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7.1.2.

Problem Description
This is a dynamic analysis of dropping an aluminum container on a steel table top. As shown below, the container is a five-sided square box, 20 inches on all sides and 0.1 inches thick. It has been rotated 45o about each of the X, Y, and Z axes. The table top is a square steel plate 100 inches on each side and 0.1 inches thick. The only force acting on the box is its own weight. It is dropped from a distance of 72 inches. The problem is typical of a drop test. The objective of the problem is to demonstrate the explicit dynamics capabilities of ANSYS LS-DYNA -- ideal for large deformation and complex contact dynamic problems. 7.1.2.1. Given The dimensions of the container and table top are shown above. The container is made of aluminum alloy with Young's modulus of 10.3E6 psi, density of 2.5E-4 lbf-sec2/in4, Poisson's ratio of 0.334, Yield Stress of 5,000 psi, and a tangent modulus of 20,000 psi. The table top is made of carbon steel with Young's modulus of 30.0E6 psi, density of 7.3E-4 lbf-sec2/in4, and Poisson's ratio of 0.292.

7.1.3. Define Analysis Type


7.1.3.1. Step 1: Set Preferences. You will first set preferences in order to filter quantities that pertain to this discipline only. 1. 2. 3. 4. Main Menu> Preferences (check) Individual discipline(s) to show in the GUI = Structural (check) Discipline options = LS-DYNA Explicit [OK]

7.1.4. Input Geometry


7.1.4.1. Step 2: Read in geometry of the container. You will begin by reading in a file that includes the model of the container. 1. Utility Menu> File> Read Input from ... 2. File name: container.inp UNIX version:
/ansys_inc/v110/ansys/data/models/container.inp

PC version:

\Program Files\Ansys Inc\V110\ANSYS\data\models\container.inp

3. [OK]

7.1.5. Define Element Type, Real Constants, Material Model Properties


7.1.5.1. Step 3: Define element type. Since the model is a container made of thin walls hitting the surface of a table, shell elements will be used to simulate the physical model. More precisely, SHELL163, an explicit thin structural shell, is the element of choice. This 4-node element can take both in-plane and normal loads. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete [Add...] LS-DYNA Explicit (left column) Thin Shell 163 (right column) [OK] Now, specify the S/R corotational Hughes-Liu element formulation to eliminate certain hourglass modes. 6. 7. 8. 9. [Options...] (drop down) Element Formulation = S/R corotation [OK] [Close]

7.1.5.2. Step 4: Define real constants. Next, define the thickness of the shell elements by defining the appropriate real constant. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants [Add...] [OK] to choose element Type 1 for SHELL163. [OK] to define real constant set No. 1. SHRF = 1 NIP = 2 (For demonstration purposes in this tutorial, the default value of 2 is sufficient. However, for most nonlinear analyses, the NIP should be set higher than 2.) 7. T1 = 0.1 8. T2 = 0.1 9. T3 = 0.1 10. T4 = 0.1 11. NLOC = Mid surface 12. [OK]

13. [Close] 7.1.5.3. Step 5: Specify material models. Now specify material models for the contact and target surfaces. 1. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models 2. (double-click) LS-DYNA, then Rigid Material to specify the table top, which is Material Model Number 1. 3. DENS = 7.3e-4 4. EX = 30e6 5. NUXY = 0.292 6. (drop down) Translational Constraint Parameter = All disps. 7. (drop down) Rotational Constraint Parameter = All rotations 8. [OK] 9. Material> New Model to specify the material for the container, which is Material Model Number 2. 10. Define Material ID = 2 11. [OK] 12. (double-click) Nonlinear, then Inelastic, then Kinematic Hardening, then Bilinear Kinematic 13. DENS = 2.5e-4 14. EX = 10.3e6 15. NUXY = 0.334 16. Yield Stress = 5000 17. Tangent Modulus = 20000 18. [OK] 19. Material> Exit 20. Toolbar: SAVE_DB

7.1.6. Generate Mesh


7.1.6.1. Step 6: Mesh the container. In an explicit solver, such as ANSYS LS-DYNA, the analysis time is highly dependent on the smallest element in the model. Therefore, for efficient results, a uniform element size should be used. For this example, use the default element size. This should give a 3x3 mesh on each face of the container. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool (drop down) Element Attributes = Global; then [Set] (drop down) Material number = 2 [OK] (drop down) Mesh = Areas

6. (check) Mapped 7. [Mesh] 8. [Pick All]

9. Toolbar: SAVE_DB 7.1.6.2. Step 7: Generate table top elements. Now mesh the table top by direct element generation. The table top will be defined as a rigid surface and therefore only one element is needed to model this surface. Create this model by defining its four corner nodes and then building the elements from those nodes. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan, Zoom, Rotate [Obliq] [Close] Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering (check) Node numbers = On [OK]

7. (drop down in MeshTool) Element Attributes = Global; then [Set] 8. (drop down) Material number = 1 9. [OK] 10. [Close] MeshTool 11. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Nodes> In Active CS 12. Node number = Leave blank so it defaults to the next available node number. 13. X Y Z Location in active CS = -50, -20, -50 14. [Apply] to generate the node in the far left corner. 15. X Y Z Location in active CS = -50, -20, 50 16. [Apply] to generate the node in the near left corner. 17. X Y Z Location in active CS = 50, -20, 50 18. [Apply] to generate the node in the near right corner. 19. X Y Z Location in active CS = 50, -20, -50 20. [OK] to generate the node in the far right corner. Now create the element. 21. Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Auto Numbered> Thru Nodes 22. In a counterclockwise direction, pick the four nodes just created.

23. [OK] 24. Utility Menu> Plot> Elements

7.1.6.3. Step 8: Create container component. Most of the contact algorithms require contact parameters, which can be components, part IDs, or part assembly IDs. For this tutorial, create a component made of nodes from the container. 1. Utility Menu> Select> Entities 2. (first drop down) Elements 3. (second drop down) By Attributes 4. (check) Material num 5. Min,Max,Inc. = 2 6. [Apply] 7. (first drop down) Nodes 8. (second drop down) Attached to 9. (check) Elements 10. [OK] 11. Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component 12. Component name = BOX 13. (drop down) Component is made of = Nodes 14. [OK] 15. Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes

16. Utility Menu> Select> Everything 7.1.6.4. Step 9: Create table top component. Now, create a component made of nodes from the table top. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Utility Menu> Select> Entities (first drop down) Elements (second drop down) By Attributes (check) Material num Min,Max,Inc = 1 [Apply] (first drop down) Nodes (second drop down) Attached to

9. (check) Elements 10. [OK] 11. Utility Menu> Select> Comp/Assembly> Create Component 12. Component name = TABLE 13. (drop down) Component is made of = Nodes 14. [OK] 15. Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes

16. Utility Menu> Select> Everything 17. Toolbar: SAVE_DB 7.1.6.5. Step 10: Specify contact parameters. In an analysis in which the contact behavior is known, the appropriate contact algorithm can be chosen for the best results. However, due to the nature of this problem, contact conditions will be unpredictable. Thus, by choosing automatic surface to surface contact, the program will automatically adjust for the changes which occur during this simulation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Main Menu> Preprocessor> LS-DYNA Options> Contact> Define Contact Contact Type = Surface to Surf (left column); Automatic (ASTS) (right column) [OK] (drop down) Contact Component or Part no. = BOX (drop down) Target Component or Part no. = TABLE [OK] Toolbar: SAVE_DB

7.1.7. Apply Loads


7.1.7.1. Step 11: Apply initial velocity to the container. 1. 2. 3. 4. Main Menu> Solution> Initial Velocity> On Nodes> w/Nodal Rotate (drop down) Input velocity on component = BOX Global (Translational) Y-component = -200 [OK] In a transient dynamic analysis, loads must be defined for the duration of the analysis. To do so, create an array containing this data. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit [Add...] Parameter name = TIME [OK] [Edit...]

10. 1 = 0 11. 2 = 1 12. File> Apply/Quit 13. [Add...] 14. Parameter name = ACCG 15. [OK] 16. (highlight) ACCG 17. [Edit...] 18. 1 = 386.4 19. 2 = 386.4 20. File> Apply/Quit 21. [Close] 7.1.7.2. Step 12: Apply acceleration to the container. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Main Menu> Solution> Loading Options> Specify Loads Load Labels = ACLY (drop down) Component name or PART number: = BOX (drop down) Parameter name for time values: = TIME (drop down) Parameter name for data values: = ACCG [OK]

7.1.8. Obtain Solution


7.1.8.1. Step 13: Specify output controls. 1. Main Menu> Solution> Time Controls> Solution Time 2. Terminate at Time: = 1.0 3. [OK] 4. Main Menu> Solution> Output Controls> File Output Freq> Number of Steps 5. Specify Results File Output Interval = 50 6. Specify Time History Output Interval = 50 7. [OK] 8. Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options> Energy Options 9. [OK] to turn on all energy options 10. Toolbar: SAVE_DB 7.1.8.2. Step 14: Solve. 1. Main Menu> Solution> Solve 2. Review the information in the status window, then choose: File> Close (Windows) or

Close (X11/Motif), to close the window.

3. [OK] to initiate solution. Note: A verification window will appear to notify you of a warning message. This warning was generated due to constraining the table top by defining it as a rigid element rather than using degrees of freedom constraints. Therefore the warning can be ignored. 4. [Yes] 5. [Close]

7.1.9. Review Results


7.1.9.1. Step 15: Animate stress contours. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Utility Menu> Plot> Elements Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Pan, Zoom, Rotate [Front] [Close] Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering (check) Node numbers = Off [OK]

8. Main Menu> General Postproc> Read Results> First set [Note for UNIX systems only: To capture the animation sequence in terminal segment memory, it is necessary to reduce the size of the Graphics Window or you will run out of terminal memory. Although this depends on your particular system, and the size of the animation file to be created, for this exercise it is suggested that the ratio of the original window size to the reduced window size should be about 3:1.] 9. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Results 10. (check) Auto contour scaling = On (Make sure that the box is checked.) 11. Contour data for animation = Stress (left column); von Mises SEQV (right column) 12. [OK]

13. Make choices in the Animation Controller (not shown), if necessary, then [Close].

7.1.9.2. Step 16: Animate deformed shape. 1. Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Results 2. (check) Auto contour scaling = On 3. Contour data for animation = DOF Solution (left column); Deformed Shape (right column) 4. [OK]

5. Make choices in the Animation Controller (not shown), if necessary, then [Close]. 7.1.9.3. Step 17: Exit the ANSYS program. 1. Toolbar: Quit 2. (check) Quit - No Save! 3. [OK] Congratulations! You have completed this tutorial.