2013 IGU Kyoto Regional Conference
VALORIZATION PROCESS OF VINEYARD LANDSCAPE IN PENEDÈS (SPAIN)
Yuka SAITO(Kinjo-Gakuin University, Nagoya, Japan)
Geographical location of Penedès region
-Penedès is a natural and historical region in south central Catalonia, integrated in the Metropolitan fringe of Barcelona. (Ex. Vilafaranca del Penedès, located at about 40km from Barcelona) -The main part of Penedès region is formed by the Prelitoral Depression that extends between two mountain ranges, of the coastal hills of Garraf, and in the interior, the Prelitoral Mountains. -Being the strategic axis of communication, “Prelitoral Corridor”, most traffic passes through this area. - Traditional economic activity has been agriculture, characterized by the monoculture of vine. In Alt Penedès County, about 80% of farmland is occupied by vine .
Vineyard landscape in Penedès
Penedès, a predominant wine-making region in Spain
Major part of the region is included in the denomination of origin (DO) Penedès. Penedès is also well-known as a region specialized in mass- production of Cava (Spanish sparkling wine). Cava is the most important sector in the Spanish wine industry, occupying 22.8% of the total export. About 95% of Cava production is concentrated in Penedès.
Data of DO Penedès (2011/2012) -Registrated vineyards: 19,679 ha -Anuual Production: 164,021 hl -Number of vine-growers: 4,379 -Number of wine producers: 182 -Export: 50,747 hl
Data of DO Cava (2011/2012) -Registrated vineyards: 31,766 ha -Anuual Production: 1,748,129 hl -Number of vine-growers: 6,497 -Number of wine producers: 416 -Export: 1,180, 199 hl
Caracteristics of landscape of Penedès (Busquets et al., 2009)
Mediterranean agroforest landscape constituted: • A mosaic of pieces of different natural components (vineyards and other crops, woods and hills, brooks and streams, etc...). • Human elements: settlements (traditional rural houses, masia, urban and industrial constructions), rural roads, historical monuments, etc... • Topographical diversity (Prelitoral and Litoral Mountains, Prelitoral Depression). “Humanized” natural landscape closely linked with wine industry.
A panorama of Vilafranca del Penedés from L’ermita de San Pau.
Recent landscape transformation in Penedès (1) Industrial Complex constructed in the
Pressure of extensive growth of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Expansion of residential zones outside of the urban centers Implantation of large industrial complexes and logistic centers (1) Construction of transport infrastructure (2)
middle of vineyard.
Freeway (A7) to Barcelona
(2) AVE (Spanish high speed train) passing though vineyard.
Process to the creation of “Landscape Charter of Alt Penedès”
2001. A Plan to build a waste landfill of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona in Penedès 2002. Organized the Association “ Terra Vitium” 2002. Formed Landscape commission of l’Alt Penedès among Terra Vitium, County Council of l’Alt Penedès, and Government of Catalonia (Generalitat de Catalunya) 2004. Creation of the Landscape Charter of Alt Penedès (La Carta de Paisatge de l’Alt Penedès)
Landscape Charter of Alt Penedès
• Government of Catalonia • Provincial Council of Barcelona • County Council of Alt Penedès • All municipalities of AP
• Association”Terra Vitium” • Cultural associations • Associations of territorial defense • • • •
Agricultural sectors Industrial sectors Touristic sectors Others (Institut del cava, Institut Català de la Vinya i el Vi)
Landscape Charter of Alt Penedès
4 basic agreements:
•To protect, improve and respect the landscape of Alt Penedès. •To implement landscape criteria in different instruments of territorial, sectoral and urban plannning. •To adopt the code of good practices for preservation of vineyard landscape. •To create a body of participation for development of the charter.
Values of vineyard landscape of Penedès (Busquets et al., 2009)
・productive value, as a place of vine-growing and wine-making. ・iconic value, to transmit image of the region (DO Penedès) to wine consumers. ・environmental value, to maintain biodiversity. ・territorial value, to provide a big “green island” or an “oasis” in a congested metropolitan area. ・economic value, to develop new types of leisure (agri tourism, wine-tourism, rural tourism, etc…) ・symbolic value, to improve quality of life, territorial identity.
How to manage vineyard landscape?
The aim of the Landscape Charter of Alt Penedès in not to preserve or “freeze” the landscape, as something static, but to manage it to improve its quality, because it is a dynamic industrial landscape that continues and will continue to evolve as a wine-producing region. To manage this industrial landscape, it is crucial to introduce measures that make compatible the maintenance of productive value of vineyards and the quality of landscape. Especially , understanding and collaboration of vine growers would be needed, who work in the vineyards.
Instruments for landscape management
①Code of good practices for preservation of vineyard landscape in Penedès
-It was elaborated as a guideline of auto-regulation mainly for vine and wine growers to conserve and improve vineyard landscape. -It consists of 40 examples of good practices to respect in favor of landscape.These practices are classified in 5 groups;
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. prevent soil erosion keep agroforestal landscape maintain biodiversity improve built landscape promote vineyard landscape by enotourism.
Publication of “Cards of Good Practices in wineproducing landscape of Penedès”
In 2006, “Cards of Good Practices in wine producing landscape” was published for the purpose of materializing the Code in a guide. These didactic cards were devised not only for vine growers, as an instruction for maintenance of vineyard, but for local people, as a tool of rising-awareness, to transmit the values and importance of the conservation of landscape.
Examples of “Cards of Good practices in wine-producing landscape of Penedès”
②Hiking routes in vineyards
Map of wine footpaths in Subirats
-In the territory of Alt Penedès, there are many hiking routes (footpaths) fixed in vineyards with view points where we can enjoy magnificient sceneries. -By following these routes, we can experience physically the landscape, not only enjoying beautiful sceneries, but learning about cultivation of vine and wine culture, etc... -These experiences would provide us the opportunities to re-discover and reflect on our own territory.
Didactic itineraries in vineyards in Subirats.
Materials for children “Itinerari didàctic de la vinya”
-In the municipality of Subirats, one of the hiking routes is dedicated for school children, as a didactic itinerary in vineyards. -Through this activity, they learn about physical environment where vines grow, the history of wine industry, etc...and rethink why they have to respect their landscape.
Vineyard landscape of Penedès is an industrial landscape strongly linked with the local economic activity, wine industry. It doesn’t mean that this landscape is the property of vine and wine producers of their own, but it is a common assets to be shared among local people.
But sometimes it may be difficult for them to recognize the values of this “ordinary” landscape, with which they live their everyday life. In this sense, activities for rising-awareness and education would play an important role in sharing knowledge and physical experience about landscape.
This case of Penedès tells us that we should conserve vineyard landscape, not because it is beautiful as scenery, but it is a visible representation of the relationship between people and their environment established through traditional activity, wine industry, which symbolizes territorial identity.
Thank you for your attention.
Busquets, Jaume (dir.) (2006): Fitxes de bones pràctiques en el paisatge vitivinícola del Penedès. Barcelona: Departament de Política Territorial i Obres Públiques, Direcció General d’Arquitectura i Paisatge; associació Al Penedès,Vinyes! Busquets, Jaume; Cortina, Albert ; Farré, Carme (2009): Proyecto de gestión del paisaje del Alt Penedès. En: Jaume Busquets y Albert Cortina (coords.) : Gestión del paisaje. Manual de protección, gestión y ordenación del paisaje. Barcelona: Ariel, pp561-579.