Está en la página 1de 58

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Discussion Points
Basic Terminology Rod (Pin) Load Rod (Pin) Reversal Area Classifications NEMA Enclosures Wire Separation Intro to PV Card

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

TERMINOLOGY
(Jargon) Gas Compressor Industry Language
Compression = Compressor = pressure. The act of pressing or compacting into a smaller space. A machine which converts gas from low pressure to a higher

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Packaged Compressor Unit


This is a complete unit mounted on a skid or skids which includes the prime mover, compressor, necessary cooling facilities, scrubbers, moisture traps, safety controls and piping. In other words, a complete unit ready to be connected to the suction and discharge lines.

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

The System

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Terminology

R/Rc Ps/P1 Pd/P2 Ts/T1 Td/T2 Ta Hp HE CE VE K

= = = = = = = = = = =

ratio of compression suction pressure discharge pressure suction temperature discharge temperature ambient temperature horse power head end crank end volumetric efficiency ratio of specific heats of a particular natural gas - a thermal dynamic value
6

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Terminology

Ratio of Compression (RC) RC = Discharge Pressure(Pd)psig + 14.7 = ??? psia Suction Pressure (Ps)psig + 14.7 = ??? psia Note: Elevation or Barometric pressure must be taken into account when figuring Rc.

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Terminology

Finding Ratio of Compression (RC) Example 1: Ps = 200 psig, Pd = 600 psig


Rc = 600 psig + 14.7 = 614.7 psia = 2.863 200 psig + 14.7 = 214.7 psia

Example 2: Ps = 20 psig, Pd = 600 psig


Rc = 600psig + 14.7 = 614.7psia = 17.7 20psig + 14.7 = 34.7psia

Note: If we had not converted to psia the ratio would have been 30:1.
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
8

Terminology

Finding Approximate HP Requirement: To find the HP required for a single stage unit (example 1): Approximating HP Formula using Example #1 HP = 21 x Rc x S x Q Where:
HP 21 Rc S Q = Horse Power = Standard (Constant) = Ratio Of Compression = # of Stages = Quantity in MMCFD

HP = 21 x 2.86 x 1 x 2 = 120.12 or 121


COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
9

Terminology
SA = Single Acting - The act of compressing on one end of the compressor cylinder. = Double Acting - The act of compressing on both ends of the compressor cylinder. = Two compressor cylinders either bolted together or cast as one casting, using a common piston rod with two piston sizes.
10

DA

Tandem

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Single Acting Tandem 2 Stage

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

11

PULSATION DAMPERS (BOTTLES)


PRESSURE@ SUCTION LINE

TEMP CONNECTION POINT

PRESSURE@ SUCTION CONNECTION

TEMP CONNECTION POINT

PRESSURE@ DISCHARGE CONNECTION

PRESSURE@ DISCHARGE LINE

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

12

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

13

Double Acting Single Stage

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

14

Double Acting 2 Stage

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

15

Typical Separators / Scrubbers

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

16

SCRUBBER
RELIEF VALVE

GAS DEFLECTOR

OUTLET CONNECTION

INLET CONNECTION FLOATS

MESH FILTER GAS HIGH LIQUID LEVEL SHUTDOWN SWITCH CONTROL PRESSURE

SIGHT GAUGE LIQUID

SIGNAL TO DUMP VALVE


AUTOMATIC DRAIN

MANUAL DRAIN

CUSTOMER DRAIN CONNECTION

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

17

Blow-case Separator Design

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

18

SCRUBBER MOUNTING

4-POINT MOUNTING BEST


COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
19

3-POINT OK

SCRUBBER MOUNTING

4" CHANNEL

SINGLE BEAM NO
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
20

4" CHANNEL

FIELD MODIFICATION

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

21

Terminology

Clearance Volume = The volume remaining in the compressor cylinder at the end of the discharge stroke. Normally expressed as a % of piston displacement. Displacement = Area of piston X length of stroke X # of strokes per minute. For DA compressors, the displacement on the CE is less than the HE due to the rod area. Normally expressed in cubic feet per minute or CFM.
22

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Terminology

Capacity

(or flow rate) Volume of gas compressed and delivered at specified conditions of temperature & pressure measured at the compressor inlet. Usually expressed as volume/unit of time - cubic feet per minute or cubic feet per day. Refers to the heat exchanger design 30F approach means the cooler will cool the gas to 130when ambient temperature is 100F.
23

Approach

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Terminology

Swept Volume = The volume swept by the piston during the forward and/or backward stroke. = Compressor speed is not a factor. = Normally expressed in cubic inches and calculated as follows:
Swept Volume HE = Area of Piston X Stroke in Inches Swept Volume CE = (Area of Piston - Area of Rod) X Stroke in Inches Total Swept Volume = (2 X Area of Piston - Area of Rod) X Stroke In Inches

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

24

Terminology

Total Swept Volume Example (DA): 6 Diameter x 7 Stroke 2.5 Piston Rod Diameter Total Swept Volume = (2 X 28.274 - 4.909) X 7 = (56.548 - 4.909) X 7 = 51.639 X 7 = 361.473 cu. In.
25

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Terminology

Units of Measure: PSI PSIG PSIA MMCFD MMSCFD = pounds per square inch = pounds per square inch gauge = pounds per square inch absolute = gauge + atmospheric pressure = million cubic feet per day = million cubic feet per day @ the standard conditions of 14.65psia & 60F

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

26

Terminology

In-Hg

= inches of mercury pressure = can be a manometer or mercury filled gauge, used where pressures are low & extreme accuracy is desired = 1 Hg = .491 PSI = inches of water pressure = usually a manometer filled with water = used for measuring very low pressure = 1/13.6 as heavy as mercury 13.6 of H2O = 1 of Hg = .491 PSI
27

In-H2O

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Terminology

Temperature Scales: Temperature = A measure of molecular energy the higher the temperature the more molecular energy. Degrees Fahrenheit (F) = Temperature scale where, at sea level, the freezing point of water is 32 & the boiling point is 212. The distance between these two points is 180.

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

28

Terminology

Temperature Scales: Degrees Centigrade or Celsius (C) = A scale used worldwide which relates to the metric system. At sea level, the freezing point of pure water is 0 & the boiling point is 100. The distance between these two points is 100.

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

29

Terminology

Temperature Conversion: Convert.exe

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

30

V Inline
Configuration Configuration

Horizontal Opposed
Configuration

Separable Engine
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
31

In In-Line 4

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

32

V - Six

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

33

Horizontal 4

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

34

Separable Compressor Frame

Click Here

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

35

Compressor

Engine
Coupled Separables
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
36

Left Bank

Right Bank

Sheave
3 LH

1L 2L 3L

1R 2R 2 3R 1 RH

4L

4R

Flywheel
5L 5R

Flywheel
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
37

INTEGRAL ENGINECOMPRESSORS

Rod (Pin) Load Definitions


External Rod Load
The external rod load of a reciprocating compressor is a calculation considering the unit in a static state. The calculation for deriving the ERL is: ERL = PD(HA) - PS(CA) where:
PD = Discharge Pressure at the cylinder flange PS = Suction Pressure at the cylinder flange HA = Head End surface area of the piston CA = Crank End surface area of the piston

Internal Rod Load


The internal rod load is often noted as the internal gas rod load of a reciprocating compressor and the terms are synonymous. The IRL is a dynamic rod load calculation based upon the internal gas pressures within the cylinder bore. These gas pressures take into account the dynamic pressure drop characteristics found across the valves and gas passages. The IRL is calculated through 360 rotation of the crankshaft with the highest values being used.

Net Rod Load


The net rod load is considered a dynamic rod load rating. The NRL is the sum of the IRL calculation and the inertia loads of the reciprocating weights. The NRL is calculated through 360 rotation of the crankshaft with the highest values being used. 38

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

ERL Compression
Area of piston in square inches times discharge pressure, minus area of piston, minus area of rod times suction pressure.

2.5

Pd=814.7 PSIA

Ps=214.7 PSIA

= 28.274 x 814.7 - (28.274 - 4.909) x 214.7 = 23,035 - (23.365 x 214.7) = 23.035 - 5016 = 18,019 #
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
39

ERL Tension
Area of piston in square inches, minus area of rod times discharge pressure, minus area of the piston times suction pressure.

2.5

Ps=214.7 PSIA

Pd=814.7 PSIA

= (28.274 - 4.909) x 814.7 - (28.274 x 214.7) = 23.365 x 814.7 - (28.274 x 214.7) = 19,035 - 6070 = 12,965 #
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
40

Piston Rods Exceeding Rod Load


COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
41

Rod (Pin) Reversal


Oil

Piston Rod Crosshead

Crosshead Pin Connecting Rod

Crank Pin

Oil
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
42

Data needed for Compressor Sizing Operating Conditions Gas properties Approximate HP per application Suction Pressure (PS) Discharge Pressure (Pd) Quantity of gas in MMCFD Conditions Assumed: Suction Temp (TS) = 80F Ambient Temp (Ta) = 100F Discharge Temp (Td) required approach = 20F Altitude = < 1500 Atmospheric Pressure = 14psi Specific Gravity = 0.64 N value = 1.26 Sweet Gas
43

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Any Questions?

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

44

Area Classification
Class I: Flammable gases and vapors Within this class are four groups in order of explosive potential This is where most gas compression will be found. Group A: Acetylene Group B: Hydrogen and other gases Group C: Ethylene and other gases Group D: Acetone, Butane, Ethane, Methane, and other gases Class II: Combustible dusts Group E: Metallic dusts Group F: Carbonaceous dusts (e.g.coal) Group G: Agricultural, Chemical, and Plastic dusts Class III: Combustible filings and fibers
45

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

Area Classification
The NEC(National Electric Code) and CEC(Canadian Electric Code) recognize two further divisions distinguished by the likelihood of the material being Present Division 1: Areas where hazardous materials may be present under normal operating conditions. Intrinsically Safe: A system comprising of equipment and interconnecting wiring in which any spark or thermal effect in any part of the system intended for use in the hazardous location is incapable under prescribed conditions of causing ignition of the test gas mixture. Division 2: Areas where hazards arise only as the result of leaks, ventilation, or other unexpected breakdowns. As a rule of thumb the probability of the presence of explosive materials must be less than 1% for an area to be assigned to Division 2. Non-incendive Circuit: A circuit in which any spark or thermal effect, that may occur in normal use, is incapable of causing an ignition of the test gas mixture.
46

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

NEMA Enclosure Standards


NEMA 12 enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against dust, falling dirt and dripping non-corrosive liquids. They are not intended to provide protection against conditions such as internal condensation. NEMA 3 enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust, rain, sleet, and external ice formation. They are not intended to provide protection against conditions such as internal condensation or internal icing. NEMA 3R enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against falling rain; and to be undamaged by the formation of ice on the enclosure. They shall meet rain entry, external icing, and rust-resistance design tests. They are not intended to provide protection against conditions such as dust, internal condensation, or internal icing.
47

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

NEMA Enclosure Standards


NEMA 4 enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, and hose-directed water. They are not intended to provide protection against conditions such as internal condensation or internal icing. NEMA 4X enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against corrosion, windblown dust and rain, splashing water, and hose-directed water. They are not intended to provide protection against conditions such as internal condensation or internal icing. (Must specify 304 or 316 material, 304 will be standard)

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

48

NEMA Enclosure Standards

NEMA 7 enclosures are for indoor use in locations classified as Class I, Groups A, B, C, or D, as defined in the National Electrical Code. NEMA 7 enclosures shall be capable of withstanding the pressures resulting from an internal explosion of specified gases, and contain such an explosion sufficiently that an explosive gas-air mixture existing in the atmosphere surrounding the enclosure will not be ignited. Enclosed heat generating devices shall not cause external surfaces to reach temperature capable of igniting explosive gas-air mixture in the surrounding atmosphere. Enclosures shall meet explosion, hydrostatic, and temperature design tests. Note: If the NEMA 7 enclosure will be used in an outdoor environment a NEMA 7, 4 enclosure can be specified for weather proof.

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

49

Wire Separation

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

50

The Pressure-Volume Card

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

51

What is the P-V Card?


It is a primary tool for determining the reciprocating compressor performance. It describes the relationship of the internal pressures and volumes of a particular end of the compressor cylinder during the compression cycle.

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

52

Ideal Processes in a Compressor


No losses. Perfect gas. Isentropic Process. No piping effects.

Real Processes in a Compressor


Losses. Real gas. Polytropic Process. Piping effects.

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

53

DISCHARGE VALVE CLOSES

DISCHARGE VALVE OPENS

DISCHARGE VOLUME

PRESSURE

RE-EXPANSION

COMPRESSION

SUCTION VALVE OPENS

SUCTION INTAKE VOLUME

SUCTION VALVE CLOSES

STROKE OR VOLUME
MINIMUM CYLINDER VOLUME MAXIMUM CYLINDER VOLUME

HEAD END OUTBOARD DEAD CENTER COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

CRANK END INBOARD DEAD CENTER


54

Typical Single Acting P-V Card

LOSS DUE TO DISCHARGE VALVE

USEFUL WORK
LOSS DUE TO SUCTION VALVE

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

55

Typical Double Acting PV Card

Valve Losses 300

Pressure

100 Valve Losses

Volume
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS
56

Analyzer Analysis Real Cards


JC1C cylinder 8 6/30/2000 11:43:05 AM HE Period 10, CE Period 10
550 500 450

Pressure (psig)

400

Poor Pv Trace

350

300

250

200

25

50 Percent swept volume

75 250

100

JC1C cylinder 2 6/30/2000 11:43:05 AM HE Period 4, CE Period 6

225

200 Pressure (psig)

Acceptable Pv Trace

175

150

125

100

25

50 Percent swept volume

75

100

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

57

PV Card Any Questions?

COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

58