performed. Monitoring the actual value signals of the generator voltage and field current. Monitoring the Thyristor current flow. Protection of Thyristor against the over load. Generation of voltage reference. Monitoring if temperature reference values for stator and rotor current in gas turbine application. 5.5 Excitation protection:The field current is converted in to the digital form by A\D converted module and then fed to the CPU. The module performs the following functions. Over current protection. (Instantaneous) Over current time delay form an inverse time characteristics. i) Local operation. The micro terminal is provided with the keys for setting the reference values and with the plug in connections. Which can be connected to the memory blocks. A LCD provides simultaneous displays of four addresses and their corresponding data. The most important data and setting appear directly in alphanumeric form. With keyboard the data can be modified. ii) Self monitoring: The self monitoring function in the various modules represents important advantage over the analog equipment. Faults within the controller and the pulse generation module are detected immediately. With this feature and with redundant equipment automatic change over to the stand by channel is done before the fault can affect the excitation current.


Self monitoring includes the following functions. a) Program sequence check. This consists of an independent counter which is periodically reset to zero by internal pulses in the program. If the counter runs over a limit, it indicates a program fault. b) Interrupt pulse monitor: the 12 interrupt pulses per period are counted and at the same time the internal clock timer responsible for producing interrupt pulses, is also monitored during under frequency or over frequency conditions. c) The A\D and D\A converters checked periodically by feeding the analog out puts of the D\A converter back to the A\D converter during the short pauses in the program. The converted values are then compared with the input values. d) The digital input and output modules are checked periodically. e) The pulse out put from the digital firing and control module are checked for short circuit. f) The out put voltages of the power supply modules are monitored.



Distributed Digital Control System (DDC)

DDC is an integrated solution for control and monitoring of power plants. A complete plant automation system provides the operating personnel with necessary tool to increase plant availability and efficiency. The automation system automatically controls and monitors plant operating systems, plant start up and shut down. The operation is improper when the plant operates in unpredictable manner the DDC helps in quick recovery of plant in such critical conditions. It prevents chain tripping of the power plant. The complete goal of the plant automation can only be achieved when operating personnel can rely on the automation system and are released from the cumbersome control duties. Thus the operating personnel can concentrate on the over all plant behaviour and on the preventive maintenance. Enunciation concept ensures the operator that the automation system actions are correctly achieved based on plant data. Applications of DDC: 1. During plant shut down and start up 2. During stable generation of power 3. During major changes Features of DDC: 1. Modular electronics 2. Programmable processor 3. Data acquisition 4. Remote multiplexing 5. High data transmission speed 6. Redundant multi channel configuration. DDC is an automation system with microprocessor based intelligent multiplexing system. The system is designed on a modular basis and allows tightening the scope of control hard ware to particular control strategy. The DDC provides signal conditioning and transmission, modulating controls, on off logic sequential control, individual and process protection, man machine process interface. Communication: 1. Serial bus technique is utilised. 2. Very high data transmission speed for real time control. 3. Purely cyclic mode of operation.


4. Redundant fault tolerant. Control of the plant: 1) Functional distribution of control functions. 2) Geographical distribution of control hard ware. Data transmission: Data transmission takes place over two buses. 1) Intra plant bus (IPB). 2) Local bus. Local bus: - Local bus connects all the I/Os and processing electronic modules which are part of the station. Each local bus is independent of other local bus and intra plant. Intra plant bus: - connects local buses coaxial cable. IPB and local bus connected to each other through bus couplers. Local bus and intra plant bus use serial communication with time division multiplexing. Message format is based on broadcasting state information in secure address message. The features of this technique are as follows. 1) No side effects of function execution because each message is addressed exclusively by its source address. 2) Convenient monitoring of running system because each message identifies its source. Hardware: The system has two types of processing modules. 1) Individual control module. 2) Universal processing module. Individual control module: The module implemented to control supervise monitor and protect one individual final control element of any type such as valves, pumps, fans etc. the module equipped with microprocessor. The input allows gathering data on the position status of final control element as well as the status of a related power amplifier. The output allows ON/OFF or 4-20 mA control signals. A serial I/O interphase to local bus is available. This link is mainly used to receive process signal required for interlock and permissive logic within the control logic. Universal processing module: Module is utilized for two different applications. Automation unit, functionally superimposed on individual control module.


Combining individual control and automatic function the universal processing module has larger and fast programming capability. This later allows to perform long and complex functions. Universal processing module can perform various arithmetic and logic functions like PID, AND, OR, Summation, Subs traction etc. Man process interface: Overall man process interface is the actual interface between the plant management operating and maintenance personnel. The function includes. 1) Operator station. 2) Plant monitoring system. 3) Engineering station. Operator station: Operator station consists of conventional station like push buttons; lamp indicators or CRT based station. Both this techniques can be implemented. The station gives the operator possibility to give orders to individual control loops. The CRT based station provides the possibility to tune individual control loops. The simple function like mimic displays, bar charts, and trends of the process variable is possible. Plant monitoring system: PMS informs the plant personnel of overall plant behaviour and historical data. This data allows the plant management, operator and maintenance personnel to take decision in regard to scheduling of plant, a maintenance outage, and operation of plant and recording of plant data. The PMS system via CRT provides printouts, hardcopies of plant real and nonreal datas. The various datas observed through PMS are: 1) Plant efficiency. 2) Lifetime calculation and monitoring. 3) Early detection of deterioration of process components. These datas are indicated bar charts and mimic displays. Engineering station: The engineering station allows to dialogue and record control systems internal disturbance. Station also allows programme control schemes directly via CRT and keyboards.




Salient features i. Type of station ii. Station Capacity iii. Fuel iv. Coal Source MCL SECL PRIVATE IMPORTED Transportation Consumption v. Cooling water, Source vi. Consumptive Requirement vii. Ash disposal viii. Chimney ix. Design Heat Rate x. HP/LP Bypass capacity xi. Land Requirement (In Acres) a. Plant area b. Ash disposal area c. Colony area TOTAL : Thermal : 500 MW (2x250 MW) : 100% coal (100% gas firing arrangement for future) : LOCM ,LOCM II, LOCM III BOCM, NEW BOCM, : GEWARA, NEW GEWARA, NEW KUSMUNDA, MANIKPUR. : THALCHAR (A GRADE) : AUSTRALIAN COAL : By rail & sea : 2.56 million tones per year assuming 8000 Hrs. of operation : From Arabian Sea : 76000 M/Hr : Wet Ash Disposal system. : RCC multiflue (2 Flue) chimney with flue height 275 M high. : 2250 Kcal/Kwh at 3% make up : 60 % MCR : 351.58 Hectors : 370 Hectors : 100 Hectors --------------: 821.58 Hectors


Boiler i. Manufacturer ii. Type : BHEL (C.E. Design) TIRUCHIRAPALLY : Natural circulation, Balance draft, Double pass, Single drum, Single reheat, Direct Pulverised Coal Fired Water Impounded Bottom. (Gas firing & Gas regulating system, provision for future). : 182.5 Kg/cm2 & 540O C : 15240 199 63 .5 11506 142 63 .5 : Tilting Tangential

iii. Boiler Design Pr & Temp. iv. Boiler Designation v. Type of Firing

Steam Turbine i. Make : BHEL, KRAFT WERK UNION DESIGN (GERMANY) : 250 MW : 262 MW : 17.75 : 12.20 :50.0 Hz

ii. Rated Load iii. Max. Load under Valve Wide Open (VWO) condition iv. Overall Length (Meter) v. Overall Width (Meter) Rated speed

Generator i. ii. iii. iv. Make Type Code Stator winding cooling Rotor Winding cooling v. MW rating vi. MVA rating vii. Rated terminal voltage viii. Rated Stator current ix. Rated power factor x. Rated speed / frequency : : : : : : : : : : : BHEL, HARDWAR THRI 108/44 IS: 5422, IEC - 4 Indirectly hydrogen cooled Directly hydrogen cooled 250 294.1 16.5 KV 10286 amps 0.85 Lag 3000 rpm / 50 Hz


Excitation system i. Make ii. Type iii. Main Exciter a. Type b. Active Power c. Rated current d. Rated voltage e. Frequency iv. Pilot Exciter a. Type b. Apparent power c. Rated current d. Rated voltage e. Frequency f. Speed : BHEL, HARDWAR : Brush less Excitation system With Rotating Diodes : : : : ELR70 /62-30/ 6-10 1350 Kw 3200 amps 420 Volt : 50 Hz

: ELP50 /29-30/ 16 : 35 KVA : 105 amps : 220V 22V : 400 Hz : 50 cycles /sec


a.) i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Pilot Exciter Manufacturer Type Type of drive Normal speed (r.p.m.) Rated Voltage (Volts) Rated frequency (Hz.) BHEL ELP 56/29-30/16 Direct coupled 3000 220 400 105 SPUN GLASS BHEL ELR 70/62-30/6-10 Direct Coupled 3000 420

vii. Rated Current (amp.) viii. Type of insulation b) i. ii. iii. iv. v. Main Exciter Manufacturer Type Type of drive Normal Speed (rpm) Rated rectified Voltage (Volts)



Rated rectified current (amp.)

3200 600 4500

vii. Ceiling rectified voltage (Volts) viii. Ceiling rectified current (amps) ix. Exciter field voltage with manual control (Rectified) Maximum (Volts) Minimum (Volts) x. xi. Field Current at generator MCR and rated power factor lagging (amp) Nominal exciter response ration xii. Class of insulation xiii. Insulation material on rotor winding xiv. Insulation material on field winding xv. Type of end winding support cooling water temperature as per specification Exciter stator winding in contact with insulation Rotor winding c) i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Exciter rectifier assembly Manufacturer Type of rectifier Total number of rectifier cells per ring Number of parallel paths per bridge arm Number of bridge arms Maximum number of exciter cells/bridge without which the rectifier can give output corresponding to generator MCR vii. Max. peak inverse voltage rating of cell (volts) xvi. Guaranteed maximum temperature with secondary


As per IEL BHEL SSOL/2120 30 10 6

2 2000

viii. Number of rectifier cells in series in each bridge arm ix. x. xi. Method of over voltage protection Overload rating of the rectifier cell Ceiling output voltage of rectifier assembly (Volts) 1 RC-NETWORK 370 A for 10 sec. 600 4500

xii. Ceiling output current of rectifier assembly (Amp.)


xiii. Maximum junction temperature of rectifier cell xiv. Method of mounting cells to cooling fins xv. Make and type of cooling fins rectifier cells xvii. Ceiling duty duration (Sec.) d) i. ii. Air/Water Coolers (For exciter) Number of coolers Material of Tubes Fines iii. iv. v. vi. e) i. ii. iii. iv. Material of tube plates Material of water boxes Quantity of circulating water required per cooler Maximum allowable water Gas system data Volume of hydrogen space in generator Cooling gas flow Volume of CO2 at NTP required for displacing hydrogen Volume of H2 at NTP required for displacing carbon di-oxcide and to bring the casing to the rated pressure Volume of CO2 at NTP required for displacing air Purity of H2 required (%) Normal Minimum allowable vii. Leakage of H2 by volume at NTP per day at rated H2 pressure in the generator viii. Volume of nitrogen at NTP required to displace CO2 in the generator ix. x. xi. Volume of air at NTP required to displace CO2 In the cooling (m3 ) Requirement of compressed air for gas tightness test. Number of cylinders proposed to be furnished Hydrogen xvi. Type of visual indication provided for faulty

90O SCREWD HEAT SINK STROBOSCOPE 10 Sec. 2 x 50% 90/10 Cu Ni Base tube Copper Carbon Steel --do-130 M3 /hr 38 69 m3 1800 M3 min 138 m3 380 138 m3 98 96 <9.6 N.A. 207 415 80

v. vi.


Carbon dioxide Nitrogen xii. Standard to which the cylinders conform Hydrogen Carbon dioxide Nitrogen xiii. Internal volume of the Cylinders Hydrogen (m3) Carbon dioxide (m3) Nitrogen (m3)

40 -IS:7285 ----do--80 40 --



1. 2. 3. 4. BHEL manuals on AVR THYRISEM 04 BHEL manuals on DDC PROCONTROL-P Power system stability by Prabha Kundur Reports on PSS.