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Henry II of France

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Henry II

King of France Reign Coronation Predecessor Successor 31 March 1547 10 July 1559 25 July 1547 Francis I Francis II

Spouse

Catherine de' Medici Issue

Francis II of France Elisabeth, Queen of Spain Claude, Duchess of Lorraine Charles IX of France Henry III of France Margaret, Queen of Navarre and France Francis, Duke of Anjou

House Father Mother

House of Valois Francis I of France Claude, Duchess of Brittany 31 March 1519 Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France 10 July 1559 (aged 40) Paris, France Saint Denis Basilica, France

Born

Died

Burial

Henry II (31 March 1519 10 July 1559) was King of France from 31 March 1547, until his death in 1559.[1]

Early years
Henry was born in the royal Chteau de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany). His father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by his sworn enemy, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and held prisoner in Spain.[2] To obtain his release it was eventually agreed that Henry and his older brother be sent to Spain in his place. They remained in captivity for three years. Henry married Catherine de' Medici (13 April 1519 5 January 1589) on 28 October 1533, when they were both fourteen years old. The following year, he became romantically involved with a thirty-fiveyear-old widow, Diane de Poitiers. They had always been very close: she had publicly embraced him on the day he set off to Spain, and during a jousting tournament, he insisted his lance carry her ribbon instead of his wife's. Diane became Henry's most trusted confidante and, for the next twenty-five years, wielded considerable influence behind the scenes, even signing royal documents. Extremely confident, mature and intelligent, she left Catherine powerless to intervene.[3] She did, however, insist that Henry sleep with Catherine in order to produce heirs to the throne.[4] When his elder brother, Francis, died in 1536 after a game of tennis, Henry became heir to the throne. He succeeded his father on his 28th birthday and was crowned King of France on 25 July 1547 at Cathedral of Notre-Dame in Reims.

[edit] Reign

Coin of Henry II, 1547.

Henry's reign was marked by wars with Austria, and the persecution of the Protestant Huguenots. Henry II severely punished them, particularly the ministers: burning them at the stake or cutting off their tongues for uttering heresies. Even those only suspected of being Huguenots could be imprisoned. The Edict of Chteaubriant (27 June 1551) called upon the civil and ecclesiastical courts to detect and punish all heretics and placed severe restrictions on Huguenots, including the loss of one-third of their property to informers, and confiscations. It also strictly regulated publications by prohibiting the sale, importation or printing of any unapproved book. It was during the reign of Henry II, Huguenot attempts at establishing a colony in Brazil were made, with the short-lived formation of France Antarctique.[5]

"Brazilian ball" for Henry II and Catherine de' Medici in Rouen, 1 October 1550.

Henry II, here standing on an oriental carpet, continued the policy of Franco-Ottoman alliance of his father Francis I. Painting by Franois Clouet.

The Italian War of 15511559, sometimes known as the HabsburgValois War, began when Henry declared war against Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. The continuation of his father's Franco-Ottoman alliance allowed Henry II to push for French conquests towards the Rhine while a Franco-Ottoman fleet defended southern France.[6] An early offensive into Lorraine was successful, with Henry capturing the three episcopal cities of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, but the attempted French invasion of Tuscany in 1553 was defeated at the Battle of Marciano. After Charles's abdication in 1556 split the Habsburg empire between Philip II of Spain and Ferdinand I, the focus of the war shifted to Flanders, where Phillip, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, defeated the French at St. Quentin. England's entry into the war later that year led to the French capture of Calais, and French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Henry was nonetheless forced to accept the Peace of Cateau-Cambrsis, in which he renounced any further claims to Italy.

The Peace of Cateau-Cambrsis (1559). Henry II and Philip II of Spain were in reality absent, and the peace was signed by their ambassadors.

The Peace of Cateau-Cambrsis was signed between Elizabeth I of England and Henry on 2 April and between Henry and Philip II of Spain on 3 April 1559 at Le Cateau-Cambrsis, around twenty kilometers southeast of Cambrai. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, but retained Saluzzo, Calais and the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. Spain retained Franche-Comt. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, married Margaret of France, Duchess of Berry, the sister of Henry II, and Philip II of Spain married Henry's daughter lisabeth. Henry raised the young Mary, Queen of Scots, at his court, hoping to use her to ultimately establish a dynastic claim to Scotland. On 24 April 1558, Henry's fourteen-year-old son Francis was married to Mary in a union intended to give the future king of France not only the throne of Scotland but a claim to the throne of England. Henry had Mary sign secret documents, illegal in Scottish law, that would ensure Valois rule in Scotland even if she died without an heir (Guy 2004:91). Mary's claim to the English throne quickly became an issue when Mary I of England died later in 1558, Henry and his Catholic advisors regarding Elizabeth I unfit to reign because of her illegitimacy.

[edit] Patent innovation

A cypher machine in the shape of a book, with arms of Henri II.

Henry II introduced the concept of publishing the description of an invention in the form of a patent. The idea was to require an inventor to disclose his invention in exchange for monopoly rights to the patent. The description is called a patent specification. The first patent specification was submitted by the inventor Abel Foullon for "Usaige & Description de l'holmetre", (a type of rangefinder.) Publication was delayed until after the patent expired in 1561.[7]

[edit] Death
"Bastard culverin" of 1548, with arms of Henri II and Catherine de Medicis and crescent of Diane de Poitiers. Caliber: 85mm, length: 300cm, weight: 1076kg.

Henry II was an avid hunter and a participant in jousts and tournaments. On 30 June 1559, at the Place des Vosges in Paris, during a match to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrsis with his longtime enemies, the Habsburgs of Austria, and to celebrate the marriage of his daughter Elisabeth of Valois to King Philip II of Spain, King Henry was mortally wounded by the lance of Gabriel Montgomery, captain of the King's Scottish Guard. The lance pierced his eye and, despite the efforts of royal surgeon Ambroise Par, he died on 10 July 1559 from septicemia.[8] He was buried in a cadaver tomb in Saint Denis Basilica.

The fatal tournament between Henry II and Montgomery (Lord of "Lorges").

As Henry lay dying, Queen Catherine limited access to his bedside and denied his mistress Diane de Poitiers access to him, even though he repeatedly asked for her. Following his death, Catherine sent Diane into exile, where she lived in comfort on her own properties until her death. Henry was succeeded by his son, Francis II, who died the following year and was succeeded by his two brothers. Their mother acted as Regent. For the forty years following Henry II's death, France was filled with turbulence as Protestants and Catholics fought the bitter French Wars of Religion.

[edit] Ancestors and Descendants


[hide]Ancestors of Henry II of France

16. Louis I, Duke of Orlans 8. John, Count of Angoulme 17. Valentina Visconti 4. Charles, Count of Angoulme 18. Alain IX of Rohan 9. Marguerite de Rohan 19. Marguerite of Brittany 2. Francis I of France 20. Louis, Duke of Savoy 10. Philip II, Duke of Savoy 21. Anne of Cyprus 5. Louise of Savoy 22. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon 11. Margaret of Bourbon 23. Agnes of Burgundy 1. Henry II of France 24. Louis I de Valois, Duke of Orlans 12. Charles I de Valois, Duke of Orlans 25. Valentina Visconti

6. Louis XII of France 26. Adolph I, Duke of Cleves 13. Marie of Cleves 27. Mary of Burgundy 3. Claude, Duchess of Brittany 28. Richard of Brittany 14. Francis II, Duke of Brittany 29. Marguerite d'Orlans 7. Anne, Duchess of Brittany 30. Gaston IV, Count of Foix 15. Margaret of Foix 31. Eleanor of Navarre

Detail from portrait plaque, enamel and gilding on copper

See Children of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici Henry II also had four illegitimate children:

By Catherine Michelle: Elaine de Francias (15571635). Henry supposedly debated whether or not to give her a title and only on his deathbed did he admit to being her father. He gave her the title Comtesse de Montmorency. It is not known why he was so secretive about this one daughter. By Filippa Duci: Diane, duchesse d'Angoulme (15381619). Some sources have stated that the child was the natural daughter of Henry's long-time mistress, Diane de Poitiers.[according to whom?] This is probably not the case since it is on record that Henry had Filippa Duci watched closely throughout her pregnancy. She gave birth in a convent and it appears that she remained there for the rest of her life. At the age of fourteen, the younger Diane married Orazio Farnese, Duke of Castro, who died young in battle. Her second marriage was to Franois, duc de Montmorency.

By Lady Janet Stewart (15081563), herself an illegitimate daughter of James IV of Scotland: Henri de Valois (1551 June 1586). He was legitimized and became governor of Provence. By Nicole de Savigny: a son, Henri (15571621). He was given the title of comte de Saint-Rmy. One of his last descendants was Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rmy, Comtesse de la Motte, famous for her role in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace.

[edit] Prophecy
Royal styles of

King Henry II
Par la grce de Dieu, Roi de France

Reference style

His Most Christian Majesty

Spoken style

Your Most Christian Majesty

Alternative style

Monsieur le Roi

Nostradamus, a French astrological writer known for his prophecies, is often said to have become famous when one of his quatrains was construed as a prediction of the death of King Henry II: CI, Q 35 The young lion shall overcome the older one, on the field of combat in single battle, He shall pierce his eyes in a golden cage, Two forces one, then he shall die a cruel death. But, in fact, the link was first proposed in print only in 1614,[9] fifty-five years after the event and fortyeight after Nostradamus' death; thus it qualifies as a postdiction, or vaticinium ex eventu. The Italian astrologer Luca Gaurico, a contemporary of Nostradamus, is also said to have predicted the king's death.

[edit] Notes
1. ^ Patrick, David, and Francis Hindes Groome, Chambers's biographical dictionary: the great of all times and nations, (J.B. Lippincott Company, 1907), 482. 2. ^ Tazn, Juan E., The life and times of Thomas Stukeley (c.1525-78), (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003), 16. 3. ^ Arnold-Baker, Charles, The companion to British history, (Routledge, 1996), 254. 4. ^ Princess Michael of Kent (2004). The Serpent and The Moon: two rivals for the love of a Renaissance king. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-743-25104-0.

5. ^ France and the Americas: culture, politics, and history Volume 3, By Bill Marshall, Cristina Johnston p.185ff 6. ^ The Cambridge History of Islam, p.328 7. ^ M. Frumkin, "The Origin of Patents", Journal of the Patent Office Society, March 1945, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, pp 143 et Seq. 8. ^ Classic Encyclopedia Web, Based on 1911 Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica 9. ^ Csar Nostradamus, Histoire et Chronique de Provence, Lyon, Simon Rigaud, 1614

[edit] References

Arnold-Baker, Charles, The companion to British history, Routledge, 1996. Frumkin, M., The Origin of Patents, Journal of the Patent Office Society, March 1945, Vol. XXVII, No. 3, 143. Guy, John, My Heart is my Own, London, Fourth Estate, 2004, ISBN 000719308. Nostradamus, Csar, Histoire et Chronique de Provence, Lyon, Simon Rigaud, 1614 Patrick, David, and Francis Hindes Groome, Chambers's biographical dictionary: the great of all times and nations, J.B. Lippincott Company, 1907. Tazn, Juan E., The life and times of Thomas Stukeley (c.1525-78), Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2003.

Henry II of England
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Henry Plantagenet" redirects here. For others, see :Category:House of Plantagenet.

Henry II

King of England (more...) Reign Coronation Predecessor Successor Junior king 25 October 1154 6 July 1189 19 December 1154 Stephen Richard I Henry the Young King

Spouse

Eleanor of Aquitaine Issue

William IX, Count of Poitiers Henry the Young King Richard I of England Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany Matilda, Duchess of Saxony Eleanor, Queen of Castile Joan, Queen of Sicily and Countess of Toulouse John of England William Longespe, 3rd Earl of Salisbury (Bastard) House Father Mother House of Plantagenet Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou Matilda of England 5 March 1133 Le Mans, France 6 July 1189 (aged 56) Chinon, France Fontevraud Abbey, France

Born

Died

Burial

Henry II (5 March 1133 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (11541189), Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry, the great-

grandson of William the Conqueror, was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England. Henry was the first to use the title "King of England" (as opposed to "King of the English"). He is also known as Henry Curtmantle or Curtmantel (French: Henri Court-manteau) and Henry Fitz-Empress.

Contents
[hide]

1 Early life and descent 2 Marriage and legitimate children 3 Appearance 4 Character 5 Construction of an empire o 5.1 Henry's claims by blood and marriage o 5.2 Taking the English throne o 5.3 Lordship over Ireland o 5.4 Consolidation in Scotland 6 Domestic policy o 6.1 Dominating nobles o 6.2 Legal reform 7 Religious policy o 7.1 Strengthening royal control over the church o 7.2 Murder of Thomas Becket 8 The Angevin Curse o 8.1 Civil war and rebellion o 8.2 Death and succession 9 Ancestry 10 Descendants 11 Fictional portrayals 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References and further reading 15 External links

[edit] Early life and descent


Henry II was born in Le Mans, France, on 5 March 1133.[1] His father, Geoffrey V of Anjou (Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Fulk of Jerusalem), was Count of Anjou and Count of Maine. His mother, Empress Matilda, was a claimant to the English throne as the daughter of Henry I (11001135), son of William The Conqueror, Duke of Normandy. His own claim to the throne was strengthened by his descent from both the English Saxon kings and the kings of Scotland through his maternal grandmother Matilda of Scotland, whose father was Malcolm III of Scotland and whose mother was Margaret of Wessex (St. Margaret of Scotland), granddaughter of Edmund Ironside. He spent his childhood in his father's land of Anjou. At the age of nine, Robert of Gloucester took him to England, where he received education from Master Matthew at Bristol, with the assistance of

Adelard of Bath and possibly Geoffrey of Monmouth. In 1144, he was returned to Normandy where his education was continued by William of Conches.[2]

[edit] Marriage and legitimate children


See also: List of members of the House of Plantagenet

On 18 May 1152, at Poitiers,[3] at the age of 19, Henry married Eleanor of Aquitaine. The wedding was "without the pomp or ceremony that befitted their rank,"[4] partly because only two months previously Eleanor's marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Their relationship, always stormy, eventually disintegrated: after Eleanor encouraged her children to rebel against their father in 1173, Henry had her placed under house arrest, where she remained for fifteen years.[5] Henry and Eleanor had eight children, William, Henry, Richard, Geoffrey, John, Matilda, Eleanor, and Joan. William died in infancy. As a result Henry was crowned as joint king when he came of age. However, because he was never king in his own right, he is known as "Henry the Young King", not Henry III. In theory, Henry would have inherited the throne from his father, Richard his mother's possessions, Geoffrey would have Brittany, and John would be Lord of Ireland. However, fate would ultimately decide much differently. It has been suggested by John Speed's 1611 book, History of Great Britain, that another son, Philip, was born to the couple. Speed's sources no longer exist, but Philip would presumably have died in early infancy.[6]

[edit] Appearance
Several sources record Henry's appearance. They all agree that he was very strong, energetic and surpassed his peers athletically. ...he was strongly built, with a large, leonine head, freckle fiery face and red hair cut short. His eyes were grey and we are told that his voice was harsh and cracked, possibly because of the amount of open-air exercise he took. He would walk or ride until his attendants and courtiers were worn out and his feet and legs were covered with blisters and sores... He would perform all athletic feats.
John Harvey (Modern)

...the lord king has been red-haired so far, except that the coming of old age and grey hair has altered that colour somewhat. His height is medium, so that neither does he appear great among the small, nor yet does he seem small among the great... curved legs, a horseman's shins, broad chest, and a boxer's arms all announce him as a man strong, agile and bold... he never sits, unless riding a horse or eating... In a single day, if necessary, he can run through four or five day-marches and, thus foiling the plots of his enemies, frequently mocks their plots with surprise sudden arrivals... Always are in his hands bow, sword, spear and arrow, unless he be in council or in books.
Peter of Blois (Contemporary)

A man of reddish, freckled complexion, with a large, round head, grey eyes that glowed fiercely and grew bloodshot in anger, a fiery countenance and a harsh, cracked voice. His neck was poked forward slightly from his shoulders, his chest was broad and square, his arms strong and powerful. His body

was stocky, with a pronounced tendency toward fatness, due to nature rather than self-indulgence which he tempered with exercise.
Gerald of Wales (Contemporary)

[edit] Character
Like his grandfather, Henry I of England, Henry II had an outstanding knowledge of the law. A talented linguist and excellent Latin speaker, he would sit on councils in person whenever possible. He dressed casually except when tradition dictated otherwise and ate a sparing diet.[7] He was modest and mixed with all classes easily. "He does not take upon himself to think high thoughts, his tongue never swells with elated language; he does not magnify himself as more than man".[8] His generosity was well-known and he employed a Templar to distribute one tenth of all the food brought to the royal court amongst his poorest subjects. Henry also had a good sense of humour and was never upset at being the butt of the joke. Once while he sat sulking and occupying himself with needlework, a courtier suggested that such behaviour was to be expected from a descendant of the bastard son of a tanner's daughter (referring to his greatgrandfather William the Conqueror being the son of Herleva, daughter of Fulbert a tanner from the Norman town of Falaise). The king rocked with laughter and even explained the joke to those who did not immediately grasp it.[9] "His memory was exceptional: he never failed to recognise a man he had once seen, nor to remember anything which might be of use. More deeply learned than any king of his time in the western world".[7] In contrast, the king's temper has been written about. His actions against Thomas Becket are evidence of his blinding temper, along with his conflict with William I of Scotland.[10]

[edit] Construction of an empire


Main article: Angevin Empire [edit] Henry's claims by blood and marriage Henry II depicted in Cassell's History of England (1902).

Henry's father, Geoffrey Plantagenet, held rich lands as a vassal from Louis VII of France. Maine and Anjou were therefore Henry's by birthright, amongst other lands in Western France.[4] By maternal claim, Normandy was also to be his. From a contemporary perspective, however, the most notable inheritance Henry received from his mother was a claim to the English throne. Granddaughter of William the Conqueror, Empress Matilda was to be queen regnant of England, but her throne was usurped by her cousin, Stephen of England. Henry's efforts to restore the royal line to his own family would create a dynasty spanning three centuries and thirteen kings. Henry's marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine placed him firmly in the ascendancy.[4] His plentiful lands were added to his new wife's possessions, giving him control of Aquitaine and Gascony. The riches of the markets and vineyards in these regions, combined with Henry's already plentiful holdings, made Henry the most powerful vassal in France.

[edit] Taking the English throne

Realising Henry's royal ambition was far from easily fulfilled; his mother had been pushing her claim for the crown for several years to no avail, finally retiring in 1147. It was 1147 when Henry had accompanied Matilda on an invasion of England. It soon failed due to lack of preparation,[4] but it made him determined that England was his mother's right, and so his own. He returned to England again between 1149 and 1150. On 22 May 1149 he was knighted by King David I of Scotland, his great uncle, at Carlisle.[11] Early in January 1153, just months after his wedding, he crossed the Channel one more time. His fleet was 36 ships strong, transporting a force of 3,000 footmen and 140 horses.[12] Sources dispute whether he landed at Dorset or Hampshire, but it is known he entered a small village church. It was 6 January and the locals were observing the Festival of the Three Kings. The correlation between the festivities and Henry's arrival was not lost on them. "Ecce advenit dominator Dominus, et regnum in manu ejus", they exclaimed as the introit for their feast, "Behold the Lord the ruler cometh, and the Kingdom in his hand."[11] Henry moved quickly and within the year he had secured his right to succession via the Treaty of Wallingford with Stephen of England. He was now, for all intents and purposes, in control of England. When Stephen died in October 1154, it was only a matter of time until Henry's treaty would bear fruit, and the quest that began with his mother would be ended. On 19 December 1154 he was crowned in Westminster Abbey, "By The Grace Of God, Henry II, King Of England".[11]He was thus the first to be crowned "King of England", as opposed to "King of the English."[13] Henry Plantagenet, vassal of Louis VII, was now more powerful than the French king himself. Henry used the title Rex Angliae, Dux Normaniae et Aquitaniae et Comes Andigaviae (King of England, Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, Count of Anjou).[14]
[edit] Lordship over Ireland See also: Norman invasion of Ireland

Shortly after his coronation, Henry sent an embassy to the newly elected Pope Adrian IV. Led by Bishop Arnold of Lisieux, the group of clerics requested authorisation for Henry to invade Ireland. Some historians suggest that this resulted in the papal bull Laudabiliter. Whether this donation is genuine or not, Edmund Curtis says, is one of "the great questions of history."[15] It is possible Henry acted under the influence of a "Canterbury plot," in which English ecclesiastics strove to dominate the Irish church.[16] However, Henry may have simply intended to secure Ireland as a lordship for his younger brother William. William died soon after the plan was hatched and Ireland was ignored. It was not until 1166 that it came to the surface again. In that year, Dermot McMurrough, King of Leinster, was driven from his lands by Rory O'Conor, the High King of Ireland. Diarmait followed Henry to Aquitaine, seeking an audience. Henry promised to help him reassert control and made footmen, knights and nobles available for the cause. Their leader was a Welsh Norman, Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed "Strongbow". In exchange for his loyalty, Diarmait offered Earl Richard his daughter Aoife (Eva) in marriage and made him heir to his kingdom. The Normans quickly restored Diarmait to his kingdom, but it soon became apparent that Henry had not helped purely out of kindness, and was now worried that Strongbow and his Cambro-Norman supporters would become independent of him. In 1171 Henry arrived from France with an army and

declared himself "Lord of Ireland". All of the Normans, along with many Irish princes, took oaths of homage to Henry by November, and he left after six months. He never returned, but in 1177 he named his youngest son, Prince John, as Lord of Ireland. This process started 800 years of English overlordship on the island. At the Synod of Cashel in 1172 Church reforms were introduced. The 1175 Treaty of Windsor was agreed with King Rory O'Conor, but soon broke down.
[edit] Consolidation in Scotland

In 1174, a rebellion spearheaded by his own sons was not Henry's biggest problem. An invasion force from Scotland, led by their king, William the Lion, was advancing from the North. To make matters worse, a Flemish armada was sailing for England, just days from landing. It seemed likely that the king's rapid growth was to be checked.[1] Henry saw his predicament as a sign from God, that his treatment of Becket would be rewarded with defeat. He immediately did penance at Canterbury[1] for the Archbishop's fate and events took a turn for the better. The hostile armada dispersed in the English Channel and headed back for the continent. Henry had avoided a Flemish invasion, but Scottish invaders were still raiding in the North. Henry sent his troops to meet the Scots at Alnwick, where the English scored a devastating victory. William was captured in the chaos, removing the figurehead for rebellion, and within months all the problem fortresses had been torn down. Southern Scotland was now completely dominated by Henry, another fief in his Angevin Empire, that now stretched from the Solway Firth almost to the Mediterranean and from the Somme to the Pyrenees. By the end of this crisis, and his sons' revolt, the king was "left stronger than ever before".[17]

[edit] Domestic policy


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[edit] Dominating nobles

During Stephen's reign, the barons in England had undermined Royal authority. Rebel castles were one problem, nobles avoiding military service was another. The new king immediately moved against the illegal fortresses that had sprung up during Stephen's reign, having them torn down. To counter the problem of avoiding military service, scutage became common. This tax, which Henry's barons paid in lieu of military service, allowed the king to hire mercenaries. These hired troops were used to great effect by both Henry and his son Richard, and by 1159 the tax was central to the king's army and his authority over vassals.
[edit] Legal reform

Henry II's reign saw the establishment of Royal Magistrate courts.[citation needed] This allowed court officials under authority of the Crown to adjudicate local disputes, reducing the workload on Royal courts proper and delivering justice with greater efficiency.

Henry also worked to make the legal system fairer. Trial by ordeal and trial by combat were still common in the 12th century. By the Assize of Clarendon in 1166, supplemented a decade later by the Assize of Northampton, a precursor to trial by jury was implemented. However, this group of "twelve lawful men," as the Assize commonly refers to it, provided a service more similar to a grand jury, alerting court officials to matters suitable for prosecution. Despite these reforms, trial by ordeal continued until the Fourth Council of the Lateran forbade the participation of the clergy in 1215 and trial by combat was still legal in England until 1819, albeit only rarely resorted to after the twelfth century. Nevertheless, Henry's support of juries was a great contribution to the country's social history and allowed for a smoother transition from ordeal to jury than was managed in other European nations where trial by inquisition and even torture became commonplace.

[edit] Religious policy


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Artist's impression of Henry II, circa 1620 Main article: Becket controversy [edit] Strengthening royal control over the church

In the tradition of Norman kings, Henry II was keen to have secular law predominate over the law of the church. The clergy had a free hand, and were not required to obey laws of the land that conflicted with the governance of the church. Henry wanted the laws of the land to be obeyed by all, clergy and laity alike. At Clarendon Palace on 30 January 1164, the king set out sixteen constitutions, aimed at decreasing ecclesiastical interference from Rome. Secular courts would also have jurisdiction over clerical trials and disputes. Henry's authority guaranteed him majority support, but the newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury refused to ratify the proposals. Henry was characteristically stubborn, and on 8 October 1164, he called archbishop Thomas Becket before the Royal Council. Becket, however, had fled to France and was under the protection of Henry's rival, Louis VII of France.

The king continued doggedly in his pursuit of control over his clerics. By 1170, the pope was considering excommunicating all of Britain. Only Henry's agreement that Becket could return to England without penalty prevented this fate. Thus, the separation of England and the Church of Rome was forestalled until Henry VIII.
[edit] Murder of Thomas Becket

"What miserable drones and traitors have I nurtured and promoted in my household who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born cleric!" were the words which sparked the darkest event in Henry's religious wranglings. This speech has translated into legend in the form of "Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest?"a provocative statement which would perhaps have been just as riling to the knights and barons of his household at whom it was aimed as his actual words. Bitter at his old friend Becket, constantly thwarting his clerical constitutions, the king shouted in anger but possibly not with intent. However, four of Henry's knights, Reginald Fitzurse, Hugh de Morville, Lord of Westmorland, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton overheard their king's cries and decided to act on his words. On 29 December 1170, they entered Canterbury Cathedral, finding Becket near the stairs to the crypt. They beat down the Archbishop, killing him with several blows. Becket's brains were scattered upon the ground with the words; "Let us go, this fellow will not be getting up again". Whatever the rights and wrongs, it certainly tainted Henry's later reign. For the remaining 20 years of his rule, he would personally regret the death of a man who "in happier times...had been a friend".[18] Just three years later, Becket was canonised and revered as a martyr against secular interference in God's church; Pope Alexander III had declared Becket a saint. Plantagenet historian John Harvey believes "The martyrdom of Thomas Becket was a martyrdom which he had repeatedly gone out of his way to seek...one cannot but feel sympathy towards Henry".[18] Wherever the true intent and blame lie, it was yet another sacrifice to the ongoing war between church and state.

[edit] The Angevin Curse


[edit] Civil war and rebellion

It is the common fate of sons to be misunderstood by their fathers, and of fathers to be unloved of their sons, but it has been the particular bane of the English throne.[19]

The "Angevin Curse" of the Plantagenet rulers is infamous. Trying to divide his lands amongst numerous ambitious children resulted in many problems for Henry. The king's plan for an orderly transfer of power relied on Young Henry ruling and his younger brothers doing homage to him for land. However, Richard refused to be subordinate to his brother, because they had the same mother and father, and the same Royal blood.[20] Also, Richard was his mother's favorite, and had been promised the rulership of Aquitaine; when Henry attempted to overset this arrangement, Richard was enraged and rebellious. In 1173, Young Henry and Richard moved against their father and his succession plans, trying to secure the lands they were promised. The king's changing and revising of his inheritance nurtured jealousy in his offspring, which turned to revolt. While both Young Henry and Richard were relatively strong in France, they still lacked the manpower and experience to trouble their father unduly. The king

crushed this first rebellion and was fair in his punishment, Richard for example, lost half of the revenue allowed to him as Count of Poitou.[20] In 1182, the Plantagenet children's aggression turned inward. Young Henry, Richard and their brother Geoffrey all began fighting each other for their father's possessions on the continent. The situation was exacerbated by French rebels and the king of France, Philip Augustus. This was the most serious threat to come from within the family yet, and the king faced the dynastic tragedy of civil war. However, on 11 June 1183, Henry the Young King died. The uprising, which had been built around the Prince, promptly collapsed and the remaining brothers returned to their individual lands. Henry quickly occupied the rebel region of Angoulme to keep the peace.[20] The final battle between Henry's Princes came in 1184. Geoffrey of Brittany and John of Ireland, the youngest brothers, had been promised Aquitaine, which belonged to elder brother Richard.[20] Geoffrey and John invaded, but Richard had been controlling an army for almost 10 years and was an accomplished military commander. Richard expelled his fickle brothers and they would never again face each other in combat, largely because Geoffrey died two years later, leaving only Richard and John.
[edit] Death and succession

Tombs of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine in Fontevraud Abbey

The final thorn in Henry's side would be an alliance between his eldest surviving son, Richard, and his greatest rival, Philip Augustus. John had become Henry's favourite son and Richard had begun to fear he was being written out of the king's inheritance.[20] In summer 1189, Richard and Philip invaded Henry's heartland of power, Anjou. The unlikely allies took northwest Touraine, attacked Le Mans and overran Maine and Tours. Defeated, Henry II met his opponents and agreed to all their demands, including paying homage to Philip for all his French possessions. Weak, ill, and deserted by all but an illegitimate son, Geoffrey, Archbishop of York, Henry died at Chinon on 6 July 1189. His legitimate children, chroniclers record him saying, were "the real bastards".[21] The victorious Prince Richard later paid his respects to Henry's corpse as it travelled to Fontevraud Abbey, upon which, according to Roger of Wendover, 'blood flowed from the nostrils of the deceased, as if...indignant at the presence of the one who was believed to have caused his death'. The Prince, Henry's eldest surviving son and conqueror, was crowned "by the grace of God, King Richard I of England" at Westminster on 1 September 1189.

[edit] Ancestry
[hide]Ancestors of Henry II of England

16. Geoffrey, Count of Gtinais 8. Fulk IV of Anjou 17. Ermengarde of Anjou 4. Fulk V of Anjou 18. Simon I de Montfort 9. Bertrade de Montfort 19. Agnes, Countess of Evreux 2. Geoffrey V of Anjou 20. John de Beaugency 10. Elias I of Maine 21. Paula of Maine 5. Ermengarde of Maine 22. Gervais, Lord of Chteau-du-Loir 11. Matilda of Chteau-duLoir 1. Henry II of England 24. Robert I of Normandy 12. William I of England 25. Herleva of Falaise 6. Henry I of England 26. Baldwin V, Count of Flanders 13. Matilda of Flanders 27. Adle of France 3. Empress Matilda 28. Duncan I of Scotland 14. Malcolm III of Scotland 29. Suthen 7. Matilda of Scotland 30. Edward the Exile 15. Margaret of Scotland 31. Agatha

[edit] Descendants
For a list of Henry's male-line descendants, see List of members of the House of Plantagenet. Henry had a number of mistresses, including Rosamund Clifford. One of the daughters of Eleanor's exhusband Louis VII, Alys, originally sent to Henry's court to marry Richard, was also said to be Henry's mistress.

Henry also had illegitimate children. While they were not valid claimants, their royal blood made them potential problems for Henry's legitimate successors.[20] William Longespe was one such child. He remained largely loyal and contented with the lands and wealth afforded to him as a royal bastard. Geoffrey, Bishop of Lincoln, Archbishop of York, on the other hand, was seen as a possible thorn in the side of Richard I of England.[20] Geoffrey had been the only son to attend Henry II on his deathbed, after even the king's favourite son, John Lackland, deserted him.[17] Richard forced him into the clergy at York, thus ending his secular ambitions.[20] Another son, Morgan was elected to the Bishopric of Durham, although he was never consecrated due to opposition from Pope Innocent III.[22]

[edit] Fictional portrayals


Henry is a central character in the plays Becket by Jean Anouilh and The Lion in Winter by James Goldman. Peter O'Toole portrayed him in the film adaptations of both of these plays Becket (1964) and The Lion in Winter (1968) for both of which he received nominations for the Academy Award for Best Actor. He was also nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best British Actor for Becket and won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Motion Picture Drama for both films. Patrick Stewart portrayed Henry in the 2003 TV film adaptation of The Lion in Winter, for which he was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television. Curtmantle, a 1961 play by Christopher Fry, also tells the story of Henry II's life, as remembered by William Marshall. Brian Cox portrayed him in the 1978 BBC TV series The Devil's Crown, which dramatised his reign and those of his sons. He has also been portrayed on screen by William Shea in the 1910 silent short Becket, A. V. Bramble in the 1923 silent film Becket, based on a play by Alfred Lord Tennyson, Alexander Gauge in the 1952 film adaptation of the T. S. Eliot play Murder in the Cathedral, and Dominic Roche in the 1962 British children's TV series Richard the Lionheart. Henry is a significant character in the historical fiction/medieval murder mysteries Mistress of the Art of Death, The Serpent's Tale and Grave Goods by Diana Norman, writing under the pseudonym Ariana Franklin. He also plays a part in Ken Follett's most popular novel, The Pillars of the Earth, which in its final chapter fictionalizes the king's penance at Canterbury Cathedral for his unknowing role in the murder of Thomas Becket. He is a major character in three of the novels of Sharon Kay Penman known as the Plantagenet Trilogy: When Christ and His Saints Slept, Time and Chance, and The Devil's Brood. The novels tell his life story from before his birth to his death. Henry is played by David Warner in Mike Walker's BBC Radio 4 series Plantagenet (2010).

[edit] See also


House of Plantagenet List of English monarchs

[edit] Notes
1. 2. 3. 4. ^ a b c Harvey, The Plantagenets, p.47 ^ Barber, Richard (2003). Henry Plantagenet. Boydell Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780851159935. ^ Thelma Anna Leese, Blood royal, 1996, p.189 ^ a b c d Harvey, The Plantagenets, p.49

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

^ Harvey, The Plantagenets, p.51 ^ Weir, Alison, Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life, pp.154155, Ballantine Books, 1999 ^ a b Harvey, The Plantagenets, p.40 ^ Walter Map, Contemporary ^ Harvey, The Plantagenets, p.43 ^ Farquhar, Michael (2001). A Treasure of Royal Scandals, p.173. Penguin Books, New York. ISBN 0739420259. ^ a b c Harvey. The Plantagenets. pp. 50. ^ Harvey, The Plantagenets, p.48 ^ "Henry II the 'First' King of England". http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2654741. Canute (r. 1016 1035) was "king of all England" (ealles Engla landes cyning). ^ "King Henry II". http://www.royalist.info/execute/biog?person=112. ^ Curtis, Edmund (2002). A History of Ireland from Earliest Times to 1922. New York: Routledge. pp. 38 39. ISBN 0415279496. ^ Warren, Henry II ^ a b Harvey, The Plantagenets ^ a b John Harvey, The Plantagenets, p.45 ^ Harvey, Richard I, p.58 ^ a b c d e f g h Turner & Heiser, The Reign of Richard Lionheart ^ Simon Schama's A History of Britain, Episode 3, "Dynasty" ^ British History Online Bishops of Durham. Retrieved 25 October 2007.

[edit] References and further reading


Richard Barber, The Devil's Crown: A History of Henry II and His Sons (Conshohocken, PA, 1996) Robert Bartlett, England Under The Norman and Angevin Kings 10751225 (2000) J. Boussard, Le government d'Henry II Plantagnt (Paris, 1956) John D. Hosler Henry II: A Medieval Soldier at War, 11471189 (History of Warfare; 44) Brill Academic Publishers, 2007 ISBN 9004157247 John Harvey, The Plantagenets John Harvey, Richard I Ralph Turner & Richard Heiser, The Reign of Richard Lionheart W.L. Warren, Henry II (London, 1973)

[edit] External links


Henry II at the Open Directory Project Henry II World History Database Medieval Sourcebook: Angevin England The Henry Project

Flanders
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search "Flandre" redirects here. For the ship, see SS Flandre. "Flandern" redirects here. For the ship, see SS Flandern. For other uses, see Flanders (disambiguation).

Flanders in red (northern half of Belgium). Brussels is in some contexts considered part of Flanders and in other contexts separate.

Flag of Flanders

Flanders (Dutch: Vlaanderen (helpinfo), French: Flandre) is the (political) community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. Over the course of history, the geographical territory that was called "Flanders" has varied. For centuries, Flanders has served as the crossroads between the French, German, and British civilizations. To the English speaking peoples, Flanders meant historically (from circa 1000 AD) the land situated along the North Sea from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary. The southern borders were generally ill defined.[1] Over the last millennium, it was mostly the southern and western borders that receded to give the present day borders within northern Belgium. Flanders has figured prominently in European history. Between the early 17th century and 1945, the political outcomes of modern Spain, France, Britain, The Netherlands, Germany, and Austria were often decided by battles on the plains of Flanders. Even earlier in British and Irish history, the Flemings or Flemish were important allies of the Normans in their conquest of England (1066) and invasion of Ireland (11691171).[2] In contemporary Belgium, there is pressure to consider Flanders as the 'country of the Flemings' rather than just a region of Belgium. As it stands by statute today, however, Flanders consists of the north of Belgium (the Flemish Region) and the Brussels Capital Region, which is part of the Flemish Community. Brussels is also part of the French Community of Belgium. The use of the name Belgium in the legal name of only one Community has led to enormous political discourse throughout Belgium. For the last few decades, with the legal establishment of the Flemish Community (Dutch: de Vlaamse Gemeenschap), the Flemings have their own political institutions. The parliament and government are the governing institutions of Flanders. There is also a geographical, political and administrative entity

called the Flemish Region (Dutch: het Vlaams Gewest) but it has ceded all its competencies to the Flemish Community. Thus, the institutions of the Community govern both the Community and the Region. The capital city of Flanders is Brussels. In feudal times, Flanders formed a county, the County of Flanders, which extended over the present day:

Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, French regions French Flanders in the dpartment Nord-Pas de Calais and extending into neighboring dpartments, Dutch region Zeelandic Flanders (Zeeuws-Vlaanderen) in the province of Zeeland

Related to these geographical or political uses of the noun 'Flanders', and the adjective 'Flemish', they may also be used to describe several other distinct (but inter-connected) cultural, geographical, historical, linguistic or political items or entities.

Contents
[hide]

1 The term "Flanders" o 1.1 The northern part of Belgium o 1.2 The historical parts of the County of Flanders o 1.3 The Dutch-speaking part of Belgium 2 History o 2.1 Early history o 2.2 Historical Flanders: County of Flanders o 2.3 Flanders in the Low Countries 2.3.1 Beeldenstorm 2.3.2 The Eighty Years' War and its consequences 2.3.3 15811795: The Southern Netherlands 2.3.4 17951815: French Revolution and Napoleonic France 2.3.5 18151830: United Kingdom of the Netherlands o 2.4 Kingdom of Belgium 2.4.1 Rise of the Flemish Movement 2.4.2 World War I and its consequences 2.4.3 Right-Wing Nationalism in the interbellum and World War II 2.4.4 Communautary quibbles and the Egmont pact 2.4.5 Recent events 2.4.5.1 Fake revolution 2.4.5.2 Belgian federal elections 3 Government and politics o 3.1 Politics o 3.2 Flemish nation 4 Administrative divisions 5 Geography and climate 6 Economy 7 Demographics 8 Language and culture 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

[edit] The term "Flanders"


[edit] The northern part of Belgium

The term "Flanders" has several main meanings:

the social, cultural and linguistic, scientific and educational, economical and political community of the Flemings; generally called the "Flemish community" (small "c") (others refer to this as the "Flemish nation"). It has over 6 million inhabitants, or about 60% of the population of Belgium. the constituent governing institution of the federal Belgian state through the institutions named the Flemish Community (capital "C"), exercising the powers in most of those domains for the aforementioned community, and the officially Dutch-speaking Flemish Region which has powers mainly

on economical matters. The Community absorbed the Region, leading to a single operative body: the Flemish Government and a single legislative organ: the Flemish Parliament; the geographical region in the north of Belgium coinciding with the federal Belgian state's Flemish Region but excluding the bilingual Capital Region; the geographical area comprising the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, parts of a former county named Flanders.

[edit] The historical parts of the County of Flanders

In Belgium: When Flandria appeared in the 8th century, it was a Frank fief centered on Bruges. Probably, it is derived from the German word flauma, which means Flooded Land[citation needed]. That should refer to the polders surrounding Bruges before the counts of Flanders expanded their territory. In the 14th century the county reached her maximum size and became the wealthiest part of the Seventeen Provinces. It extended over the Belgian provinces of East Flanders, West Flanders and Hainaut. In France: In the 14th century the French kings involved Picardy. That's why French was spoken there. The area was called la Flandre romane (Romance Flanders) or la Flandre gallicante (Gallic Flanders), or incorrectly Flandre-wallonne (Walloon Flanders) though its language was not Walloon but Picard. In the 16th century, also Artois has been involved by the French. In 17th and 18th century, king Louis XIV of France conquered more French areas in the south, still named French Flanders or la Flandre Lilloise. French Flanders contains the departements Nord and Pas de Calais), comprising the arrondissements of Lille and Douai. Originally Dutch was spoken there; there is still spoken a Flemish dialect in some rural areas near Dunkirk. The city of Lille manifests itself as "Flemish", for instance by the large TGV station Lille-Flandres.

Main articles: French Flanders and Nord (department)

In the Netherlands: At the same time, the United Provinces took some area in the north. This area is known as Zeelandic Flanders (Zeeuws-Vlaanderen) and is part of the province of Zeeland.

Main article: Zeelandic Flanders [edit] The Dutch-speaking part of Belgium

The significance of the County and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a very broad sense. In the Early Modern, the term Flanders was associated with the southern part of the Low Countries, the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became increasingly commonplace to refer to the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium as "Flanders". The linguistic limit between French and Dutch was recorded in the early '60's, from Kortrijk to Maastricht. Now, Flanders extends over the northern part of Belgium, including the Belgian parts of the Duchy of Brabant and Limburg. The ambiguity between this eastwardly much wider area and that of the Countship (or the Belgian parts thereof), still remains. In most present-day contexts however, the term Flanders is generally taken to refer to either the political, social, cultural and linguistic community (and the corresponding official institution, the Flemish Community), or the geographical area, one of the three institutional regions in Belgium, namely the Flemish Region.

In history of art and other fields, the adjectives Flemish and Netherlandish are commonly used to designate all the artistic production in this area before about 1580, after which it refers specifically to the southern Netherlands. For example the term Flemish Primitives, now outdated in English but used in French, Flemish and other languages, is a synonym for Early Netherlandish painting, and it is not uncommon to see Mosan art categorized as Flemish art. In music the Franco-Flemish School is also known as the Dutch School. The description of Flanders as the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium is, nevertheless, fundamentally flawed as Flanders includes many permanent minorities. For many centuries, the Jewish groups of Antwerp have spoken Yiddish. There are also sizable minorities speaking French, Berber, Turkish, Arabic, Spanish, Italian and Polish. There are residents from 170 nationalities in Flanders. Typically, in each of those minority groups, some people switch to using Dutch in their daily life, while others maintain their language of origin. Especially among the Flemish from Moroccan and Turkish origin, there is an extremely high tendency for marriage with partners from the country of origin. This permanent influx of new migrants significantly hinders the integration of these groups.

[edit] History
[edit] Early history Main article: Origins of the Belgae

The area, roughly encompassing the later geographical meanings of Flanders, had been inhabited by Celts until Germanic people began immigrating by crossing the Rhine, either gradually driving them south- or westwards, or rather merging with them. By the first century BC Germanic languages had become prevalent, and the inhabitants were called Belg while the area was the coastal district of Gallia Belgica, the most northeastern province of the Roman Empire at its height. The boundaries were the Marne and Seine in the West, with Armorica (Brittany), and the Rhine in the East, with Frisia. This changed upon the Count of Rouen's settlement with the King of France, which made a cession of western Flanders and eastern Armorica to the Normans.
[edit] Historical Flanders: County of Flanders Main article: County of Flanders

Created in the year 862 as a feudal fief in West Francia, the County of Flanders was divided when its western districts fell under French rule in the late 12th century. The remaining parts of Flanders came under the rule of the counts of neighbouring Hainaut in 1191. The entire area passed in 1384 to the dukes of Burgundy, in 1477 to the Habsburg dynasty, and in 1556 to the kings of Spain. The western districts of Flanders came finally under French rule under successive treaties of 1659 (Artois), 1668, and 1678. During the late Middle Ages Flanders' trading towns (notably Ghent, Bruges and Ypres) made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe, weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export. As a consequence, a very sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of Northern Italy. Ghent, Bruges, Ypres and the Franc of Bruges formed the Four Members, a form of parliament which exercised considerable power in Flanders.[3] Increasingly powerful from the 12th century, the territory's autonomous urban communes were instrumental in defeating a French attempt at annexation (13001302), finally defeating the French in

the Battle of the Golden Spurs (July 11, 1302), near Kortrijk. Two years later, the uprising was defeated and Flanders remained part of the French Crown. Flemish prosperity waned in the following century, however, owing to widespread European population decline following the Black Death of 1348, the disruption of trade during the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War (13381453), and increased English cloth production. Flemish weavers had gone over to Worstead and North Walsham in Norfolk in the 12th century and established the woolen industry.
[edit] Flanders in the Low Countries Main article: Low Countries

[edit] Beeldenstorm In 1500, Charles V was born in Ghent. He inherited the Seventeen Provinces (1506), Spain (1516) with its colonies and in 1519 was elected Holy Roman Emperor.[4] The Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, issued by Charles V, established the Low Countries as the Seventeen Provinces (or Spanish Netherlands in its broad sense) as an entity separate from the Holy Roman Empire and from France. In 1556 Charles V abdicated due to ill health (he suffered from crippling gout).[5] Spain and the Seventeen Provinces went to his son, king Philip II of Spain. Meanwhile, Protestantism had reached the Low Countries. Among the wealthy traders of Antwerp, the Lutheran beliefs of the German Hanseatic traders found appeal, perhaps partly for economic reasons in Dutch. The spread of Protestantism in this city was aided by the presence of an Augustinian cloister (founded 1514) in the St. Andries quarter. Luther, an Augustinian himself, had taught some of the monks, and his works were in print by 1518. The first Lutheran martyrs came from Antwerp. The Reformation resulted in consecutive but overlapping waves of reform: a Lutheran, followed by a militant Anabaptist, then a Mennonite, and finally a Calvinistic movement. These movements existed independently of each other.

Relief statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century.[6]

Philip II was a devout Catholic and self-proclaimed protector of the Counter-Reformation suppressed Calvinism in Flanders, Brabant and Holland (what is now approximately Belgian Limburg was part of the Bishopric of Lige and was Catholic de facto). In 1566, the iconoclasm (Beeldenstorm) break out as protest against Philip II. The demolition of statues and paintings depicting saints. This was associated with the ensuing religious war between Catholics and Protestants, especially the Anabaptists. The Beeldenstorm started in what is now the arrondissement of Dunkirk in French Flanders, with open-air sermons (Dutch: hagepreken). The first took place on the Cloostervelt near Hondschoote. The first large sermon was held near Boeschepe on July 12, 1562. These open-air sermons, mostly of Anabaptist or Mennonite signature, spread through the country. On August 10, 1566 at the end of the pilgrimage from Hondschoote to Steenvoorde, the chapel of the Sint-Laurensklooster (Monastery of Saint Lawrence) was defaced by Protestants. The iconoclasm resulted not only in the destruction of Catholic art, but also cost the lives of many priests. It next spread to Antwerp, and on August 22, to Ghent. One cathedral, eight churches, twenty-five cloisters, ten hospitals and seven chapels were attacked. From there, it further spread east and north, but in total lasted not even a month. [edit] The Eighty Years' War and its consequences Subsequently, Philip II sent the Duke of Alba to the Provinces to repress the revolt. Alba recaptured the southern part of the Provinces, who signed the Union of Atrecht, which meant that they would accept the Spanish government on condition of more freedom. But the northern part of the provinces signed the Union of Utrecht and settled in 1581 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. Spanish troops quickly started fighting the rebels, but before the revolt could be completely defeated, a war between England and Spain had broken out, forcing Philip's Spanish troops to halt their advance. Meanwhile, the Spanish armies had already conquered the important trading cities of Bruges and Ghent. Antwerp, which was then arguably the most important port in the world, also had to be conquered. On August 17, 1585, Antwerp fell. This ended the Eighty Years' War for the (from now on) Southern Netherlands. The United Provinces (the Netherlands proper) fought on until 1648 the Peace of Westphalia. While Spain was at war with England, the rebels from the north, strengthened by refugees from the south, started a campaign to reclaim areas lost to Philips II's Spanish troops. They managed to conquer a considerable part of Brabant (the later Noord-Brabant of the Netherlands), and the south bank of the Scheldt estuary (Zeeuws-Vlaanderen), before being stopped by Spanish troops. The front line at the end of this war stabilized and became the current border between present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The Dutch (as they later became known) had managed to reclaim enough of Spanish-controlled Flanders to close off the river Scheldt, effectively cutting Antwerp off from its trade routes. First the fall of Antwerp to the Spanish and later also the closing of the Scheldt were causes of a considerable emigration of Antverpians.[7] Many of the Calvinist merchants of Antwerp and also of other Flemish cities left Flanders and emigrated to the north. A large number of them settled in Amsterdam, which was at the time a smaller port, only of significance in the Baltic trade. In the following years Amsterdam was rapidly transformed into one of the world's most important ports. Because of the contribution of the Flemish exiles to this transformation, the exodus is sometimes described as "creating a new Antwerp".

Flanders and Brabant, due to these events, went into a period of relative decline from the time of the Thirty Years War.[8] In the Northern Netherlands however, the mass emigration from Flanders and Brabant became an important driving force behind the Dutch Golden Age. [edit] 15811795: The Southern Netherlands

1609 map of the county of Flanders

Although arts remained at a relatively impressive level for another century with Peter Paul Rubens (15771640) and Anthony van Dyck, Flanders experienced a loss of its former economic and intellectual power under Spanish, Austrian, and French rule, with heavy taxation and rigid imperial political control compounding the effects of industrial stagnation and Spanish-Dutch and FrancoAustrian conflict. The Southern Netherlands suffered severely under the Spanish Succession war, but under the reign of empress Maria-Theresia these lands economically flourished again. Influenced by the Enlightenment, the Austrian emperor Joseph II was the first sovereign who has been in the Southern Netherlands since king Philip II of Spain left them in 1559.
This section requires expansion.

[edit] 17951815: French Revolution and Napoleonic France In 1794 the French Republican Army started using Antwerp as the northernmost naval port of France,[8] which country officially annexed Flanders the following year as the dpartements of Lys, Escaut, Deux-Nthes, Meuse-Infrieure and Dyle. Obligatory (French) army service for all men aged 1625 was one of the main reasons for the people's uprising against the French in 1798, known as the Boerenkrijg (Peasants' War), with the heaviest fighting in the Campine area. [edit] 18151830: United Kingdom of the Netherlands After the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at the 1815 Battle of Waterloo in Waterloo, Brabant, sovereignty over the Austrian Netherlands Belgium minus the East Cantons and Luxembourg was given by the Congress of Vienna (1815) to the United Netherlands (Dutch: Verenigde Nederlanden), the state that briefly existed under Sovereign Prince William I of Orange Nassau, the latter King William I of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, after the French Empire was driven out of the Dutch territories. The United Kingdom of the Netherlands was born. The Protestant King of the Netherlands, William I rapidly started the industrialisation of the southern parts of the Kingdom. The political system that was set up however, slowly but surely failed to forge a true union between the northern and the southern parts of the Kingdom. The southern bourgeoisie mainly was Roman Catholic,

in contrast to the mainly Protestant north; large parts of the southern bourgeoisie also primarily spoke French rather than Dutch. In 1815 the Dutch Senate was reinstated (Dutch: Eerste Kamer der Staaten Generaal). The nobility, mainly coming from the south, became more and more estranged from their northern colleagues. Resentment grew both among the Roman Catholics from the south and the Protestants from the north and among the powerful liberal bourgeoisie from the south and their more moderate colleagues from the north. On August 25, 1830 (after the showing of the opera 'La Muette de Portici' of Daniel Auber in Brussels) the Belgian Revolution sparked off and became a fact. On October 4, 1830, the Provisional Government (Dutch: Voorlopig Bewind) proclaimed the independence which was later confirmed by the National Congress that issued a new Liberal Constitution and declared the new state a Constitutional Monarchy, under the House of Saxe-Coburg. Flanders now became part of the Kingdom of Belgium, which was recognized by the major European Powers on January 20, 1831. The de facto dissidence was only finally recognized by the United Kingdom of the Netherlands on April 19, 1839.
[edit] Kingdom of Belgium

In 1830, the Belgian Revolution led to the splitting up of the two countries. Belgium was confirmed as an independent state by the Treaty of London of 1839, but deprived of the eastern half of Limburg (now Dutch Limburg), and the Eastern half of Luxembourg (now the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg) . Sovereignty over Zeeuws Vlaanderen, south of the Westerscheldt river delta, was left with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which was allowed to levy a toll on all traffic to Antwerp harbour until 1863.[8] [edit] Rise of the Flemish Movement
Main article: Flemish movement This section requires expansion.

The Belgian Revolution was not well supported in Flanders and even on the 4th of October 1830, when the Belgian independence was eventually declared, Flemish authorities refused to take orders from the new Belgian government in Brussels. Only after Flanders was subdued with the aid of a large French military force one month later, under the leadership of the Count de Pontcoulant, Flanders became a true part of Belgium. The French-speaking bourgeoisie showed very little respect for the Flemish part of the population. French became the only official language in Belgium and all secondary and higher education in the Flemish language was abolished. Belgium's co-founder, Charles Rogier, wrote in 1832 to Jean-Joseph Raikem, the minister of justice: "Les premiers principes d'une bonne administration sont bass sur l'emploi exclusif d'une langue, et il est vident que la seule langue des Belges doit tre le franais. Pour arriver ce rsultat, il est ncessaire que toutes les fonctions civiles et militaires soient confies des Wallons et des Luxembourgeois; de cette manire, les Flamands, privs temporairement des avantages attachs ces emplois, seront contraints d'apprendre le franais, et l'on dtruira ainsi peu peu l'lment germanique en Belgique."

"The first principles of a good administration are based upon the exclusive use of one language, and it is evident that the only language of the Belgians should be French. In order to achieve this result, it is necessary that all civil and military functions are entrusted to Walloons and Luxemburgers; this way, the Flemish, temporarily deprived of the advantages of these offices, will be constrained to learn French, and we will hence destroy bit by bit the Germanic element in Belgium." In 1838, another co-founder, senator Alexandre Gendebien, even declared that the Flemish were "one of the more inferior races on the Earth, just like the negroes". In 1834, all people even remotely suspected of being "Flemish minded" or calling for the reunification of the Netherlands were prosecuted and their houses looted and burnt. Flanders, until then a very prosperous European region, was not considered worthwhile for investment and scholarship. A study in 1918 demonstrated that in the first 88 years of its existence, 80% of the Belgian GNP was invested in Wallonia. This led to a widespread poverty in Flanders, forcing roughly 300.000 Flemish to emigrate to Wallonia to start working there in the heavy industry. All of these events led to a silent uprising in Flanders against the French-speaking domination. But it was not until 1878 that Dutch was allowed to be used for official purposes in Flanders, although French remained the only official language in Belgium. A remarkable case happened in 1872. Jozef Schoep, a Fleming, presented himself at the town hall of Sint-Jans Molenbeek to declare the birth of his son. The civil servant noted the declarations made in Dutch by Schoep in French and also addressed him in French. Schoep didn't understand the language and left the town hall as a sign of protest, without having signed the necessary documents. The Brussels' court condemned him to a fine of 50 Francs plus tax. Schoep rejected this verdict, accompanied by two solicitors who both stated that they would plead in Dutch. The president of the court at first didn't allow this, but afterwards changed his mind. Eventually, the pleaders were allowed to use Dutch on the condition that their pleas would be translated into French by an official interpreter because the judges didn't know a single word of Dutch. Schoep's sollicitors also demanded that the State would have its plea translated, but this was again rejected by the court. Eventually the case went to the supreme court, which ruled that pleading in Dutch would be forbidden. Its verdict was based on the so-called freedom of language and that no-one could ask from any judge to know any other language but French. Mr. Schoep's son had to wait until 1882 before he'd receive a legal birth certificate. His father had died in the mean time. One year later, Dutch was again allowed in secondary schools; the first of which reopened in 1889. The Flemings had to wait until 1919after many Flemish soldiers died in the trenches of World War Ito have their language officially recognised and until 1930 before the first Flemish university was reopened. The first translation of the Belgian constitution in Dutch was not published until 1967. [edit] World War I and its consequences Flanders (and Belgium as a whole) saw some of the greatest loss of life on the Western Front of the First World War, in particular from the three battles of Ypres. Due to the hundreds of thousands of casualties at Ypres, the poppies that sprang up from the battlefield afterwards, later immortalised in the Canadian poem "In Flanders Fields", written by John McCrae, have become a symbol for lives lost in war.

Flemish feeling of identity and consciousness grew through the events and experiences of war. The German occupying authorities had taken several Flemish-friendly measures. More importantly, the experiences of many Dutch-speaking soldiers on the front led by French speaking officers catalysed Flemish emancipation. The French speaking officers barked the orders in French, followed by "et pour les Flamands, la mme chose", which basically meant, "Same thing for the Flemish", which obviously did not help the Flemish conscripts, who were mostly uneducated farmers and workers, who didn't speak French at all.[citation needed] The resulting suffering is still remembered by Flemish organizations during the yearly Yser pilgrimage in Diksmuide at the monument of the Yser Tower. [edit] Right-Wing Nationalism in the interbellum and World War II
Main articles: VNV, Verdinaso, Dietsland, and Cyriel Verschaeve This section requires expansion.

During the interbellum and World War II, several right-wing fascist and/or national-socialistic parties emerged in Belgium, of which the Flemish ones drew unto the feeling of discrimination by the Wallonians against the Flemish. Since these parties were promised more rights for the Flemings by the German government during World War II, some of them collaborated with the Nazi regime. After the war, collaborators (or people who were "Zwart", "Black" during the war) were of course prosecuted and punished, and amongst those were much Flemish Nationalists, whose main goal was more rights for Flanders. As a result, up until this day Flemish Nationalism is often associated with right wing and fascist ideologies. [edit] Communautary quibbles and the Egmont pact
Main articles: Egmont pact, Voeren, and Brussel-Halle-Vilvoorde This section requires expansion.

[edit] Recent events


[edit] Fake revolution

Main article: Flemish Secession hoax

On 13 December 2006, a spoof news broadcast by the Belgian Francophone public broadcasting station RTBF declared that Flanders had decided to declare independence from Belgium, and that the King and Queen of Belgium had already left the country by plane. Images were shown of people celebrating and waving flags in the background. Within minutes of the beginning of the broadcast, the news station was flooded with calls from concerned French speaking Belgians. It was only half an hour after the beginning of the broadcast that the disclaimer "This is fiction" was displayed. It was revealed that the programme had been broadcast to stimulate discussion of this subject.[9]
[edit] Belgian federal elections

The 2007 elections showed an extraordinary outcome in terms of support for Flemish autonomy. All the political parties that advocated a significant increase of Flemish autonomy increased their share of the votes and seats in the Belgian parliament. This was especially the case for CD&V and N-VA

(forming a cartel). In addition, the very assertive Lijst Dedecker gained a spectacular entry in parliament. It got even slightly ahead of the greens (Groen!). The outright secessionist Vlaams Belang remained strong, but stalled. The main parties advocating more or less the current Belgian institutions and only modest increases in Flemish autonomy severely lost (Groen!, OpenVLD, and especially SP.A). The 2009 regional elections have strengthened the parties in favor a significant increase of Flemish autonomy: CD&V and N-VA were the clear winners, while LDD consolidated its position, whereas openVLD, SP.A and Groen! further decreased their voters' share. These victories for the advocates of much more Flemish autonomy are very much in parallel with opinion polls that show a structural increase in popular support for their agenda. Since 2006, certain polls have started showing a majority in favor of Flemish independence. Those polls are not yet representative, but they point to a significant long-term trend. Several negotiators having come and gone since the last federal elections of 10 June 2007 without diminishing the disagreements between Flemish and Walloon politicians regarding a further State reform, causing difficulties for the formation of the federal government and ultimately leading to the fall of the government and new elections on June 13, 2010. These were won by the pro-independence party of the N-VA in Flanders.

[edit] Government and politics


Main article: Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium

Both the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region are constitutional institutions of the Kingdom of Belgium with precise geographical boundaries. In practice, the Flemish Community and Region together form a single body, with its own parliament and government, as the Community legally absorbed the competences of the Region. The area of the Flemish Community is represented on the maps above, including the area of the Brussels-Capital Region (hatched on the relevant map). Roughly, the Flemish Community exercises competences originally oriented towards the individuals of the Community's language: culture (including audiovisual media), education, and the use of the language. Extensions to personal matters less directly associated with language comprise sports, health policy (curative and preventive medicine), and assistance to individuals (protection of youth, social welfare, aid to families, immigrant assistance services, etc.).[10] The area of the Flemish Region is represented on the maps above. It has a population of around 6 million (excluding the Dutch-speaking community in the Brussels Region, grey on the map for it is not a part of the Flemish Region). Roughly, the Flemish Region is responsible for territorial issues in a broad sense, including economy, employment, agriculture, water policy, housing, public works, energy, transport, the environment, town and country planning, nature conservation, credit, and foreign trade. It supervises the provinces, municipalities, and intercommunal utility companies.[11] The number of Dutch-speaking Flemish people in the Capital Region is estimated to be between 11% and 15% (official figures do not exist as there is no language census and no official subnationality). According to a survey conducted by the Universit Catholique de Louvain in Louvain-La-Neuve and published in June 2006, 51% of respondents from Brussels claimed to be bilingual, even if they do not have Dutch as their first language.[12][13] They are governed by the Brussels Region for economics affairs and by the Flemish Community for educational and cultural issues.

As of 2005, Flemish institutions such as Flanders' government, parliament, etc. represent the Flemish Community and the Flemish region. The region and the community thus de facto share the same parliament and the same government. All these institutions are based in Brussels. Nevertheless, both bodies (the Community and the Region) still exist and the distinction between both is important for the people living in Brussels. Members of the Flemish parliament who were elected in the Brussels Region cannot vote on affairs belonging to the competences of the Flemish Region. The official language for all Flemish institutions is Dutch. French enjoys a limited official recognition in a dozen municipalities along the borders with French-speaking Wallonia, and a large recognition in the bilingual Brussels Region. French is widely known in Flanders, with 59% claiming to know French according to a survey conducted by the Universit catholique de Louvain in Louvain-La-Neuve and published in June 2006.[14][15]
[edit] Politics Main article: Politics of Flanders

Many new political parties during the last half century were founded in Flanders: the nationalist Volksunie of which the right nationalist Vlaams Blok (Vlaams Belang) split off, and which later dissolved into the former SPIRIT (now SLP), moderate nationalism rather left of the spectrum, and the NVA, more conservative moderate nationalism; the leftist alternative/ecological Groen!; the short-lived anarchistic libertarian spark ROSSEM and more recently the conservative-right liberal Lijst Dedecker, founded by Jean-Marie Dedecker.
[edit] Flemish nation Main article: Flemish Movement

For many Flemings, Flanders is more than just a geographical area or the federal institutions (Flemish Community and Region). Some even call it a nation: a people of over 6 million living in the Flemish Region and in the Brussels-Capital Region. Flemings share many political, cultural, scientific, social and educational views. Although most Flemings identify themselves more with Flanders than with Belgium, the largest group defines itself as both Flemish and Belgian. The idea of an independent Flanders finds its root in the romantic nationalism of the 19th century.[citation needed]

[edit] Administrative divisions


Main article: Provinces of Belgium#Provinces of the Flemish Region

The Flemish Region covers 13,522 km2 (5,221 sq mi) and contains over 300 municipalities. It is divided into 5 provinces:
1. Antwerp (Antwerpen) 2. Limburg (Limburg)

3. East Flanders (Oost-Vlaanderen) 4. Flemish Brabant (Vlaams-Brabant) 5. West Flanders (West-Vlaanderen)

Independently from the provinces, Flanders has its own local institutions in the Brussels-Capital Region, being the Vlaamse GemeenschapsCommissie (VGC), and its municipal antennae (Gemeenschapscentra, community centers for the Flemish community in Brussels). These institutions are independent from the educational, cultural and social institutions which depend directly on the Flemish Government. They exert, among others, all those cultural competences that outside Brussels fall under the provinces.

[edit] Geography and climate


Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges and Leuven are the largest cities of the Flemish Region. Antwerp has a population of more than 470,000 citizens and is the largest city, Ghent has a population of 240,000 citizens, followed by Bruges with 120,000 citizens and Leuven counts almost 100,000 citizens. Brussels is a part of Flanders as far as community matters are concerned, but does not belong to the Flemish Region. Flanders has two main geographical regions: the coastal Yser basin plain in the north-west and a central plain. The first consists mainly of sand dunes and clayey alluvial soils in the polders. Polders are areas of land, close to or below sea level that have been reclaimed from the sea, from which they are protected by dikes or, a little further inland, by fields that have been drained with canals. With similar soils along the lowermost Scheldt basin starts the central plain, a smooth, slowly rising fertile area irrigated by many waterways that reaches an average height of about five metres (16.4 ft) above sea level with wide valleys of its rivers upstream as well as the Campine region to the east having sandy soils at altitudes around thirty metres[16] Near its southern edges close to Wallonia one can find slightly rougher land richer of calcium with low hills reaching up to 150 m (492 ft) and small valleys, and at the eastern border with the Netherlands, in the Meuse basin, there are marl caves (mergelgrotten). Its exclave around Voeren between the Dutch border and the Walloon province of Lige attains a maximum altitude of 288 m (945 ft) above sea level.[17][18] The climate is maritime temperate, with significant precipitation in all seasons (Kppen climate classification: Cfb; the average temperature is 3 C (37 F) in January, and 18 C (64 F) in July; the average precipitation is 65 millimetres (2.6 in) in January, and 78 millimetres (3.1 in) in July).

[edit] Economy
Total GDP of the Flemish Region in 2004 was 165,847 million (Eurostat figures). Per capita GDP at purchasing power parity was 23% above the EU average. Flanders was one of the first continental European areas to undergo the Industrial Revolution, in the 19th century. Initially, the modernization relied heavily on food processing and textile. However, by the 1840s the textile industry of Flanders was in severe crisis and there was famine in Flanders (1846 50). After World War II, Antwerp and Ghent experienced a fast expansion of the chemical and petroleum industries. Flanders also attracted a large majority of foreign investments in Belgium, among others thanks to its well-educated and industrious labour force.[citation needed] The 1973 and 1979 oil crises sent the economy into a recession. The steel industry remained in relatively good shape. In the 1980s

and 90s, the economic centre of Belgium continued to shift further to Flanders. Nowadays, the Flemish economy is mainly service-oriented, although its diverse industry remains a crucial force.[citation needed] Flemish productivity per capita is between 20 and 25% higher than that in Wallonia.[citation needed] Flanders has developed an excellent transportation infrastructure of ports, canals, railways and highways.[citation needed] The Port of Antwerp is the second-largest in Europe, after Rotterdam.[19] In 1999, the euro, the single European currency, was introduced in Flanders. It replaced the Belgian franc in 2002. The Flemish economy is strongly export oriented, in particular of high value-added goods.[citation needed] The main imports are food products, machinery, rough diamonds, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, clothing and accessories, and textiles. The main exports are automobiles, food and food products, iron and steel, finished diamonds, textiles, plastics, petroleum products, and nonferrous metals. Since 1922, Belgium and Luxembourg have been a single trade market within a customs and currency unionthe Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union. Its main trading partners are Germany, the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States and Spain.[citation needed]

[edit] Demographics
The highest population density is found in the area circumscribed by the Brussels-Antwerp-GhentLeuven agglomerations that surround Mechelen and is known as the Flemish Diamond, in other important urban centres as Bruges and Kortrijk to the west, and notable centres Turnhout and Hasselt to the east. In April 2005 the Flemish Region had a population of 6,058,368, and about 15% of the 1,018,029 people in the Brussels Region are also considered Flemish.[20] The (Belgian) laicist constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the various government generally respects this right in practice. Since independence, Catholicism, counterbalanced by strong freethought movements, has had an important role in Belgium's politics, since the 20th century in Flanders mainly via the Christian trade union (ACV) and the Christian Democrat party (CD&V). According to the 2001 Survey and Study of Religion,[21] about 47 percent of the Belgian population identify themselves as belonging to the Catholic Church, while Islam is the second-largest religion at 3.5 percent. A 2006 inquiry in Flanders, considered more religious than Wallonia, showed that 55% considered themselves religious, and 36% believed that God created the world.[22] (See also Religion in Belgium). Education is compulsory from the ages of six to 18, but most Flemings continue to study until around 23. Among the OECD countries in 1999, Flanders had the third-highest proportion of 1821-year-olds enrolled in postsecondary education. Flanders also scores very high in international comparative studies on education. Its secondary school students consistently rank among the top three for mathematics and science. However, the success is not evenly spread: ethnic minority youth score consistently lower, and the difference is larger than in most comparable countries. Mirroring the historical political conflicts between the freethought and Catholic segments of the population, the Flemish educational system is split into a laque branch controlled by the communities, the provinces, or the municipalities, and a subsidised religiousmostly Catholicbranch controlled by both the communities and the religious authoritiesusually the dioceses. It should however be noted thatat least for the Catholic schoolsthe religious authorities have very limited power over these schools. Smaller school systems follow 'methodical pedagogies' (Steiner, Montessori, Freinet, ...) or

serve the Jewish and Protestant minorities. During the school year 2003-2004, 68.30% of the total population of children between the ages of six and 18 went to subsidized private schools (both religious schools or 'methodical pedagogies' schools). [23]

[edit] Language and culture


Main articles: Dutch language, Flemish people, and Flemish Movement This section does not cite any references or sources.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (February 2009)

The standard language in Flanders is Dutch; a single authority, the Nederlandse Taalunie, comprising appointees of the Belgian and Netherlands governments, sets standards for spelling and grammar. The term Flemish can be applied to the Dutch spoken in Flanders; it shows many regional and local variants. At first sight, Flemish culture is defined by its language and its gourmandic mentality, as compared to the more Calvinistic Dutch culture. Although Flanders has never existed as an independent country, a tradition of Flemish literature has existed for centuries; with writers and poets such as Guido Gezelle, who not only explicitly referred to his writings as Flemish, but actually used it in many of his poems, and strongly defended it: Original Translation "Gij zegt dat t vlaams te niet zal gaan: "You say Flemish will disappear: t zal niet! It will not! dat t waals gezwets zal boven staan: that Walloonish rantings will prevail: t zal niet! It will not! Dat hopen, dat begeren wij: This we hope, this we crave: dat zeggen en dat zweren wij: this we say and this we swear: zo lang als wij ons verdedigen, wij: as long as we defend ourselves, we: t zal niet, t zal niet, It will not, It will not, t zal niet!" It will not!" This distinction in literature is also made by some experts such as Kris Humbeeck, professor of Literature at the University of Antwerp.[24] Nevertheless, the near totality of Dutch-language literature read (and appreciated to varying degrees) in Flanders is the same as in the Netherlands. Influential Flemish writers include Ernest Claes, Stijn Streuvels and Felix Timmermans; their novels mostly describe rural life in Flanders in the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. They were widely read by the elder generation but are considered somewhat old-fashioned by present day critics. Some famous Flemish writers from the early 20th century wrote in French, like Nobel Prize winners (1911) Maurice Maeterlinck and Emile Verhaeren. Still widely read and translated into other languages (including English) are the novels of authors like Willem Elsschot, Louis Paul Boon and Hugo Claus. The younger generation is represented by novelists like Tom Lanoye, Herman Brusselmans and the poet Herman de Coninck. Flanders is also famous for its Flemish art.

[edit] See also


Burgundian Netherlands Count of Flanders Flemish Movement Flemish Parliament Flemish Primitives Seventeen Provinces Wallonia

[edit] References
1. ^ The Random House Dictionary of the English Language, the Unabridged Edition, NY, 1966 2. ^ Curtis, Edmund (2002). A History of Ireland from Earliest Times to 1922. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0 415 27949 6. 3. ^ Philip the Good: the apogee of Burgundy by Richard Vaughan, p201 4. ^ William Robertson, The History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V (NY, 1874), p 116 5. ^ William Robertson, The History of the Reign of the Emperor Charles V (NY, 1874), p 456 6. ^ The birth and growth of Utrecht 7. ^ Footnote: An Antverpian, derived from Antverpia, the Latin name of Antwerp, is an inhabitant of this city; the term is also the adjective expressing that its substantive is from or in that city or belongs to it. 8. ^ a b c "Antwerp History". Find it in Flanders. Tourism Flanders & Brussels, Flanders House, London, UK. http://www.visitflanders.co.uk/cont61_Antwerp_history.aspx. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 9. ^ "Fictional documentary about Flemish independence causes consternation in Belgium - Wikinews, the free news source". En.wikinews.org. http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Fictional_documentary_about_Flemish_independence_causes_consterna tion_in_Belgium. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 10. ^ "The Communities". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. http://www.belgium.be/eportal/application?origin=navigationBanner.jsp&event=bea.portal.framewor k.internal.refresh&pageid=indexPage&navId=2686. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 11. ^ "The Regions". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. http://www.belgium.be/eportal/application?origin=navigationBanner.jsp&event=bea.portal.framewor k.internal.refresh&pageid=indexPage&navId=2690. Retrieved 2007-05-23. 12. ^ (French) Report of study by the Universit Catholique de Louvain 13. ^ (Dutch) Article at Taaluniversum.org summarising report 14. ^ (French) Report of study by Universit Catholique de Louvain 15. ^ (Dutch) Taaluniversum.org, summarising report 16. ^ The altitude of Mechelen, approximately in the middle of the central plain forming the large part of Flanders, is 7 m (23 ft) above sea level. Already closer to the higher southern Wallonia, the more eastern Leuven and Hasselt reach altitudes up to about 40 m (131 ft) "Kingdom of Belgium map (politically outdated)". http://www.planetware.com/map/belgium-kingdom-of-belgium-map-bbelg.htm. Retrieved 15 May 2007. 17. ^ Ir. Jan Strubbe in collaboration with Dr. Frank Mostaert and Ir. Koen Maeghe. "Flood management in Flanders with special focus on navigable waterways" (PDF). Ministry of the Flemish Community, department Environment and Infrastructure (Waterbouwkundig Laboratorium, Flanders Hydraulics Research, Administratie Waterwegen en Zeewezen). http://watlab.lin.vlaanderen.be/documents/Position%20paper%20Flanders%20def3.pdf. Retrieved 2007. "Flanders is covered by the three major catchment basins (Yser, Scheldt and Meuse). This rather lowlying nearly flat region (2 to 150 m/6492 ft altitude above sea-level) ..."

18. ^ Myriam Dumortier, Luc De Bruyn, Maarten Hens, Johan Peymen, Anik Schneiders, Toon Van Daele, Wouter Van Reeth, Gisle Weyembergh and Eckhart Kuijken (2006) (PDF). Biodiversity Indicators 2006 State of Nature in Flanders (Belgium). Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO), Brussels. ISBN 90-403-0251-0. http://www.inbo.be/docupload/2648.pdf. Retrieved 2007. "The altitude ranges from a few meters above sea-level in the Polders to 288 m (945 ft) above sea-level in the south eastern exclave." 19. ^ "Focus on the port". Port of Antwerp. http://www.portofantwerp.com/portal/page/portal/POA_EN/Focus%20op%20de%20haven/Een%20w ereldhaven. Retrieved September 27, 2009. 20. ^ Official statistics of Belgium 21. ^ "Belgium". International Religious Freedom Report 2004. US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2004. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35444.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-28. 22. ^ Inquiry by 'Vepec', 'Vereniging voor Promotie en Communicatie' (Organisation for Promotion and Communication), published in Knack magazine 22 November 2006 p. 14 [The Dutch language term 'gelovig' is in the text translated as 'religious', more precisely it is a very common word for believing in particular in any kind of God in a monotheistic sense, and/or in some afterlife. 23. ^ "Education in Flanders" (PDF). A broad view of the Flemish educational landscape. Ministry of the Flemish Community. 2005. http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/publicaties/2005/educationinflandersbroadview.pdf. Retrieved 200911-02. 24. ^ "De beste bron van informatie over abc2004.". Abc2004.be. http://www.abc2004.be/login/components/public/main.php?action=getStatenItem&id=4&lang=1. Retrieved 2010-05-11.

[edit] External links


Look up Flanders in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Flanders

(English) Flemish authorities (Dutch: Vlaamse overheid) (Dutch) Flemish authorities (Dutch: Vlaamse overheid) Flemish Government (Dutch: Vlaamse regering) Flemish Community Council in Brussels (Dutch: Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie (VGC)) (English) Visit Flanders (English) Flanders Today (Weekly independent magazine on Flanders) Toerisme Vlaanderen Dag Vlaanderen (French) French Flanders (Dutch) Flanders reaches 6 million inhabitants

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flanders"

Gabriel, comte de Montgomery


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Gabriel de Lorges comte de Montgomery (1530-1574), by Feron Eloi Firmin. Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, seigneur de Lorges (5 May 1530 26 June 1574), a French nobleman, was a captain in Henry II's Scots Guards. He is remembered for mortally injuring Henry in a jousting accident and subsequently converting to Protestantism, the faith that the Scottish Guard sought to suppress. On either 30 June or 1 July 1559, during a jousting match to celebrate the Peace of Cateau Cambrsis between Henry II and his longtime Habsburg enemies, a splinter of wood from Montgomery's shattered lance pierced Henry's eye and entered his brain, mortally injuring him. From his deathbed Henry absolved Montgomery of any blame, but, finding himself disgraced, Montgomery retreated to his estates in Normandy. There he studied theology and converted to Protestantism, making him an enemy of the state.

The fatal tournament between Henry II and Montgomery (Lord of "Lorges").

Remains of the Montgomery Tower in the wall of Philippe Auguste in Paris, where Montgomery was briefly imprisoned after accidentally killing Henry II in a jousting accident. Rue des Jardins-Saint-Paul, Paris. In 1562, Montgomery allied himself with another Protestant convert, Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Cond. He was one of the few refugees to survive the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre after a wounded Huguenot swam across the Seine to warn him that rioting had begun. He took control of Bourges and during September and October defended Rouen from the Royal Army. A price was put on his head, but he managed to escape to England. The queen mother, Catherine de' Medici, asked Queen Elizabeth I for his extradition, but Elizabeth refused.

German print of the Siege of La Rochelle (1572-1573), with the city in the background, and the fleet of Montgomery in the upper left corner. Montgomery returned to France with a fleet in an attempt to relieve the Siege of La Rochelle in 1573 and the following year he attempted an insurrection in Normandy, but was captured and sentenced to death. On 26 June 1574, as he was about to be beheaded, Montgomery was informed that a royal edict had proclaimed that his property would be confiscated and his children deprived of their titles. A freely adapted version of Montgomery's life is told in Alexandre Dumas' novel The Two Dianas. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopdia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gabriel,_comte_de_Montgomery"

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