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Ann

pikver

Ann Pikver

GRAMMAR IS EASY! ANGL KALBOS

GRAMATIKA

Scanned by Cloud Dancing

KAUNAS

UDK

802.0-5

GRAMMAR

Pi-48

f A S Y ,
Ann Pikver Tallinn Keelefirma TEA, 1995 ISBN 9985-9029-6-3

Vert ALINA GUTAUSKIEN

Pirmasis leidimas

2007 2006 2005 2004 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995

Visi io leidimo pakartoti tiraai yra be pakeitim ir galioja. Pirmasis skaiius rodo paskutinius leidinio tiraavimo metus.

ISBN 5-430-02297-7

TEA Language Center Ltd.,1995 Leidykla viesa", 1995

TURINYS

Pratarm Gramatika I Veiksmaodis BE II Daiktavardi daugiskaita III Paprastj laik formos IV Savybinis daiktavardi linksnis V vardiai VI Tstiniai veiksmaodi laikai VII Bdvardis VIII Atliktiniai laikai IX Modaliniai veiksmaodiai X Prielinksniai XI Klausiamiejisakiniai XII Artikelis XIII odi tvarka vientisiniame sakinyje XIV Suvestinispapildinys XV Laik form vartojimas laiko ir slygos aplinkybi alutiniuose sakiniuose XVI Netiesiogin kalba XVII Neveikiamoji ris Lentels Skaitvardiai 1 lentel 100 netaisyklingj veiksmaodi 2 lentel Esamojo ir btojo laiko veiksmaodi vartojimas lietuvi ir angl kalboje 3 lentel Pratim atsakymai Dalykin rodykl Veikiamosios ries veiksmaodi laik lentel Neveikiamosios ries veiksmaodi laik lentel

5 7 7 15 22 31 36 42 53 59 72 81 89 97 104 110 113 117 122 130 132 136 138 I55

Skaitytoj dmesiui
Gramatika sudaryta i septyniolikos skyri, kurie suskirstyti poskyrius. Kiekvieno skyriaus pabaigoje pateikiami ini tvirtinimo pratimai. Paratse kvadratlyje paymti skaitmenys rodo odio ar svokos viet dalykinje rodyklje, kuri pateikiama knygos gale. Pavyzdiui, odj many rasite vietose, paymtose skaitmenimis 6 ir 31. Dalykinje rodyklje odiai iskiriami tamsesniu riftu, o svokos kursyvu. Pavyzdiui: - already 35, 57 - suvestinis papildinys 58-59. Jeigu svoka pavartota lentelje, dalykinje rodyklje nurodomas lentels numeris, pavyzdiui, netaisyklingieji veiksmaodiai 2 lentel. Lentels pateikiamos po gramatikos skyri.

Leidjai

PRATARM
"Grammar is Easy!" iuolaikika angl kalbos gramatika, kuri firmos TEA praymu pareng Ann Pikver. Skyri Neveikiamoji ris" para TEA redaktorius Ants Pihlaku. is skyrius yra knygos gale, nes tai sudtingiausia angl kalbos gramatin kategorija. Raydama knyg, autor vadovavosi praktiniais poreikiais. Gramatika labai sutrumpinta ir pateikta taip, kad kiekvienas besimokantis gerai j suprast ir inagrinjs skyri galt savarankikai pasitikrinti inias. Tuo tikslu kiekvienas skyrius baigiamas pratimais, kuri atsakymai pateikiami knygos gale. "Grammar Is Easy!" skiriama ir pradedantiems mokytis, ir tiems, kurie nori papildyti bei atnaujinti angl kalbos inias. Tuos, kurie mokosi savarankikai, i knyga pamau supaindina su angl kalbos gramatika, o pratimai padeda geriau j perprasti. Knygos gale pateikiama ir dalykin rodykl, kuri pads greitai rasti reikiam gramatikos skyri, svok, od.

VEIKSMAODIS BE
Veiksmaodis BE (bti) turi tris esamojo laiko formas:

he, she, it we, you, they

is are

CO <

I asmuo II asmuo

I am young. You are strong. He is clever. She is pretty. It is cheap.

LLj

>

asmuo

A esu jauna(s). Tu esi stiprus(i) / Js esate stiprs(ios). Jis yra protingas. Ji yra grai. Jis (ne asmuo) yra pigus.

O = D < Q

I asmuo II asmuo Il asmuo

We are happy. You are kind. They are rich.

Mes esame laimingi. Js esate malons. Jie yra turtingi.

1a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite trkstamus
I am happy. You are happy. He is happy. She is happy. W e are happy. You are happy. They are happy. They are careful. We are clever.

sakinius.
I am clever. I am careful.

IbPRATIMAS
Sudarykite sakinius, derindami vis trij stulpeli odius.
here there you he she we you they am is are out back at home at work asleep awake upstairs downstairs

1c PRATIMAS
Vietoj tikrini daiktavardi arba they (jie). vartokite vardius he (jis), she (ji)

Lucy is clever. > She is clever. Bill and Ken are there. > They are there.
1. Mary is pretty. 2. Tom is young. 3. Tom and Ben are glad. 4. Mr Webb is late. 5. Roger and Mark are here. 6. Wendy is a student. 7. Peter is a teacher. 8. Bill is a businessman. 9. Ron and Ben are tall. 10. Liz is a nurse.

1d PRATIMAS
Vartokite tinkam veiksmaodio
1. My name 4. My wife Oxford. 7. We _ Gregory Hill. thirty. 2. I _

BE form.
. a doctor. _ Jessie. 3. I 6. Our home my friend. thirty-five. in 9. He

5. Her name

very happy here. 8. Bill Douglas

a doctor too. 10. His brother Jack _ in London now. 12. I in Oxford.

a s t u d e n t . 11. Bill and Jack

1e PRATIMAS
Sudarykite naujus sakinius su skliausteliuose Sakinio gale vartokite od too (taip pat). I am late. (You) > You are late too. Sally is at home. (I) > I am at home too.
1. Mary is pretty. 2. She is a good typist. (Susan and Helen) (You)

esaniais

odiais.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Jane is late. This dress is cheap. T o m is a good swimmer. Maggie is very kind. Jack is a bright student. Peter and Fred are absent. He is busy. Mr White is in Boston.

(Paul and Fred) (the coat)


(I)

(You) (Jackie) (David)

C)

(my mother and father)

nekamojoje kalboje danai vartojamos tokios trumposios veiksmaodio BE formos: I am = I'm he is = he's she is = she's it is = it's we are = we're you are = you're they are = they're

2a PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite vartodami trumpj veiksmaodio
1. It is very dark. 2. I am fine. 3. W e are busy today. 4. They are late. 5. He is lucky. 6. You are very kind.

BE form.

7. She is in New York. 8. He is away. 9. I am angry with you. 10. They are old. 11. We are here. 12. It is difficult.

KLAUSIAMASIS SAKINYS sudaromas keiiant odi tvark. Lietuvi kalboje tokie klausiamieji sakiniai pradedami dalelyte ar, o jei jos nra, skiriami intonacija. He Is is he lazy. lazy? Jis tinginys. Ar jis tinginys? / Jis tinginys?

tok klausim daniausiai atsakoma trumpai: Taip / Ne. Tokie klausimai vadinami Taip / Ne (bendraisiais) klausimais. Is he young? Arjis jaunas? - Yes, he is. / No, he is not. Taip, (jaunas). /Ne, (ne jaunas).

Klausimas Am I happy? Are you strong? Is he clever? Is she pretty? Is it cheap? Are we famous? Are you kind? Are they rich?

Teigiamas atsakymas Yes, I am. Yes, you are. Yes, he is. Yes, she is. Yes, it is. Yes, we are. Yes, you are. Yes, they are.

Neigiamas atsakymas No, I am not. No, you are not. No, he is not. No, she is not. N.o, it is not. No, we are not. No, you are not. No, they are not.

PRATIMAS
Sudarykite trkstamus
Am I sure? Are you sure? Is he sure? Is she late? Are we sure? Are you ready? Are they sure?

klausimus.
Am I late? Am I ready?

3b PRATIMAS
Atsakykite klausimus.
1. Are you sure? 2. Are they here? 3. Is Mary at home? 4. Are we late? 5. Is he honest? 6. Are you hungry? 7. Is Tom fat? 8. Is your house large? 9. Is the bag heavy? 10. Are they tired? 11. I s J a n e tall? 12. Is the weather cold? No, I am not. Yes, they Yes, she No , No, Yes 1 Yes, Yes, No, Yes, Yes, No,

3c PRATIMAS
Paklauskite dra ().
1. Is Helsinki in Sweden? 2. Are you English? 3. Is the door shut? 4. Is it winter now? 5. Is the room small? 6. Are you tired? 7. Is this exercise easy? 8. Is your house near here? 9. Am I right? 10. Are you sure? 11. Is the floor clean? 12. Is Chicago in Europe? 13. Are you twenty? 14. Are we good at English?

3d PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausimus ir papraykite draugo atsakyti
1. It is important. 2. The lesson is over. 3. I am afraid. 4. The situation is hopeless. 5. This letter is for me. 6. They are absent. 7. The water is hot.

juos.

8. Mr Hill is in Leeds. 9. Mother is tired. 10. You are ready. 11. I am late. 12. They are here. 13. This book is interesting. 14. Their house is near the park.

NEIGIAMASIS SAKINYS sudaromas pridedant neigiamj odel not, einant po veiksmaodio. I am angry. I am not angry. A esu pikta(s). A nesu pikta(s).

nekamojoje kalboje labiau paplitusios trumposios formos: is not = isn't are not = aren't

4a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite neigiamuosius
I am not right. You are not right. He She We You They

sakinius.
am not hungry. I am not lazy.

4b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite iuos sakinius
1. You are ill. 2. Kate is a secretary. 3. This book is interesting. 4. I am hungry. 5. It is cold. 6. The door is open. 7. Alice is English.

neigiamaisiais.
8. The cake is good. 9. They are back. 10. Wendy is at home. 11. He is a bright student. 12. Ken is strong. 13. We are pleased with you. 14. She is abroad.

PAPRASTOJO BTOJO LAIKO vienaskaitos forma yra was , daugiskaitos were: I, he, she, it we, you, they Teigiamieji sakiniai was were Neigiamieji sakiniai I was not there. You were not there. He was not there. She was not there. It was not there. We were not there. You were not there. They were not there.

Klausiamieji sakiniai

I was there. (A buvau ten.) Was I there? You were there. Were you there? (Js buvote ten.) He was there. (J/s buvo fen.JWas he there? She was there. Was she there? (Ji buvo ten.) It was there. Was it there? (Jis (ne asmuo) buvo ten.) We were there. Were we there? (Mes buvome ten.) You were there. Were you there? (Js buvote ten.) They were there. Were they there? (Jie, jos buvo ten.)

nekamojoje kalboje vartojamos tokios trumposios neigiamosios formos: was not = wasn't were not = weren't

5a PRATIMAS
Pasakykite sakinius paprastuoju btuoju laiku.
I was at home. You He She We You They I was not at home. Was I at home?

5b PRATIMAS
Pavartokite paprastj btj laik.
1. I am very hungry. 2. Are you hungry too? 3. The room isn't dark. 4. They are in a hurry. 5. Are your neighbours noisy? 6. I am ashamed. 7. Are you afraid of ghosts? 8. He is wrong. 9. They are very quiet. 10. I am not angry with you. 11. Is the water deep? 12. We are not sure. 13. Is it cold outside? 14. He isn't a sailor, he is a soldier.

5c PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausimus ir atsakykite neigiamai, vanokite esamj laik. Are you a postman? > No, I am not. I'm a student.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. twenty? a taxi-driver? lazy? happy? busy? married? American? blue-eyed? sixteen? Italian? twenty-three. a barber. hard-working. unhappy. idle. single. Estonian. grey-eyed. twenty. Spanish.

5d PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausimus btuoju laiku. Atsakykite teigiamai. daiktavardio vartokite vard, priddami odel quite visikai) arba very (labai). Were they happy? > Yes, they were very happy. Was Tim angry? > Yes, he was quite angry.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. 9. 10 . 11 . 12 . you sure? Bob hungry? mother pleased?

Vietoj (visai,

the box heavy? they kind? the hat pretty? the soup good? his flat large? the room dark? they famous? it cold?

7. _ _ _ _ _ the boy young?

DAIKTAVARDI DAUGISKAITA

DAIKTAVARDIAI yra bendriniai (bird, tree, air, love) ir tikriniai (Mary, Jack, New York, the Mississippi). Bendriniai daiktavardiai skirstomi skaiiuotinius, pavyzdiui, bird, tree , ir neskaiiuotinius, pavyzdiui, air, love. SKAIIUOTINI DAIKTAVARDI vienaskaita vartojama su neymimuoju artikeliu a / an. Jie turi daugiskait ir yra derinami su skaitvardiais arba su odiais, reikianiais kiek, pavyzdiui, many (daug), some (keletas, nedaug), several (keletas), few (maai, nedaug) ir a few (keletas). Daugiskaita sudaroma pridedant galn -s. Skaiiuotiniai daiktavardiai Vienaskaita one boy (vienas berniukas) a giri (mergait) (sveias) a tree (medis) a guest a mistake (klaida) a day (diena) Daugiskaita three boys (trys many girls (daug some trees (keletas few mistakes (maai a few days (kelios berniukai) mergaii) medi) sveiai) klaid) dienos)

several guests (kai kurie

NESKAIIUOTINIAI DAIKTAVARDIAI reikia mediag (sugar, iron) arba abstrakius dalykus (love, sorrow). Jie neturi daugiskaitos, nevartojami su neymimuoju artikeliu ir su skaitvardiais. Juos

galima vartoti su odiais much (daug), some (nedaug, little (maai) ir a little (iek tiek, nedaug):

truputis),

Neskaiiuotiniai daiktavardiai money (pinigai) Iove (meil) sugar (cukrus) time (laikas) much money (daug little love (maai some sugar (truputis, cukraus) a little time (maai laiko) pinig) nedaug meils)

Ir skaiiuotiniai, ir neskaiiuotiniai daiktavardiai vartojami su odiais a lot of / lots of (daug) ir plenty of (daug). a day - a lot of days / lots of days / plenty of days time - a lot of time / lots of time / plenty of time

6a PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite, sudarykite trkstamas formas ir iverskite.
1 .a b o o k knyga a table a chair a bag a street a car a letter 2.sugar cukrus bread light water snow time some sugar nedaug cukraus much sugar daug cukraus lots of s u g a r daug cukraus some books kelios knygos some tables many books daug knyg many tables lots of b o o k s daug knyg lots of tables

6b PRATIMAS
Pavartokite odius 1) much arba many ir 2) little arba few, atkreipdami dmes tai, ar daiktavardis yra skaiiuotinis ar neskaiiuotinis:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. |oy sorrow tears ice skates windows air planes words 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. mistakes gold anger food dishes work workers years time

DAUGISKAITOS FORM SUDARYMAS:

a) daniausiai: vienaskaitos aknis + galn -s b) jei vienaskaitos aknis baigiasi -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -, tai + galn -es c) jei vienaskaitos aknis baigiasi priebalse+ y, tai daugiskaitoje y > i + galn -es d) jei vienaskaitos aknis baigiasi balse+ y, tai + galn -s e) i i m t i s: odi, kurie baigiasi -o, daugiskaita turi galn -es (iskyrus photos, pianos, kilos irkt.)

a dog a rose a bus a bush a box a fly a story a baby

dogs roses buses bushes boxes flies stories babies

a key a monkey a way a a a a potato tomato hero negro

keys monkeys ways potatoes tomatoes heroes negroce

f) i i m t i s: kai kuri odi, kurie baigiasi -f arba -fe, daugiskaitoje f > v + galn -es (iskyrus roofs, chiefs)

a a a a a

leaf half thief knife wife

. leaves halves thieves knives wives

7a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite sakinius vartodami daugiskait. This is a pencil. > These are pencils. Tai pietukas.
1. This is a book, 2. This is a magazine, 3. This is a newspaper, 4. This is a map. 5. This is a dictionary, 6. This is a textbook, 7. This is an album, 8. This is a notebook, 9. This is an envelope, 10. This is a stamp.

Tai pietukai.
(knygos) (urnalai) (laikraiai) (emlapiai) (odynai) (vadovliai) (albumai) (ura knyguts) (vokai) (pato enklai)

7b PRATIMAS
Vartokite daiktavardi daugiskait. The boy is at home. > The boys are at home. Berniukas yra namie.
1. The key is in the bag. 2. The umbrella is wet. 3. The glass is dirty. 4. The box is empty. 5. The shop is near here. 6. My sister is in Paris.

Berniukai yra namie.


7. The hat is pink. 8. The boy was ill. 9. The car is in the garage. 10. The ticket is on the table. 11. My pipe is in my pocket. 12. The secretary is in the office.

DAUGISKAITOS GALNS -(e)s TARIMAS: s] - po duslij priebalsi [ f , k, p, t] [ z] - po balsi ir skardij priebalsi [ b, d, g, I, m,


n, r, V]

roofs, cakes, tops, cats, months stars, tears bees, birds, dogs, trains, friends, paths

[iz] - po [s J , t{, z, 3, d3l-

buses,faces, matches, pages

8a PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite ir iverskite:
trees and bushes chairs and tables boxes and bags doors and windows cars and buses robbers and thieves waiters and waitresses churches and castles houses and bridges foxes and wolves knives and forks roses and tulips kisses and hugs tigers and lions days and nights oranges and bananas ladies and gentlemen tears and sighs

YPATINGI DAUGISKAITOS SUDARYMO ATVEJAI: Vienaskaita man (vyras) woman foot (moteris) (koja) Daugiskaita men women feet teeth mice geese children sheep

tooth (dantis) mouse (pel) goose (sis) child (vaikas) sheep (avis)

ANGL IR LIETUVI KALBOS vienaskaitos ir daugiskaitos form vartojimas danai nesutampa. Pavyzdiui, hair (plaukai) ir news (naujienos) yra vienaskaitiniai angl kalbos daiktavardiai. O odiai police (policija, policininkai), people (mons) ir wages (umokestis, alga) turi tik daugiskait. tai reikia atsivelgti derinant veiksnj su tariniu.

His hair is dark. Your news is good. The police are here. People are different. His wages are not high.

Jo plaukai yra tamss. Tavo naujienos yra Policija yra ia. mons yra Jo alga nra skirtingi. didel. geros.

10a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite trkstamas formas ir perskaitykite jas kartu su skaitvardiais. Skaitvardius rasite lentelje knygos gale.
a bag a car a pocket an apple a brother a man a lion - a bedroom a bottle a winter a tomato a sheep two b a g s 10 4 50 7 19 5 3 6 31 9 13 a foot a baby a church a woman a tooth a mouse an orange a house a night a mistake a dollar a child 2 3 6 16 28 10 24 10 1001 12 100 254

10b PRATIMAS
Pavartokite reikiam veiksmaodioBE
1. These flowers 4. The children pullover buses beautiful. 2. Tom at home. 5. My parents

esamojo laiko

form.
late.

a clever boy. 3. The bus terribly long. 8. These bags

on holiday in Blackpool. 6. This good for you. 11. The

really soft. 7. All his letters full. 12. The questions

very heavy. 9. The girls

on the beach. 10. Milk difficult to answer.

10c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite reikiam veiksmaodio
1. The money with the traffic. long. news in summer.

BE

btojo laiko form.


wet. 3. The police 5. The black trousers quite grey. 10. Fruit present. busy too 8. The cheap

on the table. 2. His clothes 4. These men very brave. in your pocket.

6. Your glasses

7. Her hair

surprising. 9. Only young people

10d PRATIMAS
Pradkite naskaita) iverskite sakin arba sakinius. THERE IS (jeigu daiktavardis pavartotas vieTHERE ARE (jeigu jis pavartotas daugiskaita),

i konstrukcija vartojama, kai norima pasakyti, kad kas nors yra tam tikroje vietoje. Atsiminkite, kad angl ir lietuvi kalbos odi tvarka sakinyje skiriasi: lietuvi kalboje vietos aplinkyb daniausiai eina sakinio pradioje. There is a boy in the room. Berniukas yra kambaryje. There are some books here. ia yra keletas knyg.
1. twelve months in the year. 4. 2. no sugar ir this cup. 5. 3. some

c h i l d r e n in the g a r d e n . England. 6. 8. 10.

no mice in my house 7.

m u c h rain in

many historical places in Tallinn. 9. .

no people in the hall. no gentlemen among them. not no doubt

some good sportsmen in my group. no news. 11. 13.

a lot of men and w o m e n at the bus stop. 12. many people in the waiting room. 14.

much money left. about it. 15.

several hotels in this town.

10e PRATIMAS
Pavartokite reikiam daiktavardi form.
2. I must buy four (stamp) and 1. They have five (child), two (boy) and three (girl).

some (envelope). 3. Jimmy Brown and Sandy Smith are two well-known (criminal). 4. They are (bank robber). some (mouse) in the cellar. 5. The farmer wants to sell ten (sheep). 6. There are

7. Put these (dress) and (blouse) into the wardrobe.

8. I want two (ice-cream) and a (coke). 9. These (gentleman) are from Washington. 10. Take off your (shoe). 11. There are no (match) in this (match-box). 12. I have

a n e w ( c a s s e t t e recorder), let's buy s o m e (cassette). 14. (Woman) live longer than (man). Mary and Kelly (actress)?

13. He is 6 (foot) tall.

15. Many (thank) for your kind letter. 16. Are

IOfPRATIMAS
Iverskite.
Du unys, keli laikraiai, ie miestai, deimt knyg,raudoni skiai, trys lktuvai, ios rudos rankins, dvi stiklins, keli obuoliai ir kelios vynuogs, trys m a n o draugai, keturi puodeliai ir keturios lktuts, m s draugai ir prieai, keletas sukneli, d a u g vaik, sesuo ir du broliai, d a u g grai mergaii, m a a klaid, daug pinig, m a a meils.

PAPRASTJ LAIK FORMOS


Angl kalboje veiksmaodi laik form yra kur kas daugiau negu lietuvi kalboje. ia nagrinjamos tik daniausiai vartojamos laik rys, o knygos gale pateikiamos vis angl kalbos laik lentels. PAPRASTIEJI LAIKAI reikia prastinj, nuolat pasikartojant veiksm,taip pat keli veiksm sek. Paprastieji laikai danai vartojami su iomis laiko aplinkybmis: usually sometimes never often always seldom occasionally every day twice a week on weekdays on weekends paprastai; apskritai kartais niekada danai visada retai retkariais kiekvien dien du kartus per savait darbo dienomis savaitgaliais

PAPRASTOJO ESAMOJO LAIKO FORMA sutampa su pradine veiksmaodio forma (bendratimi), kitaip tariant, su pirmja pagrindine veiksmaodio forma. Tik esamojo laiko vienaskaitos treiasis asmuo (su vardiais he, she, it ) turi galn -s arba -es . Klausiamosios ir neigiamosios formos sudaromos su pagalbiniu veiksmaodiu DO , o treiasis asmuo su DOES . Savarankiko veiksmaodio forma nesikeiia.

Teigiamoji forma I h e l p - a padedu you help - tu padedi he ' jis/ ji she > helps padeda it we help - mes padedame you help - js padedate they help - jie/jos padeda

Klausiamoji forma Neigiamoji forma do ! help? do you help? he I do not help you do not help he does not help

does she V help? she it J it

do we help? do you help? do they help?

we do not help you do not help they do not help

nekamojoje kalboje do not / does not paprastai trumpinami: do not = don't does not = doesn't

Prie vienaskaitos III asmens pridedama galn -es: a) jei odis baigiasi -ss, -sh, - c h , - pass push watch mix b) jei veiksmaodis baigiasi - c) jei odis baigiasi priebalse+ y, tai y > i ir pridedama galn -es (jei odis baigiasi balse + y , taiy ilieka ir prie jos pridedama galn - s : stays, plays, pays ) do go try fly study hurry passes pushes watches mixes does goes tries flies studies hurries

12a PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite, vietoj i asmens vartodami iii asmen (he /she ). I wake quite early. > He wakes quite early.
1. I get up at 7 o'clock. 2. Then I take a shower. 3. At 8 I go to work. 4. I live far from the city centre, so I usually take a bus. 5. I often miss the bus but I am seldom late for work. 6. After work I do my shopping. 7. I always buy bread at the

shop near the bus stop. 8. I love music and I often play the piano. 9. In the afternoon I read newspapers and watch TV. never go there on weekdays. 10. I go to the seaside on Sundays, I 12. I don't

11.1 don't know many foreign languages.

understand Spanish or Italian but I speak English. 14. I want to study German too.

13. I like to read English books.

12b PRATIMAS
Sudarykite pirma klausiamuosius, paskui neigiamuosius sakinius.
1. She sings beautifully. 2. The car belongs to Holly. 3. I hate him. 4. You speak German. 5. Sally works hard. 6. It costs 100. 7. Jack loves Jill. 8. They live in a nice house. 9. You live in London. 10. I am late. 11. We know him well. 12. The baby cries all night.

12c PRATIMAS
Iverskite vartodami laiko aplinkybes. Atkreipkite dmes odi tvark sakinyje. Atsiminkite, kad neapibrto laiko aplinkybs paprastai prie prasmin veiksmaodi bet po veiksmaodio BE.
1. Brian makes dinner for his family. 2. He does the shopping too. 3. He buys some flowers for his wife. 4. His wife Caroi makes dinner. (kartais) (danai) (retai) (daniausiai, paprastai) 5. Brian comes home late. 6. But he is at home for dinner. 7. Brian washes up after dinner. 8. But he empties the rubbish-bin. 9. Brian is too tired after dinner to help in the kitchen, 10. He goes to bed before 12 o'clock. (kartais) (visada) (niekada) (kartais) (visada) (retai)

eina

12d PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam veiksmaodi (vns. ill asm. - HASJ form.
1. Helen married. 8. Steve here. tall and smart. 2. She 4. They a nice home. 7. S t e v e a n d H e l e n 9. Helen

BE (bti) arba HAVE (turti)

dark hair. 3. Helen and Steve 5. The house quite big. 6. It abroad now. a big problem. 10. Steve a new a i n t e r e s t e d in m u s i c a n d s p o r t s .

large garden too.

a good tennis player. worried.

11. Steve

12. He

13. He

secretary. 14. The girl

very pretty.

12e PRATIMAS
Sudarykite tiesioginius sakinius.
1. Bob doesn't look happy. 2. Does this play have five acts? 3. Is Tom under the bed? 4. Alice and Bob don't live near the station. 5. Do they worry about exams? 6. Phil doesn't write with his left hand. 7. Am I the best student in the class? 8. Do they leave at three o'clock? 9. This boy does not speak German. 10. They don't

have enough time to help us. 11.1 don't use ketchup with hamburgers. 12. Do you earn ten dollars an hour?

PAPRASTASIS BTASIS LAIKAS - tai antroji pagrindin veiksmaodio forma. Teigiamoji taisyklingj veiksmaodi forma sudaroma pridedant prie bendraties galn - e d . Klausiamoji ir neigiamoji forma sudaroma su pagalbiniu veiksmaodiu DID.

Teigiamoji forma I helped - a padjau you helped - tu padjai he ' she > helpedit JlS/Jl padejo

Klausiamoji forma did I help? did you help? he 1 did she V help? he

Neigiamoji forma I did not help you did not help she > did not help it we did not help they did not help kalboje)

K J
did we help? did they help? (nekamojoje

we helped- mes padjome they helped-y'/e^'os padjo did not = didn't

RAYBOS TAISYKLS: a) jeigu odis baigiasi kiriuota balse + priebalse, tai prie galn -ed priebals sudvigubja; jeigu odis baigiasi dviem balsmis + priebalse, tai priebals lieka viena (seemed, looked ).

stop plan prefer

stopped planned preferred

b) jeigu odis baigiasi priebalse + y , tai prie galn -ed y > i ; jeigu odis baigiasi balse + y , tai y ilieka (played, stayed)

carry try

carried tried

13a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite veiksmaodius paprastuoju btuoju laiku. Pratime veiksmaodiai yra taisyklingieji.
1. You s m o k e too much. 2. He trusts you. 3. I hate you.

visi

4. They work quickly.

5. Your d o g barks all day. 6. Sue remembers my address. 7. Kelly lives near here. 8. She often helps me. boy looks unhappy. 9. He loves me a lot. 10. Helen cries too much. 13. I like m u s h r o o m s . 11. The

12. I cook my own meals.

1 4. Henry

tries hard. 15. They play tennis and golf. 16. I always lock the door.

13b PRATIMAS
Vietoj esamojo laiko pavartokite paprastj btj. veiksmaodi formos pateikiamos knygos gale.
1. Tom sleeps till 11 o'clock. clothes. 2. You eat too much.

Netaisyklingj

3. I spend all m y money on 6. Dave and Sarah

4. They understand me.

5. Tom teaches English.

always sit side by side.

7. I often think of him.

8. C u c k o o s d o n ' t build nests.

9. She leaves the w i n d o w open. 10. We usually go there by car. 11.1 feel hungry. 12. Jennifer sees him twice a week. 13. I usually meet Sandra in a cafe. 14. He k n o w s that I a l w a y s f o r g i v e him. 15. Mike drives carelessly. 16. G r a n d m o t h e r sometimes reads detective stories.

13c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite veiksmaodi paprastj btj laik.
It is (1) Friday. Mike wakes (2) up at 7. He puts (3) on his dressing gown and

goes (4) to the bathroom.

He washes (5) his face, cleans (6) his teeth, shaves (7)

and then takes (8) a shower. After that he returns (9) to the bedroom and gets (10) dressed. He has (11) breakfast at a quarter to eight. He listens (12) to the morning news on the radio and then takes (13) his son to the nursery. Then he goes (14) to the bus-stop and catches (15) a bus to town. lunch. He finishes (20) work at 5. He gets (16) to his office at 9 and starts (17) work at once. He works (18) till 12 o'clock and then has (19) a break for

13d PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite paprastuoju btuoju laiku.
One day a farmer and his donkey go (1) to the town. The donkey carries (2) two

bags of salt. Soon they come (3) to a river. There is (4) a bridge across the river. The donkey steps (5) on the bridge but stumbles (6) and falls (7) into the river. He gets (8) up very happy: there is (9) no salt in his bags any more. Some days pass (10). The farmer loads (11) the donkey with bags of wool and they start (12) for the town. W h e n the donkey is (13) in the middle of the bridge he j u m p s (14) into the water. But this time he is (15) not happy when he gets (16) out.

13e PRATIMAS
Atsakykite klausim: What did you do yesterday? - K tu veikei vakar? Yesterday I
klausiausi radijo irjau televizori aidiau su vaikais jau j teatr pirkau nauj kostium skaiiau d o m r o m a n mokiausi angl kalbos dirbau sode

PAPRASTASIS BSIMASIS LAIKAS sudaromas su pagalbiniu veiksmaodiu


we)

SHALL (I vns. ir dgs. asm. su vardiais

I ir

arba

WILL (visi kiti asmenys) + pagrindinio veiksmaodio

bendratis. Dabartinje angl kalboje pagalbinis veiksmaodis WILL paprastai

vartojamas su visomis veiksmaodio formomis, o SHALL labiau paplits modalins pareigos / sipareigojimo prasms sakiniuose.

Teigiamoji forma I will h e l p - a padsiu you will help -tu padsi he


>

Klausiamoji forma will I help? will you help? he pads


4

Neigiamoji forma 1 will not help you will not help he

she > will help-jis/ji it we will help -mes

will she >help? she L will not help it it J we will not help you will not help

padsime

will we help? will you help?

you will help-js padsite they will h e l p - j i e / j o s pads

will they help? they will not help

nekamojoje kalboje Teigiamoji forma Iwill he will she will it will we will I'll = he'll = she'll = it'll = we'll

you will = you'll they will = they'll Neigiamoji forma


w j|| n o t

= won 't

14a PRATIMAS
Vietoj esamojo laiko vartokite bsimj.
1. Steve catches the 8.20 train to London. 3. T h e bus doesn't stop here. New York. 2. He leaves the house at 8 o'clock. 5. I always spend a few days in 7. The girls are angry and

4. Is she happy?

6. Grandmother takes care of the children. 8. Andrew always agrees with me.

disappointed. day?

9. Does Ron come here every 12. Sarah

10. They drink beer and play cards.

11. You don't need a visa.

usually goes to Spain for her holiday.

13. Mr Nelson makes a speech at every

party. 14. Jack often goes to the dance with Jennie.

14b PRATIMAS
Baikite sakinius, vartodami paprastj bsimj laik.
1. Last Sunday Mr Watson and his children went to the Zoo, but next Sunday they . 2. Yesterday i visited my uncle, but tomorrow and Mark were at a camp, but next summer they ten friends to his birthday party, but this year stayed at home, but next week row row night . 3. Last summer Stan . 4. Last year my son invited . 5. Last week I was ill and

. 6. Usually we have breakfast at 8, but tomor-

. 7. Last night Pat and Bruce were at home and watched TV, but tomor.

14c PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausiamuosius laik ir aplinkybestomorrow sakinius. Vartokite paprastj bsimj ,tonight ,next Monday jr kt.

write him a letter, go to the country, walk in the park, visit her relatives, play the guitar, read a detective story, give a party, work in the garden, buy some records, go shopping, wash his car, go to France

KARTOJIMO PRATIMAI
Pavartokite tinkam paprastojo esamojo, paprastojo paprastojo bsimojo laiko veiksmaod. btojo arba

15a PRATIMAS
1. Mr Scott always (read) The Times. 2. I (see) them tonight. 3. His exams (start) in three days. 4. Alice (brush) her hair every night. 5. Yesterday we (get) up very early. 6. Peter (live) in London now. 7. Leslie (take) Pat to a concert next Saturday. 8. Bill (visit) his brother last week. 9. Most men (shave) every day. to a party last Friday. banana skin and (fall). plays. 14. We (know) the results in a week. 10. They (be) back tomorrow. 11. She never (forgive) me. 12. Mike (be) 25 next week. 13. I (go) 15. He (step) on a 16. Jack always (get) a cold when he (get) his feet wet. 18. Shakespeare (write) a lot of

17. This morning I (meet) Carol at the bus-stop.

15b PRATIMAS
Long, long ago there (live) /1/ a lot of mice in an old house. There (live) /2/ a cat in that house too. The cat (kill) /3/ a lot of mice every day. The mice (be) /4/ afraid of the cat but they (not know) /5/ what to do. So one day they all (come) /6/ to the old clever mouse and (begin) /7/ to talk about the cat. "What must we do?" they (say) /8/, "The cat (kill) /9/ us all." "I (know) /10/ what to do," (say) /11/ one little mouse. because we (not hear) /13/ her. "The cat (kill) /12/ us Then we (hear)

Let's put a bell round her neck.

/14/ her when she comes into the room." "That (be) /15/ a very good idea," (say) /16/ all the mice. "Now the bad cat (not kill) / 1 7 / u s . " They (be) /18/ all very glad and (begin) /19/ to dance. Suddenly the clever old mouse (say) /20/, Who (put) /22/ the bell round her neck?" "I (want) /21/ to ask one question.

15c PRATIMAS
Iverskite.
1. A i n a u j o vard. 2. P o n a s Nelsonas p a s k a m b i n o s k a m b u i u . 3. V a k a r a m a i a u tavo brol. 4. Jis visada supranta mane. 5. Jie g y v e n a netoli geleinkelio stoties. 6. M e s p i r k o m e m s o s ir srio. 7. T o m a s igr v i s v y n . 8. P o n a s D o n s a s p a r d a v s a v o main. 9. Rytoj a susitiksiu su Mere. 10. A paskolinau tau deimt doleri. 11. Hilary p a m e t savo skt. 12. A m a t a u j kiekvien dien. 13. D e k a s atjo anksti. 14. A a p m o k s i u sskait.

SAVYBINIS DAIKTAVARDI LINKSNIS


Angl kalbos daiktavardiai turi tik bendrj ir savybin linksn. Bdvardis linksni neturi. SAVYBINIS LINKSNIS reikia priklausym ir atsako kausim kieno? Vienaskaitos savybinis linksnis sudaromas pridedant apostrof + s ('s): Jack's brother Byron's poems the dog's tail James's house Deko brolis Bairono Deimso eilraiai namas uns uodega

Daugiskaitos savybinis linksnis sudaromas pridedant tik apostrof (') po daugiskaitos galns -s : his parents' house the girls' dresses jo tv namas mergaii suknels

Jeigu daiktavardi daugiskaita sudaroma ne su galne - s , tai j savybinis linksnis sudaromas taip pat kaip ir vienaskaitos savybinis linksnis apostrofas + s : men's hats the children's dolls vyr kepurs vaik lls

Savybinio linksnio galn tariama kaip ir daugiskaitos linksnio galn -s [s] Jack's friends Pat's brother my parents' car the cat's ears M Ted's books Betsy's doll boys' suits the dog's tail George's idea James's wife the horse's leg Rose's sister

16a PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite ir iverskite.
the girl's picture George's garden the lion's death Grace's lipstick Picasso's paintings Mike's plans Mr Williams's office the businessmen's cars Roger's new job the Queen's palace her husband's cigarettes Shakespeare's plays our daughter's opinion my father-in-law's pipe Bob and Cindy's flat their neighbour's kittens London's sights Frank's decision

SAVYBINIS LINKSNIS rodo: a) kieno nors priklausym gyvai btybei the lady's hat James's sister the boys' room the horse's legs damos kepur Deimso sesuo berniuk kambarys arklio kojos

b) laik ir atstum

today's papers ten days' trip an hour's drive a mile's distance

ios dienos laikraiai deimties dien kelion valanda kelio (vaiuoti) mylios atstumas

c) priklausym miestui, valstybei, aliai (ia taip pat danai vartojamas prielinksnis of, r. toliau)

Tallinn's streets London's parks Canada's history Germany's population

Talino gatvs Londono parkai Kanados istorija Vokietijos gyventojai

17a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius pagal pavyzd. This hat belongs to Sally. ita skrybl priklauso Sali. > This is Sally's hat. Tai Sali skrybl.

1. This money belongs to Paul. 2. This umbrella belongs to Mr Taylor. 3. The doll belongs to his daughter. 4. The guitar belongs to my friend. 5. This car belongs to Hilary. 6. The pipe belongs to her husband. 7. The kitten belongs to Brenda. 10. The 8. T h e flat belongs to my grandmother. lipstick belongs to his sister. 9. This coat belongs to Jennifer.

17b PRATIMAS
Sudarykite vien sakin. Tony has a sister. She is a student. >Tony's sister is a student. Tonis turi seser. Ji yra student. Tonio sesuo yra student.
1. Leslie has a brother. He is a doctor. 2. Kitty has a daughter. She is twelve.

3. Max has a dog. It is in the yard. 4. Ken has a new car. It is a Fiat. 5. Mary has a new dress. It is very beautiful. 6. Cindy has a flat in Oxford Street. It is very expensive. 7. Wendy has a mother-in-law. She is quite young. 8. Bill has a new girlfriend. She lives near here. 9. Charles has an uncle. He will arrive t o m o r r o w .

10. Mr Brown has a wife. She works in a bank.

17c PRATIMAS
Iverskite sakinyje.
1. 2. 3. is a good cook. got married. are deep blue. . (PoIiomama) (Pegs sesuo) (mano sesers akys) (Bobio adresas)

skliausteliuose

esanius

odius

ir pavartokite

juos

4. I don't know

5. 6. I like 7. 8.

is very fast. . are pretty. is a banker.

(nauja Sju maina) (Deko draugai) (Mers suknels) (Deimso brolis) . (mano senelio sodas) (misterio Deksono tvai)

9. There were many flowers in 10. I saw in the street.

Priklausymas angl kalboje reikiamas ir prielinksniu of + daiktavardis. i forma vartojama daniau negu savybinis linksnis, nes reikia priklausym ir asmeniui, ir negyvam daiktui bei reikiniui:

the back of the chair a picture of Diana the name of this girl the colour of the clouds

kds atloas Dianos fotografija ios mergaits vardas debes spalva

18a PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite ir iverskite.
the driver of the bus the size of the house the style of this dress the light of the sun the windows of his flat the captain of the team the cover of the book the interests of the students the wheels of a car the name of this city the capital of Great Britain the corners of the room . the colour of the carpet the door of the church the song of the birds the death of the king the owner of the castle the opinion of the friends the banks of the river the smell of cigarettes the end of the month the head of the family

18b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius pagal pavyzd. The rooms of the boys are upstairs. > > The boys' rooms are upstairs
I . The birthday of my sister is in September. 2. The secretary of Mr Hill is very

efficient. 3. The car of my brother is in the garage. 4. The name of the old gentleman is Mr Scott. 5. The ears of the elephant are big. 6. The letters of the children are in this box. 7. The hat of that lady looks funny. 8. The toys of the child are on the floor. 9. The wife of the boss called. 10. The sister of James is an architect.

I I . The success of Michael is amazing. 12. The house of Mr Jones is green.

18c PRATIMAS
Prielinksnis of vartojamas su daiktavardiais, Perskaitykite ir iverskite lietuvi kalb.
a bottle of wine a cup of tea a glass of milk a bunch of roses a can of beer a box of chocolates a piece of cheese a pair of shoes a box of matches a drop of water a kilo of rice a slice of cake

reikianiais

kiek.

a loaf of bread a sack of flour a bar of chocolate a basket of fruit a sheet of paper a bar of soap a piece of furniture a lump of sugar a pile of papers a packet of cigarettes a pound of coffee a carton of milk

VARDIAI
19 ASMENINIAI VARDIAI VIENASKAITA Papildinio funkcija a tu /js jis ji jis/ji (ne asmuo) me you him her it mane, man tave, tau/jus, j, jam j, jai jam, j (ne asmuo) jums

Veiksnio funkcija I asmuo I Il asmuo you III asmuo^ she he

Veiksnio funkcija I asmuo we II asmuo you Illasmuo they mes js

DAUGISKAITA Papildinio funkcija us you them mus, mums jus, jums juos, jiems

jie /jos

PAVYZDZIUI: VEIKSNYS I Iove Jane. She saw the boy. PAPILDINYS Paul loves her. Mary saw me. A myliu Dein. Ji mat berniuk. Polis myli j. Meri mat mane.

19a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius. Vietoj veiksnio ir papildinio vartokite vardi formas. Caroline likes music. > She likes it.
I . Paul speaks English well. 2. Mary saw John on Sunday. 3. Tom lost the book. 4. Jack met Steve in the street. believes the story. quickly. 5. W e n d y will sing this song again. 6. David 7. The boys locked the door. 8. Mrs Smith repaired the car

asmenini

9. Maria eats Spanish food.

10. My parents will visit Tom t o m o r r o w . 13. Ted knows

I I . Tim finished the book.

12. Michael read this novel last night.

Jane well. 14. The children play football in the park.

19b PRATIMAS
Atsakykite klausimus, vartodami asmeninius vardius. How is your brother? > Thanks, he is fine. Kaip laikosi tavo brolis? Ai, gerai.
1. How is Paula? are your friends? husband? 2. How is Stanley? 9. How is Roger? 3. How are your parents? 10. How are the Taylors? 4. How is your 11. How is your

wife? 5. How are you? 6. How are Ben and Lucy? 7. How is your mother? 8. How 12. How are your grandparents?

19c PRATIMAS
Vietoj pabraukto mas. odi junginio vartokite tinkamas vardi for-

Rose passed all her exams well. > > Rose passed them well.
1. Sally and James are at home. 2. I wrote the new words in my notebook. 3. She put her u m b r e l l a a n d bag on the chair. 4. Father loses his things too often. 6. Peggy and I saw the film on 9. T e d and Sam learn 1 1 . 1 like these girls very much.

5. Bobby cleaned the kitchen and the bathroom. TV. 7. Julia teaches languages. Japanese. 10. Bob heard the news last week.

8. Jane found a purse.

12. I saw you with Peter on the bus this morning.

ASMENINIAI VARDIAI, EINANTYS PAPILDINIU, gali bti vartojami su prielinksniais (pavyzdiui, at, in, with, for ir kt.): John came with me. Bess lives near us. Donas jo su manimi. Bes gyvena netoli ms.

20a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius. Po prielinksni vartokite vardius. Jane looked at Peter. > Jane looked at him. asmeninius

1. T o m sat beside Peggy. 2. I k n o w all about Ted. 3. The girl stood under the tree. 4. He paid for the food. 5. He t h o u g h t of his friends. 6. W e n d y c a m e with her sisters. 7. He still plays in the band. 8. They s t o p p e d in front of the house. 9. He is against the rules. 10. He waited for the girls. 11. There were s o m e b o o k s on the desk. 12. J o h n will get a ticket for Helen.

SAVYBINIAI VARDIAI Savybiniai vardiai Einantys payminiu I you he she it we you they my - mano your -tavo/ his - jo her - j o s its - jo / jos (ne asmens) our - ms your - j s their - j js Savarankiki mine - mano yours his - jo hers - j o s its - jo / jos (ne asmens) ours - ms yours - j s theirs - j tavo/js

Einantis payminiu savybinis vardis vartojamas su daiktavardiu (prijungiamoji forma"): My book is here. This is my book. Mano knyga yra ia. Tai mano knyga.

Savarankiki savybiniai vardiai nevartojami prie daiktavard n (absoliuti forma"): Mine is here. This book is mine. Mano / Manoji yra ia. i knyga mano.

21a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam savybinio vardio, form. Frank put his hat on the chair.
1. Janet put week. bag on the chair.

einanio

payminiu,

2. Jim writes a letter to

mother every

3. Julia likes notebooks.

English classes very much. 4. They write new words in coat. 6. Tim often loses best dress. Iefthandin things.

5. Mr Jones put on book. 8. I'll put on

7. Cliff gave me _ _ pipe out of men took

9. Grandfather took pocket. 11. The brother.

mouth. 10. J o h n p u t

hats off. 12. Rose went to the concert with _ _

21b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius, vartodami savybinio vardio formas. John's mother teaches math. > His mother teaches math.
1. Jane's mother was late. away. 2. Peter's father came early. 3. Mr Taylor's cat ran

4. T h e m e n ' s hats w e r e g r e y .

5. H e l e n ' s b r o t h e r s m o k e s t o o m u c h .

6. Lucy's car is in the garage. 7. I know Peter's son very well. 8. My sister's birthday is in May. 9. Colin's hair is black. 10. Mr Webb's wife was angry. 11. Mary's

brothers are students. 12. This tall man is the boys' friend.

21c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite absoliui savybinio vardio form. This is my bag. > This bag is mine.
1. This is my umbrella. 2. That is our house. 3. This is her hat. 4. These are my

pencils. 5. This is our dog. 6. That is their cat. 7. These are your bikes. 8. This is my violin. 9. These are our apples. 10. Those are their shoes.

21 d PRATIMAS
Atsakydami vartokite savybinius vardius arba daiktavardi bin linksn. Whose bag is this? (I) > It's my bag. Whose cat is this? (Bob) > It's Bob's cat.
1. Whose dog is this? (Tim) 2. Whose watch is this? (I) 3. Whose coat is this? (he) 4. Whose hat is this? (Sally) this? (Bill) 5. Whose notebook is this? (she) 6. Whose towel is 8. Whose car is this? (we) 9. Whose

savy-

7. W h o s e comb is this? (he)

house is this? (they) 10. Whose spoon is this? (she)

NEYMIMIEJI VARDIAI Teigiamuosiuose sakiniuose some somebody someone something Klausiamuosiuose ir neigiamuosiuose sakiniuose any anybody anyone anything Neigiamieji vardiai pakeiia teigiamj sakin neigiamuoju no nobody no one nothing

Some, any ir no vartojami su daiktavardiais. Some ir any nurodo tiksliai neinom ar neapibrt kiek. I saw some people there. I bought some salt. Is there any salt? There isn't any salt. ] \ There is no salt. j A maiau ten kelet moni. A pirkau truput (iek tiek) druskos. Ar yra nors kiek druskos? nra.

Druskos

Sudurtiniai odiai something, anything, somebody ir kt. vartojami savarankikai, be daiktavardio. There is somebody in the garden. There is nobody in the garden. Will anybody help me? Kakas yra sode. Sode nieko nra. Ar kas nors pads man?

22a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite riantus. teigiamuosius sakinius neigiamaisiais pagal abu va-

There is some ink in the bottle. > > There is no ink in the bottle. >There isn't any ink in the bottle.
1. There is s o m e sugar in my cup. 2. There is s o m e j a m in this pot. 3. There are s o m e stamps in my bag. 4. There are s o m e e g g s in the basket. 5. There is s o m e ice-cream in the fridge. some rain last week. 6. There are s o m e lemons on the table. 7. There was 9. There are

8. There was s o m e g o o d news in his letter.

s o m e c h a n g e s in the p r o g r a m m e . 10. There is s o m e bread in this tin.

22b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite teigiamuosius sakinius klausiamaisiais. He gave her some flowers. > Did he give her any flowers?
1. She put some sugar in this cup. 2. She brought some letters for you. has some money in his pocket. s o m e matches. 4. Sally bought some cheese. 6. They met some foreigners there. 3. Steve

5. He gave them

7. He knows some English.

8. She saw some pretty hats in this shop.

22c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite neymimuosius vardius some arba any Is there any tea in the pot? There is some tea in the pot. We don't want any tea.
1. Is t h e r e 3. There are juice. w i n e in the bottle? 2. T h e r e are a p p l e s in the basket. cakes. 5. I don't want roses. 8. I ordered milk

lilacs in their garden. 4. I want butter.

6. She doesn't have soup for you.

7. He gave me milk in this glass.

9. There isn't

10. Is there

left?

TSTINIAI VEIKSMAODI LAIKAI


23 r TSTINIAI LAIKAI reikia besitsiant nebaigt veiksm, kuris vyksta kalbjimo momentu,arba nurodo ilgesn laiko tarp praeityje ar planuojam veiksm ateityje. TSTINIUS LAIKUS sudaro pagalbinio veiksmaodio BE paprastj laik formos + savarankiko veiksmaodio -ING forma. ^ ^ esamasis laikas: bsimasis laikas: am, is, are will be savarankiko -ING forma

B E ^ - b t a s i s laikas:

was, were j veiksmaodio

-ING forma sudaroma prie pagrindins veiksmaodio formos (t.y. bendraties) pridedant galn -ing: work + ing = working, help + +ing = helping. Tuo atveju: a) bendratis netenka galns -e write smile shine begin run set lie die tie writing smiling shining beginning running setting lying dying tying

b) jeigu bendratis baigiasi viena balse + viena kiriuota priebalse, tai i dvigubja c) atsiminkite, kad

ESAMASIS TSTINIS LAIKAS He is writing a letter. Jis rao laik, t.y. iuo metu jis tai atlieka.

I am you are he is _ she is we are you are they are ~ ~ -working

KLAUSIAMOJI tstinio laiko veiksmaodi FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark, t.y. pagalbin veiksmaod ikeliant prie veiksn. NEIGIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma tarp pagalbinio ir savarankiko veiksmaodio terpiant not. He is reading. Jis skaito. Teigiamoji forma I am working you are working he is working she is working it is working we are working you are working they are working Is he reading? Ar jis skaito? He is not (isn't) reading. Jis neskaito. Neigiamoji forma I am not working you are not working he is not working she is not working it is not working we are not working you are not working they are not working

Klausiamoji forma am I working? are you working? is he working? is she working? is it working? are we working? are you working? are they working?

ESAMASIS TSTINIS LAIKAS danai vartojamas su laiko aplinkybmis: now - dabar at present - iuo metu at the present moment - iuo momentu at the moment - iuo momentu PAVYZDIUI: The children are sleeping now. Dabar vaikai miega. At present he is working in the garden.iuo metu jis dirba sode.

24a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite iuos sakinius klausiamaisiais ir neigiamaisiais. He is waiting there. > Is he waiting there? > He is not waiting there.
1. I am working hard. reading a paper. raining hard. 2. He is writing a poem. 3. She is making salad. 4. Pat is 7. It is

5. You are waiting for me.

6. Bob is drawing a picture.

8. He is speaking English.

9. She is playing the piano.

10. We are

telling the truth.

24b PRATIMAS
Baikite atsakymus. Vietoj daiktavardi vartokite vardius.
1. Are you working? 2. Is Tom coming? 3. Are they singing? 4. Is Liz waiting? 5. Are we staying? 6. Are you listening? 7. Is Ken sleeping? 8. Is Eve laughing? 9. Is it raining? 10. Are they washing? 11. Is Ted swimming? 12. Are you leaving? 13. Is Rose playing? 14. Are you reading? No, I am not. Yes, he is. Yes, No, Yes, Yes 1 No, Yes, Yes No, No, Yes No, Yes,

24c PRATIMAS
Pasakykite sakinius esamuoju tstiniu laiku.
I . Listen! I think the telephone (ring). 2. Mrs Smith (play) the piano in the hall. 4. Be quiet, I (think). 5. Jane (not 3. G r a n d m o t h e r (have) a rest in her b e d r o o m .

work), she (read) a book. 6. I see that y o u (wear) your new skirt today. 7. Jack is not in his room, he (have) a bath. 8. I (wait) for my boss. 9. W h o (make) that terrible noise? - It's Roger. He (practise) the violin. 10. I a m busy, I (write) a letter. I I . It (snow), put on your coat. 12. The plane (fly) at 3,000 metres.

24d PRATIMAS
Pasakykite sakinius paprastuoju laiku. esamuoju arba esamuoju tstiniu

Atsiminkite, kad paprastasis esamasis laikas reikia prastini nuolat pasikartojant veiksm, o tstinis esamasis laikas rodo veiksm, vykstant kalbjimo momentu.
1. Usually the children (play) with their toys in the morning but now they (watch) TV. 2. I think he (sleep) now. He always (go) to bed early. 3. After work w e usually (do) the s h o p p i n g . 4. Mrs Lewis (wear) a hat t o d a y because the sun is very hot. 5. It is eight o ' c l o c k . Brenda a n d Cliff (have) breakfast. make the tea. fifty p o u n d s . 6. The kettle (boil), I'll 8. This hat (cost) 10. Look, the 7. I usually (drink) coffee but now I (drink) tea.

9. I (save) up because I (want) to go abroad in May.

boys (play) football. 11. Lucy is not here, she (work) in the garden. 12. Y o u usually (walk) quite slowly but t o d a y y o u (walk) very fast. Spanish and French, now she (learn) Italian. w h e n he c o m e s to town but tonight he (stay) with us. 13. Julia already (speak) 15. Run upstairs, mother 14. David usually (stay) in a hotel

(wait) for y o u there. 16. He (read) a newspaper, he always (read) it at breakfast.

TSTINI LAIK FORMOS neturi: 1) veiksmaodiai, reikiantys psichin asmens bsen ir fizinius jutimus: see, hear, know, want, love, hate, like, understand ir kt. We see a train. - Mes matome traukin. I hear a strange noise. - A girdiu keist triukm. 2) veiksmaodiai, reikiantys nuosavyb, priklausomyb, pastovi bsen:seem, belong, possess, appear : He seems tired. - Jis atrodo pavargs. man.

Now this book belongs to me. - Dabar i knyga priklauso

25a PRATIMAS
Jei galima, pavartokite esamj tstin laik.
1. Richard (take) a shower. 2. Betty (understand) it very well. 3. John (sit) at his desk. 4. Now he (love) Sarah. 5. Emily (lay) the table. 6. Jack (know) all about it. 7. I (like) this ring. 8. The baby (cry) because it is hungry. 9. I (believe) you. 10.1 (hear) a beautiful song. 11. She (look) for her pen. 12. Nigel (learn) German.

VEIKSMAODIO go ESAMOJO TSTINIO LAIKO forma daniausiai vartojama nekamojoje kalboje, norint ireikti: a) artimiausiu metu planuojam veiksm: I am going to learn German. - A rengiuosi mokytis vokiei kalbos. b) artimiausiu metu btinai vyksiant veiksm: It is going to rain soon. - Greit lis.

26a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius, vartodami veiksmaodio laik.
go

esamj

tstin

I intend to try again. > I am going to try again.


1. I intend to buy a new TV set. 2. They intend to stay for a week. 3. Bob intends to leave Oxford tomorrow. our holiday in Paris. say "No". 4. They intend to have a party on Sunday. 5. Dick intends to sell his car. 6. I intend to meet them on Monday. 7. W e intend to spend 8. Ted intends to take Joy to the theatre. 9. She intends to 10. Grace intends to learn Estonian. 1 1 . 1 intend to tell him tomorrow.

12. We intend to have lunch at once.

26b PRATIMAS
Vietoj paprastojo bsimojo laiko vartokite veiksmaodio mj tstin laik.
go

esa-

It will rain tomorrow. > It is going to rain tomorrow.


1. They will lose the match. 2. It's very cold, I think it will snow. dark clouds. We will have a storm. 4. We will get wet. 3. Look at these

5. He's very careless. I'm

afraid he will have an accident. 6. My cat will have kittens soon. 7. This medicine will do you good. 8. I'm afraid we will miss the train.

26c PRATIMAS
Pagal duot plan papasakokite, kaip Dein rengiasi praleisti kit savait. Vartokite veiksmaodio go esamj tstin laik. Pradkite taip: "On Monday Jenny is going to ..." Jenny's plan for next week:
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Buy Christmas presents Meet Brenda at 5 Go to the theatre with Colin Work at the library Play tennis with Sally Write letters and Christmas cards Visit Aunt Sarah

BTASIS TSTINIS LAIKAS: I was you were he was she was it was we were you were they were KLAUSIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark. NEIGIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma tarp pagalbinio ir savarankiko veiksmaodio jterpiant dalelyt not: Teigiamoji forma I was working you were working he was working she was working it was working we were working you were working they were working Klausiamoji forma was I working? were you working? was he working? was she working? was it working? were we working? were you working? were they working? Neigiamoji forma 1 was not working you were not working he was not working she was not working it was not working we were not working you were not working they were not working working

BTASIS TSTINIS LAIKAS vartojamas su iomis laiko aplinkybmis: then - tada, tuo metu at that time - tuo metu this time yesterday - iuo metu vakar this time last week - iuo metu prajusi savait at (six) o'clock- (et) valand at (six) on (Sunday)- (et) valand (sekmadien) when (you came) - kai (tu atjai) PAVYZDIUI: At six on Sunday I was playing the piano.et valand sekmadien a skambinau pianinu. This time yesterday she was baking a cake.Vakar iuo metu ji kep pyrag. When Bobby came we were reading newspapers.Kai Bobis atjo, mes (tuo metu) skaitme laikraius.

27a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite trkstamas
I was singing you were singing he was singing she was not singing we were singing were you singing? they were singing

formas.
I w a s not s i n g i n g was I singing?

27b PRATIMAS
Skliausteliuose tiniu laiku. esanius veiksmaodius pakeiskite btuoju ts-

1. When the bell rang Jane (have) a bath.

2. At that time Mr Smith (live) in the

country. 3. When Bob came Jenny (write) a letter. 4. When I arrived they (have) supper. 5. At 7 on Friday we (watch) TV. 6. When Peter went out the sun (shine). 7. When I met her yesterday she (wear) a new hat. (make) a cake. 9. When they came we (drink) tea. 8. When the light went out I 10. This time yesterday Larry

(take) the dog for a walk. 11. When I entered the boys (play) cards. 12. When the guests arrived we (sleep).

27c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite btj tstin arba paprastj btj laik.
1. I was alone in the house at that time because Peggy (shop) and the children (play) in the park. 2. Yesterday at 5 I was not at home, I (read) an article at the library. 3. The train (stop) and we (get) off. 4. Their car was empty but the engine (run). 5. I (have) a shower when the phone (ring). 6. He (write) a cheque when he (remember) that he (have) nothing in the bank. his torch and (crawl) under the desk. 7. They (live) in Brooklyn at that time. 8. The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps. He at once (put) out 9. W h e n he (learn) to drive he had lots of accidents. 10. W h e n I first met her she (work) in a restaurant.

BSIMASIS TSTINIS LAIKAS: t will be ^ you will he will be she will be - - ^ - ^ ^ it will be we will be you will be they will be ^ working

Teigiamoji forma I will be working you will be working he will be working she will be working it will be working we will be working you will be working they will be working

Klausiamoji forma will I be working? will you be working? will he be working? will she be working? will it be working? will we be working? will you be working?

Neigiamoji forma I will not be working you will not be working he will not be working she will not be working it will not be working we will not be working you will not be working

will they be working? they will not be working

BUSIMASIS TSTINIS LAIKAS vartojamas retai. Daniausiai vartojamas su iomis laiko aplinkybmis: this time tomorrow - rytoj iuo metu tomorrow at (five) - rytoj (penkt valand) next (Friday) at (five) - kit (penktadien) (penkt) valand when (you come) - kai (tu ateisi) PAVYZDIUI: This time tomorrow I will be working. Rytoj iuo metu a dirbsiu. When you come the children will be sleeping.Kai tu ateisi, vaikai (jau) miegos.

28a PRATIMAS
Perskaitykite ir sudarykite trkstamas
I will be s l e e p i n g you will be sleeping he will be sleeping she will be waiting we will be sleeping you will be reading they will be sleeping

formas.
I will be reading

I will be waiting

28b PRATIMAS
Suskliaustus veiksmaodius veiksmaodiais. pakeiskite bsimojo tstinio laiko

1. She (work) for at least another two hours. 2. When we return the baby (sleep). 3. At half past ten I (have) a bath. 4. Jack (read) the whole afternoon. 5. When

your train arrives I (wait) at the station.

6. This time tomorrow we (play) tennis.

7. At six o'clock on Saturday Rose (watch) TV. 8 This time next week I (work) in my office. (have) tea. 9. We (camp) in the mountains all next week. 1 1 . 1 (wait) for you on Sunday. 10. At five the family

12. In two hours I (sit) in the bus.

13. This time next week they (lie) on the beach. 14. When you come back from the cinema we (have) supper.

KARTOJIMO PRATIMAI PAPRASTIEJI IR TSTINIAI LAIKAI


29a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausiamuosius sakinius. The baby is playing with a doll. > > Is the baby playing with a doll? They went on holiday. > Did they go on holiday?
1. Bob likes to play football. 2. He will finish the letter this afternoon. 3. Tom is teaching his son to ride a bike. 4. He was telling the truth. 5. The child is crying. 6. Mr Jones worked in an office. 7. Lucy found her friend in the park. 8. Susan came with us. 9. Mother is cooking the dinner. 10. The boys were waiting for their teacher. 11. Katie goes to school every weekday. 12. The last train left at 11.30. 13. Hilary plays chess very well. 14. She had a piece of chocolate cake.

29b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite teigiamuosius sakinius neigiamaisiais. They went on holiday. > They did not go on holiday. The baby is crying. > The baby isn't crying.
1. They go out every afternoon. with you. 2. He was waiting for Julia. 3. Steve will come 4. His friend lives in New York. 5. Diana brushes her hair every night.

6. He was holding a bottle of whisky in his hand. 7. Sally always agrees with you. 8. Peter wears very strong glasses. 9. I'll read it tomorrow. 10. At the moment Rose is playing the piano in the other room. 11. The police caught the thief. 12. I hate you. 13. He is joking. 14. Susan lost her purse.

29c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam veiksmaodi
1. Tomorrow I (meet) my colleagues. me, I (look) for my pen.

laik.

2. Rembrandt (paint) this portrait in 1650. 7. Graham normally 11.1 (dine) at

3. W h e n they arrived we (have) breakfast. 4. She (forget) you soon. 5. Please help 6. I (remember) this day all my life. (drink) tea at five o'clock. 8. He (drink) eight cups of tea last afternoon. 9. I (know) the results of the test next week. the Savoy next Friday. 10. This book (cost) four pounds. 12. Yesterday she (eat) her lunch quickly and (leave) at

once. 13. If I have time I (visit) them tomorrow. 14. I (see) you at nine tomorrow.

29d PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam laik.
1. I (see) the film last night. 2. Mr Green (wait) for his wife now. 3. I think it (snow) tonight. London. 4. Last year she (lie) on a beach in Spain while I (work) in my office in 5. Most children (like) sweets. 6. I hope they (sing) it again. 7. Last 8. Colin always (go) to work by bus. 9. Now this

Sunday we (go) to a concert. house (belong) to Joe. night.

10. I normally (get) up at 7.

1 1 . 1 (sleep) very little last

12. The letter (arrive) yesterday.

13. Last week she (go) to a party without

me. 14. Before his marriage Harry (smoke) a lot.

29e PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam laik.
1. J a c k is not here, he (leave) ten minutes ago. He (come) back at 5 o'clock. 2. W h e n Mary came in they (sit) in the living room. Mr Dell (do) a crossword puzzle, Mrs Dell (knit) and Tom (read). Mrs Dell (smile) at Mary and (say), "Come and sit down." 3. The children (watch) TV when they heard their mother's footsteps. They (switch) off the T V set at once and (take) out their textbooks. 4. As Steve was crossing the street he (step) on a banana skin and (fall). He (lie) on the road when he (hear) a car. Luckily the driver (see) Steve and (stop) the car in time. 5. Jennie (buy) some flour and apples yesterday. She (bake) an apple-pie tomorrow. 6. Peter usually (walk) to his office but this morning he (take) the bus because it (rain) when he (leave) home.

m
v *

VII
BDVARDIS
Angl kalboje BDVARDIAI turi tris laipsnius: nelyginamj, auktesnj ir aukiausij. Aukiausiasis laipsnis daniausiai vartojamas su artikeliu the.

30

Nelyginamasis laipsnis warm (iltas) tamous (garsus)

Auktesnysis laipsnis warmer (iltesnis) more famous (garsesnis)

Aukiausiasis laipsnis (the) warmest (iliausias) (the) most famous (garsiausias)

Bdvardi laipsniai padaromi pridedant galnes -er ir -est

a) kai bdvardis yra vienskiemenis

short rich wide

shorter richer wider prettier cleverer narrower simpler

(the) shortest (the) richest (the) widest (the) (the) (the) (the) prettiest cleverest narrowest simplest

b) kai bdvardis yra dviskiemenis ir baigiasi -y, -er, -ow, -Ie

pretty clever narrow simple

Raant reikia atsiminti: large - jei bdvardis baigiasi fine netariama-e, prie -er ir-est ji praleidiama larger finer (the) largest (the) finest

- odio gale y > i

happy easy big fat sad

happier easier bigger fatter sadder

(the) happiest (the )easiest (the) biggest (the) fattest (the) saddest

- jei vienskiemenis bdvardis baigiasi viena priebalse, prie kuri eina trumpas balsis, ta priebals sudvigubja

Kit dviskiemeni ir vis daugiaskiemeni bdvardi auktesnysis laipsnis daromas su odiu more, o aukiausiasis su most. difficult expensive more difficult more expensive (the) most difficult (the) most expensive

PAVYZDIAI: The blue hat is pretty. The black hat is prettier. The white hat is the prettiest.

Mlynoji skrybl yra grai. Juodoji skrybl yra graesn. Baltoji skrybl yra graiausia.

30a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite i bdvardi auktesnj ir aukiausij
young thin easy expensive depressing soft nice comfortable excited strong Ibvely dry beautiful long poor fast intelligent handsome

laipsn.

Angl kalboje yra keli bdvardiai, kurie laipsniuojami ne pagal bendrsias taisykles: Nelyginamasis laipsnis good (geras) bad (blogas) Auktesnysis laipsnis better (geresnis) worse (blogesnis) Aukiausiasis laipsnis (the) best (geriausias) (the) worst (blogiausias)

well (sveikas)

better (sveikesnis)

(the) best (sveikiausias) (the) worst (labiausiai sergantis)

ill (sergantis)

worse (labiau sergantis)

old (senas)

older (senesnis) elder (vyresnis)

(the) oldest (seniausias) (the) eldest (vyriausias) (the) smallest (maiausias) (the) least (maiausiai) (the) most (daugiausiai) (the) mosf (daugiausiai) (the) latest (vlyviausias) (the) last (paskutinis) (the) nearest (ariausias) (the) next (kitas)

little (maas) smaller (maesnis) little (maai) less (maiau) much (daug) more (daugiau) many (daug) more (daugiau)

late (vlyvas)

later (vlyvesnis)

<

near (artimas)

nearer (artesnis)

ATSIMINKITE, kad bdvardiai well ir ill vartojami tik po veiksmaodio to be asmenins formos ir eina vardine sudurtinio tarinio dalimi (Tom is ill. - Tomas serga). odiai healthy ir siek eina payminiais ir vartojami prie daiktavard (a sick man - sergantis vyras). Bdvardiai elder ir eldest vartojami tik su odiais sister, brother, daughter ir son. Palyginkite: Tom is my eldest brother / her eldest son. - Tom is the oldest boy in the team.

Ne pagal bendrsias taisykles sudarom bdvardi Iaipsniavimo PAVYZDIAI: Ken's car is good, Bobby's car is better but Bill's car is the best. Jack has more money than Ted but Ben has the most money. Keno maina yra gera, Bobio maina geresn, o Bilo maina pati geriausia. Dekas turi daugiau pinig negu Tedas, bet Benas turi daugiausiai pinig.

LYGINAMUOSIUOSE SAKINIUOSE vartojami ie jungtukai: than as ... as not so not as PAVYZDZIUI: Timistaller Timis Tomis as tall thanjom. asjjm. asjjm. Timas auktesnis u Tom. Timas yra auktas kaip Dimas. Tomas nra toks auktas kaip Dimas. negu toks kaip as ne toks kaip

not so tall

32a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam bdvardi laipsn.
1. Larry is (young) than Stanley. 2. Frank is the (young) boy in the group. 3. Lucy is (old) than my sister. 4. Rose's flat is ( nice) than Alice's flat. 5. June is (sunny) than April. 6. George is not so (strong) as Robert. 7. Sally is the (short) girl in her group. Black. 8. This is the (cheap) dress in the shop. 10. This is the (deep) lake in Estonia. 9. Mr White is not as (fat) as Mr

11. London is (big) than Tallinn but 13. These

New York is the (big).

12. He is the (lazy) person i have ever met.

jackets are (expensive) than those coats. 14. Julia's bag isn't as (heavy) as Sally's but it's (heavy) than Nora's bag.

BDVARDIAI kalb:

vartojami ir norint nusakyti tautyb (pilietyb) bei

33

She comes from (Ji kilusi i...) Estonia (Estijos) England the United Kingdom/ Great Britain the United States Germany France Russia Latvia Sweden Finland Spain

She is ... (Ji...) Estonian (est) English British American German French Russian Latvian Swedish Finnish Spanish

She speaks... (Ji kalba Estonian English English English German French Russian Latvian Swedish Finnish Spanish

33a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam bdvard. Inga lives in Latvia. She speaks Latvian.
1. Tanya lives in Moscow. She speaks 2. Paul comes from Germany. He speaks 3. Jaak was born in Tartu. His native language is 4. Louise lives in Paris. She speaks 5. Carol lives in Toronto. She speaks 6. David comes from Sweden. He is 7. Mr Lewis lives in Oxford. He speaks excellent 8. Brenda comes from the United States. She is 9. Barbara from Austria speaks 10. Juha and Pekka live in Helsinki. They speak . . . . .

33b PRATIMAS
Priddami galn -Iy1 i bdvardio padarykite prieveiksm: slow (ltas) - slowly (ltai). Bdvardis derinamas su daiktavardiu, prieveiksmis su veiksmaodiu. Pavartokite tinkam od.
1. i walk (quick, quickly). 2. He always drives too (quick, quickly). 3. He is a very (careless, carelessly) driver. 4. Jane plays the violin (beautiful, beautifully). 5. John is a (hard = stiprus, stipriai; hardly = vos vos) worker. 6. I can do it (easy, easily). 7. Take it (easy, easily). 8. David is a (good, well) tennis player. 9. He plays tennis very (good, well). 10. I agree with you (complete, completely). 11. The light is very (bright, brightly). 12. It's a (hard, hardly) job, you must work very (hard, hardly). 13. I (hard, hardly) know them. 14.1 haven't seen them (late = vlai, lately = neseniai).

VIII
ATLIKTINIAI LAIKAI
ATLIKTINIAI LAIKAI reikia veiksm, kuris baigsi ar bus vyks iki tam tikro momento (dabartyje, praeityje ar ateityje) ir kurio rezultatas yra svarbus kalbjimo momentu. Kartais atliktiniai laikai rodo veiksm, kuris prasidjo prie tam tikr laik ir tsiasi kalbjimo momentu. ATLIKTINIAI LAIKAI sudaromi su pagalbiniu veiksmaodiu HAVE + treioji savarankiko veiksmaodio forma (btojo laiko dalyvis). esamasis laikas: have, has treioji savarankiko had J veiksmaodio forma

34

HAVE -b tasis laikas: ^bsimasis laikas:

will have

TREIOJI TAISYKLINGJ VEIKSMAODI FORMA paprastai sudaroma prie bendraties pridedant galn -ed, todl primena antrj veiksmaodio form (paprastj btj laik). I forma play finish belong III forma played finished belonged

NETAISYKLINGJ VEIKSMAODI treij form reikia imokti atmintinai. Pagrindins netaisyklingj veiksmaodi formos pateikiamos knygos gale. Atliktini laik PAVYZDIAI: esamasis laikas: John has arrived. I have read this book. btasis laikas: John had gone out. bsimasis laikas: I will have finished it by six o'clock. Donas atvyko (Jis jau ia). A skaiiau i knyg (Esu skaits). Donas ijo (buvo ijs). et valand a bsiu baigs (darb).

34a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite treij veiksmaodio form. Tim has (finish) his work. > Tim has finished his work.
1. I have (finish) my work at last. 2. Tom has (play) in every match this season.

3. I have already (earn) a thousand dollars this month. 4. He has (live) here all his life. 5. I have (ask) some friends to dinner tonight. 6. My friends have just (arrive) from Berlin. 7. He said that he had (enjoy) the opera very much. 8. Hundreds of 10. His

people have (visit) this exhibition.

9. I have (bake) you a birthday cake.

parents have (decide) to go to Spain for their holidays. car. 12. Post the letter as soon as you have (finish) it.

11. Peter has (clean) the

34b PRATIMAS
Pavartokite treij netaisyklingj veiksmaodi form.
1. I have already (see) this film, it's very good. (leave). 2. Emily and Ben have already

3. I know this book, I have (read) it. 4. Canada has (win) the World Cup. 6. Traffic has (become) a difficult problem.

5. They hadn't (learn) English before.

7. Look, the sun has (come) out. 8. Larry Jones has (write) a lot of plays. 9. Help, I think I have (break) my arm. 10. She has (lose) all her money. 11. Mary had (go) to school before I got up. 12. They have (build) a new house. he had (do) the day before. 13. He told us what 15. John

14. Tom has (burn) a hole in his pocket.

gave her the flowers that he had (buy) for her.

ESAMASIS ATLIKTINIS LAIKAS: I have \ you have he has she has it has we have you have they have ^ ^ / y / / finished \ \

KLAUSIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark. NEI GIAMOJOJE FORMOJE dalelyt not eina po pagalbinio veiks maodio HAVE: Teigiamoji forma I have worked you have worked he has worked she has worked it has worked we have worked you have worked they have worked Klausiamoji forma have I worked? have you worked? has he worked? has she worked? has it worked? have we worked? have you worked? have they worked? Neigiamoji forma I have not worked you have not worked he has not worked she has not worked it has not worked we have not worked you have not worked they have not worked

nekamojoje kalboje pirmenyb teikiama TRUMPOSIOMS FORMOMS: I have = I've he has = he's she has = she's it has = it's we have = we've you have = you've they have = they've

TRUMPOSIOS NEIGIAMOSIOS FORMOS: have not = haven't has not = hasn't

ESAMASIS ATLIKTINIS LAIKAS vartojamas:

1) danai (bet ne visuomet!), bs: already (jau)

kai sakinyje yra ios laiko aplinky-

daniausiai teigiamuosiuose sakiniuose. Eina po HAVE ir paprastai prie savarankik veiksmaod: She has already arrived. Jijau atvyko. He has already done a lot. Jis jau daug padar.

yet (jau, dar)

daniausiai neigiamuosiuose ir klausiamuosiuose sakiniuose: Hasshearrived yet? Ar ji jau atvaiavo? He has not done much y e t . Jis dar nedaug padar.

ever (kada nors) Have you ever been to Canada? Ar tu kada nors buvai Kanadoje? never (niekada) I have never been to Canada. A niekada nebuvau Kanadoje.

before (anksiau) Wehavemet before- Mes buvome susitik anksiau. Have you met her before? Ar tu kada nors anksiau matei j? lately (neseniai, pastaruoju metu) I haven't seen Jim lately- Pastaruoju metu a nemaiau Dimo. 2) su odiais, nurodaniais dar nepasibaigus laik, pavyzdiui: today (iandien) I haven't seen him today A nemaiau jo iandien. this week (i savait) The weather has been fine this week i savait buvo geras oras. this month ( mnes) It has been warm this month . mnes buvo ilta.

ATSIMINKITE, kai kalbama apie baigt laiko tarp (pavyzdiui, yesterday, last week, in 1988, five years ago), vartojamas paprastasis btasis laikas. I saw him yesterday. A maiau j vakar. 3) danai su laiko aplinkybmis, kurios prasideda prielinksniais since ir for: I haven't seen him since July. A nemaiau jo nuo liepos mnesio. He has lived here for five years. Jis gyvena ia jau penkeri metai. I lietuvi kalb esamasis atliktinis laikas veriamas btuoju kartiniu ar esamuoju laiku.

35a PRATIMAS
Atsakykite teigiamai arba neigiamai. Have you paid the bill? > Yes, I have. Has Tim posted my letter? > No, he has not.
1. Have you washed the cups? 2. Has Steve passed the exam? 3. Have you heard the news? 4. Have they gone out? 5. Has Rose made coffee? 6. Have you spoken to her? 7. Have they lived here long? 8. Has the post come? 9. Has she bought a new hat? 10. Have they had lunch? Yes, No, No 1 Yes 1 Yes, Yes, No 1 No, Yes 1 Yes,

35b PRATIMAS
Pavartokite esamj atliktin laik.
1. Frank (buy) two English books. 2. They (go) out together. 3. She (be) to Oxford before. 4. Daisy (change) very much. 5. The boys (eat) all the cakes. 6. I (not meet) Sharon for a long time. Frank since last winter. weeks already. new dresses. 7. The secretary (type) the letter. 8. She (not see) 10. I (live) in this flat for a few 12. Mary (buy) some

9. Bruce (post) the letter.

11. We (be) to several good concerts lately. 13. She (not c o m e ) yet.

14. They (have) their supper already.

15. You (not change) at all.

35c PRATIMAS
Sudarykite yet. He has already read this book. > > Has he read this book yet?
1. He has already seen this film. 2. You have already bought a present for Rose. 3. Nora has already gone to bed. 4. Joy has already finished her work. 5. Ronald has already found a new job. already written to Ben. 6. Frank has already sold his car. 7. You have

klausiamuosius

sakinius.

Vietoj

already

vartokite

8. Steve has already paid his debts.

9. He has already

come. 10. You have already had lunch.

35d PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius pagal pavyzd. He is still washing the cups. > > He hasn't washed the cups yet.
1. He is still making the bed. 2. He is still sweeping the floor. 3. He is still feeding the baby. 4. She is still reading the paper. 5. She is still drinking her tea. 6. We 8. Sally is still 10. I am still

are still having our breakfast. painting the walls.

7. Bill is still watering the tomatoes.

9. The teacher is still cleaning the blackboard.

finishing my composition.

35e PRATIMAS
Pavartokite paprastj btj arba esamj atliktin laik.
1. I (know) her for years. 2. Yesterday Bob (play) football in the park. 3. He (like) to play football since he was a child. 4. Mr Taylor (drive) me to the airport last

night. 5. Peter (fall) from the tree yesterday. 6. John (paint) this portrait two years ago. 7. Sarah (come) to see us last Monday. 8. I like this book very much, I (read) it twice. England. 9. W e (go) to a concert last night. 10. I (not meet) him since he left 12. H i s f a m i l y (live) in this small 14. Bob (not finish)

11. Yesterday I (go) to bed at midnight.

village for ten years. his letter yet.

13. Shakespeare (write) a lot of plays.

BTASIS ATLIKTINIS LAIKAS sudaromas i pagalbinio veiksmaodio HAVE btojo laiko formos ir treiosios savarankiko veiksmaodio formos: Ihad he had she had - it had we had-^^^/ / you had they had ^ KLAUSIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark, o NEIGIAMOJI FORMA - po pagalbinio veiksmaodio vartojant dalelyt not. Teigiamoji forma I had worked you had worked he had worked she had worked it had worked we had worked you had worked they had worked Kausiamoji forma had I worked? had you worked? had he worked? had she worked? had it worked? had we worked? had you worked? had they worked? Neigiamoji forma I had not worked you had not worked he had not worked she had not worked it had not worked we had not worked you had not worked they had not worked finished \ X ^

you had

nekamojoje kalboje vartojamos TRUMPOSIOS FORMOS: I had = I'd he had = he'd she had = she'd we had = we'd you had = you'd they had = they'd

TRUMPOJI NEIGIAMOJI FORMA had not = hadn't

BTASIS ATLIKTINIS LAIKAS reikia veiksm, vykus anksiau u kit praeities veiksm ar moment. Danai vartojamas su odiais: he said, I hoped, they thought ir kt. He said that he had had his lunch. Tom knew that he had made a mistake. I was sure I had seen that lady before. Jis pasak, kad pavalg priepieius. Tomas inojo, kad padar klaid. A buvau tikras, kad jau maiau t dam anksiau.

lietuvi kalb is laikas veriamas btuoju kartiniu laiku ar btojo laiko dalyviu.

36a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite btj atliktin laik.
1. Lucy said that she (receive) that letter the day before. painting, I (not see) it yet. letter as soon as he (finish) it. 2. I wanted to see the 4. He posted the

3. By 7 o'clock the people (gather).

5. Jane believed that she (meet) the man before. 7. Joe saw that they (take) the wrong 10. Steve showed them the picture he

6. By Saturday everybody (hear) the news. ema as everybody already (see) the film.

road. 8. By 1990 they (live) in Estonia for twelve years. 9. No one wept to the cin(paint) the previous month. 11. By that time the first snow (go). 12.When I arrived Susan just (leave). 13. I discovered that I (spend) all my money on books. 14. Tom told them the joke he (hear) at the pub.

BSIMASIS ATLIKTINIS LAIKAS: I will have you will have he will have she will have it will have we will have you will have they will have finished

Klausiamoji forma will I have worked? will you have worked? will he have worked? will she have worked? will it have worked? will we have worked? will you have worked? will they have worked?

Neigiamoji forma I will not have worked you will not have worked he will not have worked she will not have worked it will not have worked we will not have worked you will not have worked they will not have worked

BSIMASIS ATLIKTINIS LAIKAS reikia veiksm, kuris bus vyks iki tam tikro momento ateityje: By June he will have finished his work. Iki birelio mnesio jis bus baigs savo darb.

37a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite bsimj atliktin laik.
1. By next February they (work) here for ten years. 2. By this time Bill (leave) the town. 3. By the end of May he (pass) all his exams. 4. I (finish) my work before it gets dark. 5. By this time next year I (save) a thousand dollars. 6. By the end of the year she (read) all twenty volumes. 7. By next autumn they (build) three new

houses in this street. 8. By this time tomorrow I (finish) this book.

ATLIKTINIAI TSTINIAI LAIKAI reikia veiksm, kuris prasidjo prie kalbjimo moment ar prie kur nors praeities arba ateities moment ir tsiasi iki pat to momento. ATLIKTINIAI TSTINIAI LAIKAI sudaromi i pagalbinio veiksmaodio BE atliktinio laiko form ir savarankiko veiksmaodio -ING formos . esamasis atliktinis tstinis have been savarankiko

/
has been BEr*"btasis atliktinis tstinis bsimasis atliktinis tstinis had been _ ' veiksmaodio

will have been -ING forma

ATLIKTINIAI TSTINIAI LAIKAI nekamojoje kalboje vartojami retai. Daniausiai vartojamas esamasis atliktinis tstinis laikas. I have been working you have been working he has been working she has been working it has been working we have been working you have been working they have been working

KLAUSIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark ( have I been working?), o NEIGIAMOJI FORMA - su dalelyte not, kuri eina po pirmojo pagalbinio veiksmaodio (I have not been working). Esamojo atliktinio tstinio laiko vartojimo PAVYZDZIAI: He has been living here for four months. They have been discussing it for an hour already. I have been writing letters since 10 o'clock. Jis jau keturis mnesius gyvena ia. Jie kalbasi apie tai jau vis valand. A raau laikus jau nuo deimtos valandos.

38a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite esamj atliktin tstin laik.
1. The potatoes (boil) for twenty minutes. 2. They (work) all day long. 3. The boys (play) basketball for some hours already. (live) here since 1990. 4. Bob (fish) for three hours. 5. Ken

6. Miss Smith (teach) English since 1970.

7. I (wait) for

about an hour. 8. Martin (study) English for three years. 9. It (rain) since morning. 10. The girls (argue) for more than an hour.

38b PRATIMAS
Vietoj esamojo atliktinio laiko pavartokite esamj atliktin laik. Sakinys taps emocingesnis ir ekspresyvesnis. It has snowed all day long. > > It has been snowing all day long. tstin

1. Ben has travelled all over Europe. 2. They have lived in Paris since June. 3. He has s p o k e n for thirty minutes already. 4. W e have walked for three hours, I'm exhausted. 5. The boys have talked for more than an hour. 6. He has slept since nine o'clock. 7. They have worked very hard this week. 8. It has rained for an hour. 9. She has taught Spanish for five years.

VEIKSMAODIO LAIK KARTOJIMO PRATIMAI


39a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausiamuosius sakinius. Jack loves Jill. > Does Jack love Jill?
1. She speaks French. 2. Bob has met your sister. 3. The wind was blowing hard. 4. He has played tennis for two years now. glass of water. 7. They came to a village. 5. I am right. 6. She brought him a

8. The children have had breakfast. 11. The cat was lying under

9. You have heard of him.

10. She will do her best.

the table. 12. She knows English well.

39b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite klausiamuosius sakinius teigiamaisiais. Does he love her? > He loves her.
1. Will they come tonight? 2. Has Tom painted this portrait? 3. Do you want to go to Paris? 4. Have the girls gone home? 5. Did they go home at six o'clock? 6. Has he drunk all the whisky? 7. Does Graham speak Spanish? 8. Have they sold their old car? 9. Did she visit Tom every day? 10. Has she changed much?

39c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam laiko form.
1. We (go) to the theatre quite often. We (go) to the theatre twice last m o n t h and we (be) there three times this month. 2. Jane is not at home now, she (go) for a walk. She (return) in an hour. 3. I (know) Jack since 1988. We (work) together in the same office for two years. Now we (be) close friends. 4. I (visit) Dora last night and (ask) her to c o m e to the cinema with me. She (not want) to go to the cinema because she (see) the film already. 5. I (do) some English exercises every day. I (do) only one exercise yesterday but I (do) three today. 6. At three o n Sunday I (read) a book in my garden. My d o g (lie) beside me.

39d PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam laiko form.
My brother Roy is in the United States. He (be)/1/ there for three years already.

He (be)/2/ an engineer and he (work)/3/ for a big firm there. He already (visit)/4/ a great number of different places in the US. He (buy)/5/ an American car. S o o n he (buy)/6/ a house in Los Angeles. Dick Wheeler (work)/7/ in a bank five years ago but now he (work)/8/ in a lawyer's office. He (get)/9/ a g o o d salary but he (like)/10/ to b o r r o w m o n e y f r o m his friends. He never (pay)/11/ it back. Jack Turner s p e n d s a lot of m o n e y o n records. r e c o r d s every week. music. He (buy)/12/ one or two new S o m e t i m e s his f r i e n d s

He (stay)/13/ at h o m e in the evenings and (listen)/14/ to

He often (lend)/15/ his r e c o r d s to his f r i e n d s .

(keep)/16/ them. Jack (lose)/17/ many records in this way.

39e PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite neigiamuosius sakinius teigiamaisiais. He didn't tell me the truth. > He told me the truth.
I . Lucy doesn't agree with you. 2. Jack didn't listen to her. 3. Bill hasn't taken his medicine. 4. Ted w o n ' t c o m e with us. 5. I haven't read the instructions. 6. They

haven't gone away. 7. Sally didn't want to change her job. 8. You w o n ' t get there o n time. 9. It w a s n ' t c o l d in D e c e m b e r . 10. He w o n ' t have f i n i s h e d it by six.

I I . She hasn't given them those books. 12. Pat didn't go to the party.

39f PRATIMAS
Vartokite tinkam laiko form.
Yesterday Peter had a very bad day. Everything (go)/1/ wrong. W h e n he (hang)/2/ out the washing it (start)/2/ to rain. Then he (decide)/4/ to clean the kitchen. While he (wipe)/5/ the top shelf of the kitchen cupboard he (lose)/6/ his balance and (fall)/7/ off the stool. W h e n he (wash)/8/ the kitchen floor the dog (rush)/9/ in and And he also (cut)/11/ his finger w h e n he (knock)/10/ over the bucket of water.

(peel)/12/ the potatoes. It (be)/13/ really a rotten day!

39g PRATIMAS
Vartokite tinkam laiko form.
O n e a f t e r n o o n , only a week after she had passed her driving test and got her driving license Helen (decide)/1/ to drive to town. When she (come)/2/ to the first traffic lights she (see)/3/ that they (be)/4/ red and so she (stop)/5/ the car abruptly. But when the lights (change)/6/ to green again she could not start the car. car. A policeman (stand)/10/ on the street corner. She (look)/7/ in the rear mirror and (see)/8/ that a long line of cars (form)/9/ behind her He (look)/11 / in her direction.

Helen (get)/12/ very nervous. quickly.

At last the car (start)/13/ and Helen (drive)/14/ off

VIII

39h PRATIMAS
Iverskite angl kalb.
1. Meri ir Dordas gyvena Londone. 2. Piteris kalba pranczikai. 3. Sandra dabar a i d i a t e n i s . 4. A n e m a i a u R o z o s i a n d i e n . 5. Ar j i e n u j o n a m o e t valand? 6. Polis atsistojo, usidjo skrybl ir ijo. 7. Jis jau skait i knyg. 8. iandien saul vieia, bet vakar buvo debesuota. 9. Ar mama sugro? 10. eila laukia tavs virtuvje. 11. Jie vyko j Afrik 1988 metais. 12. A susitikau j u o s gatvje. 13. A daniausiai keliuosi septint, bet iandien miegojau ilgiau. 14. Mes daug dirbome. 15. A niekuomet nebuvau Paryiuje. 16. Tomis dar neina mokykl. 17. Dekas j a u mat j film. 18. Rytoj jis aplankys (ketina aplankyti) savo uov.

IX

%
(

MODALINIAI VEIKSMAODIAI
40
MODALINIAI VEIKSMAODIAI rodo kalbaniojo poir veiksm, ireikt prasminio veiksmaodio bendratimi.

MODALINI VEIKSMAODI vienaskaitos III asmuo neturi galns -s (pavyzdiui, he can...), klausiamoji ir neigiamoji forma sudaroma be pagalbinio veiksmaodio do (can he...?). Po modalini veiksmaodi einanti bendratis vartojama be dalelyts to (he can swim)

Daniausiai vartojami modaliniai veiksmaodiai can, may, must Jie turi ias formas:

Teigiamoji forma

Neigiamoji forma pilnoji trumpoji

can (esamasis laikas) could (btasis laikas) may (esamasis laikas) might (btasis laikas) must (esamasis ir btasis laikas)

cannot could not may not might not must not

can't couldn't

mightn't mustn't

CAN Teigiamoji forma Klausiamoji forma I can swim you can swim he can swim she can swim it can swim we can swim you can swim they can swim can I swim? can you swim? can he swim? can she swim? can it swim? can we swim? can you swim? can they swim? Neigiamoji forma I cannot/can't swim you cannot/can't swim he cannot/can't swim she cannot/can't swim it cannot/can't swim we cannot/can't swim you cannot/can't swim they cannot/can't swim

41

Btojo laiko formos sudaromos taip pat kaip ir esamojo: can, cannot ir can't keiiant could, could not ir couldn't.

IX
Modalinis veiksmaodis CAN reikia: 1) gebjim, mokjim atlikti veiksm I can drive a car. He cannot skate. She could swim. A moku vairuoti main. Jis nemoka iuoti. Ji mokjo plaukti.

2) galimyb He can help you. I cannot help you. I couldn't find it. Jis gali tau padti. A negaliu tau padti. A negaljau jo (daikto) rasti.

3) mandag praym, neoficial leidim Can he come in? You can go now. Ar jis gali eiti? Tu gali dabar eiti.

41a PRATIMAS
Baikite atsakyti klausimus. Can Jack speak French? > Yes, he can. Can you speak French? > No, I can't.
1. Can you play the piano? 2. Can I see you tonight? 3. Can Susan drive a car? 4. Can you come with me? 5. Can he help us today? 6. Can they do it now? 7. Can Linda sing this song? 8. Can they swim well? 9. Can Larry come early? 10. Can Robin do it? Yes. I No, you Yes, she Yes, No, No, Yes, No, No, No,

41b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite teigiamuosius sakinius neigiamaisiais. I can come with you. > I cannot come with you.
1. He can play tennis. your watch. 2. Her five-year-old daughter can read. 3. John can repair 5. We can return these tickets. 6. Mr Taylor

4. He can pay the bill.

can see you today at five. 7. We can afford this car, I think. Chinese.

8. James can speak

41c PRATIMAS
Pagal duot pavyzd sudarykite sakinius. I can see some forks but I can't see any knives.
1. I can see some nails 2. I can see some spoons 3. I can see some men 4. I can see some grown-ups 5. I can see some biscuits 6. I can see some strawberries 7. I can see some soldiers 8. I can see some envelopes (hammers) (plates) (women) (children) (cakes) (gooseberries) (sailors) (postcards)

41d PRATIMAS
Sudarykite btojo laiko neigiamuosius sakinius. I can do it now. (yesterday) > I couldn't do it yesterday.
1. I can help you now. (on Sunday) 2. He can speak Spanish, (two years ago) 3. They can leave now. (an hour ago) 4. Dick can drive a car. (last year) 5. I can give it to the children, (yesterday) 6. Rose can go with them, (in the morning) 7. I can meet you tonight, (yesterday morning) 8. Kate can play the violin, (three months ago)

41 e PRATIMAS
Mandagiai papraykite. Vietoj can vartokite could . Can you help me, please? > Could you help me, please?
1. Can you lend me some money, please? 3. Can you give me a light, please? 2. Can you tell me the time, please? 5. Can

4. Can you give me a hand, please?

you meet me at the station? 6. Can I come with you? 7. Can i borrow your umbrella? 8. Can I take it home?

Modalinis veiksmaodis MAY reikia: 1) praym, leidim May I come in? You may stay with us. 2) galimyb, abejojim It may be true. He may be sleeping. Tai gali buti tiesa. Galbt jis miega. Ar (a) galiu eiti? Tu gali pasilikti su mumis.

42a PRATIMAS
Vartodami modalin veiksmaod may, paklauskite, ar galite: read this letter. > May I read this letter?
1. leave at once 2. ask a question 3. come again tomorrow 4. go swimming with Bob 5. borrow this bike 6. go and see Rose now 7. smoke here

42b PRATIMAS
May paprastai vartojamas oficialiojoje kalboje, o can kasdienje, nekamojoje kalboje ir reikia praym, leidim ir galimyb. Pakeiskite sakinius pagal pavyzd. You can go in. > You may go in.
1. You can leave now. 2. You can smoke here. 3. You can open the window. 9. They can

4. They can play here. 5. He can borrow my bike. 6. You can go and see her now. 7. You can think about it for a few days. 8. You can take my book. stay if they want. 10. She can have my umbrella.

42c PRATIMAS
Atsakykite teigiamai. May I take these books? > Yes, (of course) you may/can.
1. May I have a word with you? 2. May I ask you a question? 3. May I go with them? 4. May we smoke here? 5. May I join you? 6. May we come in? 7. May I take your pencil? 8. May I use your phone?

42d PRATIMAS
Atsakykite neigiamai. (negalima" draugikas draudimas) No, you may not. (negalima" formaliai) No, you mustn't, (negalima" kategorikai)
1. May I open the window? 2. May I read this letter? 3. May I take your dictionary? 4. May I leave at once? 5. May I turn on the light? 6. May I park my car here? 7. May I drink it? 8. May I open the cage?

May I take it? > No, (I'm afraid) you can't.

42e PRATIMAS
Vartokite btj laik (vietoj may mightj. You may go. > He said that I might go.
1. You may come with us. 2. You may open this package. room. 4. You may drink it all. 5. You may go home. 3. You may leave the

6. You may switch off the

light. 7. John may take my books. 8. Bill may go to the cinema.

42f PRATIMAS
May + pirmoji veiksmaodio forma reikia abejojam kuris gali bti susijs ir su ateitimi, ir su praeitimi. Perhaps he is at home. > He may be at home. (Galbt jis namie.)
1. Perhaps he is in London. 2. Perhaps Tom is ill. 3. Possibly they will return later. 4. Perhaps he will lend us the money. 5. It is possible that he is in the garden.

veiksm,

6. Perhaps Dick will be back this week. 7. Perhaps they are at school. 8. Perhaps he will arrive tomorrow. 9. I t i s p o s s i b l e go by plane. that he will help us. 10. Possibly he will

Modalinis veiksmaodis MUST reikia: 1) btinum, draudim You must go now. You mustn't smoke so much. Tu privalai eiti dabar. Tau negalima tiek daug rkyti.

2) abejojim, netikrum He must be tired. It must be about midnight now. Jis tikriausiai pavargs. Dabar tikriausiai jau netoli vidurnaktis.

43a PRATIMAS
Paklauskite. 1. hurry > Must I hurry?
2. look after the children 3. stay at home 4. buy some stamps 5. show the letter to Rose 6. ring up Mr Taylor 7. get up early tomorrow 8. light a fire

43b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius vartodami must. It is necessary for you to hurry. > You must hurry.
1. It is necessary for Dick to read it. 2. It is necessary for you to tell him the news. 3. It is necessary for Bob to see the doctor. new hat. 4. It is necessary for Peter to buy a 6. It is necessary for them to

5. It is necessary for you to come again.

sell it at once. 7. It is necessary for Paul to change his clothes. 8. It is necessary for Harry to put on a white shirt. 9. It is necessary for you to keep the door locked. 10. It is necessary for us to leave soon.

43c PRATIMAS
Patvirtinkite Yes, you must (Taip, tu privalai) arba paneikite you needn't (Ne, tau nebtina, nereikia). Must we tell them? > No, you needn't.
1. Must I write it down? 2. Must I wash the dishes? 3. Must I help them? 4. Must we come with you? 5. Must we be present at the meeting? 6. Must I ring him up? 7. Must we stay here? 8. Must she send it by airmail? 9. Must he clean the car? 10. Must I lock the gate? No, No, Yes, Yes, No, Yes, Yes, No, Yes, No,

No,

43d PRATIMAS
Vietoj must vartokite btj laik had to . I must hurry. > I had to hurry. A turjau skubti.
1. You must do it at once. 2. They must get up early. 3. You must write home. 6. Tom must work

4. She must take that medicine.

5. They must wait outside.

hard. 7. Bill must go to the doctor's. 8. He must take a package to the post office. 9. You must leave the town at once. 10. The children must stay in their room.

43e PRATIMAS
Su must reikiamas abejojimas, prielaida. Tskite pagal pavyzd. Probably she is shopping. > She must be shopping. Ji tikriausiai vaikioja po parduotuves (perka ten).
1. Probably he is at home by now. 2. I think the child is ill. 3. Probably the girls

are busy. 4. I think he is over fifty. 5. Probably she is very rich. 6. I think Tom is a fool. wise. 7. Probably there is another way to do this. 8. I think this old man is very

43f PRATIMAS
Pasakykite, k Tomis gali (Tommy may ...), privalo (He must ...) ir ko jam negalima daryti (He mustn't ...).
wash his hands go out now play the piano work hard tell lies go swimming go to school every day help his parents work so carelessly take this medicine play with matches shout so loudly disturb grandfather buy some chocolates

43g PRATIMAS
Pavartokite modalinius
1. Cindy truth. 6. four. 10. help me?

veiksmaodius.
I ask a question? 3. I always speak the

speak several foreign languages. 2. you stand on your head? 7. 9. Mary 11.1 you help me, please? 12. You

hardly believe you. 4.

you play the violin? 5. You

I see your passport, please? 8. You draw very well when she was not open this window, you

read this book, it's very good.

work hard if you want to go to university. 13. The children 14. Tom not play football, he has broken his leg. stop telling lies. 17.1 drive a

not play in the street. 15. T h e b a b y car but I think I 19. Granny

already stand. 16. You not drive a bus.

18. They

arrive tonight or tomorrow. 20. I

not dance now but she

when she was young.

change my shoes? - No, you needn't.

43h PRATIMAS
Iverskite angl kalb. Vartokite reikiamus maodius. modalinius veiks-

1. A turiu eiti dabar. 2. Tu gali naudotis mano pietukais. 3. A nemoku skambinti pianinu. 4. Tu privalai padaryti tai i karto. 5. Meri mokjo plaukti, kai jai buvo penkeri metai. 6. Tomas turi eiti mokykl. 7. Ar a galiu uduoti klausim? 8. Ar tu mane girdi (gali girdti)? 9. Ar a galiu pasiskolinti tavo peil? 10. Ar tu moki plaukti? 11. Ar a galiu tau padti? 12. Mes privalome atsikelti iabai anksti. 13. Galbt tai tiesa. 14. A negaliu pakelti io portfelio, jis yra per sunkus. 15. Tam mogui tikriausiai daugiau negu penkiasdeimt met.

43i PRATIMAS
Vietoj modalinio veiksmaodio must vartokite modalin veiksmaod should. Atsiminkite, kad should reikia taktik patarim, btinum arba silym. I must help them. A turiu jiems padti.
I . You must try it again.

> I should help them. A turiau jiems padti.


3. You must give up smoking.

2. He must drive slowly.

4. Alice must see them at once. not tell lies.

5. You must take a holiday, you look very tired. 10. You must pay your debts.

6. What must I do about it? 7. You are ill, you must stay in bed. 8. Little boys must 9. They must eat more vegetables.

I I . He must tell her all about it. 12. I really don't know what I must do.

PRIELINKSNIAI
Angl kalboje yra apie 50 prielinksni. Kartu su daiktavardiu sakinyje jie daniausiai atlieka papildinio arba aplinkybi funkcijas.

LAIK REIKIANTYS KADA? It happened ...

prielinksniai:

Tai atsitiko... antr valand po antros valandos prie antr valand tarp antros ir ketvirtos valandos pus trij nakt per Kaldas savaitgalyje tuo paiu metu ryt vakare liepos mnes pavasar 1993 metais XVIII amiuje sekmadien liepos pirmj liepos pirmosios ryt sekmadienio ryt penktadien po piet

at two o'clock after 2 o'clock before 2 o'clock between 2 and 4 o'clock at half past two at night at Christmas at the weekend at the same time in the morning in the evening in July in spring in 1993 in the 18th century on Sunday on the first of July on the morning of July 1st on Sunday morning on Friday afternoon
e.

81

KIEK (laiko)? He stayed ... for an hour for supper for a month until three o'clock till next Saturday I have known her... since 1990 for the last two years He lived here ... to from 1985 j till from May j to 1990 June

Jis pasiliko... valand vakariens mnes iki treios valandos iki kito etadienio A pastu j... nuo 1990 met dvejus pastaruosius metus Jis gyveno ia... nuo 1985 iki 1990 met nuo gegus iki birelio mnesio Atidaryta... nuo ryto iki vakaro nuo 9 vai. ryto iki 5 vai. vakaro A griu... iki pirmadienio iki antros valandos u valandos u mnesio

till It is open ... from morning to night from 9 a.m. j KADA? I'll be back... by Monday by two o'clock in an hour in a month to till 5 p.m.

44a PRATIMAS
Vartokite tinkamus prielinksnius.
the morning. S e p t e m b e r 1st. half past eight. 2. W e have lunch 4. They often go out 6. The sale starts twelve the Monday. 1. W e a l w a y s get up early o'clock. evening. 3. I must leave 5. Alice arrived 8

7. He works

5. 8. W h o was the king of England the afternoon. 12.

1650? 9. I would 10. Michael was born October the weather

like to have a word with you sometime February. 11. I'll see you had become cold. 13. I c a n s t a y

the weekend.

seven, then I must leave. 14. T h e y l e f t 10.15. 16. I can talk to you

the tenth of May. 15. The train arrived in London ten minutes, just now I'm busy.

VIETREISKIANTYS prielinksniai: KUR? They live... in Estonia in Oxford at Sutton in the country in this street at 4 Bell Street on the top floor near the theatre They are ... at the cinema at school in the garden It is ... on the table under the table above the table behind the wardrobe in front of the house between the houses She went... to Oxford to the country to school into the house into the car towards the sea up to the gate over the street I turned to the left I put it on the shelf on the wall into the bag Jie gyvena... Estijoje Oksforde Satone kaime ioje gatvje 4-ame Beli gatvs numeryje virutiniame aukte netoli teatro Jie (yra) ... kine mokykloje sode Tai (yra)... ant stalo po stalu vir stalo u spintos prieais nam tarp nam Ji ivyko ... Oksford kaim mokykl Ji jo nam Ji lipo main Ji nujo jros link iki vart per gatv A pasukau A padjau j A pakabinau j A sidjau j kair ant lentynos ant sienos portfel

I sat down

He fell I KUR?

on the sofa in an armchair under the tree into the water

A atsisdau

Jis krito

ant sofos fotel po mediu vanden

Jis gro He returned from Oxford from the country out of the bag A imiau j I took it Jis nuoko He jumped off the horse

i Oksfordo i kaimo i portfelio nuo arklio

down above

through into

above on up down Into to towards

vir ant (vir) emyn (vid) / link

towards
in through out of from by viduje pro /per i nuo /i alia /prie

1 2 6 5 7 7 8 9 3 4

is is is is is is is is is is

in the middle of the room viduje opposite the door in the corner of the room next to /beside 6 between 6 and 8 near 6 to the right of the door to the left of the door behind 4 in front of 3 aplink kampe alia tarp netoli

/centre

prie(ais)

2 -s are (a)round 1

dein nuo kair nuo u prie(ais)

45a PRATIMAS
Vartokite reikiamus
1. John sat down lake. 3. It is 318 metres 5. We sat apiece airport. number the coast. way

prielinksnius.
my best armchair. 2. The boys are swimming the the

sea level. 4. Jake is not here, he's gone the grass. 6. I put the key paper. the bus-stop. 12. He lives _ this shelf.

the mat. 7. The children 9. I wrote his phone the sky. 11. You a small town 14. Can you tell me the

are sitting

the car. 8. W e met Bess . this envelope.

10. There is not a cloud

must stick two stamps

13. Jane has put your books King Street? 15. He now lives _

10 Downing Street.

BD REISKIANTYS prielinksniai: KAIP? I came by train by plane by bus on foot in Estonian in English in a loud voice in a whisper with care with great difficulty with my key without any difficulty without delay I wrote in pencil in French A atvykau A atskridau A atvaiavau A atjau A kalbjau traukiniu lktuvu autobusu psias estikai anglikai garsiai panibdomis rpestingai sunkiai su savo raktu be vargo nedelsdamas pietuku pranczikai

A udariau j A urakinau j A udariau j A raiau

BDVARDIAI ir VEIKSMAODIAI, po kuri btina vartoti prielinksn: be afraid of be fond of be good at She is afraid of you. Ji tavs bijo. I am fond of music. A mgstu muzik. He is good at languages. Jis gabus kalboms.

be interested in I am interested in it. be kind to He is kind to me. be pleased with I was pleased with the result. be proud of He is proud of his son. be surprised at She was surprised at the news. agree with I agree with you. belong to It belongs to Dick. consist of It consists of two parts. It depends on the weather. fall in love with He fell in love with Meg. listen to We listened to the news. look after Pat looks after the child. look at Look at this girl. look for I'm looking for my pen. seem to It seems to me that he likes you. speak to I spoke to her. take part in We took part in the game. talk to I talked to them. think about I often think about it. think of wait for What do you think of it? I am waiting for you. depend on

Mane tai domina. Jis (yra) man geras. A buvau patenkinta rezultatu. Jis didiuojasi savo snumi. J nustebino naujienos. A sutinku su tavimi. Tai priklauso Dikui. Jis susideda i dviej dali. Tai priklauso nuo oro. Jis simyljo Meg. Mes klausms ini. Pet priiri vaik. Pairk i mergait. A iekau savo parkerio. Man atrodo, kad tu jam patinki. A kalbjausi su ja. Mes dalyvavome aidime. A nekjausi su jais. A danai apie tai galvoju. K tu manai apie tai? A laukiu tavs.

47a PRATIMAS
Iverskite angl kalb vartodami
at namie, darbe, mokykloje; by maina, tramvajumi, autobusu, lktuvu, traukiniu, iki deimtos valandos, iki pirmadienio, iki tada (to laiko); from j n a m , i kino, i darbo, i bibliotekos, i kiens, i portfelio, nuo treios iki penktos valandos, nuo vakaro iki ryto;

prielinksnius.

d e i m t valand, savaitgal, pus septyni, prie stalo, a u t o b u s stotelje,

in

sode, indaujoje, rankinje, kienje, kambaryje, virtuvje, rugsjo mnes, vakare, po piet, ruden, panibdomis, tyliai, garsiai, vokikai;

into on

d, kien, rankin, n a m u s , main, vanden; ant lentynos, ant lovos, t a m e paiame aukte, penktadien, kovo pirmj, kovo pirmosios vakar;

to with

i parduotuv, universalin parduotuv, park, pat, koncert; su auktu, su kreida, su irklmis.

47b PRATIMAS
Vartokite prielinksnius.
photography. 2. Jack came home the same street school five ten years. 4. Do you 1. Bob is interested

the afternoon. 3. I have lived want to speak agree

them? 5. The guests arrived six o'clock.

the third of January. 6.1 don't me. TV or did the kitchen.

you. 7. He lives

20 West Street. 8. George didn't look 10. Did you see the match his room, not

9. W e want to leave y o u hear it 12. I am not afraid not very fond today. 18. Dick fell

the radio? 11. T o m is snakes. ice-cream. love

13. He stayed with us

three weeks. 14. I'm tomorrow what you can do 17. Say it the beach ? English. his best friend. twelve

15. Never put off

16. Archie gave the flowers

his girl-friend.

a young woman who was married ? 20. The girls stayed

19. What are you thinking the 15th century.

three. 21. What did you and Bill talk the 24th of December. holidays a cottage 25. The sun rises

? 22. The Wars of the Roses were 24. Christmas Eve is the east. 26. We spend the history.

23. What are you laughing

the mountains. 27. They are interested Manchester 10.15.

28. The train arrived

47c PRATIMAS
Iverskite angl kalb.
1. Kat yra po lova. 2. Suknel yra spintoje. 3. Tavo rankin yra ant stalo. 4. Jo maina yra prieais namus. 5. Up yra u namo. 6. aukteliai yra ioje dutje. 7. Kilimas yra ant grind. 8. Visi pinigai yra mano kienje.

KLAUSIAMIEJI SAKINIAI
Visi klausiamieji sakiniai (iskyrus veiksnio klausimus) turi PA-

G A L B I N OD (visos veiksmaodi DO , BE , HAVE formos ir WILL (SHALL) Modaliniams veiksmaodiams pagalbini odi nereikia. Klausiamieji sakiniai gali bti be klausiamojo odio arba su juo.

KLAUSIAMIEJI SAKINIAI BE KLAUSIAMOJO ODIO

(ben-

drieji klausimai) bna teigiami arba neigiami Tokie klausimai lietuvi kalboje skiriami intonacija arba sudaromi su klausiamaisiais odiais. Tokio klausimo pradioje eina pagalbinis veiksmaodis. Jeigu tiesioginio sakinio tarinys yra ireiktas paprastuoju esamuoju arba paprastuoju btuoju laiku, tai, norint sudaryti klausiamj sakin, reikia pagalbinio veiksmaodio: paprastajam esamajam laikui DO arbaDOES (III vns. asm.), o paprastajam btajam laikuiDID. Tiesiog, sak. Klaus, sak.

You love me.

Do you love me? Does he love me? Did he love me?

Ii

He loves me.

Il

He loved me.

Il

Vis kit laik formos turi pagalbinius odius, todl, sudarant klausim, jie tik atkeliami sakinio pradi.

Tiesiog, sak. Klaus, sak.

ill wait.

He is working.

She has seen it.

A
Will w e wait? Is he working?

Has she seen it?

Bendrojo klausimo odi tvarka yra tokia: pagalbinis veiksmaodis - veiksnys - antroji tarinio dalis (savarankikas veiksmaodis) - kitos sakinio dalys. Klausiamieji sakiniai tariami klausiamja (kylania) intonacija.

Pagal- Veiksnys binis veiksmaodis Do Did Does Is Have Will Can May Were Will you he she he you Tom you I they the party

Antroji tarinio dalis

Kitos sakinio dalys

Vertimas

live sleep have having finished? come swim? leave be

here? well? a car? a bath?

Ar tu ia gyveni? Ar jis gerai miegojo? Ar ji turi main? Arjis dabar maudosi vonioje? Ar tu baigei?

too? now? at home? on Friday?

Ar Tomas taip pat ateis? Ar tu moki plaukti? Ar a galiu dabar ieiti? Ar jie buvo namie? Ar vakarlis bus penktadien?

Kaip jau minta, j tok klausim atsakoma trumpu teigimu arba neigimu. Did you sleep well? - Yes, I did. / No, I did not (didn't). Apie klausim sudarym galite pasiskaityti skyriuose, kuriuose apraomos laik formos.

48a PRATIMAS
Atsakykite teigiamaisiais arba neigiamaisiais Do you love me? > No, I don't.
1. Do you know her? 2. May I leave now? 3. Will you come with me? 4. Were you watching TV? 5. Did you like the film? 6. Has Dick helped you? 7. Did it cost much? 8. Have you read this article? 9. Did you do it yourself? 10. Has Jane seen it? 11. Can Sally drive a car? 12. Did James leave on Monday? Yes, Yes, No,. Yes, No,. Yes, Yes, Yes, Yes, No, _ No, _ Yes,

sakiniais.

48b PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausiamuosius sakinius. Jane bought it yesterday. > Did Jane buy it yesterday?
1. They saw Pat last week. 2. This is your comb. 3. You were talking about me. 4. The longest day of the year is in June. having tea. 9. They came home late. 5. George must work late this evening. 11. They 6. It was really very funny. 7. Jack speaks to them every day. 8. Amy and Dan are 10. James has found a new job. visited the British Museum yesterday. 12. She has a shower twice a day.

48c PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausiamuosius sakinius.
1. Betty has bought a new umbrella. 2. Peter stopped to light a cigarette. 3. He has always liked Pamela. 4. They got up early last Sunday. 5. James phoned yesterday. 6. The children have often visited them. 7. Barbara draws very well. 8. We must learn it by heart. 9. Tom has drunk all the wine. 10. Jim and Dick had an argument.

48d PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausiamuosius sakinius.
1. Bill put the books on the table. 2. Jenny comes here once a week. 3. They ate their lunch in a cafeteria. 4. The girls go to school by bus. 5. Kate waited for them at the door. 6. Mr Jones is in Chicago. 7. The stores will close early tomorrow. 9. Diana plays golf very well. 10. Linda 12. It was a pleasant day. 8. Eric has spoken to her several times. has dark hair.

11. Carol will be back at two o'clock.

13. The party was on Saturday. 14. Barbara and George are at home now.

Prie tiesioginio sakinio galima pridti trump BENDRJ KLAUSIM sudaryt i pagalbinio veiksmaodio ir vardio. Jei pirmoji sakinio dalis yra teigiama, tai antroji neigiama ir, atvirkiai, jei pirmoji dalis yra neigiama, tai antroji teigiama. Tokie klausimai vadinami SKIRIAMAISIAIS. He speaks English, doesn't he? You have finished, haven't you? He isn't angry, is he? Jis kalba anglikai, ar ne? / Juk jis kalba anglikai? Tu baigei, ar ne?/ Tu juk baigei? Jis nepyksta, ar ne?/ Turbt jis nepyksta?

48e PRATIMAS
Sudarykite skiriamuosius klausimus. You are John Green, aren't you?
I . She is married, stand me, ? 2. They have arrived, ? 3. It was very exciting, ? 8. John sings very well, ? ? ? 4. He doesn't live here, ? 5. You don't play the violin, ? 6. You under-

? 7. Kate left yesterday,

9. The children slept till 11, I I . The boys are playing chess,

? 10. The police have found the revolver, ? 12. Max didn't look at it, ?

Klausiamj sakini su KLAUSIAMUOJU ODIU odi tvarka yra tokia: klausiamasis odis - pagalbinis veiksmaodis _ veiksnys - antroji tarinio dalis - kitos sakinio dalys (iimtis klausimas veiksniui). Klausim, prasidedani klausiamuoju odiu, PAVYZDIAI. Klaus. odis What What Who(m) Who(m) Where When Why How Pagalb. Veiksnys veiksmaodis did are must did have will do is Jim they I you they Tom you she? Antroji Vertimas tarinio dalis say? doing? help? see? gone? arrive? ask? K Dimis pasak? K jie daro? Kam a turiu padti? K tu matei? Kur jie nujo? Kada atvyks Tomas? Kodl tu klausi? Kaip ji laikosi?

VEIKSNIO klausimo odi tvarka tokia kaip ir tiesioginio sakinio. Pagalbinis veiksmaodis DO nevartojamas.

Klausiamasis odis (veiksnys) Who Who Who What What How many boys Whose radio

Tarinys

Kitos sakinio dalys

Vertimas

wrote did will come happened? woke went is

it? it? with us? you up? there? it?

Kas Kas Kas Kas

tai para? tai padar? eis $u mumis? atsitiko?

Kas tave prikl? Kiek berniuk nujo ten? Kieno (tai) radijas?

Atsakymas j veiksnio klausim daniausiai yra trumpas (su pagalbiniu veiksmaodiu). Who wrote it? Paul did. Who knows him? I do. Who can do it? Jack can. Whose radio is it? It's mine. KLAUSIAMIEJI ODIAI Klausiamasis odis who? Pavyzdys Vertimas

kas? Who took my pen? k? Who did you meet? kam? Who did you pay?

Kas pam mano parker? K tu sutikai? Kam tu sumokjai? K tu matei? Kam tu sumokjai? K tu pamatei? Kok laikrat tu skaitai?

whom? what?

k? Whom did you see? kam? Whom did you pay? k? What did you see? kok? What paper are you reading?

kas? What happened then? Kas atsitiko tada?

which?

kuris? Which boy came? kelintas? kuris? Which do you like best?

Kuris berniukas atjo? (i i dviej) Kuris tau labiausiai patinka? Kuryra mano knyga?

where?

kur? Where is my book?

kur? Where are you going? Kur tu eini? kur? Where did you buy it? Kur tu tai pirkai? when? how? why? whose? kada? When did you see her? kaip? How do you like it? How did he sing? kodl? Why did she do it? kieno? Whose pen is it? Kaip tau tai patinka? Kaip jis dainavo? Kodl ji tai padar? Kieno tai parkeris? Kada tu j matei?

how much? kiek? How much did it cost? Kiek tai kainavo? How much time do you have? how many? kiek? how long? kiek (laiko) ? How long has he lived Kiek laiko jis ia gyvena? here? how old? kiek met? how often? kaip danai? what kind of? koks? What kind of car did he buy? Kok automobil jis pirko? How often do you go there? Kaip danai tu ten vyksti? How old is he? Kiekjam met? How many books did Kiek knyg jis pirko? he buy? Kiek tu turi laiko?

50a PRATIMAS
Sudarykite klausiamuosius sakinius. He lives in London, (where) > Where does he live?
1. They live at 17 Bridge Street. 2. Mr Bell came on Monday. 3. James is her best friend. 4. The boys saw some tigers at the Zoo. 5. Tom is going to put on this tie. 6. This is her husband's car. 7. They visited Scotland last autumn. 8. Dick has no money at all. 9. Mr Fox is going to America. 10. Helen came to see us yesterday. 11. The bus stops near the theatre. 12. This shirt cost fifteen pounds. where when who what what whose when who where when where how much

50b PRATIMAS
Paklauskite draugo.
1. How are you? 2. How old are you? 3. W h e n is your birthday? 4. Will you help me? 5. Do you mind my smoking? 6. At what time does the bus leave? 7. What's the matter? station? 8. What do you think of my new hat? 9. How can I get to the railway 11. W h y didn't you tell me you were married? 13. May I stay for the night? 14. Do you think I'll 10. Are you all right?

12. What will we have for lunch? be famous one day?

50c PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam klausiamj
1. is the time? 2.

od.
do you live? 4. 10. gave will

is the date today? 3. is your name? 6. hat is this? 9.

you this ring? 5. in the kitchen? 8. we invite to the party?

day is it today? 7. did you get up so late?

is she doing

50d PRATIMAS
Iverskite skliausteliuose pateiktus odius ir pavartokite trumpai atsakydami pateiktus klausimus.
1. W h o visited you last Sunday? 2. W h o broke the window? 3. W h o telephoned Peter yesterday? 4. W h o is good at languages? (mano uov / anyta) (mokytojas) (jo dd) (a)

juos,

5. W h o lied to you? 6. W h o is playing snowballs in the park? 7. W h o likes strawberry jam? 8. Who will come with us?

(mano geriausias draugas) (mano broliai) (Dens seserys) (Polio tvai)

50e PRATIMAS
Sudarykite pabrauktiems odiams klausimus. She loves folk music. > What does she love?
I . T h e noise was terrible. 2. John bought Jenny a present. 3. In November the 8. Jane

weather was very cold. 4. Mary lives in Brighton. 5. Nigel found a nice flat. 6. He wants to become the Prime Minister. likes fruit. 9. He w o r k s hard. 7. Jenny has never been abroad. 10. T h e r e were four cars in front of the house. 13. Jack went

I I . T o m was born in 1960.

12. He keeps his money in the bank.

by bus. 14. He closed the window because it was raining.

50f PRATIMAS
Parinkite tinkam atsakym.
James does. It's ten o'clock. I feel ill. Yes, I do. He is tall and dark. Nothing. Dick did. He is a painter. Because he missed the train She is fine, thanks. By plane. 1. Do you know him? 2. What is he like? 3. How is Lucy? 4. W h y was he late? 5. How did you come? 6. What is he? 7. W h o lives in this flat? 8. What's the matter with you? 9. What's the time? 10. W h o broke the cup? 11. What did he say?

50g PRATIMAS
Iverskite angi kalb.
1. Koks tavo vardas? 2. Kur tu gyveni? 3. Kiek tau met? 4. Kuri dabar valanda? 5. Kokia iandien diena? 6. K jis pasak? 7. A r j i s estas? 8. Ar a galiu tau padti? 9. Ar tau patiko is filmas? 10. Ar tu esi tikras? 11. Kaip laikaisi? 12. Kas atsitiko? 13. Ar tu bsi laisvas sekmadieni? 14. Kas mat avarij?

XII
ARTIKELIS
ARTIKELIS yra tarnybin, daiktavard nusakanti kalbos dalis. Angl kalboje yra du artikeliai: neymimasis ir ymimasis. Lietuvi kalboje artikelio nra. NEYMIMASIS ARTIKELIS a: a table, a big table, a car, a week, a girl Kai odis prasideda balsiu, vartojamas neymimasis artikelis an: an orange, an apple, an interesting book Kai u tariama [j u: ], vartojamas artikelis a, o kai odis prasideda netariama h, an: a university, a useful book, an hour, an honest man YMIMASIS ARTIKELIS the: the table, the big table, the car, the girl

51

XII

ymimasis artikelis prie balsius tariamas []: the orange, the apple, the old house, the honest answer

52

NEYMIMASIS ARTIKELIS atitinka skaitvard one (vienas), todl jis vartojamas tik su skaiiuotiniais vienaskaitos daiktavardiais. NEYMIMASIS ARTIKELIS vartojamas: 1) vienas i ...", bet kuris" reikme Give me a pencil. She was a Jones (=one of the Jones family) before she married Bill. Duok man pietuk (vien, bet kur). Prie tekdama u Biiio ji buvo Douns (viena i Douns eimos).

2)kiekvienas tos ries atstovas" reikme A skyscraper is a very tall building. Dangoraiis (bet kuris) yra labai auktas pastatas.

3) pirm kart minint kur nors daikt arba neinom asmen A Miss Smith wishes to speak to you. Kakokia panel Smit nori pasikalbti su jumis.

XII

4) nurodant profesij Bob is a lawyer. Kate is a journalist. Bobas yra teisininkas. Keit yra urnalist.

POSAKIAI su neymimuoju artikeliu: I have a temperature I have a headache I have a toothache I have a sore throat I have a cold in the head go for a walk have a good time have a rest have a smoke put an end (to something) take a great interest (in sth) take a bath a turiu temperatros

man skauda galv man skauda dant man skauda gerkl a sloguoju eiti pasivaikioti gerai praleisti laik pailsti urkyti padaryti gal (kam nors), pabaigti labai domtis (kuo nors) maudytis vonioje

take a seat speak in a loud voice twice a week once a month as a matter of fact as a rule it's a pity

sstis garsiai kalbti du kartus per savait kart per mnes /s tikrj /ties sakant paprastai/ daniausiai gaila

YMIMASIS ARTIKELIS vartojamas: 1) kai jau buvo kalbta apie t daikt ar asmen He has bought a new car. Jis pirko nauj automobil. The car is black. Tas automobilis yra juodas. 2) kai kalbama apie kok nors konkret, kalbaniajam inom daikt, gyv btyb ar teritorij They are in the garden. Jje yra sode. The dog is in the kitchen. uo yra virtuvje. 3) kai prie vard yra kelintinis skaitvardis, aukiausiojo laipsnio bdvardis arba odiai same (tas pats), right (teisingas), wrong (neteisingas), following (kitas) The first chapter was dull. This is the best photo. She dialled the wrong number. I left on the following day. Pirmasis skyrius buvo nuobodus. Tai geriausia nuotrauka. Ji surinko ne tok telefono numer. A ivykau kit dien.

4) kai kalbama apie pasaulio ali pavadinimus The sun sets in the west. Saul leidiasi 5) kai kalbama apie muzikos instrument Can you play the violin?

vakaruose.

Ar tu moki groti smuiku?

6) kaip iimtis su kai kuriais tikriniais daiktavardiais * upi, jr, vandenyn pavadinimais (the Thames, the Baltic Sea) * kaln virtini pavadinimais (the Alps) * teatr, kino teatr, viebui pavadinimais (the Colosseum, the Palace) * eimos, gimins, dinastijos pavadinimais (the Browns - Braunai)

7) su daiktavardiais (taip pat ir su tikriniais) vartojant of fraz the driver of the car, the captain of the team, the United States of America, the London of today POSAKIAI su ymimuoju artikeliu: in the morning in the afternoon in the daytime in the country in the sun on the right/left go to the cinema go to the theatre listen to the radio You are wanted on the phone. What is the time? To tell the truth, ... tell the truth on the whole nothing of the kind ryt po piet dien kaime saulje deinje / kairje eiti kin eiti teatr klausytis radijo Tau telefonas. Kuri dabar valanda? Ties sakant, ... sakyti ties apskritai nieko panaaus

ARTIKELIS

nevartojamas Jai patinka ruduo. Balandis yra puikus Italijoje. Jie susitiko penktadien. Kaldas a praleidau kaime.

1) su met laik, mnesi, savaits dien, veni pavadinimais She likes autumn. April is lovely in Italy. They met on Friday. I spent Christmas in the country.

2) su odiais school, college, hospital, church ir kt., jeigu reikia mint staig veikl. Her children go to school. After school he went to the cinema. Tom was taken to hospital. Jos vaikai eina mokykl. Po pamok jis nujo kin. Tom nuve ligonin.

3) prie daiktavardius breakfast, dinner, lunch, supper

They have breakfast at 9. He was late for supper. 4) nurodant kalb Do you speak Estonian? 5) su aidim pavadinimais He likes tennis. They are playing baseball. 6) prie odius mother, father, narius Is mother in the garden? POSAKIAI be artikelio: He is at work. They went to town. go by car / bus / plane / ship go by land / sea learn by heart speak by (tele)phone watch TV last week / month / year next week / month / year from morning till night from day to day at noon / midnight at night at present by chance in fact on foot on purpose

Jie pusryiauja devint (valand). Jis pavlavo vakarieniauti. Ar tu kalbi estikai?

Jis mgsta tenis. Jie dabar aidia beisbol. kai kalbama apie vienos eimos Armama sode?

Jis yra darbe. Jie ijo (ivyko) miest. vaiuoti automobiliu /autobusu / skristi lktuvu /plaukti keliauti eme/jra imokti atmintinai kalbti telefonu irti televizori prajusi savait mnes/ kit pernai savait/mnes/ /prajus laivu

kitais metais nuo ryto iki vakaro diena i dienos vidurdien / vidurnakt nakt dabar, iuo metu atsitiktinai i tikrj, faktikai psiomis tyia

54a PRATIMAS
Vartokite reikiam neymimojo artikelio form. an apple a red apple
1. 5. 9. old man 2. used car 6. airport 3. easy job international airport 4. 7. honest boy 8. American car ambulance terrible week

white ambulance 10.

honour 11. 14. twice

great honour 12. hour 15. once

headache 13.

Englishnewspaper

54b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite daugiskait vienaskaita. Tigers are wild animals. > A tiger is a wild animal.
1. Roses are beautiful flowers. 2. Skyscrapers are tall buildings. 3. Bears are large animals. 4. Camels have long necks. 5. Houses have roofs. 6. Turkeys are big birds. 7. Cartoons are funny drawings. 8. Butterflies have coloured wings.

9. Cardigans are knitted jackets. 10. Spiders have eight legs.

54c PRATIMAS
Baikite sakinius. Paul isn't an architect, he is an actor.
1. Jessica isn't a film-star, she is 2. Andrew repairs cars, he is 3. Sally isn't an air-hostess, she is 4. Dick isn't a taxi-driver, he is 5. Tom writes poems, he is 6. Cliff isn't a fireman, he is 7. Nigel isn't an office-worker, he is 8. Paul isn't a lawyer, he is (sekretor) (mechanikas) (oficiante) (dailininkas) (poetas) (laknas) (stomatologas) (policininkas)

54d PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius pagal pavyzd. This blouse is nice. > What a nice blouse! Kokia grai palaidin!
1. This night-club is expensive. 4. This story is strange. 2. This carpet is beautiful. 3. This fridge is big.

5. This hat is cheap. 6. This letter is long. 7. This exer-

cise is easy. 8. This room is comfortable.

NB! The weather is nice. > What nice weather!

54e PRATIMAS
Sudarykite sakinius pagal duot pavyzd. book on the table thick There is a book on the table. The book is thick.
1. garden behind the house 2. man in the hall 3. knife on the plate 4. tie on the chair 5. box on the shelf 6. map on the wall 7. chair in the corner 8. boy in the kitchen 9. suit in the window small tall sharp dark green empty big comfortable quite small expensive

54f PRATIMAS
Pavartokite, jei reikia, ymimj arba neymimj
I . Ben arrived hour ago. 2. Washington, D.C. is left. 5. He went to Atlantic Ocean. French? capital of next week. 17. supper? money. bus, not by 10. What Italy.

artikel.
capital of United

States of America. 3. You stepped on my toe. You dance like England they drive on Hudson River runs into ficult to learn than II . Rome is 7. Tom plays

elephant! 4. In piano and Bob English more dif-

Chicago last week. 6.

guitar. 8. T h e guests left on

following day. 9. Is

beautiful dress Sarah is wearing! 12. London lies on Thames. terrible journey. Taylors

13. I can go there 15. We went there by

14. She's in

hospital with a broken leg.

tram. 16. It was

train was very crowded. 18. W h y don't you stay for live? 20. Alps are Christmas w e were short of

history of this country is very interesting. 19. Can you tell me where Europe. 22. Tartu is not 23.

highest mountains in Emajogi.

21. After

very big town but train a r r i v e d at truth?

it's q u i t e nice. It's s i t u a t e d on Brighton at 8.15. Cliff met us at

station. 24. Did you tell her

XIII
ODI TVARKA VIENTISINIAME SAKINYJE
55
Angl kalbos vientisinio sakinio odi tvarka yra tokia: VEIKSNYS TARINYS PAPILDINYS APLINKYBS.

Veiksnys

Tarinys opened atidar likes mgsta blew nupt

Papildinys the door duris music muzik his hat jo skrybl

Aplinkybs quietly. tyliai. very much. labai. over the fence. per tvor.

XIII

Steve Stivas Jane Dein The wind Vjas

Angl kalbos sakinio odi tvarka yra daug grietesn negu lietuvi ir kit kalb. Keiiant odi tvark, keiiasi ir sakinio prasm. (Palyginkite: Dick killed the tiger. / The tiger killed Dick. Dikas umu tigr. / Tigras umu Dik. Lietuvi kalboje odi tvarka gali bti sukeista, taiau sakinio prasm i esms nesikeiia: Dikas umu tigr. / Tigr umu Dikas.)

56

Neprielinksninis netiesioginis papildinys (atsako j klausim kam?) daniausiai eina prie tiesiogin papildin.

kam? Fred showed Fredas parod Ken told Kenaspapasakojo I bought A nupirkau me man us mums Jane Deinei

k? your letter. tavo laik. the news. naujienas. a new dress. nauj suknel.

Netiesioginis papildinys su prielinksniu ar be jo, turintis frazs kirt, eina po tiesioginio papildinio ir vartojamas su prielinksniais to arba for : k? Fred showed Fredas parod Ken told Kenas papasakojo I bought A nupirkau your letter tavo laik the news naujienas a new dress nauj suknel kam? to alt his friends. visiems savo to everyone. visiems. for Jane. Deinei. draugams.

Jeigu sakinyje yra kelios aplinkybes, tai vietos aplinkyb (kur?) eina prie laiko aplinkyb (kada?): kur? I saw Mary A maiau Meri at a party vakarlyje kada? last Saturday. praeit etadien.

Lietuvi kalbai tokia odi tvarka nra budinga. Bdo aplinkyb (kaip? kokiu bdu?) yra vartojama prie vietos ir laiko aplinkybes. kaip? He stood Jis stovjo quietly tyliai kur? by the door prie dur kiek (laiko)? for several minutes. kelet minui.

Lietuvi kalbai tokia odi tvarka taip pat nra budinga.

Laiko aplinkyb gali buti ir sakinio pradioje: kada? Yesterday Vakar they played jie aid chess achmatais kur? in their room. savo kambaryje.

Po veiksmaodi, reikiani judjim, vartojama vietos aplinkyb, o po jos bdo ir laiko aplinkybs: kur? Ken goes Kertas eina home namo kaip? on toot psias kada? every day. kiekvien dien.

Lietuvi kalboje tai skambt: Kiekvien dien Kenas eina namo psias. Nustatyt viet sakinyje turi ir ie danai vartojami prieveiksmiai: almost - beveik already - jau also - taip pat always - visada even - net ever - kada nors frequently - danai generally - daniausiai hardly - vos ie prieveiksmiai vartojami: 1) prie tarin, kuris susideda i vieno odio (iskyrus veiksmaod BE): He always gets up early. We seldom go to the cinema. 2) po veiksmaodio BE: Grandfather is always a t home. Peterwas usually | a te. Senelis visada namie. Petras paprastai vluodavo. Jis visada keliasi anksti. Mes retai einame kin. just _ k tik nearly _ beveik never _ niekada often _ danai quite _ visai, visikai seldom _ r e t a j sometimes _ kartais still _ dar usually _ paprastai

3) po pirmojo pagalbinio odio, kai tarinys susideda i keli odi: Tom will never do it again. We have almost finished. Already gali bti ir sakinio gale: Nigel has arrived already. Naidelas jau atvyko. Klausiamajame sakinyje ie prieveiksmiai eina po veiksnio: Do you often visit him? Are you always late? Ar tu danai j lankai? Ar tu visada vluoji? Mes beveik baigme. Tomas niekada to daugiau nedarys.

Neigiamajame sakinyje prieveiksmis yet bna sakinio gale: He hasn't come yet. Jis dar neatjo.

57a PRATIMAS
Sukeiskite sakini odi tvark taip, kad netiesioginis papildinys eit prie tiesiogin papildin. Ted gave the rose to me. > Ted gave me the rose.
1. He lent the book to me. 2. Larry called a taxi for us. 3. Grace read the news to them. 4. I have bought some chocolates for you. 5. She sent a present to her mother-in-law. 6. The waiter brought a bottle of beer to the man. 7. Ruth made a new skirt for herself. 8. Frank told a joke to us. 9. Andrew read his poems to me. 10. W e n d y knitted a pullover for Fred.

57b PRATIMAS
Vartokite nurodytus prieveiksmius. Atsiminkite, kad odi tvarka turi bti tokia: KAIP? KUR? KADA?
1. We play tennis 2. David has travelled 3. He read the letter 4. Janet sang 5. They had coffee 6. Julia will come 7. Amy has been playing (every morning / in the park) (round the world / by plane) (in his office / before lunch / quickly) (at the concert / yesterday / beautifully) (after lunch / in the garden) (tomorrow / to the party / with Bruce) (since 3 o'clock / with her toys / in the bedroom)

8. We stayed 9. His family moved 10. I had a nice time 11. Richard wanted to go 12. She lived

(for a week / in Paris) (to Liverpool / two years ago) (yesterday / in town) (at Iunchtime / to the bank) (from 1980 to 1987 / with them / in Greece)

57c PRATIMAS
Tinkamai pavartokite prieveiksm.
usually sometimes never already always usually seldom yet already usually always often already still already 1. Joe goes to work at half past eight. 2. Stan disagrees with his wife. 3. I have seen him. 4. Have the Jacksons left? 5. You can wear a pullover over your shirt. 6. Brenda doesn't arrive late. 7. Jim goes to the cinema at the weekend. 8. Has he seen this film? 9. Bill has finished his work. 10. The buses are full in the morning. 11. Michael has been my closest friend. 12. Mrs Lewis shops in the afternoon. 13. I have read this book twice. 14. They are in Cambridge. 15. Cliff is at home.

57d PRATIMAS
Sudarykite sakinius.
1. doesn't have / in the bank / Larry / any money 2. only two hours / 1 / last night / slept 3. the boys / taught / last year / she / geography 4. were / big green bottles / on the shelf / five / there 5. the restaurant / parked / in front of / his car / he 6. the English Channel / last Monday / we / on the ferry / crossed 7. Lucy / me / this dress / made / for 8. costs / any other car / less / this car / than 9. again / my / car keys / husband / has lost / his 10. the time / Tony / glasses / wears / all

57e PRATIMAS
Sudarykite sakinius.
1. o n / p h o n e d / s e c r e t a r y / F r i d a y / his / t h e y 2. s i n c e / w e / m e t / J a n u a r y / h a v e n ' t 3. e a s y / he / a n / w a n t s / h a v e / t o / life 4. a i r p o r t / w e / t h e / a t / a r r i v e d / f i v e / at 5. c h a r m i n g / m e t / l a s t / T o n y / a / t h e i r / n i g h t / g i r l / at / p a r t y 6. l e t t e r / t h e / t h e / o n / he / l e f t / hall / t a b l e / t h e / in 7. w a l k e d / u p s t a i r s / B r i a n / s l o w l y 8. o n / c a k e s / s h e / t h e / t h e / p u t / t a b l e 9. T o m ' s / s l i p p e d / l e g / his / b r o k e / f r i e n d / a n d 10. g i v e / p a r t i e s / w e e k e n d / t h e y / e v e r y

57f PRATIMAS
Sudarykite sakinius.
1. s t o l e / t h e i r / n i g h t / s o m e o n e / last / c a r 2. a / Sally / of / t w o / b o t t l e / t o m a t o e s / b o u g h t / of / a n d / p o u n d s / milk 3. L u k e / fish / s o m e / p o t a t o e s / o r d e r e d / a n d 4. her / D a i s y / d r e s s / nail / a / o n / t o r e 5. t h e / t h e / p h o n e / w r i t e s / l e t t e r s / a n s w e r s / a n d / s e c r e t a r y 6. us / t h e i r / t o / t h e / W a t s o n s / h o u s e / w e l c o m e d 7. a / t h e / t h i s / p o s t m a n / m o r n i n g / m e / b r o u g h t / l e t t e r 8. m y / w i n d / hat / t h e / o v e r / b l e w / w a l l / t h e 9. u s u a l l y / h o m e / a b o u t / h u s b a n d / a t / g e t s / h e r / five 10. o n / a f t e r n o o n / B e n / c a r / w a s h e s / F r i d a y / c a r / a l w a y s / his X I l I

govt1

XIV

SUVESTINIS PAPILDINYS
58 SUVESTIN PAPILDIN sudaro daiktavardis arba vardis + bendratis (kartais -ing forma). Suvestinis papildinys vartojamas kaip viena sakinio dalis, ekvivalentika alutinei sudtinio sakinio daliai. Suvestinis papildinys vartojamas po veiksmaodi: believe (manyti, tikti), expect (tiktis), find (manyti, laikyti), hate (nemgti, neapksti), like (mgti), suppose (manyti), allow (leisti), cause (sukelti), get (gauti), want (norti) ir 1.1. Po j eina daiktavardis (arba objektinio linksnio vardis) + TO + pradin veiksmaodio forma (bendratis). f want wish expect order I allow forbid tell ask V Suvestinis papildinys lietuvi kalb daniausiai veriamas alutiniu sakiniu. They wanted him to come in. Jie norjo, kad jis ateit. She expected us to do it. Jis tikjosi, kad mes tai padarysime. Mother told her to hurry. Mama liep jai skubti.

>

John / him

to go there

58a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite sakinius pagal pavyzd. I want Jack to help me. > I want him to help me.
1. I told Jim to return at once. 2. Mother wants the boys to be quick. 3. Rose wanted her husband to give up smoking. 4. She asked the children to come back later. 5. I expected Lucy to do the cooking. 6. He ordered the boys to keep away from it. 7. Dave wants the other students to help him. 8. I expect my husband to meet me at the station. 9. The teacher allowed the students to use their dictionaries. 10. He forbade Dick to tell lies. 11.1 don't want the girls to mention it to him. 12. I asked Janet to think twice before doing that.

58b PRATIMAS
Papasakokite, k nori Karolina, kad padaryt jos vyras. What does Caroline want him to do?
- to put on his new suit - not to be late for supper - to do some shopping after work - to buy her a new fur coat - to keep his word - to stop smoking - to learn foreign languages

XIV

Po fizinj jutim reikiani veiksmaodi see (matyti), hear (girdti), feel (jausti), notice (pastebti), observe (stebti), watch (stebti) ir po veiksmaodi make (priversti) ir let (leisti) veiksmaodio bendratis vartojama be dalelyts TO . saw heard I

59

< watched
felt v noticed

Steve / him

do it

I saw Jake cross the street. He heard her laugh.

A maiau, kaip Dekas perjo gatv. Jis girdjo, kaip ji juoksi.

Jei norima pabrti tsiam veiksm, tai po fizin jutim reikiani veiksmaodi vartojama veiksmaodio -ING forma. I heard them singing. We watched the boys playing basketball. A girdjau, kaip jie dainavo. Mes irjome, kaip berniukai aidia krepin.

59a PRATIMAS
Pagal pavyzd atsakykite klausim. What did you see or hear? He paid the bill. > I saw him pay the bill.
1. Tom bought some wine. 2. Jane told them a funny story. 3. Mother phoned the doctor. 4. Dick took off his shoes. 5. Mike met Mary at the airport. 6. The girls laid the table. 7. She packed her things and left. 8. They had a drink. 9. Tom ate

those apples. 10. The light went out again.

XIV

59b PRATIMAS
Jei reikia, pridkite dalelyt TO.
1. I saw the boy 3. She felt her hands 5. I saw her rarian allowed them place in the afternoon. 10. Aunt Betty likes us climb the tree. 2. They heard him tremble. 4. I want him speak on the radio. see a doctor about it. shake. 7. The libcome to my 1 1 . 1 believe him join run to

open the gate.

6. We felt the house

take the books home. 9. J a m e s wants me

8. I asked him

come to your party with him.

come and see her every Sunday.

be a liar. 12. David saw her us. 14. Mother told Jim

lock the door. 13. We expect you 15. Jane saw him

back before nine.

catch the bus. 16. We heard the man ;

shout for help.

XV
LAIK FORM VARTOJIMAS LAIKO IR SLYGOS APLINKYBI ALUTINIUOSE SAKINIUOSE
Angl kalbos sudtini sakini laik formos turi tam tikr lietuvi kalbai nebding ypatum.

ALUTINIAME LAIKO APLINKYBS SAKINYJE nevartojama bsimojo laiko forma, kai jis prasideda odiais when (kai), as soon as (kai tik), since (nuo (tada), until / till (kol, iki), as (kai tik), while (tuo tarpu kai). Jei kalbama apie ateities veiksm, pagrindiniame sakinyje vartojamas bsimasis laikas, o alutiniame esamasis. Pagrindinis sakinys I shall speak to him A pakalbsiu su juo, I'll watch TV A irsiu televizori, alutinis sakinys when he comes. kai jis ateis. till Jeremy returns. kol Deremis gr. as soon as the rain stops. kai tik nustos lyti.

We'll go out for a walk Mes eisime pasivaikioti,

Bsimasis laikas nevartojamas ir ALUTINIUOSE SLYGOS SAKINIUOSE; alutinis sakinys daniausiai prasideda odiais if (jei, jeigu) ir in case (jei, jeigu).

Pagrindinis sakinys i shall come with you A eisiu su tavimi, You will pass the test Tu ilaikysi egzamin,

alutinis sakinys if you want. jei tu norsi. if you work hard. jei atkakliai dirbsi.

61a PRATIMAS
Vartokite tinkam laiko form.
1. W h e n he (come) home from work I'll talk to him. 2. W h e n she (hear) the news she will be very happy. 3. I'll wait till they (finish). 4. W h e n winter (begin) some

birds will fly to a warmer country.

5. When the programme (be) over I'll introduce

you to him. 6. I'll write to you every day while I (be) in France. 7. Brian will come to see us as soon as he (be) back. 8. We'll send you a telegram when we (arrive) in New York. 9. I'll speak to Professor Trent when he (be) free. 10. W h e n you

(see) Carol she'll tell you all about it. 11. When we (be) married we'll need a lot of money. 12. W h e n you (buy) it I'll borrow it from you.

61b PRATIMAS
Ir pagrindiniame, form. ir alutiniame sakinyje vartokite tinkam laiko

1. We (stop) working when it (get) dark.

2. We (wait) until Bess (bring) the key. 4. When Tom (leave) I

3. I (buy) this house as soon as I (have) enough money.

(tell) you a secret. 5. When the season (start) they (open) their hotel. 6. As soon as Eric (pay) the bill we (go). 7. I (wait) till the others (arrive). 8. W h e n she (finish) the book she (lend) it to you. 9. W h e n you (open) the safe you (see) a small box. 10. We (have) lunch as soon as Jack and Steve (come).

61c PRATIMAS
Vartokite tinkam laiko form.
1. If it (rain) tomorrow we'll stay home. 2. If Oscar (help) us the job will take only an hour. 3. If I (see) them I'll give them your message. 4. You will find a job if you (try) hard. 5. If it (be) fine on Sunday we shall go for a walk. 6. Stephen will see

you on Monday if he (be) free.

7. I'll call you if I (need) help. 8. We'll be there in

time if we (hurry). 9. If you (drink) so much you'll be ill. 10. If the baby (be) a girl we'll call her Audrey.

61 d PRATIMAS
Vartokite tinkam laiko form.
1. If you (not hurry) you (miss) the bus. 2. If Felix (drive) carefully he (not have)

any accidents. 3. If they (be) late we (start) without them. 4. If you (leave) your car unlocked someone (steal) it. 5. If I (stop) smoking I (get) fat. 6. We (not be) able to go if we (not get) the money. 7. If the telephone (ring) I (answer) it. 8. If they (not arrive) on time they (not get) seats. 9. The ice-cream (melt) if you (leave) it on the table. 10. If you (agree) to marry me I (buy) you a diamond ring.

61 paragrafe nagrintuose alutiniuose slygos sakiniuose buvo kalbama apie realius vykius (pavyzdiui, If you hurry you will not be late . Jei tu paskubsi, tai nepavluosi.). Jei kalbama apie nerealius arba ne visai realius veiksmus, tai toki slygos sakini pagrindinje dalyje reikia vartoti ne WILL , o WOULD , o alutiniame sakinyje paprastj btj laik. Jei alutinio sakinio veiksmaodin tarinio dalis yra ireikta veiksmaodiu to be, tai nepriklausomai nuo sakinio prasms vartojama tik WERE forma. If I had enough money Jeigu turiau pakankamai pinig, If I knew his address Jeigu inoiau jo adres, If he were here Jeigu jis bt ia, I would buy this sports car. pirkiau sportin automobil. I would write to him. parayiau jam. he would help us. mums padt.

62a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam laik. If he had more time he would read more books.
1. If I (see) a tiger I (climb) a tree. 2. If he (have) a car he (drive) to Germany. 3. If he (pay) his debts I (respect) him more. 4. If I (know) his phone number I (ring) him up. 5. If I (have) the key I (open) the safe. 6. If Jack (be) here he (know) what to do. 7. If I (know) the answer I (tell) you. 8. If I (be) you I (not believe) him. 9. If I (have) lots of money I (drink) champagne with every meal. (climb) in through the bathroom window. the wall. 12. If you (work) overtime you (earn) more money. 10. If I (not be) fat I 11. If we (have) a ladder we (get) over

Jei alutinis sakinys reikia nerealias slygas, susijusias su praeitimi, tai pagrindiniame sakinyje vartojama WOULD HAVE + treioji pagrindin veiksmaodio forma, o alutinio sakinio tarinys turi bti ireiktas btuoju atliktiniu laiku. If you had come earlier Jei tu btum atjs anksiau, If I had been late Jei a boiau pavlavs, you would have seen her. btum j pamats. the boss would have been angry. mano virininkas bot supyks. they would not have been late. nebot pavlav.

If they had hurried Jeigu jie bt skubj,

63a PRATIMAS
Pavartokite tinkam laik. If I had known it earlier I would have come with you.
1. If I (feel) better I (go) to the party. 2. If he (know) I was free he (invite) me to dinner. 3. If I (work) hard at school I (get) a better job after finishing. 4. If they (ask) us we (help) them. 5. If you (study) more you (pass) the test. 6. If I (wear) a raincoat I (not get) wet. 7. If we (have) the key we (go) into the house. 8. If the weather (be) nice I (go) for a walk. 9. If he (have) the money he (buy) it at once. 10. If Jack (be) present the party (be) a success.

SaW1'
t A

XVI

NETIESIOGINE KALBA
Veriant tiesiogin kalb (pavyzdiui, He says, "I love Jane.") j netiesiogin, angl kalboje keiiasi sakinio odi tvarka ir veiksmaodio laik formos. Jei autoriaus odiai yra pavartoti esamuoju laiku (He says), tai pasikeitimai labai nereikmingi. PALYGINKITE: He says, "I love Jane." > Jis sako: A myliu Dein". He says (that) he loves Jane. Jis sako, kad myli Dein. j 54 '-

Jei autoriaus odiai pavartoti btuoju laiku (He said), tai ir alutinio sakinio veiksmaodis turi bti btojo laiko. He said, "I love Jane." > He said (that) he loved Jane. Jis pasak, kad myli / myljo Dein. Jis pasak: A myliu Dein".

Lietuvi kalboje tokio laik derinimo nra. Jei ir autoriaus odiai, ir tiesiogin kalba yra ireikta btuoju laiku, tai, keiiant tiesiogin kalb netiesiogin, vietoj paprasto btojo laiko vartojamas btasis atliktinis laikas. He said, "I met Jane on > He said (that) he had met Sunday." Jane on Sunday. Jis pasak: A sutikau Dein sekmadien". Jis pasak, kad sutiko Dein sekmadien.

Jei autoriaus odiai ireikti btuoju laiku, o tiesioginje kalboje yi. bsimojo laiko forma (t.y. pagalbiniai veiksmaodiai SHALL i WILL), tai netiesioginje kalboje btina vartoti veiksmaod WOULD: He said, "We will meet > on Monday too." Jis pasak: Mes pasimatysime ir pirmadien". PAVYZDIAI: She She She She She She says, know them." said, know them." says, "I saw it." said, saw it." says, "I'll do it." said, Tll do it." She She She She She She says (that) she knows them said (that) she knew them. says (that) she saw it. said (that) she had seen it. says (that) she will do it. said (that) she would do it. He said (that) they would meet on Monday too. Jis pasak, kad jie pasimatys ir pirmadien.

64a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite tiesiogin kalb netiesiogine. Veiksmaodio laikas nesikeiia, kadangi autoriaus odiai yra pasakyti esamuoju laiku. Jack says, "I am angry." > Jack says (that) he is angry.
1. Rose says, "My brother's name is Ken." 2. Oscar says, "I prefer vodka." 3. Ruth says, "I know a lot about it." 4. He says, "I believe in God." 5. I say, "I have lived here for a year." 6. W e say, "We do not work on Mondays." 7. Meg says, "I was watching TV." 8. Frank says, "Petrol prices will fall." 9. He says, "I don't like fish." 10. I say, "She worried too much."

64b PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite tiesiogin kalb netiesiogine. Kadangi autoriaus odiai yra pasakyti btuoju laiku, tai netiesioginje kalboje reikia keisti veiksmaodio laikus: paprastj esamj paprastuoju btuoju; paprastj btj btuoju atliktiniu; shall ,will would She said: "I live near London". > > She said that she lived near London.
1. She said, "I don't smoke." 2. Bob said, "I like football." 3. I said, "I hardly know Matthew." 4. He said, "I go to English lessons twice a week." 6. They said, "It doesn't matter." 11. Lucy said, "I don't feel well." 9. She said, "I am happy." 5. Scott said, "Mr Blake is ill." very busy." 7. Sally said, "I was at a concert." 10. She said, "I was 12. He said, "I'll try to do my best."

8. He said, "Jill wasn't present."

13. He said, "I will give you my passport." 14. Alf said, "I don't want it."

64c PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite tiesiogin kalb netiesiogine.
1. Ned said, "I was iii." 2. "I like your dress," Sarah said. 3. Mrs Turner said, "My son reads a lot." 4. I said, "The airport is closed." restaurant," Ted said. 5. "I want to go to a J a p a n e s e 7. He said, "Mr Wolf

6. Rose said, "I love Japanese food."

will speak to y o u about it." 8. "Steve doesn't know them," Lewis said. 9. She said, "I will lend y o u the money." 10. "Mr Ward is in Boston," the secretary said. 11. She says, "I like m o d e r n art." 12. "My daughter is nine and a half," Kate said. 13. He

said, "They live in Los Angeles." 14. "I d o n ' t smoke," my aunt said.

64d PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite tiesiogin kalb netiesiogine. Atsiminkite, kad netiesioginje kalboje veiksmaodis say keiiamas tell, jei nurodyta, k kreipiamasi. He says to Bob, "I saw the man." > He tells Bob (that) he saw the man. He said to Bob, "I saw the man." > He told Bob (that) he had seen the man.
1. Jane said to Mike, "I will marry you." 2. Ken said to the boys, "Michael will c o m e late." 3. Mrs Tate said to her h u s b a n d , "I will be there by noon." 4. Ron said, "I met t h e m in Paris." 5. "Roger broke his arm," Bill said. 6. Ted said, "She was very talkative." 7. Sarah says, "My coat isn't very warm." 8. Jack said to Alf, "My girlfriend knows English well." 9. Stan said, "The car c a m e at 2." 10. The girl said to me, "They left for the airport."

KLAUSIAMUOSIUOSE NETIESIOGINS KALBOS SAKINIUOSE keiiasi odi tvarka ji panai tiesioginio sakinio odi tvark. Klausiamojo netiesiogins kalbos sakinio veiksmaodis nra klausiamosios formos, todl nereikia pagalbini veiksmaodi do / does / did. He says, "Where is Jane?" He asks, "Where does she live?" He says, "When did she leave?" He says, "What will she do?" He asks where Jane is. He asks where she lives. He asks when she left. He asks what she will do.

Jei autoriaus odiai yra pasakyti butuoju laiku, tai klausiamajame netiesiogins kalbos sakinyje keiiasi veiksmaodio laiko forma. He said, "Where is Jane?" He asked where Jane was.

He asked, "Where does she live?" He asked where she lived. He said, "When did she leave?" He said, "What will she do?" He asked when she had left. He asked what she would do.

65a PRATIMAS
Pakeiskite tiesiogin kalb
1. Brenda asked, "Where is Tom?"

netiesiogine.
2. I asked, "When will the bell ring?" 3. "How

much did they pay for it?" Bess asked. your hands dirty?"

4. Peter said, "Who made that terrible

noise?" 5. "When does the last train leave?" Leslie asked. 6. Emily said, "Why are 7. Mr Webb asked, "How long have they lived in Edinburgh?" 9. We asked, "Why did he miss 8. Andrew says, "Where will they be on Sunday?"

the plane?" 10. "Who taught the boy to ride?" aunt Emily asked.

Klausiamajame be klausiamojo odio netiesiogins kalbos sakinyje vartojamas jungtukas if: He He He He says, "Is she at home?" said, "Is she at home?" says, "Do they live in Leeds?" said, "Do they live in Leeds?" He asks if she is at home. He asked if she was at home. He asks if they live in Leeds. He asked if they lived in Leeds.

He asks, "Have you paid the bill?" He asks if I have paid the bill. He asked, "Have you paid the bill?" He asked if I had paid the bill.

65b PRATIMAS
Tiesiogin kalb pakeiskite netiesiogine.
2. "Has Jack heard the news?" Eve asked. 4. I asked, "Will you write to him?" 6. Emily said, "Were you surprised?" Cliff 1. He asked, "Do you enjoy dancing?"

3. He asked, "Did you see the accident?" 5. Ken asks, "Have they made the coffee?" 7. "Is the water deep?" Larry says.

8. Roger asked, "Do they know the answer?"

9. Celia asks, "Did he talk in his sleep?" 10. "Have they found the matches?" asked. 11. They asked, "Is Joe feeling better?"

LIEPIAMJ tiesiogins arba netiesiogins kalbos sakini veiksmaodis visada yra pradins formos, tik netiesioginje kalboje vartojamas su dalelyte TO. Autoriaus odiai daniausiai pakeiiami tell (liepimas) arba ask (praymas): He says to them, "Come back later." She said, Turn off the light, Ted." He said, "Wake Jack up." He tells them to come back later. She told Ted to turn off the light. He asked me to wake Jack up.

66a PRATIMAS
Tiesiogin kalb pakeiskite netiesiogine.
1. He said, "Stay home." 2. Pat said, "Open the door at once." 3. The clerk said, "Pay in cash." 4. The teacher said, "Stop quarrelling." 5. Tom said, "Get out of my way." 6. Nigel asked, "Come straight back." 7. The w o m a n said to me, "Don't touch it." 8. I said to him, "Climb in through the window."

XVII
NEVEIKIAMOJI RUSIS
67 Angl kalboje veiksmaodis turi dvi ris: veikiamj ir neveikiamj. Neveikiamoji ris angl kalboje yra labiau paplitusi negu lietuvi. VEIKIAMOSIOS ries veiksmaodis reikia aktyv veiksm, kur atlieka asmuo arba daiktas (t.y. veiksnys), pavyzdiui: The old man caught a gold-fish. Senukas pagavo auksin uvel. Norint perteikti nauj informacij (iuo atveju kas atsitiko auksinei uvelei), ypa kai veikjas (sakinio veiksnys) ne taip svarbu, vartojama neveikiamoji ris. The gold-fish was caught by an old man. Auksin uvel buvo pagauta senuko. Veikjas dabar reikia pasyv santyk, jis yra veikiamas kito veikjo. J reikiantis odis angl kalboje vartojamas su prielinksniais by ir with.

II

68

PAPRASTUOSIUS NEVEIKIAMOSIOS RUSIES LAIKUS sudaro asmenuojamoji pagalbinio veiksmaodio BE forma + treioji pagrindin savarankiko veiksmaodio forma (btojo laiko dalyvis). ^ r esamasis laikas BE b t a s i s laikas 4 ^ ^ busimasis laikas am/is/are was /were will be -jtreioji pagrindin veiksmaodio forma

The novel was written by Dickens. roman para Dikensas. /is romanas buvo paraytas Dikenso. The letter was written with a pen. Laik para parkeriu. / Laikas buvo paraytas parkeriu.

ATLIKTINS IR TSTINS NEVEIKIAMOSIOS RIES FORMOS sudaromos pagalbin veiksmaod BE keiiant atitinkamomis atliktinmis (have/has been; had been; will have been) ir tstinmis formomis (am/is/are being; was/were being), o treioji pagrindin veiksmaodio forma paliekama ta pati. ATLIKTINIAI LAIKAI esamasis laikas BE H* btasis laikas ^ bsimasis laikas have/has been had been will have been -jtreioji pagrindin veiksmaodio forma

The window has been broken. Langas buvo idautas.

TSTINIAI LAIKAI treioji pagrindin -+- veiksmaodio forma

BE

^ - e s a m a s i s laikas btasis laikas

am/is/are being was/were being

The proofs are being read now. Korektros yra skaitomos.

Neveikiamosios ries PAPRASTJ ESAMJ LAIK sudaro: esamojo laiko veiksmaodio BE forma + treioji pagrindin savarankiko veiksmaodio forma: I am you are he is she is it is we are you are they are = deceived

69a PRATIMAS
Pasakykite, kinius.
1. This room is swept once a week. 2. The furniture in our office is polished every month. 3. The windows at our company are cleaned every Saturday. 4. The carpets in the boss's room are hoovered every Wednesday. 5. These ashtrays are emptied every morning.

kaip sudaryta

neveikiamoji

ris, ir iverskite

sa-

K L A U S I A M O J I FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark, NEIGIAMOJI FORMA - po pagalbinio veiksmaodio pridedant dalelyt not . Teigiamoji forma: Klausiamoji forma: Neigiamoji forma: I am deceived. Am I deceived? I am not deceived. A esu apgauta(s). Ar a esu apgauta(s)? A nesu apgauta(s).

nekamojoje kalboje daniau vartojamos trumposios formos: I am = I'm he is = he's we are = we're I am not = I'm not he is not = he isn't/ he 's not we are not = we aren 't / we're not

69b PRATIMAS
Atkreipkite sakinius.
1. This sink isn't scrubbed very often. 2. My car isn't washed every day. 3. Her shoes aren't polished every morning. 4. His room isn't swept every week. 5. Are the answers to these letters delivered every day? 6. Are the police reported about every act of violence? 7. Is this little boy properly looked after?

dmes, kaip sudaryta neveikiamoji

ris, ir iverskite

Neveikiamosios ries PAPRASTJ BTJ LAIK sudaro: pagalbinio veiksmaodio BE btojo laiko forma + treioji pagrindin savarankiko veiksmaodio forma. I was N 4 ^ you were he was - J she was it was - we were you were they were

deceived

70a PRATIMAS
Pasakykite, kinius. kaip sudaryta neveikiamoji ris, ir iverskite sa-

1. That tree was struck by lightning. 2. The house was robbed by burglars. 3. Those buildings were looted by hooligans. 4. That garage was repainted by hired workforce. 5. Those chimneys were cleaned by a chimney-sweep.

KLAUSIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark sakinyje, o NEIGIAMOJI FORMA - po pagalbinio veiksmaodio pridedant dalelyt not. Teigiamoji forma: Klausiamoji forma: Neigiamoji forma: I was deceived. Was I deceived? I was not deceived. A buvau apgauta(s)./ Mane apgavo. Ar a buvau apgauta(s)?/ Ar mane apgavo? A nebuvau apgauta(s)./ Mans neapgavo.

nekamojoje kalboje trumpsias formas turi tik neiginys: I was not = I wasn't we were not = we weren't

Neveikiamosios ries PAPRASTJ BSIMJ LAIK sudaro: pagalbinio veiksmaodio BE bsimasis laikas + treioji pagrindin savarankiko veiksmaodio forma:

I will be you will he will be she will it will be we will be you will be they will be

deceived

KLAUSIAMOJI FORMA sudaroma keiiant odi tvark, NEIGIAMOJI FORMA - po pagalbinio veiksmaodio pridedant dalelyt not: Teigiamoji forma: Klausiamoji forma: Neigiamoji forma: Mane apgaus. / A bsiu apgauta(s). Willlbedeceived? Ar mane apgaus? / Ar a bsiu apgauta(s)? Iwill not be deceived. Mans neapgaus. / A nebsiu apgauta(s). I will be deceived.

nekamojoje kalboje daniausiai vartojamos trumposios formos: I will be = I'll be I will not be = I won't be

71a PRATIMAS
Pasakykite, kinius.
1. This dog will surely be run over by a car some day. 2. The letter won't be delivered tomorrow because the postmen are on strike. 3. The kid will not be woken on time tomorrow because Mother's alarm-clock is broken. 4. James will be collected from school by his wife tomorrow.

kaip sudaryta

neveikiamoji

ris, ir iverskite

sa-

I atliktini neveikiamosios ries form daniausiai vartojamos ESAMOJO ir BTOJO ATLIKTINIO LAIK FORMOS. Jas sudaro: pagalbinio veiksmaodio HAVE esamojo arba btojo laiko forma -f treioji pagalbin veiksmaodio BE forma + treioji pagrindin savarankiko veiksmaodio forma: I have / had been you have / had been he has / had been she has / had been it has / had been we have / had been you have / had been they have / had been

deceived

72a PRATIMAS
Nurodykite, kinius. kaip sudaryta neveikiamoji ris, ir iverskite sa-

1. The dress has been ironed already. 2. The trousers have been pressed already. 3. The sink has been scrubbed already. 4. The boots have been polished already. 5. The table has been painted already. 6. The car has been mended already.

KLAUSIAMOJI ir NEIGIAMOJI FORMOS sudaromos kaip ir anksiau aptart form: Teigiamoji forma: Klausiamoji forma: Neigiamoji forma: I have been deceived. Mane apgavo. / A esu apgauta(s). Have I been deceived? Ar mane apgavo? / Ar a esu apgauta(s)? I have not been deceived. Mans neapgavo. / A nesu apgauta(s).

Trumposios formos: I I I I have been = I've been had been = I'd been have not been = I haven't been /I've not been had not been = I hadn't been /I'd not been

Neveikiamosios ries BSIMOJO ATLIKTINIO ir TSTINI LAIK (esamojo bei btojo) formos nekamojoje kalboje vartojamos retai. Neveikiamosios ries BSIMOJO ATLIKTINIO LAIKO formas sudaro: bsimj laik rodanti dalelyt WILL + HAVE + treioji pagalbinio odio BE forma (BEEN) + treioji pagrindin savarankiko veiksmaodio forma.

i konstrukcij lietuvikai galima nusakyti taip: Kakada ateityje a bsiu apgauta(s) / mane apgaus".

Neveikiamosios ries TSTINI LAIK formas sudaro: asmenuojamoji veiksmaodio BE forma (am / is / are; was / were) + veiksmaodio BE -ing forma (being) + treioji pagrindin savarankiko veiksmaodio forma.

I am being you are being he is being she is being it is being we are being you are being they are being

deceived

I was being \ you were being he was being she was being it was being - we were being' you were being they were being

deceived

ios konstrukcijos prasm tokia: tam tikru esamuoju (arba btuoju) momentu vyko apgavyst. Palyginkite: Those students are being taught by an expert. - Tie studentai yra mokomi eksperto / Tuos studentus moko ekspertas; These students are not being taught properly. - i student nemoko taip, kaip reikia.

Ll
SKAITVARDIAI
KIEKINIAI SKAITVARDIAI *0 nought, zero, 0 , nil 1 one 2 two 3 three 4 four 5 five 6 six 7 seven 8 eight 9 nine 10 ten 11 eleven 12 twelve 13 thirteen 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty 21 twenty-one 1st the first 2nd the second 3rd the third 4th the fourth 5th the fifth 6th the sixth 7th the seventh 8th the eighth 9th the ninth 10th the tenth 11th the eleventh 12th the twelfth 13th the thirteenth 14th the fourteenth 15th the fifteenth 16th the sixteenth 17th the seventeenth 18th the eighteenth 19th the nineteenth 20th the twentieth 21st the twenty-first KELINTINIAI SKAITVARDIAI

SKAITVARDIAI

22 twenty-two 23 twenty-three 30 thirty 40 forty 50 fifty 60 sixty 70 seventy 80 eighty 90 ninety 100 a / one hundred 101 one hundred and one 115 one hundred and fifteen 200 two hundred 250 two hundred and fifty 252 two hundred and fifty-two 1000 a / one thousand 10,000 ten thousand 10,500 ten thousand five hundred 100,000 a / one hundred thousand ,000,000 a / one million

22nd the twenty-second 23rd the twenty-third 30th the thirtieth 40th the fortieth 50th the fiftieth 60th the sixtieth 70th the seventieth 80th the eightieth 90th the ninetieth 100th the (one) hundredth 101st the (one) hundred and first 115th the (one) hundred and fifteenth 200th the two hundredth 250th the two hundred and fiftieth 252nd the two hundred and fifty-second 1000 the thousandth 10,000 the ten thousandth 10,500 the ten thousand five hundredth 100,000 the hundred thousandth 1,000,000 the millionth

*0 nought zero [] nil

matematikoje nurodant sporte temperatr nurodant telefono numeri

L2
100 NETAISYKLINGJ VEIKSMAODI
I pagrindin forma (bendratis) Il pagrindin forma (pap. btasis laikas) III pagrindin forma (btojo laiko dalyvis) Reikm

arise [ai] be [i:] beat [i:] become [] begin [] bite [ai] blow [] break [ei] bring [] build [] burn [:] buy [ai] catch [] choose [:] come [] cost [] cut [] deal [i:] dig [] do [u:] draw [:] drink [i] drive [ai] eat [i:]

arose [] was [],


were [:]

arisen [] been [i:] beaten [i:] become [] begun [] bitten [i] blown [] broken [] brought [:] built [i] burnt [:] bought [:] caught [:] chosen [] come [] cost [] cut [] dealt [e] dug [] done [] drawn [:] drunk [] driven [i] eaten [i:]

pasirodyti, pakilti, pabusti bti suduoti, muti tapti (kuo) pradti ksti psti lauyti, dauyti atneti statyti degti, deginti pirkti gaudyti, sugauti rinkti, pa(si)rinkti ateiti kainuoti pjauti, kirsti turti reikal kasti daryti pieti, brti linij; tempti, traukti gerti vairuoti; varyti valgyti

beat [i:] became [ei] began [ae] bit [] blew [u:] broke [] brought [:] built [1] burnt [:] bought [d:] caught [:] chose [] came [ei] cost [] cut [] dealt [e] dug [] did [i] drew [u:] drank [ae] drove [] ate [e]

I pagrindin forma (bendratis)

Il pagrindin forma (pap. btasis laikas)

III pagrindin forma

Reikm

(btojo laiko
dalyvis)

fall [:] feel [i:]


fight [ai]

find [ai] fly [ai] forbid [] forget [] forgive [] freeze [i:] get [] give [] . go [au] grow [au] hang [] have [as] hear [is] hide [ai] hold [au] hurt [a:] keep [i:] know [au] lay [ei] lead [i:] Ieam [a:] leave [i:] lend [e] let [e] lie [ai] lose [u:] make [ei] mean [i:] meet [i:] pay [ei]

fell [e] felt [e] fought [d:] found [au] flew [u:] forbade [ei] forbad [] forgot [] forgave [ei] froze [au] got [] gave [ei]
went [e]

fallen [:] felt [e] fought [: ] found [au] flown [au] forbidden [i] forgotten [] forgiven [1] frozen [ou] got M given [1] gone [0] grown [au] hung [] had [x] heard [a:] hidden [1] held [e] liurt [a:] kept [e] known [au] laid [ei] led [e] learnt [a:] (learned) left [e] lent [e] let [e] lain [ei] lost [0] made [eij meant [c] met [e] paid [ei]

kristi jausti kovoti, kariauti (su)rasti, isiaikinti skristi udrausti umirti atleisti sualti, ualti gauti, pasiekti duoti eiti, vaiuoti Sugti1 auginti; darytis kabti, pakabinti turti girdti slpti laikyti sueisti, skaudinti laikyti, saugoti (paslapt) inoti (pa)dti vesti, vadovauti mokytis, imokti, suinoti palikti (pa)skolinti

grew [u:] hung [] had [] heard [a:] hid [1] held [e] hurt [a:] kept [e] knew [ju:] laid [ci] led [e] learnt [a:] (learned) left [e] lent [e] let [e] lay [ei] lost [o] made [ei] meant [e] met [e] paid [ei]

iaisti
gulti pralaimti, pamesti

(pa)daryti, gairii:iii
reikti, turti galvoje su(si)tikti (k nors) mokti

I pagrindin forma (bendratis)

Il pagrindin forma (pap. btasis laikas)

III pagrindin forma (btojo laiko dalyvis)

Reikm

put [u] read [i:] ride [ai] ring [i] rise [ai] run [] say [ei] see [i:] seek [i:] sell [e] send [e] set up [e] shake [ei] shine [ai] shoot [u:] show [] shut [] sing [i] sit [I] sleep [i:] speak [i:] spend [e] spoil [oi] spread [e] stand [] steal [i:] stick [1] strike [ai] swear [] swim [i] take [ei] teach [i:] tear [] tell [e]

put [] read [e] rode [] rang [ae] rose [] ran [] said [e] saw [:] sought [:] sold [] sent [e] set up [e] shook [u] shone [] shot [o] showed [] shut [] sang [] sat [] slept [e] spoke [] spent [e] spoilt [DI], spoiled spread [e] stood [u] stole [] stuck [] struck [] swore [:] swam [] took [u] taught [:] tore [:] told []

put [] read [e] ridden [] rung [] risen [i] run [] said [e] seen [i:] sought [:] sold [] sent [e] set up [e] shaken [ei] shone [] shot [o] shown [] shut [] sung [] sat [ae] slept [e] spoken [] spent [e] spoilt [DI], spoiled spread [e] stood [u] stolen [] stuck [] struck [] sworn [D:] swum [] taken [ei] taught [D:] torn [:] told []

(pa)dti (k nors) skaityti joti skambti, skambinti keltis, atsistoti bgti sakyti matyti iekoti parduoti sisti pastatyti kratyti viesti auti rodyti udaryti dainuoti sdti miegoti kalbti (i)leisti, praleisti gadinti sklisti stovti vogti smeigti; klijuoti suduoti, muti prisiekti plaukti imti mokyti plyti pasakyti, pasakoti

I pagrindin forma (bendratis)

Il pagrindin forma (pap. btasis laikas)

III pagrindin forma (btojo laiko dalyvis)

Reikm

think [i] thought [9o:t] throw [] threw [u:] understand [as understood [u] wake [ei] woke [], waked [ei] wear [] wore [o:] weep [i:] wept [e] win [1] won [] wind [ai] wound [au] write [ai] wrote []

thought [Go:t] thrown [] understood [u] woke(n) [] worn [o:] wept [e] won [] wound [au] written [i]

galvoti, manyti mesti suprasti pabusti, adinti dvti, neioti verkti laimti pasukti, prisukti, sukti(s) rayti

ESAMOJO IR BTOJO LAIKO ANGL IR LIETUVI


E s a m a s i s laikas V e i k s m a s vyksta Veiksmas vyko

He w o r k s
S i m p l e

" f r o m

9 till 6

Continuous

He is w o r k i n g in the library

to
Perfect

I have k n o w n h i m .. since 1930

Perfect Continuous

He has b e e n w o r k i n g for 2 h o u r s

Simple

Hesawthefilm

Continuous

CL

to ra
Perfect He h a d seen the film before y o u t o l d h i m a b o u t it

Perfect Continuous

VEIKSMAODI VARTOJIMAS KALBOJE


Btasis laikas Veiksmas vyko

oJ S > < ,O Nl > O


O > w >

TO O =! C

C 0 1 E O E o = 5

W W ' C f

W "c o > E o E

"c 0) ra" FE ^ ra o ra ~ E <


'" ra

' It3 ^ ra ra

^-ZL .

H e has s e e n the film a n d c a n discuss it

T h e y have always m e a s u r e d temperature

Each time they measured temperature

They were measuring temperature when the accident occurred

They had measured temperature before the accident occured

They had been measuring temperature for two hours

PRATIM ATSAKYMAI
1 a You are clever. He is clever. She is clever. You are clever. They are clever. You are careful. He is careful. She is careful. We are careful. You are careful. 1 b [ m a n o m a d a u g y b kombinacij, pavyzdiui; I am here; I am at home; I am upstairs; Y o u a r e a w a k e irt.t. 1 c 1. She is pretty. 2. He is young. 3. They are glad. 4. He is late. 5. They are here. 6. She is a student. 7. He is a teacher. 8. He is a businessman. 9. They are tall. 10. She is a nurse. I d 1. is 2. am 3. am 4. is 5. is 6. is 7. are 8. is 9. is 10. is 11. are 12. am 1 e 1. Susan and Helen are pretty too. 2. You are a good typist too. 3. Paul and Fred are late too. 4. The coat is cheap too. 5. I am a good swimmer too. 6. You are very kind too. 7. Jackie is a bright student too. 8. David is absent too. 9.1 am busy too. 10. My mother and father are in Boston too. 2 a 1. It's 2. I'm 3. We're 4. They're 5. He's 6. You're 7. She's 8. He's 9. I'm

10. They're 11. We're 12. It's 3 a Is she sure? Are you sure? Are you late? Is he late? Are we late? Are you late? Are they late? Are you ready? Is he ready? Is she ready? Are we ready? Are they ready? 3 b 2. Yes, they are. 3. Yes, she is. 4. No, you are not. 5. No, he is not. 6. Yes, I am. 7. Yes, he is. 8. Yes, it is. 9. No, it is not. 12. No, it is not. 3 c 1. No, it is not. 3 d 1. Is it important? 2. Is the lesson over? 3. Am I afraid? 4. Is the situation hopeless? 5. Is this letter for me? 6. Are they absent? 7. Is the water hot? 8. Is Mr Hill in Leeds? 9. Is Mother tired? 10. Are you ready? 11. Am I late? 12. Are they here? 13. Is this book interesting? 14. Is their house near the park? 4 a He is not right. She is not right. We are not right. You are not right. T h e y a r e n o t right. You are not hungry. He is not hungry. She is not hungry. We are not hungry. You are not hungry. They are not hungry. You are not lazy. He is not lazy. She is not lazy. We are not lazy. You are not lazy. They are not lazy. 10. Yes, they are. 11. Yes, she is.

I am not right. You aren't right. He isn't right. She isn't right. We aren't right. You aren't right. They aren't right. I am not hungry. You aren't hungry. He isn't hungry. She isn't hungry. We aren't hungry. You aren't hungry. They aren't hungry. I am not lazy. You aren't lazy. He isn't lazy. She isn't lazy. We aren't lazy. You aren't lazy. They aren't lazy. 4 b 1. You are not / aren't ill. 2. Kate is not / isn't a secretary. 3. This book is not / isn't interesting. 4. I am not hungry. 5. It is not / isn't cold. 6. The door is not / isn't open. 7. Alice is not / isn't English. 8. The cake is not / isn't good. 9. They are not / aren't back. 10. Wendy is not / isn't at home. 11. He is not / isn't a bright student. 12. Ken is not / isn't strong. 13. We are not / aren't pleased with you. 14. She is not / isn't abroad. 5 a You were at home. He was at home. She was at home. We were at home.

You were at home. They were at home. You were not at home. He was not at home. She was not at home. We were not at home. You were not at home. They were not at home. ( G a l i m a vartoti ir Was she at home? Were we at home? trumpsias formas: You weren't at home ir t.t.) Were you at home? Was he at home? Were you at home? Were they at home? 5 b 1. I was very hungry. 2. Were you hungry too? 3. The room wasn't dark. 4. They were in a hurry. 5. Were your neighbours noisy? 6. I was ashamed. 7. Were you afraid of ghosts? 8. He was wrong. 9. They were very quiet. 10. I was not angry with you. 11. Was the water deep? 12. We were not sure. 13. Was it cold outside? 14. He wasn't a sailor, he was a soldier. 5 1. Are you twenty? - No, I am not. I'm twenty-three. 2. Are you a taxi-driver? - No, I am not. I'm a barber. 3. Are you lazy? - No, I am not. I'm hard-working. 4. Are you happy? - No1 I am not. I'm unhappy. 5. Are you busy? - No, I am not. I'm idle. 6. Are you married? - No, I am not. I'm single. 7. Are you American? - No, I am not. I'm Estonian. 8. Are you blue-eyed? - No, I am not. I'm grey-eyed. 9. Are you sixteen? - No, I am not. I'm twenty. Spanish. 5 d 1. Were you sure? - Yes, I was quite sure. 2. Was Bob hungry? - Yes 1 he was very hungry. 3. Was Mother pleased? - Yes, she was very pleased. 4. Was the box heavy? - Yes, it was quite heavy. 5. Were they kind? - Yes, they were very kind. 6. Was the hat pretty? - Yes, it was very pretty. 7. Was the boy young? Yes 1 he was quite young. 8. Was the soup good? - Yes, it was very good. 9. Was his flat large? - Yes 1 it was quite large. 10. Was the room dark? - Yes, it was quite dark. 11. Were they famous? - Yes, they were quite famous. 12. Was it cold? Yes 1 it was very cold. 6 a some chairs - many chairs - lots of chairs, some bags - many bags - lots of bags, some streets - many streets - lots of streets, cars, some letters - many letters - lots of letters; some bread - much bread - lots of bread, some light - much light - lots of light, some water - much water - lots of water, some snow - much snow - lots of snow, some time - much time - lots of time some cars - many cars - lots of 10. Are you Italian? - No, I am not. I'm

6 b much j o y - l i t t l e joy, much sorrow - little sorrow, many tears - few tears, much ice - little ice, many skates - few skates, many windows - few windows, much air little air, many airplanes - few airplanes, many words - few words, many mistakes - few mistakes, much gold - little gold, much anger - little anger, much food - little food, many dishes - few dishes, much work - little work, many workers - few workers, many years - few years, much time - little time 7 a 1. These are magazines. 2. These are newspapers. 3. These are maps. 4. These are dictionaries. 5. These are textbooks. 6. These are albums. 7. These are notebooks. 8. These are envelopes. 9. These are stamps. "lO.These are postcards. 7 b 1. The keys are in the bag. 2. The umbrellas are wet. 3. The glasses are dirty. 4.The boxes are empty. 5. The shops are near here. 6. My sisters are in Paris. 7.The hats are pink. 8. The boys were ill. 9. The cars are in the garage. 10. The tickets are on the table. 11. My pipes are in my pocket. 12. The secretaries are in the office. 8 a mediai ir krmai, kds ir stalai, duts ir rankins, durys ir langai, automobiliai ir autobusai, plikai ir vagys, padavjos ir padavjai, banyios ir pilys, namai ir tiltai, laps ir vilkai, peiliai ir akuts, ros ir tulps, buiniai ir apkabinimai, tigrai ir litai, dienos ir naktys, apelsinai ir bananai, ponios ir ponai, aaros ir atodsiai 10 a ten cars, four pockets, fifty apples, seven brothers, nineteen men, five lions, three bedrooms, six bottles, thirty-one winters, nine tomatoes, thirteen sheep, two feet, three babies, six churches, sixteen women, twenty-eight teeth, ten mice, twenty-four oranges, fifteen houses, one thousand and one nights, twelve mistakes, a hundred dollars, two hundred and fifty-four children 1 0 b 1. are 2. is 3. is 4. are 5. are 6. is 7. are 8. are 9. are 10. is 11. are 12. are 1 0 c 1. was 2. were 3. were 4. were 5. were 6. were 7. was 8. was 9. were 10. was 10 d 1. There are 2. There is 3. There are 4. There are 5. There is 6. There are 7. There are 8. There are 9. There are 10. T h e r e i s 13. T h e r e a r e 14. T h e r e i s 15. T h e r e a r e 1 0 e 1. children, boys, girls 2. stamps, envelopes 3. criminals 4. bank robbers 5.sheep 6. mice 7. dresses, blouses 8. ice-creams, coke 9. gentlemen 10. shoes 11. matches, match-box 12. cassette recorder, cassettes 13. feet 14. women, men 15. thanks 16. actresses I O f t w o dogs, some newspapers, these towns, ten books, red umbrellas, three planes, these brown handbags, two glasses, some apples and grapes, my three friends, four cups and saucers, our friends and enemies, several dresses, many children, a sister and two brothers, many pretty girls, few mistakes, much money, little love 12 a 1. He gets up 2. Then he takes 3. At 8 he goes 4. He lives far, so he usually 11. There are 12. T h e r e i s

takes 5. He often misses the bus but he is 6. After work he does his 7. He always buys bread 8. He loves music and he often plays 9. In the afternoon he reads and watches 10. He goes, he never goes 11. He doesn't know 12. He doesn't understand but he speaks 13. Helikes 14. H e w a n t s 1 2 b 1. Does she sing beautifully? - She does not/doesn't sing beautifully. 2. Does the car belong to Holly? - The car does not belong to Holly. 3. Do I hate him? - I do not hate him. 4. Do you speak German? - You do not speak German. 5. Does

Sally work hard? - Sally does not work hard. 6. Does it cost 100? - It does not cost 100. 7. Does Jack love Jill? - Jack does not love Jill. 8. Do they live in a nice house? - They do not live in a nice house. 9. Do you live in London? - You do not live in London. 10. Am I late? - I am not late. 11. Do we know him well? We do not know him well. 12. Does the baby cry all night? - The baby does not cry all night. 1 2 c 1. Brian sometimes makes 2. He often does 3. He seldom buys 4. His wife Carol usually makes 5. Brian sometimes comes 6. But he is always at 7. Brian never washes 8. But he sometimes empties 9. Brian is always too 10. He seldom goes 12 d 1. Helen is 2. She has 3. Helen and Steve are 4. They have 5. The house is 6. It has 7. Steve and Helen are 8. Steve is 9. Helen is 10. Steve is 11. Steve is 12. H e h a s 13. H e h a s 14. T h e g i r l i s 12 e 1. Bob looks happy. 2. This play has five acts. 3. Tom is under the bed. 4. Alice and Bob live near the station. 5. They worry about exams. 6. Phil writes with his left hand. 7. I am the best student in the class. 8. They leave at three o'clock. 9. This boy speaks German. 10. They have enough time to help us. 11.1 use ketchup with hamburgers. 12.1 earn ten dollars an hour. 1 3 a 1. You smoked 2. He trusted 3. I hated 4. They worked 8. She often helped 5. Your dog barked 10. Helen

6. Sue remembered 16. I always locked

7. Kelly lived

9. He loved

cried 11. The boy looked 1 2 . I c o o k e d 13.1 liked 14. Henry tried 15. They played

1 3 b 1. Tom slept 2. You ate 3. I spent 4. They understood 5. Tom taught 6. Dave and Sarah always sat 10. We went 7. I often thought 8. Cuckoos didn't build 9. She left 11. I felt 12. Jennifer saw 13. I usually met 14. He knew, forgave

15. Mike drove 16. Grandmother sometimes read 1 3 c 1. was 2. woke 3. put 4. went 5. washed 6. cleaned 7. shaved 8. took 16. got

9. returned 10. got 11. had 12. listened 13. took 17. started 18. worked 19. had 20. finished

14. went 15. caught

13 d 1. went 2. carried 3. came 4. was 5. stepped 6. stumbled 7. fell 8. got 9. was 10.passed 11.loaded 12.started 13.was 14.jumped 15.was 16.got

13 e listened to the radio, watched TV, played with the children, went to the theatre, bought a new suit, read an interesting novel, studied English, worked in the garden 1 4 a 1. Steve will catch 2. He will leave 3. The bus won't stop 4. Will she be 5. I will spend 6. Grandmother will take 7. The girls will be 8. Andrew will agree 9. Will R o n c o m e 10. They will drink 11. You won't need 12. Sarah will go 13. MrNeIson will make 14. Jack will go 1 4 b 1. but next Sunday they will go to the cinema. 2. but tomorrow I will visit my girlfriend. 3. but next summer they will go hiking. 4. but this year he will invite at least thirty friends. 5. but next week I will go to my office. 6. but tomorrow we will have it much later. 7. but tomorrow night they will go to a party. (Galimi ir kiti variantai.) 14 c Will you write him a letter tonight? Will we go to the country next weekend? Will

Janet and Jack walk in the park tomorrow afternoon? ir t.t.

1 5 a 1. reads 2. I'll see 3. will start 4. brushes 5. got 6. lives 7. will take 8. visited 9. shave 10. will be 11. will never forgive 12. will be 13. went 14. We'll know 15. stepped, fell 16. gets, gets 17. met 18. wrote 15 b 1. lived 2. lived 3. killed 4. were 5. did not know 6. came 7. began 8. said

9. will kill 10. know 11. said 12. kills 13. don't hear 14. will hear 15. is 16. said 17. will not kill 18. were 19. began 20. said 21. want 22. will put 15 c 1. I know his name. 2. Mr Nelson rang the bell. 3. I saw your brother yesterday. 4. He always understands me. 5. They live near the railway station. 6. We bought some meat and cheese. 7. Tom drank all the wine. 8. Mr Jones sold his car. 9. I'll meet Mary tomorrow. 10. I lent you ten dollars. 11. Hilary lost her umbrella. 12. I see him every day. 13. Jack came early. 14. I'll pay the bill.

16 a mergaits nuotrauka, Dordo sodas, lito mirtis, Greiss lp pietukas, Pikaso darbai, Miko planai, Misterio Viljamso kontora, verslinink automobiliai, naujas Roderio darbas, karaliens rmai, jos vyro cigarets, ekspyro pjess, ms dukters nuomon, mano uovio/euro pypk, Bobo ir Sindijos butas, j kaimyno/kaimyns kaiukai, Londono vaizdai, Franko sprendimas
1 7 a 1. This is Paul's money. 2. This is Mr Taylor's umbrella. 3. This is his daughter's doll. 4. This is my friend's guitar. 5. This is Hilary's car. 6. This is her husband's pipe. 7. This is Brenda's kitten. 8. This is my grandmother's flat. 9. This is Jennifer's coat. 10. This is his sister's lipstick. 1 7 b 1. Leslie's brother is a doctor. 2. Kitty's daughter is twelve. 3. Max's dog is in the yard. 4. Ken's new car is a Fiat. 5. Mary's new dress is very beautiful. 6. Cindy's flat is very expensive. 7. Wendy's mother-in-law is quite young. 8. Bill's new girlfriend lives near here. 9. Charles's uncle will arrive tomorrow. 10. Mr Brown's wife works in a bank. 1 7 c 1. Paul's mother... 2. Peggy's sister... 3. My sister's eyes... 4. ... Bobby's

address. 5. Sue's new car... 6. ... Jack's friends. 7. Mary's dresses... 8. James's brother... 9 . . . . My grandfather's garden 10. ... Mr Jackson's parents...

18 a autobuso vairuotojas, namo dydis, suknels fasonas, sauls viesa, jo buto langai, komandos kapitonas, knygos virelis, student interesai, automobilio ratai, miesto pavadinimas, Didiosios Britanijos sostin, kambario kampai, kilimo spalva, banyios durys, pauki iulbjimas, karaliaus mirtis, pilies savininkas, draug nuomon, ups krantai, cigarets kvapas, mnesio pabaiga, eimos galva
1 8 b 1. My sister's birthday... 2. Mr Hill's secretary... 3. My brother's car... 4. The old gentleman's name... 5. The elephant's ears... 6. The children's letters... 7. That lady's hat... 8. The child's toys... 9. The boss's wife... 10. James's sister... 11. Michael's success... 12. Mr Jones's house...

18c butelis vyno, puodelis arbatos, stiklin pieno, puokt roi, skardin alaus, dut okolado, gabalas srio, pora bat, dut degtuk, laas vandens, kilogramas ryi, gaballis pyrago, kepallis duonos, maias milt, plytel okolado, krepys vaisi, lapas popieriaus, gaballis muilo, baldas, gaballis cukraus, krva popieriaus, pakelis cigarei, svaras kavos, pakelis pieno

19 a 1. He speaks it well. 2. She saw him on Sunday. 3. He lost it. 4. He met him in the street. 5. She will sing it again. 6. He believes it. 7. They locked it. 8. She repaired it quickly. 9. She eats it. 10. They will visit him tomorrow. 11. Hefinished it. 12. He read it last night. 13. He knows her well. 14. They play it in the park. 19 b 1. she is fine. 2. he is fine. 3. they are fine. 4. she is fine. 5. I am fine. 6. they are fine. 7. she is fine. 8. they are fine. 9. he is fine. 10. they are fine. 11. he is fine. 12. they are fine. 1 9 c 1. They are at home. 2. I wrote them in my notebook. 3. She put them on the

chair. 4. Father loses them too often. 5. Bobby cleaned them. 6. We saw the film on TV. 7. Julia teaches them. 8. Jane found it. 9. They learn Japanese. 10. Bob heard it last week. 11.1 like them very much. 12.1 saw you on the bus this morning. 2 0 a 1. Tom sat beside her. 2. I know all about him. 3. The girl stood under it. 4. He paid for it. 5. He thought of them. 6. Wendy came with them. 7. He still plays in it. 8. They stopped in front of it. 9. He is against them. 10. He waited for them. 11. There were some books on it. 12. John will get a ticket for her. 21 a 1. her bag 2. his mother 3. her English classes 4. their notebooks 5. his coat 6. his things 7. his book 8. my best dress 9. his pipe out of his mouth 10. his left hand in his pocket 11. their hats 12. her brother 21 b 1. her mother 2. his father 3. his cat 4. their hats 5. her brother 6. her car 7. his son 8. her birthday 9. his hair 10. his wife 11. her brothers 12. their friend 2 1 1. This umbrella is mine. 2. That house is ours. 3. This hat is hers. 4. These pencils are mine. 5. This dog is ours. 6. That cat is theirs. 7. These bikes are yours. 8. This violin is mine. 9. These apples are ours. 10. Those shoes are theirs. 21 d 1. Tim's dog 2. my watch 3. his coat 4. Sally's hat 5. her notebook 6. Bill's

towel 7. his comb 8. our car 9. their house 10. her spoon 2 2 a 1. There is no sugar. / There isn't any sugar. 2. There is no jam. / There isn't any jam. 3. There are no stamps. / There aren't any stamps. 4. There are no eggs. / There aren't any eggs. wasn't any rain. 5. There is no ice-cream. / There isn't any ice-cream. 6. There are no lemons. / There aren't any lemons. 7. There was no rain. / There 8. There was no good news. / There wasn't any good news. 10. There is no bread. / 9. There are no changes. / There aren't any changes. There isn't any bread. 22 b 1. Did she put any sugar in this cup? 2. Did she bring any letters for you? 4. Did Sally buy any cheese?

3. Does Steve have any money in his pocket?

5. Did he give them any matches? 6. Did they meet any foreigners there? 7. Does he know any English? 8. Did she see any pretty hats in this shop? 22 c 1. Is there any wine? 2. There are some apples. 8. I ordered some soup. 3. There are some lilacs. 9. There isn't any milk.

4. I want some cakes. 5. I don't want any juice. 6. She doesn't have any butter. 7. He gave me some roses. 10. Is there any milk left?

2 4 a 1. Am I working hard? I am not working hard. 2. Is he writing a poem? He is not (isn't) writing a poem. 3. Is she making salad? She is not making salad. 4. Is Pat reading a paper? Pat is not reading a paper. 5. Are you waiting for me? You are not waiting for me. 6. Is Bob drawing a picture? Bob is not drawing a picture. 7. Is it raining hard? It is not raining hard. 8. Is he speaking English? He is not speaking English. 9. Is she playing the piano? She is not playing the piano. 10. Are we telling the truth? We are not telling the truth. 2 4 b 1. No, I am not. 2. Yes, he is. 3. Yes, they are. 4. No, she is not. 5. Yes, we are. 6. Yes, I am. 7. No, he is not. 8. Yes, she is. 9. Yes, it is. 10. No, they are not. 11. No, he is not. 12. Yes, l a m . 13. No, she is not. 14. Yes, l a m . 2 4 c 1. is ringing 2. is playing 3. is having 4. am thinking 5. is not working, is reading 6. are wearing 7. is having 8. am waiting 9. is making, is practising 10. am writing 11. is snowing 12. is flying 2 4 d 1. play, are watching 2. is sleeping, goes 3. do 4. is wearing 5. are having 6. is boiling 7. drink, am drinking 8. costs 9. am saving, want 10. are playing 11. is working 12. walk, are walking 13. speaks, is learning 14. stays, is staying 15. is waiting 16. is reading, reads 2 5 a 1. is taking 2. understands 3. is sitting 4. loves 5. is laying 6. knows 7. like 8. is crying 9. believe 10. hear 11. is looking 12. is learning 2 6 a 1. I am going to buy 2. They are going are going to have 5. Dick is going to sell spend 8. Ted is going to take 9. She is 11.1 am going to tell 12. We are going to to stay 3. Bob is going to leave 4. They 6. I am going to meet 7. We are going to going to say 10. Grace is going to learn have

2 6 b 1. They are going to lose 2. It is going to snow 3. We are going to have 4. We are going to get 5. He is going to have 6. My cat is going to have 7. This medicine is going to do 8. We are going to miss 2 6 On Monday Jenny is going to buy Christmas presents. On Tuesday... 2 7 a she was singing, you were singing; you were not singing, he was not singing, singing, they were not singing; were you singing? they singing? 2 7 b 1. was having 2. was living 3. was writing 4. were having 5. were watching 6. was shining 7. was wearing 8. was making 9. were drinking 10. was taking 11. were playing 12. were sleeping 27 c 1. was shopping, were playing 2. was reading 3. stopped, got 4. was running 7. were living 8. was was he singing?

we were not singing,

you were not were

was she singing?

were we singing?

5. was having, rang

6. was writing, remembered, had

opening, heard, put, crawled 9. was learning 10. was working 2 3 a she will be sleeping, you will be sleeping; you will be waiting, he will be waiting, we will be waiting, you will be waiting, they will be waiting; you will be reading, they will be reading he will be reading, she will be reading, we wi'l be reading,

2 8 b 1. will be working 2. will be sleeping 3. will be having 4. will be reading 5. will be waiting 6. will be playing 7. will be watching 8. will be working 9. will be camping 10. will be having 11. will be waiting 12. will be sitting 13. will be lying 14. will be having 29 a 1. Does Bob like to play football? 2. Will he finish the letter this afternoon? 4. Was he telling the truth? 5. Is the

3. Is Tom teaching his son to ride a bike?

child crying? 6. Did Mr Jones work in an office? 7. Did Lucy find her friend in the park? 8. Did Susan come with us? 9. Is Mother cooking the dinner? 10. W e r e t h e boys waiting for their teacher? 11. Does Katie go to school every weekday? 12. Did the last train leave at 11.30? 13. Does Hilary play chess very well? 14. Did she have a piece of chocolate cake? 29 b 1. They don't go out every afternoon. 2. He wasn't waiting for Julia. 3. Steve 5. Diana doesn't

won't come with you.

4. His friend doesn't live in New York.

brush her hair every night. 9. I won't read it tomorrow.

6. He wasn't holding a bottle of whisky in his hand. 8. Peter doesn't wear very strong glasses. 10. At the moment Rose isn't playing the piano in the

7. Sally doesn't agree with you.

other room. 11. The police didn't catch the thief. 12. I don't hate you. 13. He isn't joking. 14. Susan didn't lose her purse. 29 c 1. will meet 2. painted 3. were having 9. will know 4. will forget 10. costs 5. am looking 6. will

remember

7. drinks

8. drank

11. will dine

12. ate, left

13. will visit 14. will see 29d l.saw 2. is waiting 3. will snow 4. was lying, was working 5. like 6. will sing

7. went 8. goes 9. belongs 10. get 11. slept 12. arrived 13. went 14. smoked 29e 1. left, will come 2. were sitting, was doing, was knitting, was reading, smiled, 4. stepped, fell, was lying, heard, saw,

said

3. were watching, switched, took

stopped 5. bought, will bake 6. walks, took, was raining, left 30 a younger - the youngest, thinner - the thinnest, easier - the easiest, more more

expensive - the most expensive, more depressing - the most depressing, softer the softest, - the driest, the poorest, nicer - the nicest, more comfortable - the most comfortable, more beautiful - the most beautiful, faster - the fastest, excited - the most excited, stronger - the strongest, lovelier - the loveliest, drier longer - the longest, poorer more more intelligent - the most intelligent,

handsome - the most handsome 32 a 1. younger 2. youngest 3. older 4. nicer 5. sunnier 6. strong 7. shortest

8. cheapest 9. fat 10. deepest 11. bigger, biggest 12. laziest 13. more expensive 14. heavy, heavier 3 3 a I . R u s s i a n 2. German 3. Estonian 4. French 5. English 6. Swedish 7. English 8. American 9. German 10. Finnish 3 3 b 1. quickly 2. quickly 3. careless 4. beautifully 5. hard 6. easily 7. easy 8. good 9. well 10. completely 11. bright 12. hard, hard 13. hardly 14. lately 3 4 a 1. finished 2. played 3. earned 4. lived 5. asked 6. arrived 7. enjoyed 8. visited 9. baked 10. decided 11. cleaned 12. finished

I0.

145

34b

"l.seen 2. left 3. read 4. won 5. learnt/learned 6. become 7. come 8. written

9. broken 10. lost 11. gone 12. built 13. done 14. burnt 15. bought 3 5 a 1. Yes, I have. 2. No, he has not (hasn't). 3. No, I have not. 4. Yes, they have. 5. Yes, she has. 6. Yes, I have. 7. No, they have not. 8. No, it has not. 9. Yes, she has. 10. Yes, they have. 35 b 1. has bought 2. have gone 3. has been 4. has changed 5. have eaten 6.

have not met 7. has typed 8. has not seen 9. has posted 10. have lived 11. have been 12. has bought 13. has not come 14. have had 15. have not changed 3 5 1. Has he seen this film yet? 2. Have you bought a present for Rose yet? 3. Has Nora gone to bed yet? 4. Has Joy finished her work yet? 5. Has Ronald found a new job yet? 6. Has Frank sold his car yet? 7. Have you written to Ben yet? 8. Has Steve paid his debts yet? 9. Has he come yet? 10. Have you had lunch yet? 3 5 d 1. He hasn't made the bed yet. 2. He hasn't swept the floor yet. 3. He hasn't fed the baby yet. 4. She hasn't read the paper yet. 5. She hasn't drunk her tea yet. 6.We haven't had our breakfast yet. yet. 8.Sally hasn't painted the walls yet. 7. Bill hasn't watered the tomatoes 9. The teacher hasn't cleaned the

blackboard yet. 10. I haven't finished my composition yet. 3 5 e 1. have known 2. played 3. has liked 4. drove 5. fell 6. painted 7. came 8. have read 9. went 10. haven't met 11. went 12. has lived 13. wrote 14. hasn't finished 36 a 1. had received 2. had not seen 3. had gathered 4. had finished 5. had met 7. had taken 8. had lived 9. had already seen 10. had painted

6. had heard

11. had gone 12. had just left 13. had spent 14. had heard 37 a 1. will have worked 2. will have left 3. will have passed 4. will have finished

5. will have saved 6. will have read 7. will have built 8. will have finished 3 8 a 1. have been boiling 2. have been working 3. have been playing 4. has been fishing 5. has been living 6. has been teaching 7. have been waiting 8. has been studying 9. has been raining 10. have been arguing 3 8 b 1. has been travelling 2. have been living 3. has been speaking 4. have been walking 5. have been talking 6. has been sleeping 7. have been working 8. has been raining 9. has been teaching 39 a 1. Does she speak French? 2. Has Bob met your sister? 3. Was the wind

blowing hard? 4. Has he played tennis for two years now? 5. Am I right? 6. Did she bring him a glass of water? 7. Did they come to a village? 8. Have the children had breakfast? 9. Have you heard of him? 10. Will she do her best? 11. Was the cat lying under the table? 12. Does she know English well?

39 b

1. They will come tonight. 2. Tom has painted this portrait. 3. I want to go to

Paris. 4. The girls have gone home. 5. They went home at six o'clock. 6. He has drunk all the whisky. 7. Graham speaks Spanish. 8. They have sold their old car. 9. She visited Tom every day. 10. She has changed much.

39 c

1. go, went, have been

2. has gone, will return

3. have known, worked, are

4. visited, asked, didn't want, had seen 5. do, did, have done 6. was reading, was lying 3 9 d 1. has been 2. is 3. is working 4. has already visited 5. has bought 6. will buy 7. worked 8. is working 9. gets 10. likes 11. pays 12. buys 13. stays 14. listens 15. lends 16. keep 17. has lost 3 9 e 1. Lucy agrees with you. 2. Jack listened to her. 3. Bill has taken his medicine. 4. Ted will come with us. 5. I have read the instructions. 6. They have gone away. 7. Sally wanted to change her job. 8. You will get there on time. 9. It was cold in December. 10. He will have finished it by six. 11. She has given them those books. 12. Pat went to the party. 39 f 1. went 2. was hanging 3. started 4. decided 5. was wiping 6. lost 7. fell

8. was washing 9. rushed 10. knocked 11. cut 12. was peeling 13. was 3 9 g 1. decided 2. came 3. saw 4. were 5. stopped 6. changed 7. looked 8. saw 9. was forming 10. was standing 11. was looking 12. got 13. started 14. drove 3 9 h 1. Mary and George live in London. 2. Peter speaks French. 3. Sandra is playing tennis now. 4. I haven't seen Rose today. 5. Did they go home at six? 6. Paul stood up, put on his hat and left. 7. He has already read this book. 8. Today the sun is shining but yesterday it was cloudy. 9. Has Mother returned? waiting for you in the kitchen. the street. worked much. 13. I usually get up at seven but today I slept longer. 15. I have never been to Paris. 10. Sheila is 14. We have 11. They went to Africa in 1988. 12. I met them in 16. Tommy doesn't go to school

yet. 17. Jack has already seen this film. 18. Tomorrow he will visit (he is going to visit) his mother-in-law. 4 1 a 1. Yes, I can. 2. No, you can't. 3. Yes, she can. 4. Yes, I can. 5. No, he can't. 6. No, they can't. can't. 4 1 b 1. He cannot (can't) play 2. She cannot read 3. John cannot repair 4. He cannot pay 5. We cannot return 6. Mr Taylor cannot see 7. We cannot afford 8. James cannot speak 4 1 1. but I can't see any hammers 2. but I can't see any plates 3. but I can't see any women 4. but I can't see any children 5. but I can't see any cakes 6. but I can't see any gooseberries cards. 41 d 1.1 couldn't help you on Sunday. 2. He couldn't speak Spanish two years ago. 4. Dick couldn't drive a car last year. 7. but I can't see any sailors 8. but I can't see any post7. Yes, she can. 8. No, they can't. 9. No, he can't. 10. No, he

3. T h e y c o u l d n ' t leave an hour ago.

5. I couldn't give it to the children yesterday. 6. Rose couldn't go with them in the morning. 7. I couldn't meet you yesterday morning. 8. Kate couldn't play the violin three months ago.

41 e 1. Could you lend 2. Could you tell 3. Could you give 4. Could you give 5. Could you meet 6. Could I come 7. Could I borrow 8. Could I take 4 2 a 1. May I leave at once? 2. May I ask a guestion? 3. May I come again tomorrow? 4. May I go swimming with Bob? 5. May I borrow this bike? 6. May I go and see Rose now? 7. May I smoke here? 4 2 b 1. You may leave now. 2. You may smoke here. 3. You may open the window. 4. They may play here. 5. He may borrow my bike. 6. You may go and see her now. 7. You may think about it for a few days. 8. You may take my book. 9. They may stay if they want. 10. She may have my umbrella.

42 c Atsakymuose galima vartoti ir "may", ir "can". 42 d Pavartokite vien i pateikt atsakym.


4 2 e 1. He said that you might come with us. 2. He said that you might open the package. 3. He said that you might leave the room. 4. He said that you might drink it all. 5. He said that you might go home. 6. He said that you might switch off the light. 7. He said that John might take his books. 8. He said that Bill might go to the cinema. 4 2 f 1. He may be in London. 2. Tom may be ill. 3. They may return later. 4. He may lend us the money. 5. He may be in the garden. 6. Dick may be back this week. 7. They may be at school. 8. He may arrive tomorrow. 9. He may help us. 10. He may go by plane. 43 a 1. Must I hurry? 2. Must I look after the children? 3. Must I stay at home?

4. Must I buy some stamps? 5. Must I show the letter to Rose? 6. Must I ring up Mr Taylor? 7. Must I get up early tomorrow? 8. Must I light a fire? 4 3 b 1. Dick must read it. 2. You must tell him the news. 3. Bob must see the doctor. 4. Peter must buy a new hat. 5. You must come again. 6. They must sell it at once. 7. Paul must change his clothes. 8. Harry must put on a white shirt. 9. You must keep the door locked. 10. We must leave soon. 43 c 1. No, you needn't. 2. No, you needn't. 6. Yes, you must. 3. Yes, you must. 4. Yes, you must. 8. No, she needn't.

5. No, you needn't.

7. Yes, you must.

9. Yes, he must. 10. No, you needn't. 43 d 1. You had to do it at once. 2. They had to get up early. 3. You had to write

home. 4. She had to take that medicine. 5. They had to wait outside. 6. Tom had to work hard. 7. Bill had to go to the doctor's. 8. He had to take a package to the post office. 9. You had to leave the town at once. 10. The children had to stay in their room. 4 3 e 1. He must be at home by now. 2. The child must be ill. 3. The girls must be

busy. 4. He must be over fifty. 5. She must be very rich. 6. Tom must be a fool. 7. There must be another way to do this. 8. This old man must be very wise.

4 3 f Tommy must wash his hands. He mustn't go out now. 4 3 g 1. can 2. May 3. can 4. Can 5. must 6. Can 7. May 8. must 9. could 10. Can 11. cannot, can 12. must 13. must not 14. cannot 15. can 16. must 17. can, cannot 18. may 19. cannot, could 20. Must 4 3 h 1. I must go now. 2. You may use my pencils. 3. I can't play the piano. 4. You must do it at once. school. 5. Mary could swim when she was five. 8. Can you hear me? 6. Tom must go to 7. May I ask a question? 9. May I borrow your

knife? 10. Can you swim? 11. Can I help you?/May I help you? 12. W e m u s t g e t up very early. 13. It may be true. man must be over fifty. 14. I can't lift this bag, it's too heavy. 15. This

43 i Vietoj "must" visur "should".


4 4 a 1. in 2. at 3. on 4. in 5. at 6. on 7. from, to / till 8. in 9. in 10. in 11. at 12. by 13. until/till 14. on 15. at 16. in 4 5 a 1. in 2. in 3. above 4. to 5. on 6. under 7. in 8. at 9. on, of 10. in 11. on 12. in, on 13. on 14. to 15. at 47 a at ten o'clock, at the weekend, at half past six, at the table, at the bus-stop,

at home, at work, at school; by car, by tram, by bus, by plane, by train, by ten o'clock, by Monday, by then; from home, from the cinema, from work, from the library, from the pocket, from the bag, from three to five, from evening to morning; in the garden, in the cupboard, in the handbag, in the pocket, in the room, in the kitchen, in September, in the evening, in the afternoon, in autumn, in a whisper, in a low voice, in a loud voice, in German; into the box, into the pocket, into the handbag, into the house, into the car, into the water; on the shelf, on the bed, on the same floor, on Friday, on the 1st of March, on the evening of the 1st of March; to the shop, to the department store, to the park, to the post-office, to a concert; with a spoon, with chalk, with the scissors 4 7 b 1. in 2. from, at, in 3. in, for 4. to 5. on 6. with 7. at 8. at 9. at 10. on, on 11. in, in 12. of 13. for 14. of 15. till 16. to 17. in 18. in, with, to 19. about 20. on, from, till 21. about 22. in 23. at 24. on 25. in 26. in, in 27. in 28. in, at 4 7 c 1. The cat is under the bed. 2. The dress is in the wardrobe. 3. Your handbag is on the table. 4. His car is in front of the house. 5. The river is behind the house. 6. The teaspoons are in this box. 7. The carpet is on the floor. 8. All the money is in my pocket. 48 a 1. Yes, I do. 2. Yes, you may. 3. No, I won't. 4. Yes, I was. 5. No, I didn't. 10. No, she hasn't.

6. Yes, he has. 7. Yes, it did. 8. Yes, I have. 9. Yes 1 I did. 11. No, she can't. 12. Yes, he did.

4 8 b 1. Did they see Pat last week? 2. Is this your comb? 3. Were you talking about me? 4. Is the longest day of the year in June? 6. Was it really very funny? 5. Must George work late this evening? 7. Does Jack speak to them every day?

8. Are Amy and Dan having tea? found a new job? have a shower twice a day?

9. Did they come home late?

10. Has James 12. Does she

11. Did they visit the British Museum yesterday?

4 8 C 1. Has Betty bought ... 2. Did Peter stop to... 3. Has he always liked... 4. Did they get up ... and Dick have ... 48d 1. Did Bill p u t . . . 2. Does Jenny come ... 3. Did they e a t . . . 4. Do the girls go ... 8. Has Eric 5. Did James phone ... 6. Have the children often visited ... 7. Does Barbara draw ... 8. Must we learn it ... 9. Has Tom drunk ... 10. Did Jim

5. Did Kate wait ... 6. is Mr Jones in ... 7. Will the stores close ... 12. Was i t . . . 13. Was the party ... 14. Are Barbara and George ... 48 e 1. isn't she? 2. haven't they? 3. wasn't it? 4. does he? 9. didn't they?

spoken... 9. Does Diana play ... 10. Does Linda have ... 11. Will Carol be back...

5. do you?

6. don't 11. aren't

you? 7. didn't she? they? 12. did he?

8. doesn't he?

10. haven't they?

5 0 a 1. Where do they live? 2. When did Mr Bell come? 3. Who is her best friend? 4. What did the boys see at the Zoo? 5. What is Tom going to put on? 6. Whose car is this? 7. W h e n did they visit Scotland? 8. W h o has no money at all? 9. Where is Mr Fox going? 10. When did Helen come to see us? 11. Where does the bus stop? 12. How much did this shirt cost? 5 0 b 4. Yes, I will (No, I won't). 5. Yes, I do (No, I don't). 10. Yes, I am (No, I am not). 13. Yes, you may (No, you may not). 14. Yes, I do (No, I don't). 5 0 c 1. What 2. What 3. Where 4. Who 5. What 6. What 7. What 8. Whose

9. Why 10. Who(m) 5 0 d 1. My mother-in-law did. 2. The teacher did. 3. His uncle did. 4. I am. 5. My best friend did. 6. My brothers are. 7. Jenny's sisters do. 8. Paul's parents will. 50 e 1. What was terrible? 2. Who(m) did John buy a present? 3. When was the 8. What

weather very cold? 4. Where does Mary live? 5. What kind of flat did Nigel find? 6. What does he want to become? the house? 7. Where has Jenny never been? does Jane like? 9. How does he work? 11. W h e n was T o m born? 10. How many cars were there in front of 12. Where does he keep his money?

13. How did Jack go? 14. Why did he close the window? 50f 1. Yes, I do. 2. He is tall and dark. 3. She is fine, thanks. 4. Because he missed the train. 5. By plane. 6. He is a painter. 7. James does. 8. I feel ill. 9. It's ten o'clock. 10. Dick did. 11. Nothing. 50 g 1. What is your name? 2. Where do you live? 3. How old are you? 4. What is 8. Can/May I help you? 9. Did you like this film? 10. Are you sure?

the time? / What time is it? 5. What day is it today? 6. What did he say? 7. Is he Estonian? 11. How are you? 12. What is the matter? 13. Are you/Will you be free on Sun-

day? 14. Who saw the accident?

5 4 a 1 . a n 2. an 3. an 4. an 5. a 6. an 7. an 8. an 9. a 10. an 11. a 12. a 13. an


14. an 15. a

54b

1. A rose is a beautiful flower. 2. A skyscraper is a tall building. 3. A bear is a 7. A cartoon is a funny drawing. 8. A butterfly has coloured wings.

large animal. 4. A camel has a long neck. 5. A house has a roof. 6. A turkey is a big bird. 9. A cardigan is a knitted jacket. 10. A spider has eight legs. 54 c 1. a secretary 2. a mechanic 3. a waitress 4. an artist 5. a poet 6. a pilot

7. a dentist 8. a policeman 54 d 1. What an expensive night-club! 4. What a strange story! 2. What a beautiful carpet! 3. What a big

fridge!

5. What a cheap hat!

6. What a long letter!

7. What an easy exercise! 8. What a comfortable room! 5 4 e 1. There is a garden behind the house. The garden is small. 2. There is a man in the hall. The man is tall. The box is empty. 3. There is a knife on the plate. The knife is sharp. 4. There is a tie on the chair. The tie is dark green. 5. There is a box on the shelf. 6. There is a map on the wall. The map is big. 7. There is a chair in the corner. The chair is comfortable. 8. There is a boy in the kitchen. The boy is quite small. 9. There is a suit in the shop window. The suit is expensive. 5 4 f 1. an 2. the, the 3. an 4. the 5 . - , 1 1 . - , the, - 12. the 1 3 , - 1 4 , - 1 5 . - , 6. the, the 7. the, the 8. the 9 . - , 10. a

16. a, the 17. the 1 8 , - 19. the 20. the,

the - 21. -, - 22. a, the 23. the, -, the 24. the 5 7 a 1. He lent me the book. 2. Larry called us a taxi. 3. Grace read them the news. 4. I have bought you some chocolates. 5. She sent her mother-in-law a present. 6. The waiter brought the man a bottle of beer. 7. Ruth made herself a new skirt. 8. Frank told us a joke. 9. Andrew read me his poems. 10. Wendy knitted Fred a pullover. 57 b 1. We play tennis in the park every morning. 2. David has travelled by plane

round the world. 3. He read the letter quickly in his office before lunch. 4. Janet sang beautifully at the concert yesterday. 5. They had coffee in the garden after lunch. 6. Julia will come with Bruce to the party tomorrow. 7. Amy has been playing with her toys in the bedroom since 3 o'clock. 8. We stayed in Paris for a week. 9. His family moved to Liverpool two years ago. 10. I had a nice time in town yesterday. 11. Richard wanted to go to the bank at lunchtime. 12. She lived with them in Greece from 1980 to 1987. 57 c 1. Joe usually goes 2. Stan sometimes disagrees 3. I have never 4. Have the

Jacksons already 5. You can always wear 6. Brenda doesn't usually 7. Jim seldom goes 8. Has he seen the film yet? 9. Bill has already 10. The buses are usually 11. Michael has always been 12. Mrs Lewis often shops 13. I have already read 14. They are still 15. Cliff is already 5 7 d 1. Larry doesn't have any money in the bank. 2. I slept only two hours last night. 3. She taught the boys geography last year. 4. There were five big green bottles on the shelf. 5. He parked his car in front of the restaurant. 6. We crossed the English Channel on the ferry last Monday. 7. Lucy made this dress for me. 8. This car costs less than any other car. 10. Tony wears glasses all the time. 9. My husband has lost his car keys again.

5 7 e 1. They phoned his secretary on Friday. 2. We haven't met since January. 3. He wants to have an easy life. 4. We arrived at the airport at five. 5. Tony met a charming girl at a party last night. 6. He left the letter on the table in the hall.

7. Brian walked upstairs slowly. 8. She put the cakes on the table. 9. Tom's friend slipped and broke his leg. 10. They give parties every weekend. 5 7 f 1. Someone stole their car last night. 2. Sally bought two pounds of tomatoes and a bottle of milk. 3. Luke ordered some fish and potatoes. 4. Daisy tore her dress on a nail. 5. The secretary writes letters and answers the phone. 6. The Watsons welcomed us to their house. 7. The postman brought me a letter this morning. 8. The wind blew my hat over the wall. 9. Her husband usually gets home at about five. 10. Ben always washes his car on Friday afternoon. 58a 1. I told him 2. Mother wants them 3. Rose wanted him 4. She asked them

5. I expected her 6. He ordered them 7. Dave wants them 8. I expect him 9. The teacher allowed them 10. He forbade him 11. I don't want them 12. I a s k e d h e r 5 8 b Caroline wants her husband (him) to put on his new suit. She wants him to... 5 9 a 1.1 saw Tom buy 2. I heard Jane tell them 3. I heard mother phone 4. I saw Dick take off 5. I saw Mike meet Mary 6. I saw the girls lay 7. I saw her pack her things and leave. 8. I saw them have 9. I saw Tom eat 10. I saw the light go out

5 9 b 1 . - 2 . - 3 . - 4. to 5 . - 6 . - 7. to 8. to 9. to 10. to 11. to 12. - 13. to 14. to


15. - 16. 61a 1. comes 2. hears 3. finish 4. begins 5. is 6. am 7. is 8. arrive 9. is 10. see

11. are 12. buy 61b 1. will stop, gets 2. will wait, brings 3. will buy, have 4. leaves, I'll tell 5. starts, 6. pays, we'll go 7. I'll wait, arrive 8. finishes, she'll lend 9. open,

they'll open

you'll see 10. we'll have, come 61c 61 d 1. rains 2. helps 3. see 4. try 5. is 6. is 7. need 8. hurry 9. drink 10. is 1. don't hurry, you'll miss 2. drives, won't have 3. are, we'll start 4. leave, will

steal 5. stop, I'll get 6. won't be able, don't get 7. rings, I'll answer 8. don't arrive, won't get 9. will melt, leave 10. agree, I'll buy 6 2 a 1. saw, would climb 2. had, would drive 3. paid, would respect 4. knew, would ring 5. had, would open 6. were, would know 7. knew, would tell 8. were, would not believe 9. had, would drink 10. were not fat, would climb 11. had, would get 12. worked, would earn 6 3 a 1. had felt, would have gone 2. had known, would have invited 3. had worked, would have got passed been 64a 1. Rose says that her brother's name is Ken. 2. Oscar says that he prefers 4. had asked, would have helped 5. had studied, would have 8. had 6. had worn, would not have got 7. had had, would have gone

been, would have gone 9. had had, would have bought 10. had been, would have

vodka. 3. Ruth says that she knows a lot about it. 4. He says that he believes in

God. 5. I say that I have lived here for a year. 6. We say that we do not work on Mondays. 7. Meg says that she was watching TV. 8. Frank says that petrol prices will fall. 9. He says that he doesn't like fish. 10. I say that she worried too much. 64 b 1. She said that she didn't smoke. 2. Bob said that he liked football. 3. I said 4. He said that he went to English lessons twice a 8. He said that Jill hadn't been present. 9.

that I hardly knew Matthew.

week. 5. Scott said that Mr Blake was ill. 6. They said that it didn't matter. 7. Sally said that she had been at a concert. said she didn't feel well. She said that she was happy. 10. She said that she had been very busy. 11. Lucy 12. He said he would try to do his best. 13. He said he would give me his passport. 14. Alf said he didn't want it. 6 4 1. Ned said he had been ill. 2. Sarah said she liked my dress. 3. Mrs Turner said her son read a lot. 4. I said the airport was closed. 5. Ted said he wanted to go to a Japanese restaurant. 6. Rose said she loved Japanese food. 7. He said Mr Wolf would speak to me about it. 8. Lewis said Steve didn't know them. 9. She said she would lend me the money. 10. The secretary said Mr Ward was in Boston. 11. She said she liked modern art. 12. Kate said her daughter was nine and a half. 13. He said they lived in Los Angeles. 14. My aunt said she didn't smoke. 64 d 1. Jane told Mike she would marry him. 2. Ken told the boys Michael would

come late. 3. Mrs Tate told her husband she would be there by noon. 4. Ron said he had met them in Paris. 5. Bill said Roger had broken his arm. 6. Ted said she had been very talkative. 7. Sarah says her coat isn't very warm. 8. Jack told Alf his girlfriend knew English well. 9. Stan said the car had come at 2. 10. The girl told me they had left for the airport. 6 5 a 1. Brenda asked where Tom was. 2. I asked when the bell would ring. 3. Bess asked how much they had paid for it. 4. Peter asked who had made that terrible noise. 5. Leslie asked when the last train left. 6. Emily asked why my hands were dirty. 7. Mr Webb asked how long they had lived in Edinburgh. 8. Andrew asked where they would be on Sunday. 9. We asked why he had missed the plane. 10. Aunt Emily asked who had taught the boy to ride. 65 b 1. He asked if I enjoyed dancing. 2. Eve asked if Jack had heard the news.

3. He asked if I had seen the accident. 4. I asked if he would write to him. 5. Ken asks if they have made the coffee. 6. Emily asked if I had been surprised. 7. Larry asks if the water is deep. knew the answer. 8. I asked if I was in his way. 9. Roger asked if they 11. Cliff asked if they 10. Celia asks if he talked in his sleep.

had found the matches. 12. They asked if Joe was feeling better. 6 6 a 1. He asked me to stay home. 2. Pat told me to open the door at once. 3. The clerk told me to pay in cash. 4. The teacher told us to stop quarrelling. 5. Tom told us to get out of his way. 6. Nigel asked me to come straight back. 7. The woman told me not to touch it. 8. I told him to climb in through the window. 6 9 a 1. is k a m b a r y s valomas v i e n kart per savait. 2. M s kontoros baldai blizginami kiekvien mnesj. 3. M s firmos langai valomi kiekvien tadien. treiadien. 5. ios pelenins itutinamos kiekvien ryt. e4. V i r i n i n k o k a m b a r y j e kilimai s i u r b i a m i dulki siurbliu k i e k v i e n

69 b 1. i kriaukl nevaloma labai danai. 2. Mano automobilis nra plaunamas kiekvien dien. 3. Jos batai nevalomi kiekvien ryt. 4. Jo kambarys nevalomas kiekvien savait. 5. Ar atsakymai iuos laikus isiuniami kiekvien dien? 6. Ar policijai praneama apie kiekvien smurto veiksm? 7. Ar is berniukas priirimas taip, kaip reikia? 70a 1. aibas trenk j med. 2. Vagys apipl nam. 3. nam apipl chuliganai. 4. gara perda pasamdyti darbininkai. 5. iuos kaminus ival kaminkriai. 71a 1. un kada nors tikrai pervaiuos maina. 2. Laikas nebus pristatytas rytoj, nes streikuoja laikininkai. 3. Vaiko nepaadins rytoj laiku (vaikas nebus paadintas), nes sugedo mamos adintuvas. 4. Rytoj pasiimti Deimso i mokyklos uvaiuos jo mona. 72a 1. Suknel jau ilyginta. 2. Kelns jau ilygintos. 3. Kriaukl jau ivalyta. 4. Bataijau iblizginti. 5. Stalasjau nudaytas. 6. Maina jau sutaisyta.

DALYKIN RODYKL
a / a n 52 a lot of 6 already 35, 57 always 11, 57 any 22 a s . . . as 32 be 1-4, 23-28, 38, 57, 62 ir lentel before 35 can 41 could 41 do/does/did 12-13, 48-50, 65 ever 35 (a) few 6 going 26 have 34-38 hear 25, 59 if 61-63, 65 -ing forma 23-28, 38, 59, 68, 73 lately 35 (a) little 6 lots of 6 many 6, 31 may 42 might 42 more 30 much 6, 31 must 43 never 35

J)R

no 22 not so as 32 of fraz 18,53 plenty of 6 same 53 say 64 see 25, 59 several 6 shall 14,28,37,64 should 43 I since 35 some 6, 22 sometimes 11, 57 than 32 the 53 there is 10 D tell 58,64 to (prie veiksmaod) 58, 66 usually 11, 57 want 25,58 what 49-50 when 27, 49-50, 60 where 49-50 who(m) 49-50 would 62-64 yet 35, 57

artikelis 51, 54 asmeniniai vardiai 19-23 atliktinio laiko formos 34-38 atliktinis tstinis esamasis laikas 38 aukiausiasis laipsnis 30-32 bd reikiantys prielinksniai 46, 54 bdvardis 30-33 bdvardi Iaipsniavimas 30-32 bsimasis atliktinis laikas 37

bsimojo ir atliktinio tstinio laiko neveikiamoji ris 73 btasis atliktinis laikas 36 btasis tstinis laikas 27 daiktavardiai be artikelio 54 daiktavardi daugiskaita 6 - 1 0 esamasis atliktinis laikas 35 esamasis tstinis laikas 36 esamojo ir btojo atliktinio laiko neveikiamoji ris 72 vardis 19-22 fizinius jutimus reikiantys veiksmaodiai 59 jungtukai 32 kartojimo pratimai (veiksmaodi laikai) 29, 39 kelintiniai skaitvardiai 1 lentel kiekybiniai skaitvardiai 1 lentel klausiamasis netiesiogins kalbos sakinys 65 klausiamieji sakiniai 48-50 laiko aplinkyb 24, 27-28, 35, 44, 57 laiko form vartojimas sudtiniuose sakiniuose 60-63 laik derinimas 36, 64-65 laik formos, veikiamoji ris - 3 lentel laik formos, neveikiamoji ris - 4 lentel Iaipsniavimas 31 modaliniai veiksmaodiai 40-43 neigiamieji sakiniai 4, 12-14, 24-28, 35-38, 40-43 nelyginamasis laipsnis 31 neskaiiuotiniai daiktavardiai 6 netaisyklingieji veiksmaodiai - 2 lentel netaisyklingos daugiskaitos formos 9 netiesiogin kalba 64-66 netiesioginis papildinys 56 neveikiamoji ris, paprastosios ir sudtins formos 67-68 neymimasis artikelis 52 neymimieji vardiai 22 paprastasis bsimasis laikas 14 paprastasis btasis laikas 13 paprastasis esamasis laikas 12 paprastojo bsimojo laiko neveikiamoji ris 71 paprastojo btojo laiko neveikiamoji ris 70 paprastojo esamojo laiko neveikiamoji ris 69

DR

paprastosios laik formos 11-15 posakiai be artikeli 54 posakiai su neymimuoju artikeliu 52 posakiai su ymimuoju artikeliu 53 posakiai su ymimuoju prielinksniu 47 pradin veiksmaodio forma (bendratis) 58 prielinksniai 20, 44-47 prieveiksmis 33b slygos sakiniai 61-63 savybiniai vardiai 21 savybinis linksnis 16-17 skaii otin iai daiktavardiai 6 skaitvardiai - 1 lentel skatinamieji netiesiogins kalbos sakiniai 66 skiriamieji klausimai 48, 48 E sudtinis sakinys 60-63 suvestinis papildinys 50-59 alutiniai laiko aplinkybs sakiniai 60 taip/ne (bendrieji) klausimai 3, 48, 65 tautyb 33

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