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Ilustracin en Kant y Rousseau ENSAYO Uno de los rasgos fundamentales en la filosofa de Kant es su carcter epistmolgico, una respuesta a la pregunta

de cmo el hombre conoce el mundo antes que la bsqueda de las cosas en s. En la filosofa kantiana, la cosa en s, el mundo noumnico, queda desterrado de las categoras espaciotemporales que brinda la mente humana, por lo que solo nos es posible conocer el mundo de la experiencia sensible que ser el objeto de las ciencias en el mundo moderno y es en ellas donde ser patente y visible la idea de progreso , producto de la revolucin del pensamiento en el siglo XVIII. Esta revolucin del pensamiento es lo que conocemos como ilustracin, un proyecto de transformacin del mundo a travs de la razn. Para Kant, Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's own understanding without the guidance of another, en otras palabras, el hombre solo sale de esa inmadurez, de la oscuridad y la ignorancia, a travs del uso libre y autnomo de el entendimiento. Entendemos por entendimiento en la filosofa de Kant una disposicin natural hacia el conocimiento, hacia la comprensin del mundo, de donde se desprende que todo crimen contra la libertad de pensamiento, todo afn de obstaculizar el pensamiento es un crimen contra la naturaleza. Esta facultad del entendimiento que en Kant resulta ser una disposicin natural del hombre tiene una valoracin muy distinta en los escritos de Rousseau. Podemos afirmar que en Rousseau, tal disposicin al conocimiento es ms bien una violacin de la naturaleza humana, una caida en desgracia del hombre primitivo y virtuoso previo a la constitucin de las grandes civilizaciones, a la construccin de grandes monumentos, a los modales refinados de las cortes europeas. Tenemos as una valoracin de la razn como disposicin natural del hombre contra una que la critica como el germen de los superficial, de lo vano, del mundo de las apariencias y que se refleja en estas palabras: Peoples, know once and for all that nature wished to protect you from knowledge, just as a mother snatches away a dangerous weapon from the hands of her child, that all the secrets which she keeps hidden from you are so many evils she

is defending you against, and that the difficulty you experience in educating yourselves is not the least of her benefits. Men are perverse; they would be even worse if they had the misfortune of being born knowledgeable. En algunas lneas de El discurso sobre las artes Rousseau se muestra desdeoso con uno de los principales vehculos de la ilustracin: la imprenta: Considering the dreadful disorders which printing has already caused in Europe and judging the future by the progress which evil makes day by day, we can readily predict that sovereigns will not delay in taking as many pains to ban this terrible art from their states as they took to introduce it there. La imprenta fue un invento del siglo XV que contribuy en buena medida a la democratizacin del conocimiento, a la difusin del pensamiento ilustrado. Rosseau no considera til la difusin del conocimiento que debe estar reservado para unos cuantos seres privilegiados: Bacon, Descartes, Newton these tutors of the human race had no need of tutors themselves, and what guides could have led them to those places where their vast genius carried them? Ordinary teachers could only have limited their understanding by confining it to their own narrow capabilities. En contraste, podemos ver en Kant una valoracin positiva en la difusin del conocimiento, se trata del uso pblico de la razn en donde el hombre se hace libre al difundir su propio pensamiento a una comunidad de lectores y estos a su vez se ven estimulados a ejercer su libertad de la misma forma. Este uso pblico de la razn es un acto de generosidad con los dems, mientras que un uso privado del conocimiento es un acto egosta, este ltimo fue el que predomin en Europa durante siglos sumindola en el oscurantismo y la privacin de la libertad de expresin. Recordemos que el pensamiento deKant, de quien se sabe nunca abandon alguna vez su natal Knigsberg, nunca habra tenido lugar sin el acto generoso de la difusin del conocimiento a travs de los libros. ESSAY One of the fundamental features of Kant's philosophy is its epistemological character, his theory is an answer to the question of

how the man know the world rather than finding the things themselves. In Kantian philosophy, the thing itself, the noumenal world, is banished from the space-time categories provided by the human mind, so we can only know the world of sensitive experience that will be the subject of science in the modern world. Its in science where it will be patent and visible the idea of progress as a result of the revolution of thought in the eighteenth century. This revolution of thought is what is known as Enlightment, a project to transform the world through reason. For Kant, "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-Incurred immaturity. Immaturity is the Inability to use one's own understanding without the guidance of another ", in other words, the man only get out of that immaturity, of darkness and ignorance, through the free and independent use of the understanding. We understand by understanding in Kants philosophy, a natural disposition to knowledge, to understanding the world, from which it follows that any crime against freedom of thought, every desire to hinder the thought is a crime against nature. This faculty of understanding, which in Kant proves to be a natural disposition of man, has a very different assessment in the writings of Rousseau. We can say that in Rousseau, such disposition to knowledge is rather a violation of human nature, a fall from grace, a decline from a virtuous primitive humanity to a world of great civilizations, large monuments and refined manners in the European courts. Thus we have a valuation of reason as man's natural disposition in Kant against Rousseau critics to reason as the germ of superficiality, of the futility, of the world of appearances and that is reflected in these words: Peoples, know eleven o'clock and for all that nature Wished to protect you from knowledge, just as a mother snatches away a dangerous weapon from the hands of her child, That all the secrets she keeps hidden from Which you are so many evils she is defending you against, and That the difficulty you experience in educating yourselves is not the Least of her benefits. Men are perverse; They would be even worse if they experienced the misfortune of being born knowledgeable. In some lines of "The discourse on the arts" Rousseau shows disdainful towards one of the main vehicles for illustration, printing:

Considering the dreadful disorders've Already Which Caused printing in Europe and judging the future by the evil Which makes progress day by day, we can predict Readily sovereigns That will not delay in taking as many pains to ban this awful art from Their Peak Gust states took to introduce it there. The printing press was invented in the fifteenth century which contributed largely to the democratization of knowledge and therefore the dissemination of Enlightenment thought. Rosseau dont consider useful knowledge dissemination, which should be reserved for a few privileged people: Bacon, Descartes, Newton - These tutors of the human race had no need of tutors Themselves, and what guides Could have led them to Those places where Their vast genius Carried them? Ordinary teachers Could Only Have Their limited understanding by confining it to Their Own narrow capabilities. In contrast, we see in Kant a positive assessment on the spread of knowledge, it is the public use of reason where man is free to spread his own thinking to a community of readers and these, in turn, are stimulated to exercise their freedom in the same way. This public use of reason is an act of generosity to others, while private use of knowledge is a selfish act, the latter was the one that prevailed in Europe for centuries throwing it into the darkness and deprivation of freedom of expression. Recall that Kants major contribution to human tought , never have taken place without the generous act of disseminating knowledge through books, this because he never left his home town Knigsberg.