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Lecture 3 (15/07/2013 - Mon)

Size Reduction(SR):
The term is applied to all the ways in which particles are broken or cut into smaller pieces. It is also known as comminution. Commercial products must often meet strict requirements regarding size and shape of the particles. Reducing the size of solids also increases their reactivity. It permits separation of unwanted unwanted substances by mechanical methods. SR helps in easier handling and waste disposal. Mechanism of SR: 1. Impact 2. Compression 3. Attrition or rubbing 4. Cutting One measure of efficiency of the operation is based on energy required to create new surface, because surface area of a unit mass of particles increases greatly as particle size is reduced. Unlike ideal crusher or grinder, an actual unit does not yield uniform products even if feed is uniformly sized The product always consist of mixture of particles ranging from a definite maximum size to very small particles Ratio of diameter of largest and smallest particles in product is of the order of 104. Because of this extreme variation in sizes of individual particles, relationship for uniform sizes must be modified when applied to such mixture. Factors affecting choice of SR equipment: Hardness Structure Moisture content Nature of material (e.g Explosive) Hazard to health (Toxic) Temp sensitive Efficiency and power requirements: Cost of power is major expense in crushing and grinding operation. SR is one of the least energy efficient of all the unit operation. Crushing Efficiency: Ratio of surface energy created by crushing to energy absorbed by solid.
Prepared by: Krunal Amin (Asst. Prof), Dept. of chemical engineering, GCET, Gujarat, India Page 1

f Where e


= areas per unit mass of product and feed respectively. W


and Awa = energy absorbed by unit mass of material

Laws of SR:
Empirical relationship 1. Rittingers law:

AAe s
( wb wa ) c W n Prepared by: Krunal Amin (Asst. Prof), Dept. of chemical engineering, GCET, Gujarat, India Page 2

DPmx K
k sa D

sb Bonds Law and work index: (Note : More realistic way of estimating power required for crushing.) Bonds Law: Work required to form particles of size D

from very large feed is proportional to square root of surface to volume ratio of the product. Kg = Surface energy per unit area in

m . m

Pmx K

11 DD
Where P = power required and m = feed rate crusher. D

= average particle diameter before crushing (mm) D


= average particle diameter after crushing (mm) K


= Rittingers constant 2. Kickss Law: The work required for crushing a given mass of material is constant for the same reduction ratio, that is the ratio of initial particles size to final particle size


where k

= constant that depends on type of machine and on material being crushed

sa sb p

Work Index(W i

): Gross energy required in KWH per ton of feed to reduce a very large feed to such a size that 80% of product passes through 100 micrometer screen. If D

is in mm and P in KW and m in tons per hour.

Kb 10100

Prepared by: Krunal Amin (Asst. Prof), Dept. of chemical engineering, GCET, Gujarat, India Page 3

If 80% of feed passes through a mesh size of D


Pmx 3162.0 Wi 1D 1D

WKb 3162.0
pa pb

mm, it follows that: